**Capability of the proposed long-baseline experiments to probe large extra dimension**

2305.16234 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Samiran Roy.

Future long-baseline experiments will play an important role in exploring physics beyond the standard model. One such new physics concept is the large extra dimension (LED), which provides an elegant solution to the hierarchy problem. This model also explains the small neutrino mass in a natural way. The presence of LED modifies the standard neutrino oscillation probabilities. Hence, the long-baseline experiments are sensitive to the LED parameters. We explore the potential of the three future long-baseline neutrino experiments, namely T2HK, ESSnuSB, and DUNE, to probe the LED parameter space. We also compare the capability of the charged and neutral current measurements at DUNE to constrain the LED model. We find that T2HK will provide more stringent bounds on the largest compactification radius ($R_{\rm{ED}}$) compared to the DUNE and ESSnuSB experiments. At $90\%$ C.L., T2HK can exclude $R_{\rm{ED}}\sim 0.45~(0.425)$ $\mu$m for the normal (inverted) mass hierarchy scenario.**Probing Non-Standard Neutrino Interactions with Interference: Insights from Dark Matter and Neutrino Experiments**

2305.10836 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jong-Chul Park and Gaurav Tomar.

Neutrino-electron scattering experiments play a crucial role in investigating the non-standard interactions of neutrinos. In certain models, these interactions can include interference terms that may affect measurements. Next-generation direct detection experiments, designed primarily for dark-matter searches, are also getting sensitive to probe the neutrino properties. We utilise the data from XENONnT, a direct detection experiment, and Borexino, a low-energy solar neutrino experiment, to investigate the impact of interference on non-standard interactions. Our study considers models with an additional $U(1)$, including $U(1)_{B-L}$, $U(1)_{L_e-L_\mu}$, and $U(1)_{L_e-L_\tau}$, to investigate the impact of interference on non-standard neutrino interactions. We demonstrate that this interference can lead to a transition between the considered non-standard interaction models in the energy range relevant to both the XENONnT and Borexino experiments. This transition can be used to distinguish among the considered models if any signals are observed at direct detection or neutrino experiments. Our findings underscore the importance of accounting for the interference and incorporating both direct detection and solar neutrino experiments to gain a better understanding of neutrino interactions and properties.**Updated T2K measurements of muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance using 3.6 $\times$ 10$^{21}$ protons on target**

2305.09916 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. A. Ramírez, [and 394 more]K. Abe, N. Akhlaq, R. Akutsu, A. Ali, S. Alonso Monsalve, C. Alt, C. Andreopoulos, M. Antonova, S. Aoki, T. Arihara, Y. Asada, Y. Ashida, E. T. Atkin, M. Barbi, G. J. Barker, G. Barr, D. Barrow, M. Batkiewicz-Kwasniak, F. Bench, V. Berardi, L. Berns, S. Bhadra, A. Blanchet, A. Blondel, S. Bolognesi, T. Bonus, S. Bordoni, S. B. Boyd, A. Bravar, C. Bronner, S. Bron, A. Bubak, M. Buizza Avanzini, J. A. Caballero Carretero, N. F. Calabria, S. Cao, D. Carabadjac, A. J. Carter, S. L. Cartwright, M. G. Catanesi, A. Cervera, J. Chakrani, D. Cherdack, P. S. Chong, G. Christodoulou, A. Chvirova, M. Cicerchia, J. Coleman, G. Collazuol, L. Cook, A. Cudd, C. Dalmazzone, T. Daret, Yu. I. Davydov, A. De Roeck, G. De Rosa, T. Dealtry, C. C. Delogu, C. Densham, A. Dergacheva, F. Di Lodovico, S. Dolan, D. Douqa, T. A. Doyle, O. Drapier, J. Dumarchez, P. Dunne, K. Dygnarowicz, A. Eguchi, S. Emery-Schrenk, G. Erofeev, A. Ershova, G. Eurin, D. Fedorova, S. Fedotov, M. Feltre, A. J. Finch, G. A. Fiorentini Aguirre, G. Fiorillo, M. D. Fitton, J. M. Franco Patiño, M. Friend, Y. Fujii, Y. Fukuda, K. Fusshoeller, L. Giannessi, C. Giganti, V. Glagolev, M. Gonin, J. González Rosa, E. A. G. Goodman, A. Gorin, M. Grassi, M. Guigue, D. R. Hadley, J. T. Haigh, P. Hamacher-Baumann, D. A. Harris, M. Hartz, T. Hasegawa, S. Hassani, N. C. Hastings, Y. Hayato, D. Henaff, A. Hiramoto, M. Hogan, J. Holeczek, A. Holin, T. Holvey, N. T. Hong Van, T. Honjo, F. Iacob, A. K. Ichikawa, M. Ikeda, T. Ishida, M. Ishitsuka, H. T. Israel, K. Iwamoto, A. Izmaylov, N. Izumi, M. Jakkapu, B. Jamieson, S. J. Jenkins, C. Jesús-Valls, J. J. Jiang, P. Jonsson, S. Joshi, C. K. Jung, P. B. Jurj, M. Kabirnezhad, A. C. Kaboth, T. Kajita, H. Kakuno, J. Kameda, S. P. Kasetti, Y. Kataoka, Y. Katayama, T. Katori, M. Kawaue, E. Kearns, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, T. Kikawa, H. Kikutani, S. King, V. Kiseeva, J. Kisiel, T. Kobata, T. Kobayashi, L. Koch, S. Kodama, A. Konaka, L. L. Kormos, Y. Koshio, A. Kostin, T. Koto, K. Kowalik, Y. Kudenko, Y. Kudo, S. Kuribayashi, R. Kurjata, T. Kutter, M. Kuze, M. La Commara, L. Labarga, K. Lachner, J. Lagoda, S. M. Lakshmi, M. Lamers James, M. Lamoureux, A. Langella, J. -F. Laporte, D. Last, N. Latham, M. Laveder, L. Lavitola, M. Lawe, Y. Lee, C. Lin, S. -K. Lin, R. P. Litchfield, S. L. Liu, W. Li, A. Longhin, K. R. Long, A. Lopez Moreno, L. Ludovici, X. Lu, T. Lux, L. N. Machado, L. Magaletti, K. Mahn, M. Malek, M. Mandal, S. Manly, A. D. Marino, L. Marti-Magro, D. G. R. Martin, M. Martini, J. F. Martin, T. Maruyama, T. Matsubara, V. Matveev, C. Mauger, K. Mavrokoridis, E. Mazzucato, N. McCauley, J. McElwee, K. S. McFarland, C. McGrew, J. McKean, A. Mefodiev, G. D. Megias, P. Mehta, L. Mellet, C. Metelko, M. Mezzetto, E. Miller, A. Minamino, O. Mineev, S. Mine, M. Miura, L. Molina Bueno, S. Moriyama, S. Moriyama, P. Morrison, Th. A. Mueller, D. Munford, L. Munteanu, K. Nagai, Y. Nagai, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakagiri, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakajima, A. Nakamura, H. Nakamura, K. Nakamura, K. D. Nakamura, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, T. Nakaya, K. Nakayoshi, C. E. R. Naseby, T. V. Ngoc, V. Q. Nguyen, K. Niewczas, S. Nishimori, Y. Nishimura, K. Nishizaki, T. Nosek, F. Nova, P. Novella, J. C. Nugent, H. M. O'Keeffe, L. O'Sullivan, T. Odagawa, T. Ogawa, R. Okada, K. Okumura, T. Okusawa, N. Ospina, R. A. Owen, Y. Oyama, V. Palladino, V. Paolone, M. Pari, J. Parlone, S. Parsa, J. Pasternak, M. Pavin, D. Payne, G. C. Penn, D. Pershey, L. Pickering, C. Pidcott, G. Pintaudi, C. Pistillo, B. Popov, K. Porwit, M. Posiadala-Zezula, Y. S. Prabhu, F. Pupilli, B. Quilain, T. Radermacher, E. Radicioni, B. Radics, P. N. Ratoff, M. Reh, C. Riccio, E. Rondio, S. Roth, A. Rubbia, A. C. Ruggeri, C. A. Ruggles, A. Rychter, K. Sakashita, F. Sánchez, G. Santucci, C. M. Schloesser, K. Scholberg, M. Scott, Y. Seiya, T. Sekiguchi, H. Sekiya, D. Sgalaberna, A. Shaikhiev, F. Shaker, M. Shiozawa, W. Shorrock, A. Shvartsman, N. Skrobova, K. Skwarczynski, D. Smyczek, M. Smy, J. T. Sobczyk, H. Sobel, F. J. P. Soler, Y. Sonoda, A. J. Speers, R. Spina, I. A. Suslov, S. Suvorov, A. Suzuki, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, A. A. Sztuc, M. Tada, S. Tairafune, S. Takayasu, A. Takeda, Y. Takeuchi, K. Takifuji, H. K. Tanaka, Y. Tanihara, M. Tani, A. Teklu, V. V. Tereshchenko, N. Teshima, N. Thamm, L. F. Thompson, W. Toki, C. Touramanis, T. Towstego, K. M. Tsui, T. Tsukamoto, M. Tzanov, Y. Uchida, M. Vagins, D. Vargas, G. Vasseur, C. Vilela, E. Villa, W. G. S. Vinning, U. Virginet, T. Vladisavljevic, T. Wachala, J. G. Walsh, Y. Wang, L. Wan, D. Wark, M. O. Wascko, A. Weber, R. Wendell, M. J. Wilking, C. Wilkinson, J. R. Wilson, K. Wood, C. Wret, J. Xia, Y. -h. Xu, K. Yamamoto, T. Yamamoto, C. Yanagisawa, G. Yang, T. Yano, K. Yasutome, N. Yershov, U. Yevarouskaya, M. Yokoyama, Y. Yoshimoto, N. Yoshimura, M. Yu, R. Zaki, A. Zalewska, J. Zalipska, K. Zaremba, G. Zarnecki, X. Zhao, T. Zhu, M. Ziembicki, E. D. Zimmerman, M. Zito, and S. Zsoldos [hide authors].

Muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance probabilities are identical in the standard three-flavor neutrino oscillation framework, but CPT violation and non-standard interactions can violate this symmetry. In this work we report the measurements of $\sin^{2} \theta_{23}$ and $\Delta m_{32}^2$ independently for neutrinos and antineutrinos. The aforementioned symmetry violation would manifest as an inconsistency in the neutrino and antineutrino oscillation parameters. The analysis discussed here uses a total of 1.97$\times$10$^{21}$ and 1.63$\times$10$^{21}$ protons on target taken with a neutrino and antineutrino beam respectively, and benefits from improved flux and cross-section models, new near detector samples and more than double the data reducing the overall uncertainty of the result. No significant deviation is observed, consistent with the standard neutrino oscillation picture.**Exploring Models with Modular Symmetry in Neutrino Oscillation Experiments**

2305.08576 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Priya Mishra, [and 4 more]Mitesh Kumar Behera, Papia Panda, Monojit Ghosh, and Rukmani Mohanta [hide authors].

Our study aims to investigate the viability of neutrino mass models that arise from discrete non-Abelian modular symmetry groups, i.e., $\Gamma_N$ with ($N=1,2,3,\dots$) in the future neutrino experiments T2HK, DUNE, and JUNO. Modular symmetry reduces the usage of flavon fields compared to the conventional discrete flavor symmetry models. Theories based on modular symmetries predict the values of leptonic mixing parameters, and therefore, these models can be tested in future neutrino experiments. In this study, we consider three models based on the $A_4$ modular symmetry, i.e., Model-A, B, and C such a way that they predict different values of the oscillation parameters but still allowed with respect to the current data. In the future, it is expected that T2HK, DUNE, and JUNO will measure the neutrino oscillation parameters very precisely, and therefore, some of these models can be excluded in the future by these experiments. We have estimated the prediction of these models numerically and then used them as input to scrutinize these models in the neutrino experiments. Assuming the future best-fit values of $\theta_{23}$ and $\delta_{\rm CP}$ remain the same as the current one, our results show that at $5 \sigma$ C.L, Model-A can be excluded by T2HK whereas Model-B can be excluded by both T2HK and DUNE. Model-C cannot be excluded by T2HK and DUNE at $5 \sigma$ C.L. Further; our results show that JUNO alone can exclude Model-B at an extremely high confidence level if the future best-fit of $\theta_{12}$ remains at the current-one. We have also identified the region in the $\theta_{23}$ - $\delta_{\rm CP}$ parameter space, for which Model-A cannot be separated from Model-B in T2HK and DUNE.**Exploring Ultralight Scalar Assistance in Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter: Cold Spectrum and Unusual X/Gamma-ray Signatures**

2305.08095 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yuxuan He, [and 3 more]Jia Liu, Xiaolin Ma, and Xiao-Ping Wang [hide authors].

We present a scalar-driven sterile neutrino production model where the interaction with the ultralight scalar field modifies the oscillation production of sterile neutrinos in the early universe. The model effectively suppresses the production of sterile neutrinos at low temperatures due to the heavy scalar mass, resulting in a colder matter power spectrum that avoids constraints from small-scale structure observations. In this model, the dominant dark matter relic is from sterile neutrinos, with only a small fraction originating from the ultralight scalar. Furthermore, the model predicts a detectable X/Gamma-ray flux proportional to the cubic density of local sterile neutrinos for a light scalar mass due to the light scalar coupling tosterile neutrinos. This distinguishes our model from normal decaying dark matter, which has a linear dependence on the density. In addition, the model predicts a potential low-energy monochromatic neutrino signal that can be detectable by future neutrino telescopes.**Global constraints on non-standard neutrino interactions with quarks and electrons**

2305.07698 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Coloma, [and 4 more]M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, Michele Maltoni, João Paulo Pinheiro, and Salvador Urrea [hide authors].

We derive new constraints on effective four-fermion neutrino non-standard interactions with both quarks and electrons. This is done through the global analysis of neutrino oscillation data and measurements of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) obtained with different nuclei. In doing so, we include not only the effects of new physics on neutrino propagation but also on the detection cross section in neutrino experiments which are sensitive to the new physics. We consider both vector and axial-vector neutral-current neutrino interactions and, for each case, we include simultaneously all allowed effective operators in flavour space. To this end, we use the most general parametrization for their Wilson coefficients under the assumption that their neutrino flavour structure is independent of the charged fermion participating in the interaction. The status of the LMA-D solution is assessed for the first time in the case of new interactions taking place simultaneously with up quarks, down quarks, and electrons. One of the main results of our work are the presently allowed regions for the effective combinations of non-standard neutrino couplings, relevant for long-baseline and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments.**Identifying Extended PeVatron Sources via Neutrino Shower Detection**

2305.07043 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Takahiro Sudoh and John F. Beacom.

Identifying the Milky Way's very high energy hadronic cosmic-ray accelerators -- the PeVatrons -- is a critical problem. While gamma-ray observations reveal promising candidate sources, neutrino detection is needed for certainty, and this has not yet been successful. Why not? There are several possibilities, as we delineated in a recent paper [T. Sudoh and J. F. Beacom, Phys. Rev. D 107, 043002 (2023)]. Here we further explore the possibility that the challenges arise because PeVatrons have a large angular extent, either due to cosmic-ray propagation effects or due to clusters of sources. We show that while extended neutrino sources could be missed in the commonly used muon-track channel, they could be discovered in the all-flavor shower channel, which has a lower atmospheric-neutrino background flux per solid angle. Intrinsically, showers are quite directional and would appear so in water-based detectors like the future KM3NeT, even though they are presently badly smeared by light scattering in ice-based detectors like IceCube. Our results motivate new shower-based searches as part of the comprehensive approach to identifying the Milky Way's hadronic PeVatrons.**Probing the Local Dark Matter Halo with Neutrino Oscillations**

2305.06441 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tony Gherghetta and Andrey Shkerin.

Dark matter particles can form halos gravitationally bound to massive astrophysical objects. The Earth could have such a halo where depending on the particle mass, the halo either extends beyond the surface or is confined to the Earth's interior. We consider the possibility that if dark matter particles are coupled to neutrinos, then neutrino oscillations can be used to probe the Earth's dark matter halo. In particular, atmospheric neutrinos traversing the Earth can be sensitive to a small size, interior halo, inaccessible by other means. Depending on the halo mass and neutrino energy, constraints on the dark matter-neutrino couplings are obtained from the halo corrections to the neutrino oscillations.**Neutrino CPT violation in the solar sector**

2305.06384 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gabriela Barenboim, [and 3 more]Pablo Martínez-Miravé, Christoph A. Ternes, and Mariam Tórtola [hide authors].

In this paper we place new bounds on CPT violation in the solar neutrino sector analyzing the results from solar experiments and KamLAND. We also discuss the sensitivity of the next-generation experiments DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, which will provide accurate measurements of the solar neutrino oscillation parameters. The joint analysis of both experiments will further improve the precision due to cancellations in the systematic uncertainties regarding the solar neutrino flux. In combination with the next-generation reactor experiment JUNO, the bound on CPT violation in the solar sector could be improved by one order of magnitude in comparison with current constraints. The distinguishability among CPT-violating neutrino oscillations and neutrino non-standard interactions in the solar sector is also addressed.**Flavor-dependent long-range neutrino interactions in DUNE & T2HK: alone they constrain, together they discover**

2305.05184 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Masoom Singh, Mauricio Bustamante, and Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla.

Discovering new neutrino interactions would represent evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We focus on new flavor-dependent long-range neutrino interactions mediated by ultra-light mediators, with masses below $10^{-10}$ eV, introduced by new lepton-number gauge symmetries $L_e-L_\mu$, $L_e-L_\tau$, and $L_\mu-L_\tau$. Because the interaction range is ultra-long, nearby and distant matter - primarily electrons and neutrons - in the Earth, Moon, Sun, Milky Way, and the local Universe, may source a large matter potential that modifies neutrino oscillation probabilities. The upcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) and the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande (T2HK) long-baseline neutrino experiments will provide an opportunity to search for these interactions, thanks to their high event rates and well-characterized neutrino beams. We forecast their probing power. Our results reveal novel perspectives. Alone, DUNE and T2HK may strongly constrain long-range interactions, setting new limits on their coupling strength for mediators lighter than $10^{-18}$ eV. However, if the new interactions are subdominant, then both DUNE and T2HK, together, will be needed to discover them, since their combination lifts parameter degeneracies that weaken their individual sensitivity. DUNE and T2HK, especially when combined, provide a valuable opportunity to explore physics beyond the Standard Model.**Constraints on dark matter-neutrino scattering from the Milky-Way satellites and subhalo modeling for dark acoustic oscillations**

2305.01913 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kensuke Akita and Shin'ichiro Ando.

The elastic scattering between dark matter (DM) and radiation can potentially explain small-scale observations that the cold dark matter faces as a challenge, as damping density fluctuations via dark acoustic oscillations in the early universe erases small-scale structure. We study a semi-analytical subhalo model for interacting dark matter with radiation, based on the extended Press-Schechter formalism and subhalos' tidal evolution prescription. We also test the elastic scattering between DM and neutrinos using observations of Milky-Way satellites from the Dark Energy Survey and PanSTARRS1. We conservatively impose strong constraints on the DM-neutrino scattering cross section of $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,n}\propto E_\nu^n$ $(n=0,2,4)$ at $95\%$ confidence level (CL), $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,0}< 10^{-32}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})$, $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,2}< 10^{-43}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})(E_\nu/E_{\nu}^0)^2$ and $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,4}< 10^{-54}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})(E_\nu/E_{\nu}^0)^4$, where $E_\nu^0$ is the average momentum of relic cosmic neutrinos today, $E_\nu^0 \simeq 3.15 T_\nu^0 \simeq 6.1\ {\rm K}$. By imposing a satellite forming condition, we obtain the strongest upper bounds on the DM-neutrino cross section at $95\%$ CL, $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,0}< 4\times 10^{-34}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})$, $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,2}< 10^{-46}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})(E_\nu/E_{\nu}^0)^2$ and $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,4}< 7\times 10^{-59}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})(E_\nu/E_{\nu}^0)^4$.**Precision CMB constraints on eV-scale bosons coupled to neutrinos**

2305.01692 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stefan Sandner, Miguel Escudero, and Samuel J. Witte.

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) has proven to be an invaluable tool for studying the properties and interactions of neutrinos, providing insight not only into the sum of neutrino masses but also the free streaming nature of neutrinos prior to recombination. The CMB is a particularly powerful probe of new eV-scale bosons interacting with neutrinos, as these particles can thermalize with neutrinos via the inverse decay process, $\nu\bar{\nu} \rightarrow X$, and suppress neutrino free streaming near recombination -- even for couplings as small as $\lambda_\nu \sim \mathcal{O}(10^{-13})$. Here, we revisit CMB constraints on such bosons, improving upon a number of approximations previously adopted in the literature and generalizing the constraints to a broader class of models. This includes scenarios in which the boson is either spin-$0$ or spin-$1$, the number of interacting neutrinos is either $N_{\rm int} = 1,2 $ or $3$, and the case in which a primordial abundance of the species is present. We apply these bounds to well-motivated models, such as the singlet majoron model or a light $U(1)_{L_\mu-L_\tau}$ gauge boson, and find that they represent the leading constraints for masses $m_X\sim 1\, {\rm eV}$. Finally, we revisit the extent to which neutrino-philic bosons can ameliorate the Hubble tension, and find that recent improvements in the understanding of how such bosons damp neutrino free streaming reduces the previously found success of this proposal.**Extended Analysis of Neutrino-Dark Matter Interactions with Small-Scale CMB Experiments**

2305.01383 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Philippe Brax, [and 4 more]Carsten van de Bruck, Eleonora Di Valentino, William Giarè, and Sebastian Trojanowski [hide authors].

We explore an extension of the standard $\Lambda$CDM model by including an interaction between neutrinos and dark matter, and making use of the ground based telescope data of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). An indication for a non-zero coupling between dark matter and neutrinos (both assuming a temperature independent and $T^2$ dependent cross-section) is obtained at the 1$\sigma$ level coming from the ACT CMB data alone and when combined with the Planck CMB and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) measurements. This result is confirmed by both fixing the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom in the early Universe to the Standard Model value of $N_{\rm eff}=3.044$, and allowing $N_{\rm eff}$ to be a free cosmological parameter. Furthermore, when performing a Bayesian model comparison, the interacting $\nu$DM (+$N_{\rm eff}$) scenario is mostly preferred over a baseline $\Lambda$CDM (+$N_{\rm eff}$) cosmology. The preferred value is then used as a benchmark and the potential implications of dark matter's interaction with a sterile neutrino are discussed.**Measurement of Atmospheric Neutrino Mixing with Improved IceCube DeepCore Calibration and Data Processing**

2304.12236 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 407 more]R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, S. K. Agarwalla, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, C. Benning, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, D. Butterfield, M. A. Campana, K. Carloni, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, S. Chattopadhyay, N. Chau, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, S. Countryman, D. F. Cowen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado, H. Dembinski, S. Deng, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, A. Domi, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, S. El Mentawi, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, K. Fang, K. Farrag, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, O. Gries, S. Griffin, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, L. Heuermann, N. Heyer, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, S. Hori, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, A. Ishihara, M. Jacquart, O. Janik, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Khatee Zathul, A. Kheirandish, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, J. Krishnamoorthi, K. Kruiswijk, E. Krupczak, A. Kumar, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. Lamoureux, M. J. Larson, S. Latseva, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard DeHolton, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, E. Manao, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, F. Mayhew, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, Y. Merckx, L. Merten, J. Micallef, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, Y. Morii, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, M. Nakos, U. Naumann, J. Necker, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, V. O'Dell, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, A. Pontén, Y. Popovych, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, J. Rack-Helleis, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, A. Rifaie, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, P. Savina, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, L. Schlickmann, B. Schlüter, F. Schlüter, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, M. Seikh, S. Seunarine, R. Shah, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, P. Soldin, G. Sommani, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, M. Thiesmeyer, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, C. F. Tung, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, A. K. Upadhyay, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, M. Venugopal, M. Vereecken, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, A. Wolf, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, R. Young, F. Yu, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

We describe a new data sample of IceCube DeepCore and report on the latest measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations obtained with data recorded between 2011-2019. The sample includes significant improvements in data calibration, detector simulation, and data processing, and the analysis benefits from a detailed treatment of systematic uncertainties, with significantly higher level of detail since our last study. By measuring the relative fluxes of neutrino flavors as a function of their reconstructed energies and arrival directions we constrain the atmospheric neutrino mixing parameters to be $\sin^2\theta_{23} = 0.51\pm 0.05$ and $\Delta m^2_{32} = 2.41\pm0.07\times 10^{-3}\mathrm{eV}^2$, assuming a normal mass ordering. The resulting 40\% reduction in the error of both parameters with respect to our previous result makes this the most precise measurement of oscillation parameters using atmospheric neutrinos. Our results are also compatible and complementary to those obtained using neutrino beams from accelerators, which are obtained at lower neutrino energies and are subject to different sources of uncertainties.**Neutrino Constraints and the ATOMKI X17 Anomaly**

2304.09877 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Julia Gehrlein.

Recent data from the ATOMKI group continues to confirm their claim of the existence of a new $\sim17$ MeV particle. We review and numerically analyze the data and then put into context constraints from other experiments, notably neutrino scattering experiments such as the latest reactor anti-neutrino coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering data and unitarity constraints from solar neutrino observations. We show that minimal scenarios are disfavored and discuss the model requirements to evade these constraints.**Astrophysical neutrino point sources as a probe of new physics**

2304.08533 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Döring and S. Vogl.

Recently, the IceCube collaboration observed a neutrino excess in the direction of NGC 1068 with high statistical significance. This constitutes the second detection of an astrophysical neutrino point source after the discovery of a variable emission originating from the blazar TXS~0506+056. Neutrinos emitted by these sources traverse huge, well-determined distances on their way to Earth. This makes them a promising tool to test new physics in the neutrino sector. We consider secret interactions with the cosmic neutrino background and discuss their impact on the flux of neutrino point sources. The observation of emission from NGC 1068 and TXS 0506+056 can then be used to put limits on the strength of the interaction. We find that our ignorance of the absolute neutrino masses has a strong impact and, therefore, we present limits in two benchmark scenarios with the sum of the neutrino masses around their lower and upper limits.**Future leptonic CP phase determination in the presence of NSI**

2304.05545 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Luis A. Delgadillo and O. G. Miranda.

The precise determination of the leptonic CP phase is one of the major goals for future generation Long Baseline experiments. On the other hand, if new physics beyond the Standard Model exists, a robust determination of such a CP phase may be a challenge. Moreover, it has been pointed out that, in this scenario, an apparent discrepancy in the CP phase measurement at different experiments may arise. In this work, we investigate the robustness of the determination of the Dirac CP-phase at several long-baseline configurations: ESSnuSB, T2HKK, and a DUNE-like experiment. We use the non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) formalism as a framework. We found that complementary between ESSnuSB and a DUNE-like experiment enhances the robustness in the determination of the CP-phase, even in the presence of matter NSI. Moreover, the T2HKK proposal can help to constrain the matter NSI parameters.**JUNO as a Probe of the Pseudo-Dirac Nature using Solar Neutrinos**

2304.05418 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jack Franklin, Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez, and Jessica Turner.

It remains a possibility that neutrinos are pseudo-Dirac states, such that a generation is composed of two maximally mixed Majorana neutrinos separated by a very small mass difference. We explore the physics potential of the JUNO experiment in constraining this possibility using the measurement of solar neutrinos. In particular, we investigate cases where one or three sterile states are present in addition to the active states. We consider two scenarios: one where JUNO's energy threshold allows for the measurement of $pp$ solar neutrinos, and the case where JUNO can only measure $^7$Be neutrinos and above. We find that JUNO will be able to constrain pseudo-Dirac mass splittings of $\delta m^2 \gtrsim 2.9\times 10^{-13}~{\rm eV^2}$ for the scenario including $pp$ solar neutrinos, and $\delta m^2 \gtrsim 1.9\times 10^{-12}~{\rm eV^2}$ when the measurement only considers $^7$Be monochromatic neutrinos, at the $3\sigma$ C.L. Thus, including $pp$ neutrinos will be crucial for JUNO to improve current constraints on the pseudo-Dirac scenario from solar neutrinos.**Right-Handed Neutrino Dark Matter with Forbidden Annihilation**

2304.02997 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yu Cheng, [and 3 more]Shao-Feng Ge, Jie Sheng, and Tsutomu T. Yanagida [hide authors].

The seesaw mechanism with three right-handed neutrinos has one as a well-motivated dark matter candidate if stable and the other two can explain baryon asymmetry via the thermal leptogenesis scenario. We explore the possibility of introducing additional particles to make the right-handed neutrino dark matter in thermal equilibrium and freeze out through a forbidden annihilation channel. Nowadays in the Universe, this forbidden channel can be reactivated by a strong gravitational potential such as the supermassive black hole in our galaxy center. The Fermi-LAT gamma ray data and dark matter relic density require this right-handed neutrino dark matter to have mass below $100\,$GeV and the existence of an additional boson $\phi$ that can be tested at future lepton colliders.**Testing generalized neutrino interactions with PTOLEMY**

2304.02505 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Indra Kumar Banerjee, [and 3 more]Ujjal Kumar Dey, Newton Nath, and Saadat Salman Shariff [hide authors].

There are several unanswered questions regarding neutrinos which pave the way for physics beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Generalized interactions of neutrinos provide a way to characterize these effects in a manner which is even more general than the oft-studied non-standard neutrino interactions. These interactions are described by higher dimensional operators maintaining the SM gauge symmetries. On the other hand cosmic neutrino background, although yet to be detected directly, is a robust prediction of the SM and the standard cosmology. We perform a global analysis of the relevant generalized neutrino interactions which are expressly relevant for the proposed cosmic neutrino detector PTOLEMY. The electron spectrum due to the capture of cosmic neutrinos on radioactive tritium gets modified due to the presence of these generalized interactions. We also show how the differential electron spectrum is sensitive to the finite experimental resolution, mass of the lightest neutrino eigenstate, the strength of these interactions and the ordering of neutrino mass.**Anomalous Tau Neutrino Appearance from Light Mediators in Short-Baseline Neutrino Experiments**

2304.02031 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. S. Bhupal Dev, [and 3 more]Bhaskar Dutta, Tao Han, and Doojin Kim [hide authors].

We point out a new mechanism giving rise to anomalous tau neutrino appearance at the near detectors of beam-focused neutrino experiments, without extending the neutrino sector. The charged mesons ($\pi^\pm, K^\pm$) produced and focused in the target-horn system can decay to a (neutrino-philic) light mediator via the helicity-unsuppressed three-body decays. If such a mediator carries non-vanishing hadronic couplings, it can also be produced via the bremsstrahlung of the incident proton beam. The subsequent decay of the mediator to a tau neutrino pair results in tau neutrino detection at the near detectors, which is unexpected under the standard three-flavor neutrino oscillation paradigm. We argue that the signal flux from the charged meson decays can be significant enough to discover the light mediator signal at the on-axis liquid-argon near detector of the DUNE experiment, due to the focusing of charged mesons. In addition, we show that ICARUS-NuMI, an off-axis near detector of the NuMI beam, as well as DUNE, can observe a handful of tau neutrino events induced by beam-proton bremsstrahlung.**Implications of NSI constraints from ANTARES and IceCube on a simplified $Z^\prime$ model**

2304.01388 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. M. Cabarcas, A. Parada, and Nestor Quintero.

Recently the neutrino experiments ANTARES and IceCube have released new constraints to the non-standard neutrino interaction (NSI) parameter $\epsilon^d_{\mu\tau}$ (flavor off-diagonal). These new constraints are stronger than those obtained from a combination of COHERENT and neutrino oscillation data. In the light of the recent constraints from ANTARES and IceCube data on the NSI parameter $\epsilon^d_{\mu\tau}$, in this work, we study the new physics implications on the parameter space of a simplified $Z^\prime$ model with lepton flavor violating ($\mu\tau$) couplings. For a $Z^\prime$ boson with a mass heavier than the $\tau$ lepton, our results show that ANTARES and IceCube put strong constraints to such a new physics scenario with $\mu\tau$ couplings. In addition, these neutrino experiments can exclude a similar region than ATLAS experiment, showing the potential to provide complementary information to the one obtained from direct searches at the Large Hadron Collider. The impact of the expected sensitivity reach on $\epsilon^d_{\mu\tau}$ at DUNE experiment is also studied.**IceCat-1: the IceCube Event Catalog of Alert Tracks**

2304.01174 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 393 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, S. K. Agarwalla, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, D. Butterfield, M. A. Campana, K. Carloni, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, S. Chattopadhyay, N. Chau, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, S. Countryman, D. F. Cowen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado, H. Dembinski, S. Deng, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, A. Domi, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, K. Fang, K. Farrag, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, S. Griffin, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, L. Heuermann, N. Heyer, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, A. Ishihara, M. Jacquart, O. Janik, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, K. Jayakumar, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Khatee Zathul, A. Kheirandish, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, K. Kruiswijk, E. Krupczak, A. Kumar, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. Lamoureux, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard DeHolton, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, E. Manao, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, F. Mayhew, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, Y. Merckx, L. Merten, J. Micallef, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, Y. Morii, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, M. Nakos, U. Naumann, J. Necker, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, V. O'Dell, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, A. Pontén, Y. Popovych, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, J. Rack-Helleis, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, P. Savina, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, B. Schlüter, F. Schlüter, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, R. Shah, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, G. Sommani, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, M. Thiesmeyer, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, C. F. Tung, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, A. K. Upadhyay, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, M. Venugopal, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, A. Wolf, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, F. Yu, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

We present a catalog of likely astrophysical neutrino track-like events from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. IceCube began reporting likely astrophysical neutrinos in 2016 and this system was updated in 2019. The catalog presented here includes events that were reported in real-time since 2019, as well as events identified in archival data samples starting from 2011. We report 275 neutrino events from two selection channels as the first entries in the catalog, the IceCube Event Catalog of Alert Tracks, which will see ongoing extensions with additional alerts. The gold and bronze alert channels respectively provide neutrino candidates with 50\% and 30\% probability of being astrophysical, on average assuming an astrophysical neutrino power law energy spectral index of 2.19. For each neutrino alert, we provide the reconstructed energy, direction, false alarm rate, probability of being astrophysical in origin, and likelihood contours describing the spatial uncertainty in the alert's reconstructed location. We also investigate a directional correlation of these neutrino events with gamma-ray and X-ray catalogs including 4FGL, 3HWC, TeVCat and Swift-BAT.**Hermitian Matrix Diagonalization and its Symmetry Properties**

2303.17087 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. H. Chiu and T. K. Kuo.

A hermitian matrix can be parametrized by a set consisting of its determinant and the eigenvalues of its submatrices. We established a group of equations which connect these variables with the mixing parameters of diagonalization. These equations are simple in structure and manifestly invariant in form under the symmetry operations of dilatation, translation, rephasing and permutation. When applied to the problem of neutrino oscillation in matter they produced two new ``matter invariants" which are confirmed by available data.**Remote Reactor Ranging via Antineutrino Oscillations**

2303.16661 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Steve T. Wilson, [and 6 more]Chris Cotsford, James Armitage, Tara Appleyard, Niamh Holland, Matthew Malek, and John. G. Learned [hide authors].

Antineutrinos from nuclear reactors can be used for monitoring in the mid- to far-field as part of a non-proliferation toolkit. Antineutrinos are an unshieldable signal and carry information about the reactor core and the distance they travel. Using gadolinium-doped water Cherenkov detectors for this purpose has been previously proposed alongside rate-only analyses. As antineutrinos carry information about their distance of travel in their energy spectrum, the analyses can be extended to a spectral analysis to gain more knowledge about the detected core. Two complementary analyses are used to evaluate the distance between a proposed gadolinium-doped water-based liquid scintillator detector and a detected nuclear reactor. Example cases are shown for a detector in Boulby Mine, near the Boulby Underground Laboratory in the UK, and six reactor sites in the UK and France. The analyses both show strong potential to range reactors, but are limited by the detector design.**Update on the indication of a mass-dependent anisotropy above $10^{18.7}\,$eV in the hybrid data of the Pierre Auger Observatory**

2303.16336 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eric Mayotte and Thomas Fitoussi.

We test for an anisotropy in the mass of arriving cosmic-ray primaries associated with the galactic plane. The sensitivity to primary mass is obtained through the depth of shower maximum, $X_{\rm max}$, extracted from hybrid events measured over a 14-year period at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The sky is split into distinct on- and off-plane regions using the galactic latitude of each arriving cosmic ray to form two distributions of $X_{\rm max}$, which are compared using an Anderson-Darling 2-samples test. A scan over roughly half of the data is used to select a lower threshold energy of $10^{18.7}\,$eV and a galactic latitude splitting at $|b| = 30^\circ$, which are set as a prescription for the remaining data. With these thresholds, the distribution of $X_{\rm max}$ from the on-plane region is found to have a $9.1 \pm 1.6^{+2.1}_{-2.2}\,$g$\,$cm$^-2$ shallower mean and a $5.9\pm2.1^{+3.5}_{-2.5}\,$g$\,$cm$^-2$ narrower width than that of the off-plane region and is observed in all telescope sites independently. These differences indicate that the mean mass of primary particles arriving from the on-plane region is greater than that of those from the off-plane region. Monte Carlo studies yield a $5.9\times10^{-6}$ random chance probability for the result in the independent data, lowering to a $6.0\times10^{-7}$ post-penalization random chance probability when the scanned data is included. Accounting for systematic uncertainties leads to an indication for anisotropy in mass composition above $10^{18.7}\,$eV with a $3.3\,\sigma$ significance. Furthermore, the result has been newly tested using additional FD data recovered from the selection process. This test independently disfavors the on- and off-plane regions being uniform in composition at the $2.2\,\sigma$ level, which is in good agreement with the expected sensitivity of the dataset used for this test.**Relic Neutrino Helicity Evolution in Galactic Magnetic Field and Its Implications**

2303.15562 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kuo K. Liao and Glennys R. Farrar.

We simulate the evolution of the helicity of relic neutrinos as they propagate to Earth through a realistic model of the Galactic magnetic field, improving upon the rough estimates in the pioneering work of Baym and Peng. We find that with magnetic moments consistent with experimental bounds and even several orders of magnitude smaller, the helicity of relic neutrinos rotates with a substantial directional anisotropy. Averaged over directions this would simply reduce the apparent flux; if the direction of the incident neutrino could be measured, the directional anisotropy in the interaction probability could become a powerful diagnostic. We study the effects of $\nu$ spin rotation on C$\nu$B detection through the inverse tritium decay process.**PEANUTS: a software for the automatic computation of solar neutrino flux and its propagation within Earth**

2303.15527 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tomás E. Gonzalo and Michele Lucente.

We present PEANUTS (Propagation and Evolution of Active NeUTrinoS), an open-source Python package for the automatic computation of solar neutrino spectra and active neutrino propagation through Earth. PEANUTS is designed to be fast, by employing analytic formulae for the neutrino propagation through varying matter density, and flexible, by allowing the user to input arbitrary solar models, custom Earth density profiles and general detector locations. It provides functionalities for a fully automated simulation of solar neutrino fluxes at a detector, as well as access to individual routines to perform more specialised computations. The software has been extensively tested against the results of the SNO experiment, providing excellent agreement with their results. In addition, the present text contains a pedagogical derivation of the relations needed to compute the oscillated solar neutrino spectra, neutrino propagation through Earth and nadir exposure of an experiment.**Decoherence effects in reactor and Gallium neutrino oscillation experiments -- a QFT approach**

2303.15524 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Raphael Krueger and Thomas Schwetz.

We adopt the quantum field theoretical method to calculate the amplitude and event rate for a neutrino oscillation experiment, considering neutrino production, propagation and detection as a single process. This method allows to take into account decoherence effects in the transition amplitude induced by the quantum mechanical uncertainties of all particles involved in the process. We extend the method to include coherence loss due to interactions with the environment, similar to collisional line broadening. In addition to generic decoherence induced at the amplitude level, the formalism allows to include, in a straightforward way, additional damping effects related to phase-space integrals over momenta of unobserved particles as well as other classical averaging effects. We apply this method to neutrino oscillation searches at reactor and Gallium experiments and confirm that quantum decoherence is many orders of magnitudes smaller than classical averaging effects and therefore unobservable. The method used here can be applied with minimal modifications also to other types of oscillation experiments, e.g., accelerator based beam experiments.**First Direct Observation of Collider Neutrinos with FASER at the LHC**

2303.14185 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by FASER Collaboration, [and 87 more]Henso Abreu, John Anders, Claire Antel, Akitaka Ariga, Tomoko Ariga, Jeremy Atkinson, Florian U. Bernlochner, Tobias Blesgen, Tobias Boeckh, Jamie Boyd, Lydia Brenner, Franck Cadoux, David W. Casper, Charlotte Cavanagh, Xin Chen, Andrea Coccaro, Ansh Desai, Sergey Dmitrievsky, Monica D'Onofrio, Yannick Favre, Deion Fellers, Jonathan L. Feng, Carlo Alberto Fenoglio, Didier Ferrere, Stephen Gibson, Sergio Gonzalez-Sevilla, Yuri Gornushkin, Carl Gwilliam, Daiki Hayakawa, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Zhen Hu, Giuseppe Iacobucci, Tomohiro Inada, Sune Jakobsen, Hans Joos, Enrique Kajomovitz, Hiroaki Kawahara, Alex Keyken, Felix Kling, Daniela Köck, Umut Kose, Rafaella Kotitsa, Susanne Kuehn, Helena Lefebvre, Lorne Levinson, Ke Li, Jinfeng Liu, Jack MacDonald, Chiara Magliocca, Fulvio Martinelli, Josh McFayden, Matteo Milanesio, Dimitar Mladenov, Théo Moretti, Magdalena Munker, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Toshiyuki Nakano, Marzio Nessi, Friedemann Neuhaus, Laurie Nevay, Hidetoshi Otono, Hao Pang, Lorenzo Paolozzi, Brian Petersen, Francesco Pietropaolo, Markus Prim, Michaela Queitsch-Maitland, Filippo Resnati, Hiroki Rokujo, Elisa Ruiz-Choliz, Jorge Sabater-Iglesias, Osamu Sato, Paola Scampoli, Kristof Schmieden, Matthias Schott, Anna Sfyrla, Savannah Shively, Yosuke Takubo, Noshin Tarannum, Ondrej Theiner, Eric Torrence, Serhan Tufanli, Svetlana Vasina, Benedikt Vormwald, Di Wang, Eli Welch, and Stefano Zambito [hide authors].

We report the first direct observation of neutrino interactions at a particle collider experiment. Neutrino candidate events are identified in a 13.6 TeV center-of-mass energy $pp$ collision data set of 35.4 fb${}^{-1}$ using the active electronic components of the FASER detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The candidates are required to have a track propagating through the entire length of the FASER detector and be consistent with a muon neutrino charged-current interaction. We infer $153^{+12}_{-13}$ neutrino interactions with a significance of 16 standard deviations above the background-only hypothesis. These events are consistent with the characteristics expected from neutrino interactions in terms of secondary particle production and spatial distribution, and they imply the observation of both neutrinos and anti-neutrinos with an incident neutrino energy of significantly above 200 GeV.**Inferring astrophysical neutrino sources from the Glashow resonance**

2303.13706 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guo-yuan Huang, Manfred Lindner, and Nele Volmer.

We infer the ultrahigh energy neutrino source by using the Glashow resonance candidate event recently identified by the IceCube Observatory. For the calculation of the cross section for the Glashow resonance, we incorporate both the atomic Doppler broadening effect and initial state radiation $\overline{\nu}^{}_{e} e^- \to W^- \gamma$, which correct the original cross section considerably. Using available experimental information, we have set a generic constraint on the $\overline{\nu}^{}_{e}$ fraction of astrophysical neutrinos, which excludes the $\mu$-damped ${\rm p}\gamma$ source around $2\sigma$ confidence level. While a weak preference has been found for the pp source, next-generation measurements will be able to distinguish between ideal pp and p$\gamma$ sources with a high significance assuming an optimistic single power-law neutrino spectrum.**The Gallium Neutrino Absorption Cross Section and its Uncertainty**

2303.13623 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by W. C. Haxton, [and 4 more]E. J. Rule, S. R. Elliott, V. N. Gavrin, and T. V. Ibragimova [hide authors].

In the recent Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST), a suppressed rate of neutrino absorption on a gallium target was observed, consistent with earlier results from neutrino source calibrations of the SAGE and GALLEX/GNO solar neutrino experiments. The BEST collaboration, utilizing a 3.4 MCi 51Cr neutrino source, found observed-to-expected counting rates at two very short baselines of R=0.791 plus/minus 0.05 and 0.766 plus/minus 0.05, respectively. Among recent neutrino experiments, BEST is notable for the simplicity of both its neutrino spectrum, line neutrinos from an electron-capture source whose intensity can be measured to a estimated precision of 0.23%, and its absorption cross section, where the precisely known rate of electron capture to the gallium ground state, 71Ge(e,nue)71Ga(g.s.), establishes a minimum value. However, the absorption cross section uncertainty is a common systematic in the BEST, SAGE, and GALLEX/GNO neutrino source experiments. Here we update that cross section, considering a variety of electroweak corrections and the role of transitions to excited states, to establish both a central value and reasonable uncertainty, thereby enabling a more accurate assessment of the statistical significance of the gallium anomalies. Results are given for 51Cr and 37Ar sources. The revised neutrino capture rates are used in a re-evaluation of the BEST and gallium anomalies.**High-energy neutrino deeply inelastic scattering cross sections from 100 GeV to 1000 EeV**

2303.13607 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Keping Xie, [and 4 more]Jun Gao, T. J. Hobbs, Daniel R. Stump, and C. -P. Yuan [hide authors].

We present a state-of-the-art prediction for cross sections of neutrino deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) from nucleon at high neutrino energies, $E_\nu$, from 100 GeV to 1000 EeV ($10^{12}$ GeV). Our calculations are based on the latest CT18 NNLO parton distribution functions (PDFs) and their associated uncertainties. In order to make predictions for the highest energies, we extrapolate the PDFs to small $x$ according to several procedures and assumptions, thus affecting the uncertainties at ultra-high $E_\nu$; we quantify the uncertainties corresponding to these choices. Similarly, we quantify the uncertainties introduced by the nuclear corrections which are required to evaluate neutrino-nuclear cross sections for neutrino telescopes. These results can be applied to currently-running astrophysical neutrino observatories, such as IceCube, as well as various future experiments which have been proposed.**Hunting for Neutral Leptons with Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays**

2303.11352 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Robert Heighton, Lucien Heurtier, and Michael Spannowsky.

Next-generation large-volume detectors, such as GRAND, POEMMA, Trinity, TAROGE-M, TAMBO, or PUEO, have been designed to search for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with unprecedented sensitivity. We propose to use these detectors to search for new physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). By considering the simple case of a right-handed neutrino that mixes exclusively with the active $\tau$ neutrino, we demonstrate that the existence of new physics can increase the probability for UHECRs to propagate through the Earth and produce extensive air showers that will be measurable soon. We compare the fluxes of such showers that would arise from various diffuse and transient sources of high-energy neutrinos, both in the Standard Model and in the presence of a right-handed neutrino. We show that detecting events with emergence angles $\gtrsim 10$ deg is promising to probe the existence of BSM physics, and we study the sensitivity of GRAND and POEMMA to do so. In particular, we show that the hypothesis of a right-handed neutrino with a mass of $\mathcal O(1-16)$ GeV may be probed in the future for mixing angles as small as $|U_{\tau N}|^2 \gtrsim 10^{-7}$, thus competing with existing and projected experimental limits.**An importance sampling method for Feldman-Cousins confidence intervals**

2303.11290 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lukas Berns.

In various high-energy physics contexts, such as neutrino-oscillation experiments, several assumptions underlying the typical asymptotic confidence interval construction are violated, such that one has to resort to computationally expensive methods like the Feldman-Cousins method for obtaining confidence intervals with proper statistical coverage. By construction, the computation of intervals at high confidence levels requires fitting millions or billions of pseudo-experiments, while wasting most of the computational cost on overly precise intervals at low confidence levels. In this work, a simple importance sampling method is introduced which reuses pseudo-experiments produced for all tested parameter values in a single mixture distribution. This results in a significant error reduction on the estimated critical values, especially at high confidence levels, and simultaneously yields a correct interpolation of these critical values between the parameter values at which the pseudo-experiments were produced. The theoretically calculated performance is demonstrated numerically using a simple example from the analysis of neutrino oscillations. The relationship to similar techniques applied in statistical mechanics and $p$-value computations is discussed.**Impact of nuclear matrix element calculations for current and future neutrinoless double beta decay searches**

2303.10562 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Federica Pompa, Thomas Schwetz, and Jing-Yu Zhu.

Nuclear matrix elements (NME) are a crucial input for the interpretation of neutrinoless double beta decay data. We consider a representative set of recent NME calculations from different methods and investigate the impact on the present bound on the effective Majorana mass $m_{\beta\beta}$ by performing a combined analysis of the available data as well as on the sensitivity reach of future projects. A crucial role is played by the recently discovered short-range contribution to the NME, induced by light Majorana neutrino masses. Depending on the NME model and the relative sign of the long- and short-range contributions, the current $3\sigma$ bound can change between $m_{\beta\beta} < 40$ meV and 600 meV. The sign-uncertainty may either boost the sensitivity of next-generation experiments beyond the region for $m_{\beta\beta}$ predicted for inverted mass ordering or prevent even advanced setups to reach this region. Furthermore, we study the possibility to distinguish between different NME calculations by assuming a positive signal and by combining measurements from different isotopes. Such a discrimination will be impossible if the relative sign of the long- and short-range contribution remains unknown, but can become feasible if $m_{\beta\beta} \gtrsim 40$ meV and if the relative sign is known to be positive. Sensitivities will be dominated by the advanced $^{76}$Ge and $^{136}$Xe setups assumed here, but NME model-discrimination improves if data from a third isotope is added, e.g., from $^{130}$Te or $^{100}$Mo.**Reconstructing Galactic magnetic fields from local measurements for backtracking ultra-high-energy cosmic rays**

2303.10099 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alexandros Tsouros, [and 4 more]Gordian Edenhofer, Torsten Enßlin, Michalis Mastorakis, and Vasiliki Pavlidou [hide authors].

(abridged) Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are highly energetic charged particles with energies exceeding $10^{18}$ eV. Identifying their sources and production mechanism can provide insight into many open questions in astrophysics and high energy physics. However, the Galactic magnetic field (GMF) deflects UHECRs, and the high uncertainties in our current understanding of the $3$-dimensional structure of the GMF does not permit us to accurately determine their true arrival direction on the plane of the sky (PoS). This difficulty arises from the fact that currently all GMF observations are integrated along the line-of-sight (LoS). Upcoming stellar optopolarimetric surveys as well as Gaia data on stellar parallaxes, are expected to provide local measurements of the GMF in the near future. In this paper, we evaluate the reconstruction of the GMF in a limited region of the Galaxy given sparse and local GMF measurements within that region, through Bayesian inference using principles of Information Field Theory. We backtrack UHECRs through GMF configurations drawn from the posterior to improve our knowledge of their true arrival directions. We show that, for a weakly turbulent GMF, it is possible to correct for its effect on the observed arrival direction of UHECRs to within $\sim 3^\circ$. For completely turbulent fields, we show that our procedure can still be used to significantly improve our knowledge on the true arrival direction of UHECRs.**Earth tomography with supernova neutrinos at future neutrino detectors**

2303.09369 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rasmi Hajjar, Olga Mena, and Sergio Palomares-Ruiz.

Earth neutrino tomography is a realistic possibility with current and future neutrino detectors, complementary to geophysics methods. The two main approaches are based on either partial absorption of the neutrino flux as it propagates through the Earth (at energies about a few TeV) or on coherent Earth matter effects affecting the neutrino oscillations pattern (at energies below a few tens of GeV). In this work, we consider the latter approach focusing on supernova neutrinos with tens of MeV. Whereas at GeV energies, Earth matter effects are driven by the atmospheric mass-squared difference, at energies below $\sim 100$~MeV, it is the solar mass-squared difference what controls them. Unlike solar neutrinos, which suffer from significant weakening of the contribution to the oscillatory effect from remote structures due to the neutrino energy reconstruction capabilities of detectors, supernova neutrinos can have higher energies and thus, can better probe the Earth's interior. We shall revisit this possibility, using the most recent neutrino oscillation parameters and up-to-date supernova neutrino spectra. The capabilities of future neutrino detectors, such as DUNE, Hyper-Kamiokande and JUNO are presented, including the impact of the energy resolution and other factors. Assuming a supernova burst at 10~kpc, we show that the average Earth's core density could be determined within $\lesssim 10\%$ at $1\sigma$ confidence level, being Hyper-Kamiokande, with its largest mass, the most promising detector to achieve this goal.**Nuclear neutron radius and weak mixing angle measurements from latest COHERENT CsI and atomic parity violation Cs data**

2303.09360 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Atzori Corona, [and 5 more]M. Cadeddu, N. Cargioli, F. Dordei, C. Giunti, and G. Masia [hide authors].

The COHERENT collaboration observed coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering using a 14.6 kg cesium-iodide (CsI) detector in 2017 and recently published the updated results before decommissioning the detector. Here, we present the legacy determination of the weak mixing angle and of the average neutron rms radius of $^{133}\mathrm{Cs}$ and $^{127}\mathrm{I}$ obtained with the full CsI dataset, also exploiting the combination with the atomic parity violation (APV) experimental result, that allows us to achieve a precision as low as $\sim$4.5\% and to disentangle the contributions of the $^{133}\mathrm{Cs}$ and $^{127}\mathrm{I}$ nuclei. Interestingly, we show that the COHERENT CsI data show a 6$\sigma$ evidence of the nuclear structure suppression of the full coherence. Moreover, we derive a data-driven APV+COHERENT measurement of the low-energy weak mixing angle with a percent uncertainty, independent of the value of the average neutron rms radius of $^{133}\mathrm{Cs}$ and $^{127}\mathrm{I}$, that is allowed to vary freely in the fit. Finally, in light of the recent announcement of a future deployment of a 10~kg and a $\sim$700~kg cryogenic CsI detectors, we provide future prospects for these measurements.**Modification of the Dipole in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays due to the Galactic Magnetic Field**

2303.08766 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alena Bakalová, Jakub Vícha, and Petr Trávníček.

The direction and magnitude of the dipole anisotropy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with energies above 8 EeV observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory indicate their extragalactic origin. The observed dipole on Earth does not necessarily need to correspond to the anisotropy of the extragalactic cosmic-ray flux due to the effects of propagation in the Galactic magnetic field. We estimate the size of these effects via numerical simulations using the CRPropa 3 package. The Jansson-Farrar and Terral-Ferri\`ere models of the Galactic magnetic field are used to propagate particles from the edge of the Galaxy to an observer on Earth. We identify allowed directions and amplitudes of the dipole outside the Galaxy that are compatible with the measured features of the dipole on Earth for various mass composition scenarios at the 68% and 95% confidence level.**Tau Polarization and Correlated Decays in Neutrino Experiments**

2303.08104 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joshua Isaacson, [and 3 more]Stefan Höche, Frank Siegert, and Sherry Wang [hide authors].

We present the first fully differential predictions for tau neutrino scattering in the energy region relevant to the DUNE experiment, including all spin correlations and all tau lepton decay channels. The calculation is performed using a generic interface between the neutrino event generator Achilles and the publicly available, general-purpose collider event simulation framework Sherpa.**Towards Resolving the Gallium Anomaly**

2303.05528 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar, Julia Gehrlein, and Joachim Kopp.

A series of experiments studying neutrinos from intense radioactive sources have reported a deficit in the measured event rate which, in combination, has reached a statistical significance of $\sim 5\sigma$. In this paper, we explore avenues for explaining this anomaly, both within the Standard Model and beyond. First, we discuss possible biases in the predicted cross section for the detection reaction $\nu_e + ^{71}\text{Ga} \to e^- + ^{71}\text{Ge}$, which could arise from mismeasurement of the inverse process, $^{71}\text{Ge}$ decay, or from the presence of as yet unknown low-lying excited states of $^{71}\text{Ga}$. The latter would imply that not all $^{71}\text{Ge}$ decays go to the ground state of $^{71}\text{Ga}$, so the extraction of the ground state-to-ground state matrix element relevant for neutrino capture on gallium would be incorrect. Second, we scrutinize the measurement of the source intensity in gallium experiments, and we point out that a $\sim 2\%$ error in the branching ratios for $^{51}\text{Cr}$ decay would be enough to explain the anomaly. Third, we investigate the calibration of the radiochemical germanium extraction efficiency as a possible origin of anomaly. Finally, we outline several new explanations beyond the Standard Model, including scenarios with sterile neutrinos coupled to fuzzy dark matter or to dark energy, as well as a model with decaying sterile neutrinos. We critically assess the viability of these scenarios, and others that have been proposed, in a summary table.**Observation of Seasonal Variations of the Flux of High-Energy Atmospheric Neutrinos with IceCube**

2303.04682 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 393 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, S. K. Agarwalla, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, D. Butterfield, M. A. Campana, K. Carloni, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, S. Chattopadhyay, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, S. Countryman, D. F. Cowen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, S. Deng, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, A. Domi, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, K. Fang, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, S. Griffin, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, L. Heuermann, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jacquart, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, K. Jayakumar, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Khatee Zathul, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, K. Kruiswijk, E. Krupczak, A. Kumar, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. Lamoureux, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard DeHolton, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, F. Mayhew, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, Y. Merckx, L. Merten, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, Y. Morii, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, M. Nakos, U. Naumann, J. Necker, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, S. Athanasiadou, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, P. Savina, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, B. Schlüter, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, G. Sommani, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, C. F. Tung, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, A. K. Upadhyay, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, M. Venugopal, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, F. Yu, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

Atmospheric muon neutrinos are produced by meson decays in cosmic-ray-induced air showers. The flux depends on meteorological quantities such as the air temperature, which affects the density of air. Competition between decay and re-interaction of those mesons in the first particle production generations gives rise to a higher neutrino flux when the air density in the stratosphere is lower, corresponding to a higher temperature. A measurement of a temperature dependence of the atmospheric $\nu_{\mu}$ flux provides a novel method for constraining hadro\-nic interaction models of air showers. It is particularly sensitive to the production of kaons. Studying this temperature dependence for the first time requires a large sample of high-energy neutrinos as well as a detailed understanding of atmospheric properties. We report the significant ($> 10 \sigma$) observation of a correlation between the rate of more than 260,000 neutrinos, detected by IceCube between 2012 and 2018, and atmospheric temperatures of the stratosphere, measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument aboard NASA's AQUA satellite. For the observed 10$\%$ seasonal change of effective atmospheric temperature we measure a 3.5(3)$\%$ change in the muon neutrino flux. This observed correlation deviates by about 2-3 standard deviations from the expected correlation of 4.3$\%$ as obtained from theoretical predictions under the assumption of various hadronic interaction models**Measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from the T2K experiment using $3.6\times10^{21}$ protons on target**

2303.03222 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by The T2K Collaboration, [and 360 more]K. Abe, N. Akhlaq, R. Akutsu, A. Ali, S. Alonso Monsalve, C. Alt, C. Andreopoulos, M. Antonova, S. Aoki, T. Arihara, Y. Asada, Y. Ashida, E. T. Atkin, G. J. Barker, G. Barr, D. Barrow, M. Batkiewicz-Kwasniak, F. Bench, V. Berardi, L. Berns, S. Bhadra, A. Blanchet, A. Blondel, S. Bolognesi, T. Bonus, S. Bordoni, S. B. Boyd, A. Bravar, C. Bronner, S. Bron, A. Bubak, M. Buizza Avanzini, J. A. Caballero Carretero, S. Cao, A. J. Carter, S. L. Cartwright, M. G. Catanesi, A. Cervera, J. Chakrani, D. Cherdack, G. Christodoulou, M. Cicerchia, J. Coleman, G. Collazuol, L. Cook, A. Cudd, C. Dalmazzone, Yu. I. Davydov, A. De Roeck, G. De Rosa, T. Dealtry, C. C. Delogu, C. Densham, A. Dergacheva, F. Di Lodovico, S. Dolan, D. Douqa, T. A. Doyle, O. Drapier, J. Dumarchez, P. Dunne, K. Dygnarowicz, A. Eguchi, S. Emery-Schrenk, A. Ershova, M. Feltre, A. J. Finch, G. A. Fiorentini Aguirre, G. Fiorillo, J. M. Franco Patiño, M. Friend, Y. Fujii, Y. Fukuda, K. Fusshoeller, L. Giannessi, C. Giganti, V. Glagolev, M. Gonin, J. González Rosa, E. A. G. Goodman, A. Gorin, M. Grassi, M. Guigue, D. R. Hadley, J. T. Haigh, P. Hamacher-Baumann, D. A. Harris, M. Hartz, T. Hasegawa, S. Hassani, N. C. Hastings, Y. Hayato, A. Hiramoto, M. Hogan, J. Holeczek, A. Holin, T. Holvey, N. T. Hong Van, T. Honjo, F. Iacob, A. K. Ichikawa, M. Ikeda, T. Ishida, M. Ishitsuka, H. T. Israel, K. Iwamoto, A. Izmaylov, N. Izumi, M. Jakkapu, B. Jamieson, S. J. Jenkins, C. Jesús-Valls, J. J. Jiang, P. Jonsson, C. K. Jung, P. B. Jurj, M. Kabirnezhad, A. C. Kaboth, T. Kajita, H. Kakuno, J. Kameda, S. P. Kasetti, Y. Kataoka, Y. Katayama, T. Katori, M. Kawaue, E. Kearns, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, T. Kikawa, H. Kikutani, S. King, J. Kisiel, T. Kobata, T. Kobayashi, L. Koch, A. Konaka, L. L. Kormos, Y. Koshio, A. Kostin, K. Kowalik, Y. Kudenko, S. Kuribayashi, R. Kurjata, T. Kutter, M. Kuze, M. La Commara, L. Labarga, K. Lachner, J. Lagoda, S. M. Lakshmi, M. Lamers James, M. Lamoureux, A. Langella, D. Last, N. Latham, M. Laveder, L. Lavitola, M. Lawe, Y. Lee, C. Lin, S. -K. Lin, R. P. Litchfield, S. L. Liu, A. Longhin, K. R. Long, L. Ludovici, X. Lu, T. Lux, L. N. Machado, L. Magaletti, K. Mahn, M. Malek, M. Mandal, S. Manly, A. D. Marino, L. Marti-Magro, D. G. R. Martin, M. Martini, T. Maruyama, T. Matsubara, V. Matveev, C. Mauger, K. Mavrokoridis, E. Mazzucato, N. McCauley, J. McElwee, K. S. McFarland, C. McGrew, A. Mefodiev, G. D. Megias, L. Mellet, M. Mezzetto, A. Minamino, O. Mineev, S. Mine, M. Miura, L. Molina Bueno, S. Moriyama, Th. A. Mueller, D. Munford, L. Munteanu, K. Nagai, Y. Nagai, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakagiri, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakajima, A. Nakamura, H. Nakamura, K. Nakamura, K. D. Nakamura, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, T. Nakaya, K. Nakayoshi, C. E. R. Naseby, T. V. Ngoc, V. Q. Nguyen, K. Niewczas, Y. Nishimura, K. Nishizaki, F. Nova, J. C. Nugent, H. M. O'Keeffe, L. O'Sullivan, T. Odagawa, T. Ogawa, R. Okada, K. Okumura, T. Okusawa, R. A. Owen, Y. Oyama, V. Palladino, V. Paolone, M. Pari, J. Parlone, S. Parsa, J. Pasternak, M. Pavin, D. Payne, G. C. Penn, D. Pershey, L. Pickering, C. Pidcott, G. Pintaudi, C. Pistillo, B. Popov, K. Porwit, M. Posiadala-Zezula, Y. S. Prabhu, F. Pupilli, B. Quilain, T. Radermacher, E. Radicioni, B. Radics, P. N. Ratoff, M. Reh, C. Riccio, E. Rondio, S. Roth, A. Rubbia, A. C. Ruggeri, C. A. Ruggles, A. Rychter, K. Sakashita, F. Sánchez, G. Santucci, C. M. Schloesser, K. Scholberg, M. Scott, Y. Seiya, T. Sekiguchi, H. Sekiya, D. Sgalaberna, A. Shaikhiev, A. Shaykina, M. Shiozawa, W. Shorrock, A. Shvartsman, K. Skwarczynski, D. Smyczek, M. Smy, J. T. Sobczyk, H. Sobel, F. J. P. Soler, Y. Sonoda, A. J. Speers, R. Spina, I. A. Suslov, S. Suvorov, A. Suzuki, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, A. A. Sztuc, M. Tada, S. Tairafune, S. Takayasu, A. Takeda, Y. Takeuchi, K. Takifuji, H. K. Tanaka, Y. Tanihara, M. Tani, A. Teklu, V. V. Tereshchenko, N. Teshima, N. Thamm, L. F. Thompson, W. Toki, C. Touramanis, T. Towstego, K. M. Tsui, T. Tsukamoto, M. Tzanov, Y. Uchida, M. Vagins, D. Vargas, G. Vasseur, C. Vilela, E. Villa, W. G. S. Vinning, U. Virginet, T. Vladisavljevic, T. Wachala, J. G. Walsh, Y. Wang, L. Wan, D. Wark, M. O. Wascko, A. Weber, R. Wendell, M. J. Wilking, C. Wilkinson, J. R. Wilson, K. Wood, C. Wret, J. Xia, Y. -h. Xu, K. Yamamoto, C. Yanagisawa, G. Yang, T. Yano, K. Yasutome, N. Yershov, U. Yevarouskaya, M. Yokoyama, Y. Yoshimoto, M. Yu, R. Zaki, A. Zalewska, J. Zalipska, K. Zaremba, G. Zarnecki, X. Zhao, T. Zhu, M. Ziembicki, E. D. Zimmerman, M. Zito, and S. Zsoldos [hide authors].

The T2K experiment presents new measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters using $19.7(16.3)\times10^{20}$ protons on target (POT) in (anti-)neutrino mode at the far detector (FD). Compared to the previous analysis, an additional $4.7\times10^{20}$ POT neutrino data was collected at the FD. Significant improvements were made to the analysis methodology, with the near-detector analysis introducing new selections and using more than double the data. Additionally, this is the first T2K oscillation analysis to use NA61/SHINE data on a replica of the T2K target to tune the neutrino flux model, and the neutrino interaction model was improved to include new nuclear effects and calculations. Frequentist and Bayesian analyses are presented, including results on $\sin^2\theta_{13}$ and the impact of priors on the $\delta_\mathrm{CP}$ measurement. Both analyses prefer the normal mass ordering and upper octant of $\sin^2\theta_{23}$ with a nearly maximally CP-violating phase. Assuming the normal ordering and using the constraint on $\sin^2\theta_{13}$ from reactors, $\sin^2\theta_{23}=0.561^{+0.021}_{-0.032}$ using Feldman--Cousins corrected intervals, and $\Delta{}m^2_{32}=2.494_{-0.058}^{+0.041}\times10^{-3}~\mathrm{eV^2}$ using constant $\Delta\chi^{2}$ intervals. The CP-violating phase is constrained to $\delta_\mathrm{CP}=-1.97_{-0.70}^{+0.97}$ using Feldman--Cousins corrected intervals, and $\delta_\mathrm{CP}=0,\pi$ is excluded at more than 90\% confidence level. A Jarlskog invariant of zero is excluded at more than $2\sigma$ credible level using a flat prior in $\delta_\mathrm{CP}$, and just below $2\sigma$ using a flat prior in $\sin\delta_\mathrm{CP}$. When the external constraint on $\sin^2\theta_{13}$ is removed, $\sin^2\theta_{13}=28.0^{+2.8}_{-6.5}\times10^{-3}$, in agreement with measurements from reactor experiments. These results are consistent with previous T2K analyses.**Quantifying the tension between cosmological and terrestrial constraints on neutrino masses**

2302.14159 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stefano Gariazzo, Olga Mena, and Thomas Schwetz.

The sensitivity of cosmology to the total neutrino mass scale $\Sigma m_\nu$ is approaching the minimal values required by oscillation data. We study quantitatively possible tensions between current and forecasted cosmological and terrestrial neutrino mass limits by applying suitable statistical tests such as Bayesian suspiciousness, parameter goodness-of-fit tests, or a parameter difference test. In particular, the tension will depend on whether the normal or the inverted neutrino mass ordering is assumed. We argue, that it makes sense to reject inverted ordering from the cosmology/oscillation comparison only if data are consistent with normal ordering. Our results indicate that, in order to reject inverted ordering with this argument, an accuracy on the sum of neutrino masses $\sigma ({m_\nu})$ of better than 0.02~eV would be required from future cosmological observations.**A direct detection view of the neutrino NSI landscape**

2302.12846 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dorian W. P. Amaral, [and 3 more]David Cerdeno, Andrew Cheek, and Patrick Foldenauer [hide authors].

In this article, we study the potential of direct detection experiments to explore the parameter space of general non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) via solar neutrino scattering. Due to their sensitivity to neutrino-electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct detection provides a complementary view of the NSI landscape to that of spallation sources and neutrino oscillation experiments. In particular, the large admixture of tau neutrinos in the solar flux makes direct detection experiments well-suited to probe the full flavour space of NSI. To study this, we develop a re-parametrisation of the NSI framework that explicitly includes a variable electron contribution and allows for a clear visualisation of the complementarity of the different experimental sources. Using this new parametrisation, we explore how previous bounds from spallation source and neutrino oscillation experiments are impacted. For the first time, we compute limits on NSI from the first results of the XENONnT and LUX-ZEPLIN experiments, and we obtain projections for future xenon-based experiments. Our results demonstrate the importance of using a more general NSI parametrisation and indicate that next generation direct detection experiments will become powerful probes of neutrino NSI.**Oscillation probabilities for a PT-symmetric non-Hermitian two-state system**

2302.11666 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jean Alexandre, [and 4 more]Madeleine Dale, John Ellis, Robert Mason, and Peter Millington [hide authors].

There is growing interest in viable quantum theories with PT-symmetric non-Hermitian Hamiltonians, but a formulation of transition matrix elements consistent with positivity and perturbative unitarity has so far proved elusive. This Letter provides such a formulation, which relies crucially on the ability to span the state space in such a way that the interaction and energy eigenstates are orthonormal with respect to the same positive-definite inner product. We mention possible applications to the oscillations of mesons and neutrinos.**The Neutrino Magnetic Moment Portal and Supernovae: New Constraints and Multimessenger Opportunities**

2302.10965 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar, [and 3 more]André de Gouvêa, Ying-Ying Li, and Pedro A. N. Machado [hide authors].

We scrutinize the hypothesis that gauge singlet fermions -- sterile neutrinos -- interact with Standard Model particles through the transition magnetic moment portal. These interactions lead to the production of sterile neutrinos in supernovae followed by their decay into photons and active neutrinos which can be detected at $\gamma$-ray telescopes and neutrino detectors, respectively. We find that the non-observation of active neutrinos and photons from sterile-neutrino decay associated to SN1987A yields the strongest constraints to date on magnetic-moment-coupled sterile neutrinos if their masses are inside a $0.1-100$ MeV window. Assuming a near-future galactic supernova explosion, we estimate the sensitivity of several present and near-future experiments, including Fermi-LAT, e-ASTROGAM, DUNE, and Hyper-Kamiokande, to magnetic-moment-coupled sterile neutrinos. We also study the diffuse photon and neutrino fluxes produced in the decay of magnetic-moment coupled sterile neutrinos produced in all past supernova explosions and find that the absence of these decay daughters yields the strongest constraints to date for sterile neutrino masses inside a $1-100$ keV window.**How to measure the reactor neutrino flux below the inverse beta decay threshold with CE$ν$NS**

2302.10460 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jiajun Liao, Hongkai Liu, and Danny Marfatia.

Most antineutrinos produced in a nuclear reactor have energies below the inverse beta decay threshold, and have not yet been detected. We show that a coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment with an ultra-low energy threshold like NUCLEUS can measure the flux of reactor neutrinos below 1.8 MeV. Using a regularized unfolding procedure, we find that a meaningful upper bound can be placed on the low energy flux, but the existence of the neutron capture component cannot be established.**Investigating the effects of Lorentz Invariance Violation on the CP-sensitivities of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment**

2302.10456 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Arnab Sarker, Abinash Medhi, and Moon Moon Devi.

The neutrino oscillations offer great potential for probing new physics effects beyond the Standard Model. Any additional effect on neutrino oscillations can help understand the nature of these non-standard effects. The violation of fundamental symmetries may appear as new physics effects in various neutrino experiments. Lorentz symmetry is one such fundamental symmetry in nature, the violation of which implies a breakdown of space-time symmetry. The Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) is intrinsic in nature and its effects exist even in a vacuum. Neutrinos can be an intriguing probe for exploring such violations of Lorentz symmetry. The effect of violation of Lorentz Invariance can be explored through the impact on the neutrino oscillation probabilities. The effect of LIV is treated as a perturbation to the standard neutrino Hamiltonian considering the Standard Model Extension (SME) framework. In this work, we have probed the effect of LIV on the neutrino oscillation measurements considering the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) as a case study. The inclusion of LIV affects various neutrino oscillation parameters as it modifies the standard neutrino oscillation probabilities. We looked into the capability of DUNE in constraining the LIV parameters and then explored the impact of CPT-violating LIV terms on the mass-induced neutrino oscillation probabilities. We have also probed the influence of LIV parameters on the CP-measurement sensitivity at DUNE.**On the Tremaine-Gunn Limit with Mass-Varying Particles**

2302.10246 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lotfi Boubekeur and Stefano Profumo.

General classical arguments on the time evolution of the phase-space density can be used to derive constraints on the mass of particle candidates for the cosmological dark matter (DM). The resulting Tremaine-Gunn limit is extremely useful in constraining particle DM models. In certain models, however, the DM particle mass varies appreciably over time. In this work, we generalize the phase-space limits on possible DM particle masses to these scenarios. We then examine the ensuing cosmological implications on the effective DM equation of state and indirect DM detection.**Discernible NSI Effects in Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments**

2302.09592 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Barnali Brahma and Anjan Giri.

Neutrino oscillation in the matter could get affected by the sub-dominant, yet unknown, non-standard interactions. The upcoming long-baseline (LBL) neutrino experiments will be sensitive to these effects and can provide information on the unknown oscillation parameter values. In this article, we study the parameter degeneracies that can occur in DUNE, T2HK experiments, and a combination of both due to nonstandard interactions (NSI), arising simultaneously, from two different off-diagonal sectors, i.e., $e-\mu$ and $e-\tau$. We derive constraints on both the NSI sectors using the combined datasets of NO$\nu$A and T2K. Our analysis reveals a significant impact that dual NSIs may have on the sensitivity of atmospheric mixing angle $\theta_{23}$ in the normal ordering (NO) case. Furthermore, when non-standard interaction from the $e-\mu$ and $e-\tau$ sectors are included, we see significant changes in the probabilities for DUNE, T2HK, and as well as a combined analysis involving both. Moreover, the CP sensitivity gets affected significantly due to the presence of dual NSIs, and, in addition, the CP asymmetry also exhibits an appreciable difference.**Here Comes the Sun: Solar Parameters in Long-Baseline Accelerator Neutrino Oscillations**

2302.08513 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Julia Gehrlein.

Long-baseline (LBL) accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments, such as NOvA and T2K in the current generation, and DUNE-LBL and HK-LBL in the coming years, will measure the remaining unknown oscillation parameters with excellent precision. These analyses assume external input on the solar parameters, $\theta_{12}$ and $\Delta m^2_{21}$, from solar experiments such as SNO, SK, and Borexino, as well as reactor experiments like KamLAND. Here we investigate their role in long-baseline experiments. We show that, without input on solar parameters, the sensitivity to detecting and quantifying CP violation is significantly, but not entirely, reduced. Thus long-baseline accelerator experiments can actually determine the solar parameters, and thus all six oscillation parameters, without input from \emph{any} other oscillation experiment. In particular, $\Delta m^2_{21}$ can be determined; thus DUNE-LBL and HK-LBL can measure both the solar and atmospheric mass splittings in their long-baseline analyses alone. While their sensitivities are not competitive with existing constraints, they are very orthogonal probes of solar parameters and provide a key consistency check of a less probed sector of the three-flavor oscillation picture. Furthermore, we also show that the true values of the solar parameters play an important role in the sensitivity of other oscillation parameters such as the CP violating phase $\delta$.**Probing Cosmic Neutrino Background Charge via Unconventional Interferometer**

2302.08246 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Chrisna Setyo Nugroho.

If neutrinos carry non-zero electric charge, they would interact directly with photons. This would induce a phase shift along the photon path in the optical experiment. We propose a novel idea to detect this phase shift induced by cosmic neutrino background (CNB) and the photon interaction using laser interferometry experiment. We show that our setup can probe the CNB neutrino charge in the order of $10^{-18} \,e- 10^{-17}\, e$. This is quite competitive with the existing upper bound on neutrino charge from both laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations.**Improved sensitivities of ESS$ν$SB from a two-detector fit**

2302.07154 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by F. Capozzi, C. Giunti, and C. A. Ternes.

We discuss the improvement of the sensitivity of ESS$\nu$SB to the discovery of CP violation and to new neutrino physics which can be obtained with a two-detector fit of the data of the near and far detectors. In particular, we consider neutrino non-standard interactions generated by very heavy vector mediators, nonunitary neutrino mixing, and neutrino oscillations due to the mixing of the ordinary active neutrinos with a light sterile neutrino.**Signals of a New Gauge Boson from IceCube and Muon $g-2$**

2302.03571 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dan Hooper, Joaquim Iguaz Juan, and Pasquale D. Serpico.

A $Z'$ boson associated with a broken $U(1)_{L_{\mu} - L_{\tau}}$ gauge symmetry offers an economical solution to the long-standing $g_\mu-2$ anomaly, confirmed and strengthened by recent measurements at Fermilab. Here, we revisit the impact of such a $Z'$ on the spectrum of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, as measured by the IceCube experiment. This spectrum has been observed to exhibit a dip-like feature at $E_{\nu} \sim 0.2-1 \, {\rm PeV}$, which could plausibly arise from the physics of the sources themselves, but could also be the consequence of high-energy neutrinos resonantly scattering with the cosmic neutrino background, mediated by a $Z'$ with a mass on the order of $m_{Z'} \sim 10 \, {\rm MeV}$. In this study, we calculate the impact of such a $Z'$ on the high-energy neutrino spectrum for a variety of model parameters and source distributions. For couplings that can resolve the $g_{\mu}-2$ anomaly, we find that this model could self-consistently produce a spectral feature that is consistent with IceCube's measurement, in particular if the neutrinos observed by IceCube predominantly originate from high-redshift sources.**Probing invisible neutrino decay with KM3NeT-ORCA**

2302.02717 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by KM3NeT Collaboration, [and 254 more]S. Aiello, A. Albert, S. Alves Garre, Z. Aly, A. Ambrosone, F. Ameli, M. Andre, M. Anghinolfi, M. Anguita, M. Ardid, S. Ardid, J. Aublin, C. Bagatelas, L. Bailly-Salins, B. Baret, S. Basegmez du Pree, Y. Becherini, M. Bendahman, F. Benfenati, E. Berbee, V. Bertin, S. Biagi, M. Boettcher, M. Bou Cabo, J. Boumaaza, M. Bouta, M. Bouwhuis, C. Bozza, H. Brânzaş, R. Bruijn, J. Brunner, R. Bruno, E. Buis, R. Buompane, J. Busto, B. Caiffi, D. Calvo, S. Campion, A. Capone, F. Carenini, V. Carretero, P. Castaldi, S. Celli, L. Cerisy, M. Chabab, N. Chau, A. Chen, R. Cherkaoui El Moursli, S. Cherubini, V. Chiarella, T. Chiarusi, M. Circella, R. Cocimano, J. A. B. Coelho, A. Coleiro, R. Coniglione, P. Coyle, A. Creusot, A. Cruz, G. Cuttone, R. Dallier, Y. Darras, A. De Benedittis, B. De Martino, V. Decoene, R. Del Burgo, I. Di Palma, A. F. Díaz, D. Diego-Tortosa, C. Distefano, A. Domi, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, M. Dörr, E. Drakopoulou, D. Drouhin, T. Eberl, A. Eddyamoui, T. van Eeden, M. Eff, D. van Eijk, I. El Bojaddaini, S. El Hedri, A. Enzenhöfer, V. Espinosa, G. Ferrara, M. D. Filipović, F. Filippini, L. A. Fusco, J. Gabriel, T. Gal, J. García Méndez, A. Garcia Soto, F. Garufi, C. Gatius Oliver, N. Geißelbrecht, L. Gialanella, E. Giorgio, A. Girardi, I. Goos, S. R. Gozzini, R. Gracia, K. Graf, D. Guderian, C. Guidi, B. Guillon, M. Gutiérrez, L. Haegel, H. van Haren, A. Heijboer, A. Hekalo, L. Hennig, J. J. Hernández-Rey, F. Huang, W. Idrissi Ibnsalih, G. Illuminati, C. W. James, D. Janezashvili, M. de Jong, P. de Jong, B. J. Jung, P. Kalaczyński, O. Kalekin, U. F. Katz, N. R. Khan Chowdhury, G. Kistauri, F. van der Knaap, P. Kooijman, A. Kouchner, V. Kulikovskiy, M. Labalme, R. Lahmann, A. Lakhal, M. Lamoureux, G. Larosa, C. Lastoria, A. Lazo, R. Le Breton, S. Le Stum, G. Lehaut, E. Leonora, N. Lessing, G. Levi, S. Liang, M. Lindsey Clark, F. Longhitano, L. Maderer, J. Majumdar, J. Mańczak, A. Margiotta, A. Marinelli, C. Markou, L. Martin, J. A. Martìnez-Mora, A. Martini, F. Marzaioli, M. Mastrodicasa, S. Mastroianni, K. W. Melis, S. Miccichè, G. Miele, P. Migliozzi, E. Migneco, P. Mijakowski, C. M. Mollo, L. Morales-Gallegos, C. Morley-Wong, A. Moussa, R. Muller, M. R. Musone, M. Musumeci, L. Nauta, S. Navas, C. A. Nicolau, B. Nkosi, B. Ó Fearraigh, A. Orlando, E. Oukacha, J. Palacios González, G. Papalashvili, R. Papaleo, E. J. Pastor Gomez, A. M. Păun, G. E. Păvălaş, C. Pellegrino, S. Peña Martínez, M. Perrin-Terrin, J. Perronnel, V. Pestel, P. Piattelli, O. Pisanti, C. Poirè, V. Popa, T. Pradier, S. Pulvirenti, G. Quéméner, U. Rahaman, N. Randazzo, S. Razzaque, I. C. Rea, D. Real, S. Reck, G. Riccobene, J. Robinson, A. Romanov, F. Salesa Greus, D. F. E. Samtleben, A. Sánchez Losa, M. Sanguineti, C. Santonastaso, D. Santonocito, P. Sapienza, A. Sathe, J. Schnabel, M. F. Schneider, J. Schumann, H. M. Schutte, J. Seneca, I. Sgura, R. Shanidze, A. Sharma, A. Simonelli, A. Sinopoulou, M. V. Smirnov, B. Spisso, M. Spurio, D. Stavropoulos, S. M. Stellacci, M. Taiuti, K. Tavzarashvili, Y. Tayalati, H. Tedjditi, T. Thakore, H. Thiersen, S. Tsagkli, V. Tsourapis, E. Tzamariudaki, V. Van Elewyck, G. Vannoye, G. Vasileiadis, F. Versari, S. Viola, D. Vivolo, H. Warnhofer, J. Wilms, E. de Wolf, H. Yepes-Ramirez, T. Yousfi, S. Zavatarelli, A. Zegarelli, D. Zito, J. D. Zornoza, J. Zúñiga, and N. Zywucka [hide authors].

In the era of precision measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters, upcoming neutrino experiments will also be sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model. KM3NeT/ORCA is a neutrino detector optimised for measuring atmospheric neutrinos from a few GeV to around 100 GeV. In this paper, the sensitivity of the KM3NeT/ORCA detector to neutrino decay has been explored. A three-flavour neutrino oscillation scenario, where the third neutrino mass state $\nu_3$ decays into an invisible state, e.g. a sterile neutrino, is considered. We find that KM3NeT/ORCA would be sensitive to invisible neutrino decays with $1/\alpha_3=\tau_3/m_3 < 180$~$\mathrm{ps/eV}$ at $90\%$ confidence level, assuming true normal ordering. Finally, the impact of neutrino decay on the precision of KM3NeT/ORCA measurements for $\theta_{23}$, $\Delta m^2_{31}$ and mass ordering have been studied. No significant effect of neutrino decay on the sensitivity to these measurements has been found.**Reconstructing the arrival direction of neutrinos in deep in-ice radio detectors**

2302.00054 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ilse Plaisier, Sjoerd Bouma, and Anna Nelles.

In-ice radio detectors are a promising tool for the discovery of EeV neutrinos. For astrophysics, the implications of such a discovery will rely on the reconstruction of the neutrino arrival direction. This paper describes a first complete neutrino arrival direction reconstruction for detectors employing deep antennas such as RNO-G or planning to employ them like IceCube-Gen2. We will didactically introduce the challenges of neutrino direction reconstruction using radio emission in ice, elaborate on the detail of the algorithm used, and describe the obtainable performance based on a simulation study and discuss its implication for astrophysics.**Time Dependent CP-even and CP-odd Signatures of Scalar Ultra-light Dark Matter in Neutrino Oscillations**

2302.00005 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Marta Losada, [and 4 more]Yosef Nir, Gilad Perez, Inbar Savoray, and Yogev Shpilman [hide authors].

Scalar ultra-light dark matter (ULDM) interacting with neutrinos can induce, under certain conditions, time-dependent modifications to neutrino oscillation probabilities. The limit in which the ULDM perturbation can be treated as constant throughout the neutrino propagation time has been addressed by several previous works. We complement these by systematically analyzing the opposite limit -- accounting for the temporal-variations of the ULDM potential by solving time-dependent Schr\"odinger equations. In particular, we study a novel two-generations-like CP violating (CPV) signature unique to rapidly oscillating ULDM. We derive the leading order, time-dependent, corrections to the oscillation probabilities, both for CP conserving (CPC) and CPV couplings, and explain how they can be measured in current and future experiments.**Extraction of neutron density distributions from high-statistics coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering data**

2301.13249 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Aristizabal Sierra.

Forthcoming fixed-target coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments aim at measurements with $\cal{O}(\text{tonne})$-scale detectors and substantially reduced systematic and statistical uncertainties. With such high quality data, the extraction of point-neutron distributions mean-square radii requires a better understanding of possible theoretical uncertainties. We quantify the impact of single-nucleon electromagnetic mean-square radii on the weak-charge form factor and compare results from weak-charge form factor parametrizations and weak-charge form factor decompositions in terms of elastic vector proton and neutron form factors, including nucleon form factors $Q$-dependent terms up to order $Q^2$. We assess as well the differences arising from results derived using weak-charge form factor decompositions in terms of elastic vector proton and neutron form factors and a model-independent approach based solely on the assumption of spherically symmetric nuclear ground state. We demonstrate the impact of the main effects by assuming pseudo-data from a one-tonne LAr detector and find that, among the effects and under the assumptions considered in this paper, weak-charge form factor parametrizations and weak-charge form factor decompositions in terms of elastic vector proton and neutron form factors enable the extraction of the $^{40}\text{Ar}$ point-neutron distribution mean-square radius with a $\sim 15\%$ accuracy. With a substantial reduction of the beam-related neutron and steady-state backgrounds a $\sim 1\%$ precision extraction seems feasible, using either of the two approaches.**Theoretical Aspect of Nonunitarity in Neutrino Oscillation**

2301.12960 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Chee Sheng Fong.

Nonunitarity can arise in neutrino oscillation when the matrix with elements $\mathbf{U}_{\alpha i}$ which relate the neutrino flavor $\alpha$ and mass $i$ eigenstates is not unitary when sum over the kinematically accessible mass eigenstates or over the three Standard Model flavors. We review how high scale nonunitarity arises after integrating out new physics which is not accessible in neutrino oscillation experiments. We contrast this to the low scale nonunitary scenario in which there are new states accessible in neutrino oscillation experiments but the oscillations involving these states are fast enough such that they are averaged out. Then we derive analytical formula for the neutrino oscillation probability amplitude for an arbitrary flavor of neutrinos without assuming unitarity. This result allows us to prove a theorem that if $\left(\mathbf{U}\mathbf{U}^{\dagger}\right)_{\alpha\beta}=0$ for all $\alpha\neq\beta$, then the neutrino oscillation probability in an arbitrary matter potential is indistinguishable from the unitary scenario. The main implication is that nonunitary effects are proportional $\left(\mathbf{U}\mathbf{U}^{\dagger}\right)_{\alpha\beta}$ with $\alpha\neq\beta$ and disappearance experiments $\nu_{\beta}\to\nu_{\alpha}$ are necessary for their discovery. Independently of matter potential, while nonunitary effects for high scale nonunitary scenario disappear as $\left(\mathbf{U}\mathbf{U}^{\dagger}\right)_{\alpha\beta}\to0$ for all $\alpha\neq\beta$, low scale nonunitary effects remain.**Klein-Gordon Equation with Self-Interaction $λφ^4$ and Arbitrary Spherical Source Terms**

2301.11106 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton.

The Klein-Gordon equation for a scalar field sourced by a spherically symmetric background is an interesting second-order differential equation with applications in particle physics, astrophysics, and elsewhere. Here we present solutions for generic source density profiles in the case where the scalar field has no interactions or a mass term. For a $\lambda\phi^4$ self-interaction term, we provide the necessary expressions for a numerical computation, an algorithm to numerically match the initial conditions from infinity to the origin, and an accurate guess of that initial condition. We also provide code to perform the numerical calculations that can be adapted for arbitrary density profiles.**Neutrino Electromagnetic Properties and the Weak Mixing Angle at the LHC Forward Physics Facility**

2301.10254 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Roshan Mammen Abraham, [and 3 more]Saeid Foroughi-Abari, Felix Kling, and Yu-Dai Tsai [hide authors].

The LHC produces an intense beam of highly energetic neutrinos of all three flavors in the forward direction, and the Forward Physics Facility (FPF) has been proposed to house a suite of experiments taking advantage of this opportunity. In this study, we investigate the FPF's potential to probe the neutrino electromagnetic properties, including neutrino millicharge, magnetic moment, and charge radius. We find that, due to the large flux of tau neutrinos at the LHC, the FPF detectors will be able to provide the strongest laboratory-based sensitivity to the tau neutrino magnetic moment and millicharge by searching for excess in low recoil energy electron scattering events. We also find that, by precisely measuring the rate of neutral current deep inelastic scattering events, the FPF detectors have the potential to obtain the strongest experimental bounds on the neutrino charge radius for the electron neutrino, and one of the leading bounds for the muon neutrino flavor. The same signature could also be used to measure the weak mixing angle, and we estimate that $\sin^2 \theta_W$ could be measured to about $3\%$ precision at a scale $Q \sim 10$ GeV, shedding new light on the long-standing NuTeV anomaly.**Sterile Neutrino Shape-shifting Caused by Dark Matter**

2301.09651 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hooman Davoudiasl and Peter B. Denton.

Light sterile neutrinos with a mass of $\sim 1$ eV continue to be interesting due to multiple hints from terrestrial experiments. This simple hypothesis suffers from strong astrophysical constraints, in particular from the early universe as well as solar neutrinos. We develop a novel cosmologically viable proposal consistent with the terrestrial hints, as well as solar constraints, by sourcing the sterile neutrino's mass from ordinary matter via an ultralight scalar $\phi$ which can also be the dark matter. In this scenario, the experimentally implied $\sim 1$ eV sterile neutrino mass is a local value and changes throughout spacetime.**Synergy Between Hubble Tension Motivated Self-Interacting Neutrino and KeV-Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter**

2301.09552 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mansi Dhuria and Abinas Pradhan.

The discrepancy between the value of Hubble constant measured by CMB observations and local low-redshift based observations has proposed many solutions which require the existence of Physics beyond Standard Model (SM). One of the interesting solutions is based on considering the strong self-interaction between Standard Model (SM) neutrinos through an additional scalar/vector mediator. Interestingly, the strong self-interaction between SM neutrinos also play an important role in obtaining KeV-sterile neutrino as a viable Dark Matter (DM) candidate through the famous Dodelson-Widrow mechanism. In this work, we have tried to find the synergy between the parameter space of active-sterile neutrino mixing vs mass of sterile neutrino allowed by Hubble tension solution and the requirement of getting KeV-sterile neutrino as DM candidate. Interestingly, we get a large amount of parameter space that is consistent with both the requirements and also free from X-Ray constraints. Finally, we have embedded this scenario in a consistent supersymmetric model of particle physics. In this framework, we have shown that the value of sterile neutrino mass, SM neutrino mass and the required mixing angle can be naturally obtained by considering the supersymmetry breaking scale to be around O(10) TeV. Thus, it would give an interesting testing ground for supersymmetry as well as signatures of Warm Dark Matter (WDM).**NGC 1068 constraints on neutrino-dark matter scattering**

2301.08756 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by James M. Cline and Matteo Puel.

The IceCube collaboration has observed the first steady-state point source of high-energy neutrinos, coming from the active galaxy NGC 1068. If neutrinos interacted strongly enough with dark matter, the emitted neutrinos would have been impeded by the dense spike of dark matter surrounding the supermassive black hole at the galactic center, which powers the emission. We derive a stringent upper limit on the scattering cross section between neutrinos and dark matter based on the observed events and theoretical models of the dark matter spike. The bound can be stronger than that obtained by the single IceCube neutrino event from the blazar TXS 0506+056 for some spike models.**Can Neutrino Self-interactions Save Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter?**

2301.08299 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rui An, [and 3 more]Vera Gluscevic, Ethan O. Nadler, and Yue Zhang [hide authors].

Sterile neutrinos only interact with the Standard Model through the neutrino sector, and thus represent a simple dark matter (DM) candidate with many potential astrophysical and cosmological signatures. Recently, sterile neutrinos produced through self-interactions of active neutrinos have received attention as a particle candidate that can yield the entire observed DM relic abundance without violating the most stringent constraints from X-ray observations. We examine consistency of this production mechanism with the abundance of small-scale structure in the universe, as captured by the population of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way, and derive a lower bound on the sterile-neutrino particle mass of $37.2$ keV. Combining these results with previous limits from particle physics and astrophysics excludes $100\%$ sterile neutrino DM produced by strong neutrino self-coupling, mediated by a heavy ($\gtrsim 1~\mathrm{GeV}$) scalar particle; however, data permits sterile-neutrino DM production via a light mediator.**Mineral Detection of Neutrinos and Dark Matter. A Whitepaper**

2301.07118 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sebastian Baum, [and 68 more]Patrick Stengel, Natsue Abe, Javier F. Acevedo, Gabriela R. Araujo, Yoshihiro Asahara, Frank Avignone, Levente Balogh, Laura Baudis, Yilda Boukhtouchen, Joseph Bramante, Pieter Alexander Breur, Lorenzo Caccianiga, Francesco Capozzi, Juan I. Collar, Reza Ebadi, Thomas Edwards, Klaus Eitel, Alexey Elykov, Rodney C. Ewing, Katherine Freese, Audrey Fung, Claudio Galelli, Ulrich A. Glasmacher, Arianna Gleason, Noriko Hasebe, Shigenobu Hirose, Shunsaku Horiuchi, Yasushi Hoshino, Patrick Huber, Yuki Ido, Yohei Igami, Norito Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Itow, Takashi Kamiyama, Takenori Kato, Bradley J. Kavanagh, Yoji Kawamura, Shingo Kazama, Christopher J. Kenney, Ben Kilminster, Yui Kouketsu, Yukiko Kozaka, Noah A. Kurinsky, Matthew Leybourne, Thalles Lucas, William F. McDonough, Mason C. Marshall, Jose Maria Mateos, Anubhav Mathur, Katsuyoshi Michibayashi, Sharlotte Mkhonto, Kohta Murase, Tatsuhiro Naka, Kenji Oguni, Surjeet Rajendran, Hitoshi Sakane, Paola Sala, Kate Scholberg, Ingrida Semenec, Takuya Shiraishi, Joshua Spitz, Kai Sun, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Erwin H. Tanin, Aaron Vincent, Nikita Vladimirov, Ronald L. Walsworth, and Hiroko Watanabe [hide authors].

Minerals are solid state nuclear track detectors - nuclear recoils in a mineral leave latent damage to the crystal structure. Depending on the mineral and its temperature, the damage features are retained in the material from minutes (in low-melting point materials such as salts at a few hundred degrees C) to timescales much larger than the 4.5 Gyr-age of the Solar System (in refractory materials at room temperature). The damage features from the $O(50)$ MeV fission fragments left by spontaneous fission of $^{238}$U and other heavy unstable isotopes have long been used for fission track dating of geological samples. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the readout of defects caused by nuclear recoils with energies as small as $O(1)$ keV. This whitepaper discusses a wide range of possible applications of minerals as detectors for $E_R \gtrsim O(1)$ keV nuclear recoils: Using natural minerals, one could use the damage features accumulated over $O(10)$ Myr$-O(1)$ Gyr to measure astrophysical neutrino fluxes (from the Sun, supernovae, or cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere) as well as search for Dark Matter. Using signals accumulated over months to few-years timescales in laboratory-manufactured minerals, one could measure reactor neutrinos or use them as Dark Matter detectors, potentially with directional sensitivity. Research groups in Europe, Asia, and America have started developing microscopy techniques to read out the $O(1) - O(100)$ nm damage features in crystals left by $O(0.1) - O(100)$ keV nuclear recoils. We report on the status and plans of these programs. The research program towards the realization of such detectors is highly interdisciplinary, combining geoscience, material science, applied and fundamental physics with techniques from quantum information and Artificial Intelligence.**Multifield Ultralight Dark Matter**

2301.07114 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mateja Gosenca, [and 6 more]Andrew Eberhardt, Yourong Wang, Benedikt Eggemeier, Emily Kendall, J. Luna Zagorac, and Richard Easther [hide authors].

Ultralight dark matter (ULDM) is usually taken to be a single scalar field. Here we explore the possibility that ULDM consists of $N$ light scalar fields with only gravitational interactions. This configuration is more consistent with the underlying particle physics motivations for these scenarios than a single ultralight field. ULDM halos have a characteristic granular structure that increases stellar velocity dispersion and can be used as observational constraints on ULDM models. In multifield simulations, we find that inside a halo the amplitude of the total density fluctuations decreases as $1/\sqrt{N}$ and that the fields do not become significantly correlated over cosmological timescales. Smoother halos heat stellar orbits less efficiently, reducing the velocity dispersion relative to the single field case and thus weakening the observational constraints on the field mass. Analytically, we show that for $N$ equal-mass fields with mass $m$ the ULDM contribution to the stellar velocity dispersion scales as $1/(N m^3)$. Lighter fields heat the most efficiently and if the smallest mass $m_L$ is significantly below the other field masses the dispersion scales as $1/(N^2 m_L^3)$.**EFT analysis of New Physics at COHERENT**

2301.07036 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Víctor Bresó-Pla, [and 3 more]Adam Falkowski, Martín González-Alonso, and Kevin Monsálvez-Pozo [hide authors].

Using an effective field theory approach, we study coherent neutrino scattering on nuclei, in the setup pertinent to the COHERENT experiment. We include non-standard effects both in neutrino production and detection, with an arbitrary flavor structure, with all leading Wilson coefficients simultaneously present, and without assuming factorization in flux times cross section. A concise description of the COHERENT event rate is obtained by introducing three generalized weak charges, which can be associated (in a certain sense) to the production and scattering of $\nu_e$, $\nu_\mu$ and $\bar{\nu}_\mu$ on the nuclear target. Our results are presented in a convenient form that can be trivially applied to specific New Physics scenarios. In particular, we find that existing COHERENT measurements provide percent level constraints on two combinations of Wilson coefficients. These constraints have a visible impact on the global SMEFT fit, even in the constrained flavor-blind setup. The improvement, which affects certain 4-fermion LLQQ operators, is significantly more important in a flavor-general SMEFT. Our work shows that COHERENT data should be included in electroweak precision studies from now on.**Report of the 2021 U.S. Community Study on the Future of Particle Physics (Snowmass 2021) Summary Chapter**

2301.06581 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joel N. Butler, [and 42 more]R. Sekhar Chivukula, André de Gouvêa, Tao Han, Young-Kee Kim, Priscilla Cushman, Glennys R. Farrar, Yury G. Kolomensky, Sergei Nagaitsev, Nicolás Yunes, Stephen Gourlay, Tor Raubenheimer, Vladimir Shiltsev, Kétévi A. Assamagan, Breese Quinn, V. Daniel Elvira, Steven Gottlieb, Benjamin Nachman, Aaron S. Chou, Marcelle Soares-Santos, Tim M. P. Tait, Meenakshi Narain, Laura Reina, Alessandro Tricoli, Phillip S. Barbeau, Petra Merkel, Jinlong Zhang, Patrick Huber, Kate Scholberg, Elizabeth Worcester, Marina Artuso, Robert H. Bernstein, Alexey A. Petrov, Nathaniel Craig, Csaba Csáki, Aida X. El-Khadra, Laura Baudis, Jeter Hall, Kevin T. Lesko, John L. Orrell, Julia Gonski, Fernanda Psihas, and Sara M. Simon [hide authors].

The 2021-22 High-Energy Physics Community Planning Exercise (a.k.a. ``Snowmass 2021'') was organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society. Snowmass 2021 was a scientific study that provided an opportunity for the entire U.S. particle physics community, along with its international partners, to identify the most important scientific questions in High Energy Physics for the following decade, with an eye to the decade after that, and the experiments, facilities, infrastructure, and R&D needed to pursue them. This Snowmass summary report synthesizes the lessons learned and the main conclusions of the Community Planning Exercise as a whole and presents a community-informed synopsis of U.S. particle physics at the beginning of 2023. This document, along with the Snowmass reports from the various subfields, will provide input to the 2023 Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) subpanel of the U.S. High-Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP), and will help to guide and inform the activity of the U.S. particle physics community during the next decade and beyond.**Distortion of neutrino oscillations by dark photon dark matter**

2301.04152 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gonzalo Alonso-Álvarez, Katarina Bleau, and James M. Cline.

A weakly coupled and light dark photon coupling to lepton charges $L_\mu-L_\tau$ is an intriguing dark matter candidate whose coherent oscillations alter the dispersion relations of leptons. We study how this effect modifies the dynamics of neutrino flavor conversions, focusing on long baseline and solar oscillations. We analyze data from the T2K, SNO, and Super-Kamiokande experiments in order to obtain world-leading limits on the dark photon gauge coupling for masses below $\sim 10^{-11}\,\mathrm{eV}$. Degeneracies between shifts in the neutrino mass-squared differences and mixing angles and the new physics effect significantly relax the current constrains on the neutrino vacuum oscillation parameters.**Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics Overview**

2301.02935 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Floyd W. Stecker.

This book chapter presents an overview of the historical experimental and theoretical developments in neutrino physics and astrophysics and also the physical properties of neutrinos, as well as the physical processes involving neutrinos. It also discusses the role of neutrinos in astrophysics and cosmology. Correction to tex file made.**Constraints from the duration of supernova neutrino burst on resonant light gauge boson production by neutrinos**

2301.00661 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by David G. Cerdeño, Marina Cermeño, and Yasaman Farzan.

In this article, we study the resonant production of low-mass vector mediators from neutrino-antineutrino coalescence in the core of proto-neutron stars. Taking into account the radial dependence of the density, energy, and temperature inside the proto-neutron star, we compute the neutrino-antineutrino interaction rate in the star interior in the well-motivated $U(1)_{L_{\mu}-L_{\tau}}$ model. First, we determine the values of the coupling above which neutrino-antineutrino interactions dominate over the Standard Model neutrino-nucleon scattering. We argue that, although in this regime a redistribution of the neutrino energies might take place, making low-energy neutrinos more trapped, this only affects a small part of the neutrino population and it cannot be constrained with the SN 1987A data. Thus, contrary to previous claims, the region of the parameter space where the $U(1)_{L_{\mu}-L_{\tau}}$ model explains the discrepancy in the muon anomalous magnetic moment is not ruled out. We then focus on small gauge couplings, where the decay length of the new gauge boson is larger than the neutrino-nucleon mean free path, but still smaller than the size of proto-neutron star. We show for the first time that in this regime, the resonant production of a long-lived $Z'$ and its subsequent decay into neutrinos can significantly reduce the duration of the neutrino burst, probing values of the coupling below ${\cal O}(10^{-7})$ for mediator masses between 10 and 100~MeV. This rules out new areas of the parameter space of the $U(1)_{L_{\mu}-L_{\tau}}$ model.**Impact of CP violation searches at MOMENT experiment with sterile neutrinos**

2301.00390 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kiran Sharma and Sudhanwa Patra.

We examine the scope of the MOMENT experiment in the context of CP violation searches with the presence of extra eV scale sterile neutrino. MOMENT is a proposed short baseline neutrino oscillation experiment using muon beams for neutrinos production, making it advantageous over $\pi_0$ background and other technical difficulties. We work over the first oscillation maxima which matches the peak value of flux with a run time of 5 years for both neutrino and anti-neutrino modes. We perform the bi-probability studies for both 3 and 3+1 flavor mixing schemes. The CP violation sensitivities arising from the fundamental CP phase $\delta_{13}$ and unknown CP phase $\delta_{14}$ are explored at the firm footing. The slight deteriorates are observed in CP violations induced by $\delta_{13}$ as the presence of sterile neutrino is considered. We also look at the reconstruction of CP violations phases $\delta_{13}$ and $\delta_{14}$ and the MOMENT experiment shows significant capabilities in the precise measurement of $\delta_{13}$ phase.**Bump-hunting in the diffuse flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos**

2301.00024 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Damiano F. G. Fiorillo and Mauricio Bustamante.

The origin of the bulk of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos seen by IceCube, with TeV--PeV energies, is unknown. If they are made in photohadronic, i.e., proton-photon, interactions in astrophysical sources, this may manifest as a bump-like feature in their diffuse flux, centered around a characteristic energy. We search for evidence of this feature, allowing for variety in its shape and size, in 7.5 years of High-Energy Starting Events (HESE) collected by the IceCube neutrino telescope, and make forecasts using larger data samples from upcoming neutrino telescopes. Present-day data reveals no evidence of bump-like features, which allows us to constrain candidate populations of photohadronic neutrino sources. Near-future forecasts show promising potential for stringent constraints or decisive discovery of bump-like features. Our results provide new insight into the origins of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, complementing those from point-source searches.**Critical background for CE$ν$NS measurements at reactors**

2212.14148 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. J. Biffl, [and 3 more]A. Gevorgian, K. Harris, and A. N. Villano [hide authors].

Neutron capture-induced nuclear recoils can create a spectrum that strongly overlaps the \cevns\ signal for nuclear reactor measurements. In this work we show that for these measurements it is critical that the environment be kept below $\sim$ 10$^{-4}$\,n/cm$^2$s in effective thermal neutron flux (for a 1 MW reactor at 10 m) so that the CE$\nu$NS events can be measured at least at a 5$\sigma$ level. Improved detector resolution can aid the measurement, but the thermal flux is the key parameter. This flux goal is around 10\% of the sea-level flux but needs to be achieved in a nominally high-flux (reactor) environment.**Neutrino Oscillations in Matter using the Adjugate of the Hamiltonian**

2212.12565 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Asli Abdullahi and Stephen J. Parke.

We revisit neutrino oscillations in constant matter density for a number of different scenarios: three flavors with the standard Wolfenstein matter potential, four flavors with standard matter potential and three flavors with non-standard matter potentials. To calculate the oscillation probabilities for these scenarios one must determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Hamiltonians. We use a method for calculating the eigenvalues that is well known, determination of the zeros of determinant of matrix $(\lambda I -H)$, where H is the Hamiltonian, I the identity matrix and $\lambda$ is a scalar. To calculate the associated eigenvectors we use a method that is little known in the particle physics community, the calculation of the adjugate (transpose of the cofactor matrix) of the same matrix, $(\lambda I -H)$. This method can be applied to any Hamiltonian, but provides a very simple way to determine the eigenvectors for neutrino oscillation in matter, independent of the complexity of the matter potential. This method can be trivially automated using the Faddeev-LeVerrier algorithm for numerical calculations. For the above scenarios we derive a number of quantities that are invariant of the matter potential, many are new such as the generalization of the Naumov-Harrison-Scott identity for four or more flavors of neutrinos. We also show how these matter potential independent quantities become matter potential dependent when off-diagonal non-standard matter effects are included.**Lepton-flavour-violating tau decays from triality**

2212.09760 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Innes Bigaran, [and 4 more]Xiao-Gang He, Michael A. Schmidt, German Valencia, and Raymond Volkas [hide authors].

Motivated by flavour symmetry models, we construct theories based on a low-energy limit featuring lepton flavour triality that have the flavour-violating decays $\tau^\pm \to \mu^\pm \mu^\pm e^\mp$ and $\tau^\pm \to e^\pm e^\pm \mu^\mp$ as the main phenomenological signatures of physics beyond the standard model. These decay modes are expected to be probed in the near future with increased sensitivity by the Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider. The simple standard model extensions featured have doubly-charged scalars as the mediators of the above decay processes. The phenomenology of these extensions is studied here in detail.**Inspection of the detection cross section dependence of the Gallium Anomaly**

2212.09722 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Giunti, [and 3 more]Y. F. Li, C. A. Ternes, and Z. Xin [hide authors].

We discuss in detail the dependence of the Gallium Anomaly on the detection cross section. We provide updated values of the size of the Gallium Anomaly and find that its significance is larger than about $5\sigma$ for all the detection cross section models. We discuss the dependence of the Gallium Anomaly on the assumed value of the half life of ${}^{71}\text{Ge}$, which determines the cross sections of the transitions from the ground state of ${}^{71}\text{Ga}$ to the ground state of ${}^{71}\text{Ge}$. We show that a value of the ${}^{71}\text{Ge}$ half life which is larger than the standard one can reduce or even solve the Gallium Anomaly. Considering the short-baseline neutrino oscillation interpretation of the Gallium Anomaly, we show that a value of the ${}^{71}\text{Ge}$ half life which is larger than the standard one can reduce the tension with the results of other experiments. Since the standard value of the ${}^{71}\text{Ge}$ half life was measured in 1985, we advocate the importance of new measurements with modern technique and apparatus for a better assessment of the Gallium Anomaly.**Adding Stroboscopic Muon Information For Reduction of Systematic Uncertainties in DUNE**

2212.09524 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Henry J. Frisch.

Muons have a similar latency/energy correlation from pion decay as do the neutrinos, and hence in each time-slice in a stroboscopic analysis measurements of their momentum spectra can reduce systematic uncertainties due to flux. There are, however, unique issues for muons: 1) during standard neutrino data-taking muon measurements in the forward direction must be in formidable high-flux high-radiation environments; 2) because of the very high incident hadron flux in the Absorber Hall, muons must be detected after a thick absorber, imposing a range cutoff at a momentum much above the minimum neutrino momentum of interest; 3) the muon velocity, unlike that of neutrinos, differs from $c$, and so the muon detected time will require correction for the muon flight path, requiring measurement of the muon momentum; 4) multiple scattering is significant for low-momentum muons, and so a `good geometry' is essential for precision muon flux measurements; and 5) developments in psec timing allow muon momenta in the momentum region of interest to be measured precisely by time-of-flight over short distances with photodetectors of a few-psec resolution. Here we advocate that a program of extensive precise low-intensity muon momentum spectrum measurements be carried out early in the LBNF program before the Absorber Hall becomes too hot. The low-momentum muon spectra taken in this experiment would be cross-normalized to the high-intensity neutrino data through the currently planned muon monitors which can operate in both the low and high intensity geometries. While beyond the scope of uniquely muon-related issues, the note includes a proposal for an long-base-line oscillation analysis strategy that exploits stroboscopic information for both neutrinos and muons to reduce systematic uncertainties on the neutrino fluxes and event selection in Far and Near detectors.**Strong Lensing of High-Energy Neutrinos**

2212.08793 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yoon Chan Taak, [and 3 more]Tommaso Treu, Yoshiyuki Inoue, and Alexander Kusenko [hide authors].

We consider the effects of strong gravitational lensing by galaxy-scale deflectors on the observations of high-energy (E$\gg$GeV) neutrinos (HEN). For HEN at cosmological distances, the optical depth for multiple imaging is $\sim 10^{-3}$, implying that while we do not expect any multiply imaged HEN with present samples, next-generation experiments should be able to detect the first such event. We then present the distribution of expected time delays to aid in the identification of such events, in combination with directional and energy information. In order to assist in the evaluation of HEN production mechanisms, we illustrate how lensing affects the observed number counts for a variety of intrinsic luminosity functions of the source population. Finally, we see that the lensing effects on the cosmic neutrino background flux calculation would be negligible by taking kpc-scale jets as an example.**Non-adiabatic Level Crossing in Resonant Neutrino Oscillations**

2212.06978 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stephen J. Parke.

Analytic results are presented for the probability of detecting an electron neutrino after passage through a resonant oscillation region. If the electron neutrino is produced far above the resonance density, this probability is simply given by $\langle \,P_{\nu_e} \, \rangle \approx \sin^2 \theta_0+ P_\text{x} \cos 2 \theta_0$, where $\theta_0$ is the vacuum mixing angle. The probability is averaged over the production as well as the detection positions of the neutrino and $P_\text{x} $ is the Landau-Zener transition probability between adiabatic states. Finally, this result is applied to resonance oscillations within the solar interior.**Invisible Neutrino Decays as Origin of TeV Gamma Rays from GRB221009A**

2212.03477 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jihong Huang, [and 3 more]Yilin Wang, Bingrong Yu, and Shun Zhou [hide authors].

Recently, the LHAASO collaboration has observed the gamma rays of energies up to ten TeV from the gamma-ray burst GRB221009A, which has stimulated the community of astronomy, particle physics and astrophysics to propose various possible interpretations. In this paper, we put forward a viable scenario that neutrinos are produced together with TeV photons in the gamma-ray burst and gradually decay into the axion-like particles, which are then converted into gamma rays in the galactic magnetic fields. In such a scenario, the tension between previous axion-like particle interpretations and the existing observational constraints on the relevant coupling constant and mass can be relaxed.**Matter effect in presence of a sterile neutrino and resolution of the octant degeneracy using a liquid argon detector**

2212.02949 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Animesh Chatterjee, Srubabati Goswami, and Supriya Pan.

Results from the experiments like LSND, and MiniBooNE hint towards the possible presence of an extra eV scale sterile neutrino. The addition of such a neutrino will significantly impact the standard three flavour neutrino oscillations; in particular, it can give rise to additional degeneracies due to new sterile parameters. In our work, we investigate how the sensitivity to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle $\theta_{23}$ is affected by introducing a sterile neutrino to the standard neutrino oscillation framework. We compute the oscillation probabilities in presence of a sterile neutrino, analytically, using the approximation that $\Delta_{21}$, the smallest mass squared difference, is zero. We use these probabilities to understand the degeneracies analytically at different baselines. We present our results of the sensitivity to octant of $\theta_{23}$ for beam neutrinos using a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC). We also obtain octant sensitivity using atmospheric neutrinos using the same LArTPC detector without any charge identification capability. In addition, we include the charge tagging capability of muon capture in argon which allows one to differentiate between muon neutrino and antineutrino events. The combined sensitivity of beam and atmospheric neutrinos in a similar experimental setup is also delineated. We observe that by combining simulated data from the beam and atmospheric neutrinos (including charge-id for muons), the sensitivity to the octant of $\theta_{23}$ for true values of $\theta_{23}=41^\circ(49^\circ)$ exceeds $4\sigma(3\sigma)$ for more than $50\%$ values of true $\delta_{13}$.**Snowmass Neutrino Frontier: NF01 Topical Group Report on Three-Flavor Neutrino Oscillations**

2212.00809 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton, [and 7 more]Megan Friend, Mark D. Messier, Hirohisa A. Tanaka, Sebastian Böser, João A. B. Coelho, Mathieu Perrin-Terrin, and Tom Stuttard [hide authors].

This is the report from the Snowmass NF01 topical group and colleagues on the current status and expected future progress to understand the three-flavor neutrino oscillation picture.**Probing Pseudo-Dirac Neutrinos with Astrophysical Sources at IceCube**

2212.00737 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kiara Carloni, [and 4 more]Ivan Martinez-Soler, Carlos A. Arguelles, K. S. Babu, and P. S. Bhupal Dev [hide authors].

The recent observation of NGC 1068 by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory has opened a new window to neutrino physics with astrophysical baselines. In this Letter, we propose a new method to probe the nature of neutrino masses using these observations. In particular, our method enables searching for signatures of pseudo-Dirac neutrinos with mass-squared differences that reach down to $\delta m^2 \gtrsim 10^{-21}~\text{eV}^2$, improving the reach of terrestrial experiments by more than a billion. Finally, we discuss how the discovery of a constellation of neutrino sources can further increase the sensitivity and cover a wider range of $\delta m^2$ values.**The Cosmic Neutrino Background on the Surface of the Earth**

2212.00036 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Asimina Arvanitaki and Savas Dimopoulos.

We argue that the reflection of relic neutrinos from the surface of the Earth results in a significant local $\nu-\bar{\nu}$ asymmetry, far exceeding the expected primordial lepton asymmetry. The net fractional electron neutrino number $\frac{n_{\nu_e}-n_{\bar{\nu}_e}}{n_{\nu_e}}$ is up to $\mathcal{O}(10^5) \sqrt{\frac{m_\nu}{0.1~\text{eV}}}$ larger than that implied by the baryon asymmetry. This enhancement is due to the weak 4-Fermi repulsion of the $\nu_e$ from ordinary matter which slows down the $\nu_e$ near the Earth's surface, and to the resulting evanescent neutrino wave that penetrates below the surface. This repulsion thus creates a net $\nu_e$ overdensity in a shell $\sim 7~\text{meters} \sqrt{\frac{0.1~\text{eV}}{m_\nu}}$ thick around the Earth's surface. Similarly the repulsion between $\bar{\nu}_\mu$ or $\bar{\nu}_\tau$ and ordinary matter creates an overdensity of $\bar{\nu}_{\mu, \tau}$ of similar size. These local enhancements increase the size of $\mathcal{O}(G_F)$ torques of the $C\nu B$ on spin-polarized matter by a factor of order $10^5$. In addition, they create a gradient of the net neutrino density which naturally provides a way out of the forty-year-old ``no-go'' theorems on the vanishing of $\mathcal{O}(G_F)$ forces. The torque resulting from such a gradient force can be $10^8$ times larger than that of earlier proposals. Although the size of these effects is still far from current reach, they may point to new directions for $C\nu B$ detection.**Multiplicity of TeV muons in air showers detected with IceTop and IceCube**

2211.16970 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stef Verpoest.

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole can provide unique tests of muon production models in extensive air showers by measuring both the low-energy (GeV) and high-energy (TeV) muon components. We present here a measurement of the TeV muon content in near-vertical air showers detected with IceTop in coincidence with IceCube. The primary cosmic-ray energy is estimated from the dominant electromagnetic component of the air shower observed at the surface. The high-energy muon content of the shower is studied based on the energy losses measured in the deep detector. Using a neural network, the primary energy and the multiplicity of TeV muons are estimated on an event-by-event basis. The baseline analysis determines the average multiplicity as a function of the primary energy between 2.5 PeV and 250 PeV using the hadronic interaction model Sibyll 2.1. Results obtained using simulations based on the post-LHC models QGSJet-II.04 and EPOS-LHC are presented for primary energies up to 100 PeV. For all three hadronic interaction models, the measurements of the TeV muon content are consistent with the predictions assuming recent composition models. Comparing the results to measurements of GeV muons in air showers reveals a tension in the obtained composition interpretation based on the post-LHC models.**Neutrino Non-standard Interactions with arbitrary couplings to u and d quarks**

2211.15686 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nicolás Bernal and Yasaman Farzan.

We introduce a model for Non-Standard neutral current Interaction (NSI) between neutrinos and the matter fields, with an arbitrary coupling to the up and down quarks. The model is based on a new $U(1)$ gauge symmetry with a light gauge boson that mixes with the photon. We show that the couplings to the $u$ and $d$ quarks can have a ratio such that the contribution from NSI to the Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CE$\nu$NS) amplitude vanishes, relaxing the bound on the NSI from the CE$\nu$NS experiments. Additionally, the deviation of the measured value of the anomalous magnetic dipole moment of the muon from the standard-model prediction can be fitted. The most limiting constraints on our model come from the search for the decay of the new gauge boson to $e^-e^+$ and invisible particles, carried out by NA48/2 and NA64, respectively. We show that these bounds can be relaxed by opening up the decay of the new gauge boson to new light scalars that eventually decay into the $e^- e^+$ pairs. We show that there are ranges that can lead to both a solution to the $(g - 2)_\mu$ anomaly and values of $\epsilon_{\mu \mu} = \epsilon_{\tau \tau}$ large enough to be probed by future solar neutrino experiments.**Diffuse Emission of Galactic High-Energy Neutrinos from a Global Fit of Cosmic Rays**

2211.15607 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Georg Schwefer, Philipp Mertsch, and Christopher Wiebusch.

In the standard picture of galactic cosmic rays, a diffuse flux of high-energy gamma-rays and neutrinos is produced from inelastic collisions of cosmic ray nuclei with the interstellar gas. The neutrino flux is a guaranteed signal for high-energy neutrino observatories such as IceCube, but has not been found yet. Experimental searches for this flux constitute an important test of the standard picture of galactic cosmic rays. Both the observation and non-observation would allow important implications for the physics of cosmic ray acceleration and transport. We present CRINGE, a new model of galactic diffuse high-energy gamma-rays and neutrinos, fitted to recent cosmic ray data from AMS-02, DAMPE, IceTop as well as KASCADE. We quantify the uncertainties for the predicted emission from the cosmic ray model, but also from the choice of source distribution, gas maps and cross-sections. We consider the possibility of a contribution from unresolved sources. Our model predictions exhibit significant deviations from older models. Our fiducial model is available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7373010 .**Physics implications of a combined analysis of COHERENT CsI and LAr data**

2211.11905 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by V. De Romeri, [and 5 more]O. G. Miranda, D. K. Papoulias, G. Sanchez Garcia, M. Tórtola, and J. W. F. Valle [hide authors].

The observation of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering has opened the window to many physics opportunities. This process has been measured by the COHERENT Collaboration using two different targets, first CsI and then argon. Recently, the COHERENT Collaboration has updated the CsI data analysis with a higher statistics and an improved understanding of systematics. Here we perform a detailed statistical analysis of the full CsI data and combine it with the previous argon result. We discuss a vast array of implications, from tests of the Standard Model to new physics probes. In our analyses we take into account experimental uncertainties associated to the efficiency as well as the timing distribution of neutrino fluxes, making our results rather robust. In particular, we update previous measurements of the weak mixing angle and the neutron root mean square charge radius for CsI and argon. We also update the constraints on new physics scenarios including neutrino nonstandard interactions and the most general case of neutrino generalized interactions, as well as the possibility of light mediators. Finally, constraints on neutrino electromagnetic properties are also examined, including the conversion to sterile neutrino states. In many cases, the inclusion of the recent CsI data leads to a dramatic improvement of bounds.**Enhancing Sensitivity to Leptonic CP Violation using Complementarity among DUNE, T2HK, and T2HKK**

2211.10620 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, [and 4 more]Sudipta Das, Alessio Giarnetti, Davide Meloni, and Masoom Singh [hide authors].

After the landmark discovery of non-zero $\theta_{13}$ by the modern reactor experiments, unprecedented precision on neutrino mass-mixing parameters has been achieved over the past decade. This has set the stage for the discovery of leptonic CP violation (LCPV) at high confidence level in the next-generation long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. In this work, we explore in detail the possible complementarity among the on-axis DUNE and off-axis T2HK experiments to enhance the sensitivity to LCPV suppressing the $\theta_{23}-\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ degeneracy. We find that none of these experiments individually can achieve the milestone of 3$\sigma$ LCPV for at least 75% choices of $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ in its entire range of $[-180^{\circ} , 180^{\circ}]$, with their nominal exposures and systematic uncertainties. However, their combination can attain the same for all values of $\theta_{23}$ with only half of their nominal exposures. We observe that the proposed T2HKK setup in combination with DUNE can further increase the CP coverage to more than 80% with only half of their nominal exposures. We study in detail how the coverage in $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ for $\ge$ 3$\sigma$ LCPV depends on the choice of $\theta_{23}$, exposure, optimal runtime in neutrino and antineutrino modes, and systematic uncertainties in these experiments in isolation and combination. We find that with an improved systematic uncertainty of 2.7% in appearance mode, the standalone T2HK setup can provide a CP coverage of around 75% for all values of $\theta_{23}$. We also discuss the pivotal role of intrinsic, extrinsic, and total CP asymmetries in the appearance channel and extrinsic CP asymmetries in the disappearance channel while analyzing our results.**Non-unitary three-neutrino mixing in the early Universe**

2211.10522 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stefano Gariazzo, [and 4 more]Pablo Martínez-Miravé, Olga Mena, Sergio Pastor, and Mariam Tórtola [hide authors].

Deviations from unitarity in the three-neutrino mixing canonical picture are expected in many physics scenarios beyond the Standard Model. The mixing of new heavy neutral leptons with the three light neutrinos would in principle modify the strength and flavour structure of charged-current and neutral-current interactions with matter. Non-unitarity effects would therefore have an impact on the neutrino decoupling processes in the early Universe and on the value of the effective number of neutrinos, $N_{\rm eff}$. We calculate the cosmological energy density in the form of radiation with a non-unitary neutrino mixing matrix, addressing the possible interplay between parameters. Highly accurate measurements of $N_{\rm eff}$ from forthcoming cosmological observations can provide independent and complementary limits on the departures from unitarity. For completeness, we relate the scenario of small deviations from unitarity to non-standard neutrino interactions and compare the forecasted constraints to other existing limits in the literature.**Strong cosmological constraints on the neutrino magnetic moment**

2211.10432 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pierluca Carenza, [and 4 more]Giuseppe Lucente, Martina Gerbino, Maurizio Giannotti, and Massimiliano Lattanzi [hide authors].

A sizable magnetic moment for neutrinos would be evidence of exotic physics. In the early Universe, left-handed neutrinos with a magnetic moment would interact with electromagnetic fields in the primordial plasma, flipping their helicity and producing a population of right-handed (RH) neutrinos. In this work, we present a new calculation of the production rate of RH neutrinos in a multi-component primordial plasma and quantify their contribution to the total energy density of relativistic species at early times, stressing the implications of the dependence on the initial time for production. Our results improve the previous cosmological limits by almost two orders of magnitudes. Prospects for upcoming cosmological experiments are also discussed.**Evidence for neutrino emission from the nearby active galaxy NGC 1068**

2211.09972 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 385 more]R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, M. Boddenberg, F. Bontempo, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, B. Brinson, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, S. Browne, A. Burgman, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, R. Nahnhauer, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyên, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, M. Pittermann, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, R. Reimann, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. Stokstad, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

We report three searches for high energy neutrino emission from astrophysical objects using data recorded with IceCube between 2011 and 2020. Improvements over previous work include new neutrino reconstruction and data calibration methods. In one search, the positions of 110 a priori selected gamma-ray sources were analyzed individually for a possible surplus of neutrinos over atmospheric and cosmic background expectations. We found an excess of $79_{-20}^{+22}$ neutrinos associated with the nearby active galaxy NGC 1068 at a significance of 4.2$\,\sigma$. The excess, which is spatially consistent with the direction of the strongest clustering of neutrinos in the Northern Sky, is interpreted as direct evidence of TeV neutrino emission from a nearby active galaxy. The inferred flux exceeds the potential TeV gamma-ray flux by at least one order of magnitude.**Revisiting leptonic non-unitarity in light of FASER$ν$**

2211.09638 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Daniel Aloni and Avital Dery.

In the presence of extra neutrino states at high scales, the low-energy effective $3\times 3$ leptonic mixing matrix (LMM) is in general non-unitary. We revisit the question of what is our current knowledge of individual LMM matrix elements without assuming unitarity. We define two minimal sets of experimental constraints -- direct $+$ inherent bounds and indirect bounds, and analyze the implications of each set on leptonic non-unitarity. In addition, we clarify the treatment of flux and cross-section predictions, taking into account NP contamination in hadronic inputs. We use the currently running FASER$\nu$ experiment as a case study in order to demonstrate the sensitivity of collider neutrino experiments to leptonic non-unitarity. We find that indirect bounds constrain LMM non-unitarity to below the $10^{-3}$ level, stronger than current CKM non-unitarity constraints. Conversely, considering only direct and inherent bounds we find that ${\cal O}(1)$ unitarity violation is viable at $2\sigma$, and will be probed by the FASER$\nu$ experiment in the current run of the LHC.**Diffuse neutrino flux measurements with the Baikal-GVD neutrino telescope**

2211.09447 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Baikal Collaboration, [and 57 more]V. A. Allakhverdyan, A. D. Avrorin, A. V. Avrorin, V. M. Aynutdinov, Z. Bardačová, I. A. Belolaptikov, I. V. Borina, N. M. Budnev, V. Y. Dik, G. V. Domogatsky, A. A. Doroshenko, R. Dvornický, A. N. Dyachok, Zh. -A. M. Dzhilkibaev, E. Eckerová, T. V. Elzhov, L. Fajt, A. R. Gafarov, K. V. Golubkov, N. S. Gorshkov, T. I. Gress, K. G. Kebkal, V. K. Kebkal, A. Khatun, E. V. Khramov, M. M. Kolbin, K. V. Konischev, A. V. Korobchenko, A. P. Koshechkin, V. A. Kozhin, M. V. Kruglov, V. F. Kulepov, Y. M. Malyshkin, M. B. Milenin, R. R. Mirgazov, D. V. Naumov, V. Nazari, D. P. Petukhov, E. N. Pliskovsky, M. I. Rozanov, V. D. Rushay, E. V. Ryabov, G. B. Safronov, B. A. Shaybonov, D. Seitova, M. D. Shelepov, F. Šimkovic, A. E. Sirenko, A. V. Skurikhin, A. G. Solovjev, M. N. Sorokovikov, I. Štekl, A. P. Stromakov, O. V. Suvorova, V. A. Tabolenko, Y. V. Yablokova, and D. N. Zaborov [hide authors].

We report on the first observation of the diffuse cosmic neutrino flux with the Baikal-GVD neutrino telescope. Using cascade-like events collected by Baikal-GVD in 2018--2021, a significant excess of events over the expected atmospheric background is observed. This excess is consistent with the high-energy diffuse cosmic neutrino flux observed by IceCube. The null cosmic flux assumption is rejected with a significance of 3.05$\sigma$. Assuming a single power law model of the astrophysical neutrino flux with identical contribution from each neutrino flavor, the following best-fit parameter values are found: the spectral index $\gamma_{astro}$ = $2.58^{+0.27}_{-0.33}$ and the flux normalization $\phi_{astro}$ = 3.04$^{+1.52}_{-1.21}$ per one flavor at 100 TeV.**Revisiting pseudo-Dirac neutrino scenario after recent solar neutrino data**

2211.09105 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Ansarifard and Y. Farzan.

It is still unknown whether the mass terms for neutrinos are of Majorana type or of Dirac type. An interesting possibility, known as pseudo-Dirac scheme combines these two with a dominant Dirac mass term and a subdominant Majorana one. As a result, the mass eigenstates come in pairs with a maximal mixing and a small splitting determined by the Majorana mass. This will affect the neutrino oscillation pattern for long baselines. We revisit this scenario employing recent solar neutrino data, including the seasonal variation of the $^7$Be flux recently reported by BOREXINO. We constrain the splitting using these data and find that both the time integrated solar neutrino data and the seasonal variation independently point towards a new pseudo-Dirac solution with nonzero splitting for $\nu_2$ of $\Delta m_2^2\simeq 1.5\times 10^{-11}$ eV$^2$. We propose alternative methods to test this new solution. In particular, we point out the importance of measuring the solar neutrino flux at the intermediate energies $1.5~{\rm MeV}**Entanglement in three-flavor collective neutrino oscillations**

2211.07678 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pooja Siwach, Anna M. Suliga, and A. Baha Balantekin.

Extreme conditions present in the interiors of the core-collapse supernovae make neutrino-neutrino interactions not only feasible but dominant in specific regions, leading to the non-linear evolution of the neutrino flavor. Results obtained when such collective neutrino oscillations are treated in the mean-field approximation deviate from the results using the many-body picture because of the ignored quantum correlations. We present the first three flavor many-body calculations of the collective neutrino oscillations. The entanglement is quantified in terms of the entanglement entropy and the components of the polarization vector. We propose a qualitative measure of entanglement in terms of flavor-lepton number conserved quantities. We find that in the cases considered in the present work, the entanglement can be underestimated in two flavor approximation. The dependence of the entanglement on mass ordering is also investigated. We also explore the mixing of mass eigenstates in different mass orderings.**Can ultralight dark matter explain the age-velocity dispersion relation of the Milky Way disc: A revised and improved treatment**

2211.07452 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Barry T. Chiang, Jeremiah P. Ostriker, and Hsi-Yu Schive.

Ultralight axion-like particles $m_a \sim 10^{-22}$ eV, or Fuzzy Dark Matter (FDM), behave comparably to cold dark matter (CDM) on cosmological scales and exhibit a kpc-size de Broglie wavelength capable of alleviating established (sub-)galactic-scale problems of CDM. Substructures inside an FDM halo incur gravitational potential perturbations, resulting in stellar heating sufficient to account for the Galactic disc thickening over a Hubble time, as first demonstrated by Church et al. We present a more sophisticated treatment that incorporates the full baryon and dark matter distributions of the Milky Way and adopts stellar disc kinematics inferred from recent Gaia, APOGEE, and LAMOST surveys. Ubiquitous density granulation and subhalo passages respectively drive inner disc thickening and flaring of the outer disc, resulting in an observationally consistent `U-shaped' disc vertical velocity dispersion profile with the global minimum located near the solar radius. The observed age-velocity dispersion relation in the solar vicinity can be explained by the FDM-substructure-induced heating and places an exclusion bound $m_a \gtrsim 0.4\times10^{-22}$ eV. We assess non-trivial uncertainties in the empirical core-halo relation, FDM subhalo mass function and tidal stripping, and stellar heating estimate. The mass range $m_a\simeq 0.5-0.7\times10^{-22}$ eV favoured by the observed thick disc kinematics is in tension with several exclusion bounds inferred from dwarf density profiles, stellar streams, and Milky Way satellite populations, which could be significantly relaxed due to the aforesaid uncertainties. Additionally, strongly anisotropic heating could help explain the formation of ultra-thin disc galaxies.**Wilks's Theorem, Global Fits, and Neutrino Oscillations**

2211.06347 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. M. Hardin.

Tests of models for new physics appearing in neutrino experiments often involve global fits to a quantum mechanical effect called neutrino oscillations. This paper introduces students to methods commonly used in these global fits starting from an understanding of more conventional fitting methods using log-likelihood and $\chi^2$ minimization. Specifically, we discuss how the $\Delta\chi^2$, which compares the $\chi^2$ of the fit with the new physics to the $\chi^2$ of the Standard Model prediction, is often interpreted using Wilks's theorem. This paper uses toy models to explore the properties of $\Delta\chi^2$ as a test statistic for oscillating functions. The statistics of such models are shown to deviate from Wilks's theorem. Tests for new physics also often examine data subsets for ``tension'' called the ``parameter goodness of fit''. In this paper, we explain this approach and use toy models to examine the validity of the probabilities from this test also. Although we have chosen a specific scenario -- neutrino oscillations -- to illustrate important points, students should keep in mind that these points are widely applicable when fitting multiple data sets to complex functions.**Studying neutrino oscillations at DUNE through dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking in four-Majorana fermion model**

2211.06192 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Susie Kim.

We study the impact of the dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking induced by the auxiliary gauge fields of neutrino on the oscillations probability at DUNE. The DLSB introduces an alternative energy-momentum relation of the neutrinos and thus results in a new oscillation probability. We extend the previously proposed four-Majorana fermion model that gives rise to DLSB after the type II seesaw mechanism by considering the electron neutrino forward scattering when passing through a medium. Moreover, we incorporate the three-flavor neutrino states, which introduce the CP-violation term inside the oscillation probability. The impact of DLSB parameters around the order of $10^{-2}-10^{-3}$, which are at a strong coupling regime, on the oscillation probability is found to be measurable at DUNE within the 20 years through $\nu_e$ and $\overline{\nu}_e$ disappearance signals. We also compare the predicted spectra of the DLSB oscillations and the oscillation with the CP-violating term equal to $\pi/2$ to conclude that the presence of DLSB would increase the systematic uncertainty for the measurement of CP-violation at DUNE.**Updated constraints on sterile neutrino mixing in the OPERA experiment using a new $ν_e$ identification method**

2211.04636 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by N. Agafonova, [and 125 more]A. Alexandrov, A. Anokhina, S. Aoki, A. Ariga, T. Ariga, A. Bertolin, C. Bozza, R. Brugnera, S. Buontempo, M. Chernyavskiy, A. Chukanov, L. Consiglio, N. D'Ambrosio, G. De Lellis, M. De Serio, P. del Amo Sanchez, A. Di Crescenzo, D. Di Ferdinando, N. Di Marco, S. Dmitrievsky, M. Dracos, D. Duchesneau, S. Dusini, T. Dzhatdoev, J. Ebert, A. Ereditato, R. A. Fini, T. Fukuda, G. Galati, A. Garfagnini, V. Gentile, J. Goldberg, S. Gorbunov, Y. Gornushkin, G. Grella, A. M. Guler, C. Gustavino, C. Hagner, T. Hara, T. Hayakawa, A. Hollnagel, K. Ishiguro, A. Iuliano, K. Jakovcic, C. Jollet, C. Kamiscioglu, M. Kamiscioglu, S. H. Kim, N. Kitagawa, B. Klicek, K. Kodama, M. Komatsu, U. Kose, I. Kreslo, F. Laudisio, A. Lauria, A. Longhin, P. Loverre, A. Malgin, G. Mandrioli, T. Matsuo, V. Matveev, N. Mauri, E. Medinaceli, A. Meregaglia, S. Mikado, M. Miyanishi, F. Mizutani, P. Monacelli, M. C. Montesi, K. Morishima, M. T. Muciaccia, N. Naganawa, T. Naka, M. Nakamura, T. Nakano, K. Niwa, S. Ogawa, N. Okateva, K. Ozaki, A. Paoloni, L. Paparella, B. D. Park, L. Pasqualini, A. Pastore, L. Patrizii, H. Pessard, D. Podgrudkov, N. Polukhina, M. Pozzato, F. Pupilli, M. Roda, T. Roganova, H. Rokujo, G. Rosa, O. Ryazhskaya, O. Sato, A. Schembri, I. Shakiryanova, T. Shchedrina, E. Shibayama, H. Shibuya, T. Shiraishi, S. Simone, C. Sirignano, G. Sirri, A. Sotnikov, M. Spinetti, L. Stanco, N. Starkov, S. M. Stellacci, M. Stipcevic, P. Strolin, S. Takahashi, M. Tenti, F. Terranova, V. Tioukov, S. Tufanli, S. Vasina, P. Vilain, E. Voevodina, L. Votano, J. L. Vuilleumier, G. Wilquet, and C. S. Yoon [hide authors].

This paper describes a new $\nu_e$ identification method specifically designed to improve the low-energy ($< 30\,\mathrm{GeV}$) $\nu_e$ identification efficiency attained by enlarging the emulsion film scanning volume with the next generation emulsion readout system. A relative increase of 25-70% in the $\nu_e$ low-energy region is expected, leading to improvements in the OPERA sensitivity to neutrino oscillations in the framework of the 3 + 1 model. The method is applied to a subset of data where the detection efficiency increase is expected to be more relevant, and one additional $\nu_e$ candidate is found. The analysis combined with the $\nu_\tau$ appearance results improves the upper limit on $\sin^2 2\theta_{\mu e}$ to 0.016 at 90% C.L. in the MiniBooNE allowed region $\Delta m^2_{41} \sim 0.3\,\mathrm{eV}^2$.**The ngEHT's Role in Measuring Supermassive Black Hole Spins**

2211.03910 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Angelo Ricarte, [and 4 more]Paul Tiede, Razieh Emami, Aditya Tamar, and Priyamvada Natarajan [hide authors].

While supermassive black hole masses have been cataloged across cosmic time, only a few dozen of them have robust spin measurements. By extending and improving the existing Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) array, the next-generation Event Horizon Telescope (ngEHT) will enable multifrequency, polarimetric movies on event horizon scales, which will place new constraints on the space-time and accretion flow. By combining this information, it is anticipated that the ngEHT may be able to measure tens of supermassive black hole masses and spins. In this white paper, we discuss existing spin measurements and many proposed techniques with which the ngEHT could potentially measure spins of target supermassive black holes. Spins measured by the ngEHT would represent a completely new sample of sources that, unlike pre-existing samples, would not be biased towards objects with high accretion rates. Such a sample would provide new insights into the accretion, feedback, and cosmic assembly of supermassive black holes.**$γ$-ray and ultra-high energy neutrino background suppression due to solar radiation**

2211.03807 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shyam Balaji.

The Sun emits copious amounts of photons and neutrinos in an approximately spatially isotropic distribution. Diffuse $\gamma$-rays and ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos from extragalactic sources may subsequently interact and annihilate with the emitted solar photons and neutrinos respectively. This will in turn induce an anisotropy in the cosmic ray background due to attenuation of the $\gamma$-ray and UHE neutrino flux by the solar radiation. Measuring this reduction, therefore, presents a simple and powerful astrophysical probe of electroweak interactions. In this letter we compute such anisotropies, which at the Earth (Sun) can be $\simeq 2\times 10^{-3}\,(0.5)\%$ and $\simeq 1\times 10^{-16}\,(2\times 10^{-14})\%$ for TeV scale $\gamma$-rays and PeV scale UHE neutrinos respectively. We briefly discuss exciting observational prospects for experiments such as the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (Fermi LAT), High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S), High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) detector and IceCube. The potential for measuring $\gamma$-ray attenuation at orbital locations of other active satellites such as the Parker Solar Probe and James Webb Space Telescope is also explored.**Sterile Neutrinos: Propagation in Matter and Sensitivity to Sterile Mass Ordering**

2211.03473 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dibya S. Chattopadhyay, [and 5 more]Moon Moon Devi, Amol Dighe, Debajyoti Dutta, Dipyaman Pramanik, and Sushant K. Raut [hide authors].

We analytically calculate the neutrino conversion probability $P_{\mu e}$ in the presence of sterile neutrinos, with exact dependence on $\Delta m^2_{41}$ and with matter effects explicitly included. Using perturbative expansion in small parameters, the terms involving the small mixing angles $\theta_{24}$ and $\theta_{34}$ can be separated out, with $\theta_{34}$ dependence only arising due to matter effects. We express $P_{\mu e}$ in terms of the quantities of the form $\sin(x)/x$, which helps in elucidating its dependence on matter effects and a wide range of $\Delta m^2_{41}$ values. Our analytic expressions allow us to predict the effects of the sign of $\Delta m^2_{41}$ at a long baseline experiment like DUNE. We numerically calculate the sensitivity of DUNE to the sterile mass ordering and find that this sensitivity can be significant in the range $|\Delta m^2_{41}| \sim (10^{-4} - 10^{-2})$ eV$^2$, for either mass ordering of active neutrinos. The dependence of this sensitivity on the value of $\Delta m^2_{41}$ for all mass ordering combinations can be explained by investigating the resonance-like terms appearing due to the interplay between the sterile sector and matter effects.**Measuring Oscillations with A Million Atmospheric Neutrinos**

2211.02666 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. A. Argüelles, [and 3 more]P. Fernández, I. Martínez-Soler, and M. Jin [hide authors].

We analyze the expected sensitivity of current and near-future water(ice)-Cherenkov atmospheric neutrino experiments in the context of standard three-flavor neutrinos oscillations. In this first in-depth combined atmospheric neutrino analysis, we analyze the current shared systematic uncertainties arising from the shared flux and neutrino-water interactions. We then implement the systematic uncertainties of each experiment in detail and develop the atmospheric neutrino simulations for Super-Kamiokande (SK), with and without neutron-tagging capabilities (including SuperK-Gd), IceCube-Upgrade, and ORCA detectors. We carefully review the synergies and features of these experiments to examine the potential of a joint analysis of these atmospheric neutrino data in resolving the $\theta_{23}$ octant at 99\% C.L. and determining the neutrino mass ordering above 5$\sigma$ by 2030. Additionally, we assess the capability to constraint $\theta_{13}$ and the CP-violating phase ($\delta_{CP}$) in the leptonic sector independently from reactor and accelerator neutrino data, providing vital information for next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande.**New Clues About Light Sterile Neutrinos: Preference for Models with Damping Effects in Global Fits**

2211.02610 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. M. Hardin, [and 7 more]I. Martinez-Soler, A. Diaz, M. Jin, N. W. Kamp, C. A. Argüelles, J. M. Conrad, and M. H. Shaevitz [hide authors].

This article reports global fits of short-baseline neutrino data to oscillation models involving light sterile neutrinos. In the commonly-used 3+1 plane wave model, there is a well-known 4.9$\sigma$ tension between data sets sensitive to appearance versus disappearance of neutrinos. We find that models that damp the oscillation prediction for the reactor data sets, especially at low energy, substantially improve the fits and reduce the tension. We consider two such scenarios. The first scenario introduces the quantum mechanical wavepacket effect that accounts for the source size in reactor experiments into the 3+1 model. We find that inclusion of the wavepacket effect greatly improves the overall fit compared to a 3$\nu$ model by $\Delta \chi^2/$DOF$=61.1/4$ ($7.1\sigma$ improvement) with best-fit $\Delta m^2=1.4$ eV$^2$ and wavepacket length of 67fm. The internal tension is reduced to 3.4$\sigma$. If reactor-data only is fit, then the wavepacket preferred length is 91 fm ($>20$ fm at 99\% CL). The second model introduces oscillations involving sterile flavor and allows the decay of the heaviest, mostly sterile mass state, $\nu_4$. This model introduces a damping term similar to the wavepacket effect, but across all experiments. Compared to a three-neutrino fit, this has a $\Delta \chi^2/$DOF$=60.6/4$ ($7\sigma$ improvement) with preferred $\Delta m^2=1.4$ eV$^2$ and decay $\Gamma = 0.35$ eV$^2$. The internal tension is reduced to 3.7$\sigma$. For many years, the reactor event rates have been observed to have structure that deviates from prediction. Community discussion has focused on an excess compared to prediction observed at 5 MeV; however, other deviations are apparent. This structure has $L$ dependence that is well-fit by the damped models. Before assuming this points to new physics, we urge closer examination of systematic effects that could lead to this $L$ dependence.**Neutrino Origin of LHAASO's 18 TeV GRB221009A Photon**

2211.02028 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar and Ying-Ying Li.

LHAASO collaboration detected photons with energy above 10 TeV from the most recent gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB221009A. Given the redshift of this event, $z\sim 0.15$, photons of such energy are expected to interact with the diffuse extragalactic background light (EBL) well before reaching Earth. In this paper we provide a novel neutrino-related explanation of the most energetic 18 TeV event reported by LHAASO. We find that the minimal viable scenario involves both mixing and transition magnetic moment portal between light and sterile neutrinos. The production of sterile neutrinos occurs efficiently via mixing while the transition magnetic moment portal governs the decay rate in the parameter space where tree-level decays via mixing to non-photon final states are suppressed. Our explanation of this event, while being consistent with the terrestrial constraints, points to the non-standard cosmology.**On ALP scenarios and GRB 221009A**

2211.02010 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pierluca Carenza and M. C. David Marsh.

The extraordinarily bright gamma-ray burst GRB 221009A was observed by a large number of observatories, from radio frequencies to gamma-rays. Of particular interest are the reported observations of photon-like air showers of very high energy: an 18 TeV event in LHAASO and a 251 TeV event at Carpet-2. Gamma rays at these energies are expected to be absorbed by pair-production events on background photons when travelling intergalactic distances. Several works have sought to explain the observations of these events, assuming they originate from GRB 221009A, by invoking axion-like particles (ALPs). We reconsider this scenario and account for astrophysical uncertainties due to poorly known magnetic fields and background photon densities. We find that, robustly, the ALP scenario cannot simultaneously account for an 18 TeV and a 251 TeV photon from GRB 221009A.**Study of light sterile neutrino at the long-baseline experiment options at KM3NeT**

2211.01816 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dinesh Kumar Singha, [and 3 more]Monojit Ghosh, Rudra Majhi, and Rukmani Mohanta [hide authors].

In this paper, we study the capability of different long-baseline experiment options at the KM3NeT facility i.e., P2O, Upgraded P2O and P2SO to probe the light sterile neutrino and compare their sensitivities with DUNE. The P2O option will have neutrinos from a 90 KW beam at Protvino to be detected at the ORCA detector, the Upgraded P2O will have neutrinos from the upgraded 450 KW beam to be detected at the ORCA detector and the option P2SO will have neutrinos from a 450 KW beam to be detected at the upgraded Super-ORCA detector. All these options will have a baseline around 2595 km. Our results show that the experiments at the KM3NeT (DUNE) would be more sensitive if the value of $\Delta m^2_{41}$ is around 10 (1) eV$^2$. Our results also show that the role of near detector is very important for the study of sterile neutrinos and addition of near detector improves the sensitivity as compared to only far detector for 3+1 scenario. Among the three options at KM3NeT, the sensitivity of P2O and upgraded P2O is limited and sensitivity of P2SO is either comparable or better than DUNE.**A seesaw model for large neutrino masses in concordance with cosmology**

2211.01729 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Miguel Escudero, Thomas Schwetz, and Jorge Terol-Calvo.

Cosmological constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses can be relaxed if the number density of active neutrinos is reduced compared to the standard scenario, while at the same time keeping the effective number of neutrino species $N_{\rm eff}\approx 3$ by introducing a new component of dark radiation. We discuss a UV complete model to realise this idea, which simultaneously provides neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. It is based on a $U(1)$ symmetry in the dark sector, which can be either gauged or global. In addition to heavy seesaw neutrinos, we need to introduce $\mathcal{O}(10)$ generations of massless sterile neutrinos providing the dark radiation. Then we can accommodate active neutrino masses with $\sum m_\nu \sim 1$ eV, in the sensitivity range of the KATRIN experiment. We discuss the phenomenology of the model and identify the allowed parameter space. We argue that the gauged version of the model is preferred, and in this case the typical energy scale of the model is in the 10 MeV to few GeV range.**GRB 221009A Gamma Rays from Radiative Decay of Heavy Neutrinos?**

2211.00634 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alexei Y. Smirnov and Andreas Trautner.

We consider a mechanism which allows to decrease attenuation of high energy gamma ray flux from gamma ray burst GRB 221009A. The mechanism is based on the existence of a heavy $m_N\sim0.1\,\mathrm{MeV}$ mostly sterile neutrino $N$ which mixes with active neutrinos. $N$'s are produced in GRB in $\pi$ and $K$ decays via mixing with $\nu_\mu$. They undergo the radiative decay $N\rightarrow \nu \gamma$ on the way to the Earth. The usual exponential attenuation of gamma rays is lifted to an attenuation inverse in the optical depth. Various restrictions on this scenario are discussed. We find that the high energy $\gamma$ events at $18\,\mathrm{TeV}$ and potentially $251\,\mathrm{TeV}$ can be explained if (i) the GRB active neutrino fluence is close to the observed limit, (ii) the branching ratio of $N\rightarrow \nu \gamma$ is at least of the order 10%.**Probe the Mixing Parameter $|V_{τN}|^2$ for Heavy Neutrinos**

2211.00309 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lingxiao Bai, Ying-nan Mao, and Kechen Wang.

Because of the difficulty in detecting final state taus, the mixing parameter $|V_{\tau N}|^2$ for heavy neutrino $N$ is not well studied at current experiments, compared with other mixing parameters $|V_{e N}|^2$ and $|V_{\mu N}|^2$. In this paper, we focus on a challenging scenario where $N$ mixes with active neutrino of tau flavour only, i.e. $ |V_{\tau N}|^2 \neq 0 $ and $|V_{e N}|^2 = |V_{\mu N}|^2 = 0$. We derive current constraints on $|V_{\tau N}|^2$ from the rare $Z$-boson decay and electroweak precision data (EWPD). To forecast the future limits, we also investigate the signal $p p \to \tau^{\pm} \tau^{\pm} j j $ via a Majorana heavy neutrino at future proton-proton colliders. To suppress the background, both taus are required to decay leptonically into muons, leading to the final state containing two same sign muons, at least two jets plus moderate missing energy. The signal and relevant background processes are simulated at the HL-LHC and SppC/FCC-hh with center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV and 100 TeV. The preselection and multivariate analyses based on machine-learning are performed to reduce background. Limits on $|V_{\tau N}|^2$ are shown for heavy neutrino mass in the range 10-1000 GeV based on measurements from the rare $Z$-boson decay and EWPD, and searches at the HL-LHC and SppC/FCC-hh with integrated luminosities of 3 and 20 ab$^{-1}$.**Neutrinos from the Brightest Gamma-Ray Burst?**

2210.15625 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kohta Murase, [and 4 more]Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Ali Kheirandish, Shigeo S. Kimura, and Ke Fang [hide authors].

We discuss implications that can be obtained by searches for neutrinos from the brightest gamma-ray burst, GRB 221009A. We derive constraints on GRB model parameters such as the cosmic-ray loading factor and dissipation radius, taking into account both neutrino spectra and effective areas. The results are strong enough to constrain proton acceleration near the photosphere, and we find that the single burst limits are comparable to those from stacking analysis. Quasithermal neutrinos from subphotospheres and ultrahigh-energy neutrinos from external shocks are not yet constrained. We show that GeV-TeV neutrinos originating from neutron collisions are detectable, and urge dedicated analysis on these neutrinos with DeepCore and IceCube as well as ORCA and KM3NeT.**NaNu: Proposal for a Neutrino Experiment at the SPS Collider located at the North Area of CERN**

2210.15532 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Friedemann Neuhaus, [and 3 more]Matthias Schott, Chen Wang, and Rainer Wanke [hide authors].

Several experiments have been proposed in the recent years to study the nature of tau neutrinos, in particular aiming for a first observation of tau anti-neutrinos, more stringent upper limit on its anomalous magnetic moment as well as new constrains on the strange-quark content of the nucleon. We propose here a new low-cost neutrino experiment at the CERN North area, named NaNu (North Area NeUtrino), compatible with the realization of the future SHADOWS and HIKE experiments at the same experimental area.**A Significant Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance associated with Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 221009A**

2210.15284 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Laura A. Hayes and Peter T. Gallagher.

We report the detection of a significant ionospheric disturbance in the D-region of Earth's ionosphere which was associated with the massive gamma-ray burst GRB 221009A that occurred on October 9 2022. We identified the disturbance over northern Europe - a result of the increased ionisation by X- and gamma-ray emission from the GRB - using very low frequency (VLF) radio waves as a probe of the D-region. These observations demonstrate that an extra-galactic GRB can have a significant impact on the terrestrial ionosphere and illustrates that the Earth's ionosphere can be used as a giant X- and gamma-ray detector. Indeed, these observations may provide insights into the impacts of GRBs on the ionospheres of planets in our solar system and beyond.**Neutral-current neutrino cross section and expected supernova signals for $^{40}$Ar from a three-fold increase in the magnetic dipole strength**

2210.14316 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by W. Tornow, [and 7 more]A. P. Tonchev, S. W. Finch, Krishichayan, X. B. Wang, A. C. Hayes, H. G. D. Yeomans, and D. A. Newmark [hide authors].

In view of the great interest in liquid argon neutrino detectors, the $^{40}$Ar($\gamma,\gamma'$)$^{40}$Ar$^{*}$ reaction was revisited to guide a calculation of the neutral current neutrino cross section at supernova energies. Using the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique with a monoenergetic, 99% linearly polarized photon beam, we report a three-fold increase in magnetic dipole strength at around 10 MeV in $^{40}$Ar. Based on shell-model calculations, and using the experimentally identified transitions, the neutral current neutrino cross sections for low-energy reactions on $^{40}$Ar are calculated.**The Role of a Heavy Neutrino in the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB-221009A**

2210.14178 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kingman Cheung.

Recently, several telescopes, including Swift-BAT, GBM, and LHAASO, have observed the ever highest-energy and long-duration gamma-rays from a gamma-ray burst named as GRB221009A (located at a red-shift of $z=0.151$) on October 9, 2022. Conventional understanding tells us that very high-energy photons produced at such a far distance suffer severe attenuation before reaching the Earth. We propose the existence of a sub-MeV to $O(10)$ MeV heavy neutrino with a transitional magnetic dipole moment, via which the heavy neutrino is produced at the GRB. It then travels a long distance to our galaxy and decays into a neutrino and a photon, which is observed. In such a way, the original high-energy photon produced at the GRB can survive long-distance attenuation.**Stringent constraint on CPT violation with the synergy of T2K-II, NO$ν$A extension, and JUNO**

2210.13044 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by T. V. Ngoc, [and 3 more]S. Cao, N. T. Hong Van, and P. T. Quyen [hide authors].

Neutrino oscillation experiments have measured precisely the mass-squared differences of three neutrino mass eigenstates, and three leptonic mixing angles by utilizing both neutrino and anti-neutrino oscillations. The possible CPT violation may manifest itself in the difference of neutrino and anti-neutrino oscillation parameters, making these experiments promising tools for testing CPT invariance. We investigate empirically the sensitivity of the CPT test via the difference in mass-squared splittings ($\Delta m^2_{31} - \Delta \overline{m}^2_{31}$) and in leptonic mixing angles ($\sin^2\theta_{23} - \sin^2\overline{\theta}_{23}$) with the synergy of T2K-II, NO$\nu$A extension, and JUNO experiments. If the CPT symmetry is found to be conserved, the joint analysis of the three experiments will be able to establish limits of $|\Delta m^2_{31} - \Delta \overline{m}^2_{31}|$ < $5.3\times 10^{-3} \text{eV}^2$ and $|\sin^2\theta_{23} - \sin^2\overline{\theta}_{23}|$ < $0.10$ at 3$\sigma$ C. L. on the possible CPT violation. We find that with ($\Delta m^2_{31} - \Delta \overline{m}^2_{31}$), the dependence of the statistical significance on the relevant parameters to exclude the CPT conservation is marginal, and that, if the difference in the best-fit values of $\Delta m^2_{31}$ and $\Delta \overline{m}^2_{31}$ measured by MINOS(+) and NO$\nu$A persists as the true, the combined analysis will rule out the CPT conservation at 4$\sigma$ C. L.. With the ($\sin^2\theta_{23} - \sin^2\overline{\theta}_{23}$), the statistical significance to exclude CPT invariance depends strongly on the true value of $\theta_{23}(\overline{\theta}_{23})$. In case of maximal mixing of $\theta_{23}$, the CPT conservation will be excluded at 3$\sigma$ C. L. or more if the difference in the best-fit values of $\theta_{23}$ and $\overline{\theta}_{23}$ remains as the true.**Searching for neutrinos from solar flares across solar cycles 23 and 24 with the Super-Kamiokande detector**

2210.12948 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by K. Okamoto, [and 244 more]K. Abe, Y. Hayato, K. Hiraide, K. Hosokawa, K. Ieki, M. Ikeda, J. Kameda, Y. Kanemura, Y. Kaneshima, Y. Kataoka, Y. Kashiwagi, S. Miki, S. Mine, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, Y. Nagao, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, Y. Noguchi, K. Sato, H. Sekiya, K. Shimizu, M. Shiozawa, H. Shiba, Y. Sonoda, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeda, Y. Takemoto, A. Takenaka, H. Tanaka, S. Watanabe, T. Yano, S. Han, T. Kajita, K. Okumura, T. Tashiro, T. Tomiya, X. Wang, J. Xia, S. Yoshida, G. D. Megias, P. Fernandez, L. Labarga, N. Ospina, B. Zaldivar, B. W. Pointon, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, L. Wan, T. Wester, J. Bian, N. J. Griskevich, W. R. Kropp, S. Locke, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, V. Takhistov, A. Yankelevich, J. Hill, J. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, I. T. Lim, D. H. Moon, R. G. Park, B. Bodur, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, A. Beauchene, L. Bernard, A. Coffani, O. Drapier, S. El Hedri, A. Giampaolo, Th. A. Mueller, A. D. Santos, P. Paganini, B. Quilain, T. Ishizuka, T. Nakamura, J. S. Jang, J. G. Learned, K. Choi, S. Cao, L. H. V. Anthony, D. Martin, M. Scott, A. A. Sztuc, Y. Uchida, V. Berardi, M. G. Catanesi, E. Radicioni, N. F. Calabria, L. N. Machado, G. De Rosa, G. Collazuol, F. Iacob, M. Lamoureux, M. Mattiazzi, L. Ludovici, M. Gonin, G. Pronost, C. Fujisawa, Y. Maekawa, Y. Nishimura, M. Friend, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, M. Jakkapu, T. Matsubara, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, N. Bhuiyan, T. Boschi, G. T. Burton, F. Di Lodovico, J. Gao, A. Goldsack, T. Katori, J. Migenda, M. Taani, Z. Xie, S. Zsoldos, Y. Kotsar, H. Ozaki, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, C. Bronner, J. Feng, T. Kikawa, M. Mori, T. Nakaya, R. A. Wendell, K. Yasutome, S. J. Jenkins, N. McCauley, P. Mehta, A. Tarrant, K. M. Tsui, Y. Fukuda, Y. Itow, H. Menjo, K. Ninomiya, J. Lagoda, S. M. Lakshmi, M. Mandal, P. Mijakowski, Y. S. Prabhu, J. Zalipska, M. Jia, J. Jiang, C. K. Jung, C. Vilela, M. J. Wilking, C. Yanagisawa, M. Harada, H. Ishino, S. Ito, H. Kitagawa, Y. Koshio, W. Ma, F. Nakanishi, N. Piplani, S. Sakai, G. Barr, D. Barrow, L. Cook, S. Samani, D. Wark, A. Holin, F. Nova, J. Y. Yang, J. E. P. Fannon, M. Malek, J. M. McElwee, O. Stone, M. D. Thiesse, L. F. Thompson, H. Okazawa, S. B. Kim, E. Kwon, J. W. Seo, I. Yu, A. K. Ichikawa, K. D. Nakamura, S. Tairafune, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, K. Iwamoto, K. Nakagiri, Y. Nakajima, S. Shima, N. Taniuchi, M. Yokoyama, K. Martens, P. de Perio, M. R. Vagins, M. Kuze, S. Izumiyama, M. Inomoto, M. Ishitsuka, H. Ito, T. Kinoshita, R. Matsumoto, Y. Ommura, N. Shigeta, M. Shinoki, T. Suganuma, K. Yamauchi, J. F. Martin, H. A. Tanaka, T. Towstego, R. Akutsu, R. Gaur, V. Gousy-Leblanc, M. Hartz, A. Konaka, X. Li, N. W. Prouse, S. Chen, B. D. Xu, B. Zhang, M. Posiadala-Zezula, S. B. Boyd, D. Hadley, M. Nicholson, M. O'Flaherty, B. Richards, A. Ali, B. Jamieson, J. Walker, Ll. Marti, A. Minamino, G. Pintaudi, S. Sano, R. Sasaki, S. Suzuki, and K. Wada [hide authors].

Neutrinos associated with solar flares (solar-flare neutrinos) provide information on particle acceleration mechanisms during the impulsive phase of solar flares. We searched using the Super-Kamiokande detector for neutrinos from solar flares that occurred during solar cycles $23$ and $24$, including the largest solar flare (X28.0) on November 4th, 2003. In order to minimize the background rate we searched for neutrino interactions within narrow time windows coincident with $\gamma$-rays and soft X-rays recorded by satellites. In addition, we performed the first attempt to search for solar-flare neutrinos from solar flares on the invisible side of the Sun by using the emission time of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). By selecting twenty powerful solar flares above X5.0 on the visible side and eight CMEs whose emission speed exceeds $2000$ $\mathrm{km \, s^{-1}}$ on the invisible side from 1996 to 2018, we found two (six) neutrino events coincident with solar flares occurring on the visible (invisible) side of the Sun, with a typical background rate of $0.10$ ($0.62$) events per flare in the MeV-GeV energy range. No significant solar-flare neutrino signal above the estimated background rate was observed. As a result we set the following upper limit on neutrino fluence at the Earth $\mathit{\Phi}<1.1\times10^{6}$ $\mathrm{cm^{-2}}$ at the $90\%$ confidence level for the largest solar flare. The resulting fluence limits allow us to constrain some of the theoretical models for solar-flare neutrino emission.**Uncovering the neutrino mass ordering with the next galactic core-collapse supernova neutrino burst using water Cherenkov detectors**

2210.11676 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by César Jesús-Valls.

A major conundrum of particle physics is what mass ordering (MO) follow neutrinos. Due to matter effects the flavor content of the neutrino flux from a Core-Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe) is expected to be highly dependent on the true neutrino MO. In this article, the potential to uncover the true neutrino MO using CCSN neutrinos and water Cherenkov detectors is studied. A novel analysis strategy is presented, designed to be robust to all existing systematic uncertainties and readily applicable to the Super-Kamiokande or Hyper-Kamiokande experiments. The results show that for a paradigmatic CCSN at 10~kpc, Hyper-Kamiokande might discriminate the true neutrino MO with a confidence similar to 2-3~$\sigma$. In the case of a nearby CCSN at a radius of 3.5~kpc (1~kpc) from Earth, Hyper-Kamiokande (Super-Kamiokande) would reach a sensitivity beyond 5~$\sigma$.**A lab scale experiment for keV sterile neutrino search**

2210.11108 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Y. C. Lee, [and 9 more]H. B. Kim, H. L. Kim, S. K. Kim, Y. H. Kim, D. H. Kwon, H. S. Lim, H. S. Park, K. R. Woo, and Y. S. Yoon [hide authors].

We developed a simple small-scale experiment to measure the beta decay spectrum of $^{3}$H. The aim of this research is to investigate the presence of sterile neutrinos in the keV region. Tritium nuclei were embedded in a 1$\times$1$\times$1 cm$^3$ LiF crystal from the $^6$Li(n,$\alpha$)$^3$H reaction. The energy of the beta electrons absorbed in the LiF crystal was measured with a magnetic microcalorimeter at 40 mK. We report a new method of sample preparation, experiments, and analysis of $^3$H beta measurements. The spectrum of a 10-hour measurement agrees well with the expected spectrum of $^3$H beta decay. The analysis results indicate that this method can be used to search for keV-scale sterile neutrinos.**First constraints on light sterile neutrino oscillations from combined appearance and disappearance searches with the MicroBooNE detector**

2210.10216 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by MicroBooNE collaboration, [and 186 more]P. Abratenko, D. Andrade Aldana, J. Anthony, L. Arellano, J. Asaadi, A. Ashkenazi, S. Balasubramanian, B. Baller, G. Barr, J. Barrow, V. Basque, L. Bathe-Peters, O. Benevides Rodrigues, S. Berkman, A. Bhanderi, M. Bhattacharya, M. Bishai, A. Blake, B. Bogart, T. Bolton, J. Y. Book, L. Camilleri, D. Caratelli, I. Caro Terrazas, F. Cavanna, G. Cerati, Y. Chen, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, L. Cooper-Troendle, J. I. Crespo-Anadon, M. Del Tutto, S. R. Dennis, P. Detje, A. Devitt, R. Diurba, R. Dorrill, K. Duffy, S. Dytman, B. Eberly, A. Ereditato, J. J. Evans, R. Fine, O. G. Finnerud, B. T. Fleming, N. Foppiani, W. Foreman, D. Franco, A. P. Furmanski, D. Garcia-Gamez, S. Gardiner, G. Ge, S. Gollapinni, O. Goodwin, E. Gramellini, P. Green, H. Greenlee, W. Gu, R. Guenette, P. Guzowski, L. Hagaman, O. Hen, R. Hicks, C. Hilgenberg, G. A. Horton-Smith, B. Irwin, R. Itay, C. James, X. Ji, L. Jiang, J. H. Jo, R. A. Johnson, Y. J. Jwa, D. Kalra, N. Kamp, G. Karagiorgi, W. Ketchum, M. Kirby, T. Kobilarcik, I. Kreslo, M. B. Leibovitch, I. Lepetic, J. -Y. Li, K. Li, Y. Li, K. Lin, B. R. Littlejohn, W. C. Louis, X. Luo, K. Manivannan, C. Mariani, D. Marsden, J. Marshall, N. Martinez, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, K. Mason, A. Mastbaum, N. McConkey, V. Meddage, K. Miller, J. Mills, K. Mistry, T. Mohayai, A. Mogan, M. Mooney, A. F. Moor, C. D. Moore, L. Mora Lepin, J. Mousseau, S. Mulleria Babu, D. Naples, A. Navrer-Agasson, N. Nayak, M. Nebot-Guinot, J. Nowak, M. Nunes, N. Oza, O. Palamara, N. Pallat, V. Paolone, A. Papadopoulou, V. Papavassiliou, H. Parkinson, S. F. Pate, N. Patel, Z. Pavlovic, E. Piasetzky, I. Ponce-Pinto, I. Pophale, S. Prince, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, V. Radeka, M. Reggiani-Guzzo, L. Ren, L. Rochester, J. Rodriguez Rondon, M. Rosenberg, M. Ross-Lonergan, C. Rudolph von Rohr, G. Scanavini, D. W. Schmitz, A. Schukraft, W. Seligman, M. H. Shaevitz, R. Sharankova, J. Shi, A. Smith, E. L. Snider, M. Soderberg, S. Soldner-Rembold, J. Spitz, M. Stancari, J. St. John, T. Strauss, S. Sword-Fehlberg, A. M. Szelc, W. Tang, N. Taniuchi, K. Terao, C. Thorpe, D. Torbunov, D. Totani, M. Toups, Y. -T. Tsai, J. Tyler, M. A. Uchida, T. Usher, B. Viren, M. Weber, H. Wei, A. J. White, Z. Williams, S. Wolbers, T. Wongjirad, M. Wospakrik, K. Wresilo, N. Wright, W. Wu, E. Yandel, T. Yang, L. E. Yates, H. W. Yu, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, and C. Zhang [hide authors].

We present a search for eV-scale sterile neutrino oscillations in the MicroBooNE liquid argon detector, simultaneously considering all possible appearance and disappearance effects within the $3+1$ active-to-sterile neutrino oscillation framework. We analyze the neutrino candidate events for the recent measurements of charged-current $\nu_e$ and $\nu_{\mu}$ interactions in the MicroBooNE detector, using data corresponding to an exposure of 6.37$\times$10$^{20}$ protons on target from the Fermilab booster neutrino beam. We observe no evidence of light sterile neutrino oscillations and derive exclusion contours at the $95\%$ confidence level in the plane of the mass-squared splitting $\Delta m^2_{41}$ and the sterile neutrino mixing angles $\theta_{\mu e}$ and $\theta_{ee}$, excluding part of the parameter space allowed by experimental anomalies. Cancellation of $\nu_e$ appearance and $\nu_e$ disappearance effects due to the full $3+1$ treatment of the analysis leads to a degeneracy when determining the oscillation parameters, which is discussed in this paper and will be addressed by future analyses.**Symmetry in neutrino oscillation in matter: New picture and the $ν$SM -- non-unitarity interplay**

2210.09453 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

We update and summarize the present status of our understanding of the reparametrization symmetry with $i \leftrightarrow j$ state exchange in neutrino oscillation in matter. We introduce a systematic method called ``Symmetry Finder'' (SF) to uncover such symmetries, demonstrate its efficient hunting capability, and examine their characteristic features. Apparently they have a local nature: The 1-2 and 1-3 state exchange symmetries exist at around the solar- and atmospheric-resonances, respectively, with the level-crossing states exchanged. However, this view is not supported, to date, in the globally valid Denton et al. (DMP) perturbation theory, which possesses the 1-2 exchange symmetry but not the 1-3. It is probably due to lack of our understanding, and we find a clue for a larger symmetry structure than that we know. In the latter part of this article, we introduce non-unitarity, or unitarity violation (UV), into the $\nu$SM neutrino paradigm, a low-energy description of beyond $\nu$SM new physics at high (or low) scale. Based on the analyses of UV extended versions of the atmospheric-resonance and the DMP perturbation theories, we argue that the reparametrization symmetry has a diagnostics capability for the theory with the $\nu$SM and UV sectors. A speculation is given on the topological nature of the identity which determines the transformation property of the UV $\alpha$ parameters.**Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO using local integrated 3-D refined crustal model**

2210.09165 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ran Han, [and 13 more]ZhiWei Li, Ruohan Gao, Yao Sun, Ya Xu, Yaping Cheng, Guangzheng Jiang, Jie Pang, Fengcheng Liu, Andong Wang, Yufei Xi, Liangjian Wen, Jun Cao, and Yu-Feng Li [hide authors].

Geoneutrinos are a unique tool that brings to the surface information about our planet, in particular, its radiogenic power, insights formation and chemical composition. To date, only the KamLAND and Borexino experiments observed geoneutrino, with the former characterized by low concentration of heat-producing elements in the Earth in contrast to the latter that sets tight upper limits on the power of a georeactor hypothesized. With respect to the results yielded therefrom, a small discrepancy has been identified. On this account, next generation experiments like JUNO are needed if it is to provide definitive results with respect to the Earth's radiogenic power, and to fully exploit geoneutrinos to better understand deep Earth. An accurate a priori prediction of the crustal contribution plays an important role in enabling the translation of a particle physics measurement into geo-scientific questions. The existing GIGJ model of JUNO only focused on constructing a geophysical model of the local crust, without local geochemical data. Another existing JULOC includes both data, but only able to be achieved for the top layer of the upper crust, not in deep vertical. This paper reports on the development of JUNO's first 3-D integrated model, JULOC-I, which combines seismic, gravity, rock sample and thermal flow data with new building method, solved the problem in vertical depth. JULOC-I results show higher than expected geoneutrino signals are mainly attributable to higher U and Th in southern China than that found elsewhere on Earth. Moreover, the high level of accuracy of the JULOC-I model, complemented by 10 years of experimental data, indicates that JUNO has an opportunity to test different mantle models. Predictions by JULOC-I can be tested after JUNO goes online and higher accuracy local crustal model continue to play an important role to improve mantle measurements precision.**Effect of Matter Density in T2HK and DUNE**

2210.09103 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Monojit Ghosh and Osamu Yasuda.

CP phase determination for the near future long baseline experiments, T2HK and DUNE, will require precise measurements of the oscillation probabilities. However, the uncertainty in the Earth's density must be considered in determining these oscillation probabilities. Therefore, in this study, we update the individual sensitivities of these experiments for determining the current unknowns in the standard three flavor scenario considering the latest configuration and also the complementarity between them while considering the uncertainty in the density. Our study showed that this uncertainty has a non-negligible impact on the precision of the CP phase determination particularly for DUNE.**Model Independent Approach of the JUNO $^8$B Solar Neutrino Program**

2210.08437 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by JUNO Collaboration, [and 603 more]Jie Zhao, Baobiao Yue, Haoqi Lu, Yufeng Li, Jiajie Ling, Zeyuan Yu, Angel Abusleme, Thomas Adam, Shakeel Ahmad, Rizwan Ahmed, Sebastiano Aiello, Muhammad Akram, Abid Aleem, Tsagkarakis Alexandros, Fengpeng An, Qi An, Giuseppe Andronico, Nikolay Anfimov, Vito Antonelli, Tatiana Antoshkina, Burin Asavapibhop, João Pedro Athayde Marcondes de André, Didier Auguste, Weidong Bai, Nikita Balashov, Wander Baldini, Andrea Barresi, Davide Basilico, Eric Baussan, Marco Bellato, Antonio Bergnoli, Thilo Birkenfeld, Sylvie Blin, David Blum, Simon Blyth, Anastasia Bolshakova, Mathieu Bongrand, Clément Bordereau, Dominique Breton, Augusto Brigatti, Riccardo Brugnera, Riccardo Bruno, Antonio Budano, Jose Busto, Ilya Butorov, Anatael Cabrera, Barbara Caccianiga, Hao Cai, Xiao Cai, Yanke Cai, Zhiyan Cai, Riccardo Callegari, Antonio Cammi, Agustin Campeny, Chuanya Cao, Guofu Cao, Jun Cao, Rossella Caruso, Cédric Cerna, Chi Chan, Jinfan Chang, Yun Chang, Guoming Chen, Pingping Chen, Po-An Chen, Shaomin Chen, Xurong Chen, Yixue Chen, Yu Chen, Zhiyuan Chen, Zikang Chen, Jie Cheng, Yaping Cheng, Alexander Chepurnov, Alexey Chetverikov, Davide Chiesa, Pietro Chimenti, Artem Chukanov, Gérard Claverie, Catia Clementi, Barbara Clerbaux, Marta Colomer Molla, Selma Conforti Di Lorenzo, Daniele Corti, Flavio Dal Corso, Olivia Dalager, Christophe De La Taille, Zhi Deng, Ziyan Deng, Wilfried Depnering, Marco Diaz, Xuefeng Ding, Yayun Ding, Bayu Dirgantara, Sergey Dmitrievsky, Tadeas Dohnal, Dmitry Dolzhikov, Georgy Donchenko, Jianmeng Dong, Evgeny Doroshkevich, Marcos Dracos, Frédéric Druillole, Ran Du, Shuxian Du, Stefano Dusini, Martin Dvorak, Timo Enqvist, Heike Enzmann, Andrea Fabbri, Donghua Fan, Lei Fan, Jian Fang, Wenxing Fang, Marco Fargetta, Dmitry Fedoseev, Zhengyong Fei, Li-Cheng Feng, Qichun Feng, Richard Ford, Amélie Fournier, Haonan Gan, Feng Gao, Alberto Garfagnini, Arsenii Gavrikov, Marco Giammarchi, Nunzio Giudice, Maxim Gonchar, Guanghua Gong, Hui Gong, Yuri Gornushkin, Alexandre Göttel, Marco Grassi, Maxim Gromov, Vasily Gromov, Minghao Gu, Xiaofei Gu, Yu Gu, Mengyun Guan, Yuduo Guan, Nunzio Guardone, Cong Guo, Jingyuan Guo, Wanlei Guo, Xinheng Guo, Yuhang Guo, Paul Hackspacher, Caren Hagner, Ran Han, Yang Han, Miao He, Wei He, Tobias Heinz, Patrick Hellmuth, Yuekun Heng, Rafael Herrera, YuenKeung Hor, Shaojing Hou, Yee Hsiung, Bei-Zhen Hu, Hang Hu, Jianrun Hu, Jun Hu, Shouyang Hu, Tao Hu, Yuxiang Hu, Zhuojun Hu, Guihong Huang, Hanxiong Huang, Kaixuan Huang, Wenhao Huang, Xin Huang, Xingtao Huang, Yongbo Huang, Jiaqi Hui, Lei Huo, Wenju Huo, Cédric Huss, Safeer Hussain, Ara Ioannisian, Roberto Isocrate, Beatrice Jelmini, Ignacio Jeria, Xiaolu Ji, Huihui Jia, Junji Jia, Siyu Jian, Di Jiang, Wei Jiang, Xiaoshan Jiang, Xiaoping Jing, Cécile Jollet, Leonidas Kalousis, Philipp Kampmann, Li Kang, Rebin Karaparambil, Narine Kazarian, Amina Khatun, Khanchai Khosonthongkee, Denis Korablev, Konstantin Kouzakov, Alexey Krasnoperov, Nikolay Kutovskiy, Pasi Kuusiniemi, Tobias Lachenmaier, Cecilia Landini, Sébastien Leblanc, Victor Lebrin, Frederic Lefevre, Ruiting Lei, Rupert Leitner, Jason Leung, Daozheng Li, Demin Li, Fei Li, Fule Li, Gaosong Li, Huiling Li, Mengzhao Li, Min Li, Nan Li, Nan Li, Qingjiang Li, Ruhui Li, Rui Li, Shanfeng Li, Tao Li, Teng Li, Weidong Li, Weiguo Li, Xiaomei Li, Xiaonan Li, Xinglong Li, Yi Li, Yichen Li, Zepeng Li, Zhaohan Li, Zhibing Li, Ziyuan Li, Zonghai Li, Hao Liang, Hao Liang, Jiajun Liao, Ayut Limphirat, Guey-Lin Lin, Shengxin Lin, Tao Lin, Ivano Lippi, Fang Liu, Haidong Liu, Haotian Liu, Hongbang Liu, Hongjuan Liu, Hongtao Liu, Hui Liu, Jianglai Liu, Jinchang Liu, Min Liu, Qian Liu, Qin Liu, Runxuan Liu, Shubin Liu, Shulin Liu, Xiaowei Liu, Xiwen Liu, Yan Liu, Yunzhe Liu, Alexey Lokhov, Paolo Lombardi, Claudio Lombardo, Kai Loo, Chuan Lu, Jingbin Lu, Junguang Lu, Shuxiang Lu, Bayarto Lubsandorzhiev, Sultim Lubsandorzhiev, Livia Ludhova, Arslan Lukanov, Daibin Luo, Fengjiao Luo, Guang Luo, Shu Luo, Wuming Luo, Xiaojie Luo, Vladimir Lyashuk, Bangzheng Ma, Bing Ma, Qiumei Ma, Si Ma, Xiaoyan Ma, Xubo Ma, Jihane Maalmi, Jingyu Mai, Yury Malyshkin, Roberto Carlos Mandujano, Fabio Mantovani, Francesco Manzali, Xin Mao, Yajun Mao, Stefano M. Mari, Filippo Marini, Cristina Martellini, Gisele Martin-Chassard, Agnese Martini, Matthias Mayer, Davit Mayilyan, Ints Mednieks, Yue Meng, Anselmo Meregaglia, Emanuela Meroni, David Meyhöfer, Mauro Mezzetto, Jonathan Miller, Lino Miramonti, Paolo Montini, Michele Montuschi, Axel Müller, Massimiliano Nastasi, Dmitry V. Naumov, Elena Naumova, Diana Navas-Nicolas, Igor Nemchenok, Minh Thuan Nguyen Thi, Alexey Nikolaev, Feipeng Ning, Zhe Ning, Hiroshi Nunokawa, Lothar Oberauer, Juan Pedro Ochoa-Ricoux, Alexander Olshevskiy, Domizia Orestano, Fausto Ortica, Rainer Othegraven, Alessandro Paoloni, Sergio Parmeggiano, Yatian Pei, Nicomede Pelliccia, Anguo Peng, Haiping Peng, Yu Peng, Zhaoyuan Peng, Frédéric Perrot, Pierre-Alexandre Petitjean, Fabrizio Petrucci, Oliver Pilarczyk, Luis Felipe Piñeres Rico, Artyom Popov, Pascal Poussot, Ezio Previtali, Fazhi Qi, Ming Qi, Sen Qian, Xiaohui Qian, Zhen Qian, Hao Qiao, Zhonghua Qin, Shoukang Qiu, Gioacchino Ranucci, Neill Raper, Alessandra Re, Henning Rebber, Abdel Rebii, Mariia Redchuk, Mariia Redchuk, Bin Ren, Jie Ren, Barbara Ricci, Mariam Rifai, Mathieu Roche, Narongkiat Rodphai, Aldo Romani, Bedřich Roskovec, Xichao Ruan, Arseniy Rybnikov, Andrey Sadovsky, Paolo Saggese, Simone Sanfilippo, Anut Sangka, Utane Sawangwit, Julia Sawatzki, Michaela Schever, Cédric Schwab, Konstantin Schweizer, Alexandr Selyunin, Andrea Serafini, Giulio Settanta, Mariangela Settimo, Zhuang Shao, Vladislav Sharov, Arina Shaydurova, Jingyan Shi, Yanan Shi, Vitaly Shutov, Andrey Sidorenkov, Fedor Šimkovic, Chiara Sirignano, Jaruchit Siripak, Monica Sisti, Maciej Slupecki, Mikhail Smirnov, Oleg Smirnov, Thiago Sogo-Bezerra, Sergey Sokolov, Julanan Songwadhana, Boonrucksar Soonthornthum, Albert Sotnikov, Ondřej Šrámek, Warintorn Sreethawong, Achim Stahl, Luca Stanco, Konstantin Stankevich, Dušan Štefánik, Hans Steiger, Jochen Steinmann, Tobias Sterr, Matthias Raphael Stock, Virginia Strati, Alexander Studenikin, Jun Su, Shifeng Sun, Xilei Sun, Yongjie Sun, Yongzhao Sun, Zhengyang Sun, Narumon Suwonjandee, Michal Szelezniak, Jian Tang, Qiang Tang, Quan Tang, Xiao Tang, Alexander Tietzsch, Igor Tkachev, Tomas Tmej, Marco Danilo Claudio Torri, Konstantin Treskov, Andrea Triossi, Giancarlo Troni, Wladyslaw Trzaska, Cristina Tuve, Nikita Ushakov, Vadim Vedin, Giuseppe Verde, Maxim Vialkov, Benoit Viaud, Cornelius Moritz Vollbrecht, Cristina Volpe, Katharina von Sturm, Vit Vorobel, Dmitriy Voronin, Lucia Votano, Pablo Walker, Caishen Wang, Chung-Hsiang Wang, En Wang, Guoli Wang, Jian Wang, Jun Wang, Lu Wang, Meifen Wang, Meng Wang, Meng Wang, Ruiguang Wang, Siguang Wang, Wei Wang, Wei Wang, Wenshuai Wang, Xi Wang, Xiangyue Wang, Yangfu Wang, Yaoguang Wang, Yi Wang, Yi Wang, Yifang Wang, Yuanqing Wang, Yuman Wang, Zhe Wang, Zheng Wang, Zhimin Wang, Zongyi Wang, Apimook Watcharangkool, Wei Wei, Wei Wei, Wenlu Wei, Yadong Wei, Kaile Wen, Liangjian Wen, Christopher Wiebusch, Steven Chan-Fai Wong, Bjoern Wonsak, Diru Wu, Qun Wu, Zhi Wu, Michael Wurm, Jacques Wurtz, Christian Wysotzki, Yufei Xi, Dongmei Xia, Xiang Xiao, Xiaochuan Xie, Yuguang Xie, Zhangquan Xie, Zhao Xin, Zhizhong Xing, Benda Xu, Cheng Xu, Donglian Xu, Fanrong Xu, Hangkun Xu, Jilei Xu, Jing Xu, Meihang Xu, Yin Xu, Yu Xu, Baojun Yan, Taylor Yan, Wenqi Yan, Xiongbo Yan, Yupeng Yan, Changgen Yang, Chengfeng Yang, Huan Yang, Jie Yang, Lei Yang, Xiaoyu Yang, Yifan Yang, Yifan Yang, Haifeng Yao, Jiaxuan Ye, Mei Ye, Ziping Ye, Frédéric Yermia, Na Yin, Zhengyun You, Boxiang Yu, Chiye Yu, Chunxu Yu, Hongzhao Yu, Miao Yu, Xianghui Yu, Zezhong Yu, Cenxi Yuan, Chengzhuo Yuan, Ying Yuan, Zhenxiong Yuan, Noman Zafar, Vitalii Zavadskyi, Shan Zeng, Tingxuan Zeng, Yuda Zeng, Liang Zhan, Aiqiang Zhang, Bin Zhang, Binting Zhang, Feiyang Zhang, Guoqing Zhang, Honghao Zhang, Jialiang Zhang, Jiawen Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jin Zhang, Jingbo Zhang, Jinnan Zhang, Mohan Zhang, Peng Zhang, Qingmin Zhang, Shiqi Zhang, Shu Zhang, Tao Zhang, Xiaomei Zhang, Xin Zhang, Xuantong Zhang, Xueyao Zhang, Yinhong Zhang, Yiyu Zhang, Yongpeng Zhang, Yu Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yumei Zhang, Zhenyu Zhang, Zhijian Zhang, Fengyi Zhao, Rong Zhao, Runze Zhao, Shujun Zhao, Dongqin Zheng, Hua Zheng, Yangheng Zheng, Weirong Zhong, Jing Zhou, Li Zhou, Nan Zhou, Shun Zhou, Tong Zhou, Xiang Zhou, Jiang Zhu, Jingsen Zhu, Kangfu Zhu, Kejun Zhu, Zhihang Zhu, Bo Zhuang, Honglin Zhuang, Liang Zong, and Jiaheng Zou [hide authors].

The physics potential of detecting $^8$B solar neutrinos is exploited at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), in a model independent manner by using three distinct channels of the charged-current (CC), neutral-current (NC) and elastic scattering (ES) interactions. Due to the largest-ever mass of $^{13}$C nuclei in the liquid-scintillator detectors and the potential low background level, $^8$B solar neutrinos would be observable in the CC and NC interactions on $^{13}$C for the first time. By virtue of optimized event selections and muon veto strategies, backgrounds from the accidental coincidence, muon-induced isotopes, and external backgrounds can be greatly suppressed. Excellent signal-to-background ratios can be achieved in the CC, NC and ES channels to guarantee the $^8$B solar neutrino observation. From the sensitivity studies performed in this work, we show that one can reach the precision levels of 5%, 8% and 20% for the $^8$B neutrino flux, $\sin^2\theta_{12}$, and $\Delta m^2_{21}$, respectively, using ten years of JUNO data. It would be unique and helpful to probe the details of both solar physics and neutrino physics. In addition, when combined with SNO, the world-best precision of 3% is expected for the $^8$B neutrino flux measurement.**Interpreting Reactor Antineutrino Anomalies with STEREO data**

2210.07664 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by H. Almazán, [and 23 more]L. Bernard, A. Blanchet, A. Bonhomme, C. Buck, A. Chalil, P. del Amo Sanchez, I. El Atmani, L. Labit, J. Lamblin A. Letourneau D. Lhuillier, M. Licciardi, M. Lindner, T. Materna, H. Pessard, J. -S. Réal, J. -S. Ricol, C. Roca, R. Rogly, T. Salagnac, V. Savu, S. Schoppmann, T. Soldner, A. Stutz, and M. Vialat [hide authors].

Anomalies in past neutrino measurements have led to the discovery that these particles have non-zero mass and oscillate between their three flavors when they propagate. In the 2010's, similar anomalies observed in the antineutrino spectra emitted by nuclear reactors have triggered the hypothesis of the existence of a supplementary neutrino state that would be sterile i.e. not interacting via the weak interaction. The STEREO experiment was designed to study this scientific case that would potentially extend the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Here we present a complete study based on our full set of data with significantly improved sensitivity. Installed at the ILL (Institut Laue Langevin) research reactor, STEREO has accurately measured the antineutrino energy spectrum associated to the fission of 235U. This measurement confirms the anomalies whereas, thanks to the segmentation of the STEREO detector and its very short mean distance to the core (10~m), the same data reject the hypothesis of a light sterile neutrino. Such a direct measurement of the antineutrino energy spectrum suggests instead that biases in the nuclear experimental data used for the predictions are at the origin of the anomalies. Our result supports the neutrino content of the Standard Model and establishes a new reference for the 235U antineutrino energy spectrum. We anticipate that this result will allow to progress towards finer tests of the fundamental properties of neutrinos but also to benchmark models and nuclear data of interest for reactor physics and for observations of astrophysical or geo-neutrinos.**Impact of the finite life-time of UHECR sources**

2210.07090 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Björn Eichmann and Michael Kachelrieß.

The observational data on ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR), in particular their mass composition, show strong indications for extremely hard spectra of individual mass groups of CR nuclei at Earth. In this work, we show that such hard spectra can be the result of the finite life-time of UHECR sources, if a few individual sources dominate the UHECR flux at the highest energies. In this case, time delays induced by deflections in the turbulent extragalactic magnetic field as well as from the diffusive or advective escape from the source environment can suppress low-energy CRs, leading to a steepening of the observed spectrum. Considering radio galaxies as the main source of UHECRs, we discuss the necessary conditions that few individual sources dominate over the total contribution from the bulk of sources that have been active in the past. We provide two proof-of-principle scenarios showing that for a turbulent extragalactic magnetic field with a strength $B$ and a coherence length $l_{\rm coh}$, the life-time of a source at a distance $d_{\rm src}$ should satisfy ${t_{\rm act} \sim \left( B/1\,\text{nG} \right)^2\,\left( d_{\rm src}/10\,\text{Mpc} \right)^2\,\left( l_{\rm coh}/1\,\text{Mpc} \right)\,\text{Myr}}$ to obtain the necessary hardening of the CR spectrum at Earth.**Evidence of a signature of planet formation processes from solar neutrino fluxes**

2210.06900 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Masanobu Kunitomo, Tristan Guillot, and Gaël Buldgen.

Solar evolutionary models are thus far unable to reproduce spectroscopic, helioseismic, and neutrino constraints consistently, resulting in the so-called solar modeling problem. In parallel, planet formation models predict that the evolving composition of the protosolar disk and, thus, of the gas accreted by the proto-Sun must have been variable. We show that solar evolutionary models that include a realistic planet formation scenario lead to an increased core metallicity of up to 5%, implying that accurate neutrino flux measurements are sensitive to the initial stages of the formation of the Solar System. Models with homogeneous accretion match neutrino constraints to no better than 2.7$\sigma$. In contrast, accretion with a variable composition due to planet formation processes, leading to metal-poor accretion of the last $\sim$4% of the young Sun's total mass, yields solar models within 1.3$\sigma$ of all neutrino constraints. We thus demonstrate that in addition to increased opacities at the base of the convective envelope, the formation history of the Solar System constitutes a key element in resolving the current crisis of solar models.**Astrophysical searches of ultralight particles**

2210.06837 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tanmay Kumar Poddar.

The Standard Model of particle physics is a $SU(3)_c\times SU(2)_L\times U(1)_Y$ gauge theory that can explain the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions between the particles. The gravitational interaction is described by Einstein's General Relativity theory which is a classical theory of gravity. These theories can explain all the four fundamental forces of nature with great level of accuracy. However, there are several theoretical and experimental motivations of studying physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics and Einstein's General Relativity theory. Probing these new physics scenarios with ultralight particles has its own importance as they can be a promising candidates for dark matter that can evade the constraints from dark matter direct detection experiments and solve the small scale structure problems of the universe. In this paper, we have considered axions and gauge bosons as light particles and their possible searches through astrophysical observations. In particular, we obtain constraints on ultralight axions from orbital period loss of compact binary systems, gravitational light bending, and Shapiro time delay. We also derive constraints on ultralight gauge bosons from indirect evidence of gravitational waves, and perihelion precession of planets. Such type of observations can also constrain several particle physics models and are discussed.**Lorentz invariance violation induced threshold anomaly versus very-high energy cosmic photon emission from GRB 221009A**

2210.06338 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hao Li and Bo-Qiang Ma.

It has been reported that the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) observed very high energy photons from GRB 221009A, with the highest energy reaching 18~TeV. We find that observation of such high energy photons is quite nontrivial since extragalactic background light could absorb these photons severely and the flux is too weak to be observed. Therefore we discuss a potential mechanism for us to observe these photons, and suggest that Lorentz invariance violation induced threshold anomaly of the process \(\gamma\gamma\to e^-e^+\) provides a candidate to explain this phenomenon.**Constraints on populations of neutrino sources from searches in the directions of IceCube neutrino alerts**

2210.04930 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 383 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, N. Aggarwal, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. Benda, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, J. Borowka, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, S. Countryman, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, L. Heuermann, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Krupczak, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, Y. Merckx, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, A. Nayerhoda, J. Necker, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, B. Schlueter, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, C. F. Tung, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, C. Walck, W. Wang, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

Beginning in 2016, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory has sent out alerts in real time containing the information of high-energy ($E \gtrsim 100$~TeV) neutrino candidate events with moderate-to-high ($\gtrsim 30$\%) probability of astrophysical origin. In this work, we use a recent catalog of such alert events, which, in addition to events announced in real-time, includes events that were identified retroactively, and covers the time period of 2011-2020. We also search for additional, lower-energy, neutrinos from the arrival directions of these IceCube alerts. We show how performing such an analysis can constrain the contribution of rare populations of cosmic neutrino sources to the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux. After searching for neutrino emission coincident with these alert events on various timescales, we find no significant evidence of either minute-scale or day-scale transient neutrino emission or of steady neutrino emission in the direction of these alert events. This study also shows how numerous a population of neutrino sources has to be to account for the complete astrophysical neutrino flux. Assuming sources have the same luminosity, an $E^{-2.5}$ neutrino spectrum and number densities that follow star-formation rates, the population of sources has to be more numerous than $7\times 10^{-9}~\textrm{Mpc}^{-3}$. This number changes to $3\times 10^{-7}~\textrm{Mpc}^{-3}$ if number densities instead have no cosmic evolution.**Directional Neutrino Searches for Galactic Center Dark Matter at Large Underground LArTPCs**

2210.04920 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Matthew R. Buckley, Andrew Mastbaum, and Gopolang Mohlabeng.

We investigate the sensitivity of a large, underground LArTPC-based neutrino detector to dark matter in the Galactic Center annihilating into neutrinos. Such a detector could have the ability to resolve the direction of the electron in a neutrino scattering event, and thus to infer information about the source direction for individual neutrino events. We consider the improvements on the expected experimental sensitivity that this directional information would provide. Even without directional information, we find a DUNE-like LArTPC detector is capable of setting limits on dark matter annihilation to neutrinos for dark matter masses above 30 MeV that are competitive with or exceed current experimental reach. While currently-demonstrated angular resolution for low-energy electrons is insufficient to allow any significant increase in sensitivity, these techniques could benefit from improvements to algorithms and the additional spatial information provided by novel 3D charge imaging approaches. We consider the impact of such enhancements to the resolution for electron directionality, and find that where electron-scattering events can be distinguished from charged-current neutrino interactions, limits on dark matter annihilation in the mass range where solar neutrino backgrounds dominate ($\lesssim 15$ MeV) can be significantly improved using directional information, and would be competitive with existing limits using $40$ kton$\times$year of exposure.**Monoenergetic Neutrinos from WIMP Annihilation in Jupiter**

2210.04761 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by George M. French and Marc Sher.

Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) can be captured by the Sun and annihilate in the core, which may result in production of kaons that can decay at rest into monoenergetic 236 MeV neutrinos. Several studies of detection of these neutrinos at DUNE have been carried out. It has been shown that if the WIMP mass is below 4 GeV, then they will evaporate prior to annihilation, suppressing the signal. Since Jupiter has a cooler core, WIMPs with masses in the 1-4 GeV range will not evaporate and can thus annihilate into monoenergetic neutrinos. We calculate the flux of these neutrinos near the surface of Jupiter and find that it is comparable to the flux at DUNE for masses above 4 GeV and substantially greater in the 1-4 GeV range. Of course, detecting these neutrinos would require a neutrino detector near Jupiter. Obviously, it will be many decades before such a detector can be built, but should direct detection experiments find a WIMP with a mass in the 1-4 GeV range, it may be one of the few ways to learn about the annihilation process. A liquid hydrogen time projection chamber might be able to get precise directional information and energy of these neutrinos (and hydrogen is plentiful in the vicinity of Jupiter). We speculate that such a detector could be placed on the far side of one of the tidally locked Amalthean moons; the moon itself would provide substantial background shielding and the surface would allow easier deployment of solar panels for power generation.**The impact of neutrino-nucleus interaction modeling on new physics searches**

2210.03753 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nina M. Coyle, Shirley Weishi Li, and Pedro A. N. Machado.

Accurate neutrino-nucleus interaction modeling is an essential requirement for the success of the accelerator-based neutrino program. As no satisfactory description of cross sections exists, experiments tune neutrino-nucleus interactions to data to mitigate mis-modeling. In this work, we study how the interplay between near detector tuning and cross section mis-modeling affects new physics searches. We perform a realistic simulation of neutrino events and closely follow NOvA's tuning, the first published of such procedures in a neutrino experiment. We analyze two illustrative new physics scenarios, sterile neutrinos and light neutrinophilic scalars, presenting the relevant experimental signatures and the sensitivity regions with and without tuning. While the tuning does not wash out sterile neutrino oscillation patterns, cross section mis-modeling can bias the experimental sensitivity. In the case of light neutrinophilic scalars, variations in cross section models completely dominate the sensitivity regardless of any tuning. Our findings reveal the critical need to improve our theoretical understanding of neutrino-nucleus interactions, and to estimate the impact of tuning on new physics searches. We urge neutrino experiments to follow NOvA's example and publish the details of their tuning procedure, and to develop strategies to more robustly account for cross section uncertainties, which will expand the scope of their physics program.**New Constraints on Dark Matter and Cosmic Neutrino Profiles through Gravity**

2210.03749 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yu-Dai Tsai, [and 4 more]Joshua Eby, Jason Arakawa, Davide Farnocchia, and Marianna S. Safronova [hide authors].

We derive purely gravitational constraints on dark matter and cosmic neutrino profiles in the solar system using asteroid (101955) Bennu. We focus on Bennu because of its extensive tracking data and high-fidelity trajectory modeling resulting from the OSIRIS-REx mission. We find that the local density of dark matter is bound by $\rho_{\rm DM}\lesssim 3.3\times 10^{-15}\;\rm kg/m^3 \simeq 6\times10^6\,\bar{\rho}_{\rm DM}$, in the vicinity of $\sim 1.1$ au (where $\bar{\rho}_{\rm DM}\simeq 0.3\;\rm GeV/cm^3$). We show that high-precision tracking data of solar system objects can constrain cosmic neutrino overdensities relative to the Standard Model prediction $\bar{n}_{\nu}$, at the level of $\eta\equiv n_\nu/\bar{n}_{\nu}\lesssim 1.7 \times 10^{11}(0.1 \;{\rm eV}/m_\nu)$ (Saturn), comparable to the existing bounds from KATRIN and other previous laboratory experiments (with $m_\nu$ the neutrino mass). These local bounds have interesting implications for existing and future direct-detection experiments. Our constraints apply to all dark matter candidates but are particularly meaningful for scenarios including solar halos, stellar basins, and axion miniclusters, which predict or allow overdensities in the solar system. Furthermore, introducing a DM-SM long-range fifth force with a strength $\tilde{\alpha}_D$ times stronger than gravity, Bennu can set a constraint on $\rho_{\rm DM}\lesssim \bar{\rho}_{\rm DM}\left(6 \times 10^6/\tilde{\alpha}_D\right)$. These constraints can be improved in the future as the accuracy of tracking data improves, observational arcs increase, and more missions visit asteroids.**Decay of superluminal neutrinos in the collinear approximation**

2210.02222 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. M. Carmona, [and 3 more]J. L. Cortés, J. J. Relancio, and M. A. Reyes [hide authors].

The kinematics of the three body decay, with a modified energy-momentum relation of the particles due to a violation of Lorentz invariance, is presented in detail in the collinear approximation. The results are applied to the decay of superluminal neutrinos producing an electron-positron or a neutrino-antineutrino pair. Explicit expressions for the energy distributions, required for a study of the cascade of neutrinos produced in the propagation of superluminal neutrinos, are derived.**High-energy neutrino-induced cascade from the direction of the flaring radio blazar TXS 0506+056 observed by the Baikal Gigaton Volume Detector in 2021**

2210.01650 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Baikal-GVD Collaboration, [and 10 more]A. K. Erkenov, N. A. Kosogorov, Y. A. Kovalev, Y. Y. Kovalev, A. V. Plavin, A. V. Popkov, A. B. Pushkarev, D. V. Semikoz, Y. V. Sotnikova, and S. V. Troitsky [hide authors].

The existence of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has been unambiguously demonstrated, but their sources remain elusive. IceCube reported an association of a 290-TeV neutrino with a gamma-ray flare of TXS 0506+056, an active galactic nucleus with a compact radio jet pointing to us. Later, radio blazars were shown to be associated with IceCube neutrino events with high statistical significance. These associations remained unconfirmed with the data of independent experiments. Here we report on the detection of a rare neutrino event with the estimated energy of 224 +- 75 TeV from the direction of TXS 0506+056 by the new Baikal-GVD neutrino telescope in April 2021 followed by a radio flare observed by RATAN-600. This event is the highest-energy cascade detected so far by Baikal-GVD from a direction below horizon. The result supports previous suggestions that radio blazars in general, and TXS 0506+056 in particular, are the sources of high-energy neutrinos, and opens up the cascade channel for the neutrino astronomy.**Solar and supernova neutrino physics with future NaI(Tl) dark matter search detectors**

2210.01386 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Young Ju Ko and Hyun Su Lee.

We investigate the prospects for measuring the coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering of solar and supernova neutrinos in future NaI(Tl) dark matter detection experiments. Considering the reduced background and improved light yield of the recently developed NaI(Tl) crystals, more than 3$\sigma$ observation sensitivities of the supernova neutrino within the Milky Way are demonstrated. In the case of the solar neutrino, approximately 3 observations are marginal with a 1 ton NaI(Tl) experiment assuming an order of magnitude reduced background, five photoelectron thresholds, and 5-year data exposure.**Dark Matter decay to neutrinos**

2210.01303 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles, [and 6 more]Diyaselis Delgado, Avi Friedlander, Ali Kheirandish, Ibrahim Safa, Aaron C. Vincent, and Henry White [hide authors].

It is possible that the strongest interactions between dark matter and the Standard Model occur via the neutrino sector. Unlike gamma rays and charged particles, neutrinos provide a unique avenue to probe for astrophysical sources of dark matter, since they arrive unimpeded and undeflected from their sources. Previously, we reported on annihilations of dark matter to neutrinos; here, we review constraints on the decay of dark matter into neutrinos over a range of dark matter masses from MeV to ZeV, compiling previously reported limits, exploring new electroweak corrections and computing constraints where none have been computed before. We examine the expected contributions to the neutrino flux at current and upcoming neutrino experiments as well as photons from electroweak emission expected at gamma-ray telescopes, leading to constraints on the dark matter decay lifetime, which ranges from $\tau \sim 1.2\times10^{21}$ s at 10 MeV to $1.5\times10^{29}$s at 1 PeV.**How to Identify Different New Neutrino Oscillation Physics Scenarios at DUNE**

2210.00109 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton, Alessio Giarnetti, and Davide Meloni.

Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments are expected to measure the remaining oscillation parameters with very good precision. They will have unprecedented capabilities to search for new physics that modify oscillations. DUNE, with its broad band beam, good particle identification, and relatively high energies will provide an excellent environment to search for new physics. If deviations from the standard three-flavor oscillation picture are seen however, it is crucial to know which new physics scenario is found so that it can be verified elsewhere and theoretically understood. We investigate several benchmark new physics scenarios by looking at existing long-baseline accelerator neutrino data from NOvA and T2K and determine at what sensitivity DUNE can differentiate among them. We consider sterile neutrinos and both vector and scalar non-standard neutrino interactions, all with new complex phases, the latter of which could conceivably provide absolute neutrino mass scale information. We find that, in many interesting cases, DUNE will have good model discrimination. We also perform a new fit to NOvA and T2K data with scalar NSI.**Neutrino propagation in the Earth and emerging charged leptons with $\texttt{nuPyProp}$**

2209.15581 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Diksha Garg, [and 24 more]Sameer Patel, Mary Hall Reno, Alexander Reustle, Yosui Akaike, Luis A. Anchordoqui, Douglas R. Bergman, Isaac Buckland, Austin L. Cummings, Johannes Eser, Fred Garcia, Claire Guépin, Tobias Heibges, Andrew Ludwig, John F. Krizmanic, Simon Mackovjak, Eric Mayotte, Sonja Mayotte, Angela V. Olinto, Thomas C. Paul, Andrés Romero-Wolf, Frédéric Sarazin, Tonia M. Venters, Lawrence Wiencke, and Stephanie Wissel [hide authors].

Ultra-high-energy neutrinos serve as messengers of some of the highest energy astrophysical environments. Given that neutrinos are neutral and only interact via weak interactions, neutrinos can emerge from sources, traverse astronomical distances, and point back to their origins. Their weak interactions require large target volumes for neutrino detection. Using the Earth as a neutrino converter, terrestrial, sub-orbital, and satellite-based instruments are able to detect signals of neutrino-induced extensive air showers. In this paper, we describe the software code $\texttt{nuPyProp}$ that simulates tau neutrino and muon neutrino interactions in the Earth and predicts the spectrum of the $\tau$-lepton and muons that emerge. The $\texttt{nuPyProp}$ outputs are lookup tables of charged lepton exit probabilities and energies that can be used directly or as inputs to the $\texttt{nuSpaceSim}$ code designed to simulate optical and radio signals from extensive air showers induced by the emerging charged leptons. We describe the inputs to the code, demonstrate its flexibility and show selected results for $\tau$-lepton and muon exit probabilities and energy distributions. The $\texttt{nuPyProp}$ code is open source, available on Github.**Solar neutrino physics**

2209.14832 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Xun-Jie Xu, Zhe Wang, and Shaomin Chen.

As a free, intensive, rarely interactive and well directional messenger, solar neutrinos have been driving both solar physics and neutrino physics developments for more than half a century. Since more extensive and advanced neutrino experiments are under construction, being planned or proposed, we are striving toward an era of precise and comprehensive measurement of solar neutrinos in the next decades. In this article, we review recent theoretical and experimental progress achieved in solar neutrino physics. We present not only an introduction to neutrinos from the standard solar model and the standard flavor evolution, but also a compilation of a variety of new physics that could affect and hence be probed by solar neutrinos. After reviewing the latest techniques and issues involved in the measurement of solar neutrino spectra and background reduction, we provide our anticipation on the physics gains from the new generation of neutrino experiments.**The Status of the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess**

2209.14370 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dan Hooper.

The Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess has a spectrum, angular distribution, and overall intensity that agree remarkably well with that expected from annihilating dark matter particles in the form of a $m_X \sim 50 \, {\rm GeV}$ thermal relic. Previous claims that these photons are clustered on small angular scales or trace the distribution of known stellar populations once appeared to favor interpretations in which this signal originates from a large population of unresolved millisecond pulsars. More recent work, however, has overturned these conclusions, finding that the observed gamma-ray excess does {\it not} contain discernible small scale power, and is distributed with approximate spherical symmetry, not tracing any known stellar populations. In light of these results, it now appears significantly more likely that the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess is produced by annihilating dark matter.**Non-standard neutrino interactions in light mediator models at reactor experiments**

2209.13566 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Bhaskar Dutta, [and 4 more]Sumit Ghosh, Tianjun Li, Adrian Thompson, and Ankur Verma [hide authors].

Compared to other neutrino sources, the huge anti-neutrino fluxes at nuclear reactor based experiments empower us to derive stronger bounds on non-standard interactions of neutrinos with electrons mediated by light scalar/vector mediators. At neutrino energy around $200$~keV reactor anti-neutrino flux is at least an order of magnitude larger compared to the solar flux. The atomic and crystal form factors of the detector materials related to the details of the atomic structure becomes relevant at this energy scale as the momentum transfers would be small. Non-standard neutrino-electron interaction mediated by light scalar/vector mediator arises naturally in many low-scale models. We also propose one such new model with a light scalar mediator. Here, we investigate the parameter space of such low-scale models in reactor based neutrino experiments with low threshold Ge and Si detectors, and find the prospect of probing/ruling out the relevant parameter space by finding the projected sensitivity at $90 \%$ confidence level by performing a $\chi^2$-analysis. We find that a detector capable of discriminating between electron recoil and nuclear recoil signal down to a very low threshold such as $5$~eV placed in reactor based experiment would be able to probe a larger region in parameter space compared to the previously explored region. A Ge (Si) detector with $10$~kg-yr exposure and 1 MW reactor anti-neutrino flux would be able to probe the scalar and vector mediators with masses below 1 keV for coupling products $\sqrt{g_\nu g_e}$ $\sim$ $1 \times 10^{-6}~(9.5 \times 10^{-7})$ and $1\times 10^{-7} ~(8\times 10^{-8})$, respectively.**Neutrino non-radiative decay and the diffuse supernova neutrino background**

2209.12465 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Ivanez-Ballesteros and M. Cristina Volpe.

We revisit the possibility that neutrinos undergo non-radiative decay. We investigate the potential to extract information on the neutrino lifetime-to-mass ratio from the diffuse supernova neutrino background. To this aim, we explicitly consider the current uncertainties on the core-collapse supernova rate and the fraction of failed supernovae. We present predictions in a full 3 neutrino framework in the absence and presence of neutrino non-radiative decay, for the Super-Kamiokande+Gd, the JUNO, the Hyper-Kamiokande, and the DUNE experiments, that should observe the diffuse supernova neutrino background in the near future. Our results show the importance of a 3 neutrino treatment of neutrino decay and of identifying the neutrino mass ordering to break possible degeneracies between DSNB predictions in the presence of decay and standard physics.**Strong Supernova 1987A Constraints on Bosons Decaying to Neutrinos**

2209.11773 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Damiano F. G. Fiorillo, Georg G. Raffelt, and Edoardo Vitagliano.

Majoron-like bosons would emerge from a supernova (SN) core by neutrino coalescence of the form $\nu\nu\to\phi$ and $\bar\nu\bar\nu\to\phi$ with 100 MeV-range energies. Subsequent decays to (anti)neutrinos of all flavors provide a flux component with energies much larger than the usual flux from the ``neutrino sphere.'' The absence of 100 MeV-range events in the Kamiokande~II and IMB signal of SN~1987A implies that less than 1\% of the total energy was thus emitted and provides the strongest constraint on the majoron-neutrino coupling of $g\lesssim 10^{-9}\,{\rm MeV}/m_\phi$ for $100~{\rm eV}\lesssim m_\phi\lesssim 100~{\rm MeV}$. It is straightforward to extend our new argument to other hypothetical feebly interacting particles.**Determination of the total cross section and $ρ$-parameter from elastic scattering in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector**

2209.11487 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hasko Stenzel.

A new measurement of elastic $pp$ scattering at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV with the ATLAS-ALFA detector is presented. The measurement was performed using data recorded in a special run of the LHC with $\beta^\star = 2.5$ km. The elastic cross-section was measured differentially in the Mandelstam $t$ variable and from a fit to ${\textrm{d}}\sigma/\textrm{d}t$ the total cross section, the $\rho$-parameter and parameters of the nuclear slope are determined. The results for $\sigma_{\textrm{tot}}$ and $\rho$ are \begin{equation*} \sigma_{\textrm{tot}}(pp\rightarrow X) = \mbox{104.7} \; \pm 1.1 \; \mbox{mb} , \; \; \rho = \mbox{0.098} \; \pm 0.011 . \end{equation*} The energy evolution of $\sigma_{\textrm{tot}}$ and $\rho$, connected through dispersion relations, is compared to several models. Furthermore, the total inelastic cross section is determined from the difference of the total and elastic cross section, and the ratio of the elastic to total cross section is calculated.**Probing non-unitarity of neutrino mixing in the scenario of Lorentz violation and dark nonstandard interaction**

2209.10233 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Trisha Sarkar.

Neutrino flavour oscillation is one of the primary indication of the existence of new physics beyond standard model. The presence of small neutrino mass is indispensable to explicate the oscillation among different flavours of neutrino. By the addition of a right handed neutral lepton with the standard model fermions, it is possible to generate tiny neutrino mass. Such additional fermion may induce non-unitarity to the $3\times 3$ PMNS mixing matrix which influences the propagation of neutrino in space-time. In this work the effect of non-unitary mixing matrix is analyzed in neutrino oscillation in presence of two new physics scenarios, Lorentz violation and dark non-standard interaction. Lorentz symmetry violation mainly appears at the Planck scale, which may also be manifested at a lower energy level. On the other hand, dark non standard interaction arises due to the interaction of neutrino with the environmental dark matter which contributes as a perturbative correction to the neutrino mass. In this analysis, the comparative study of unitary and non-unitary mixing matrix is carried out considering the scenario of Lorentz violation and dark NSI in the context of long baseline DUNE and short baseline Daya Bay experimental set up. The signature of dark nonstandard interaction is observable in both DUNE and Daya Bay set up in terms of large value of neutrino survival and oscillation probability respectively and is a possible explanation for the excess flux observed at $\sim5$ MeV in Daya Bay experiment. The signature of Lorentz violation is also possible to be observed in the short baseline Daya Bay experiment only.**Prospects for detection of a Galactic diffuse neutrino flux**

2209.10011 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pedro De la Torre Luque, Daniele Gaggero, and Dario Grasso.

A Galactic cosmic-ray transport model featuring non-homogeneous transport has been developed over the latest years. This setup is aimed at reproducing gamma-ray observations in different regions of the Galaxy (with particular focus on the progressive hardening of the hadronic spectrum in the inner Galaxy) and was shown to be compatible with the very-high-energy gamma-ray diffuse emission recently detected up to PeV energies. In this work, we extend the results previously presented to test the reliability of that model throughout the whole sky. To this aim, we compare our predictions with detailed longitude and latitude profiles of the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by Fermi-LAT for different energies and compute the expected Galactic neutrino diffuse emission, comparing it with current limits from the ANTARES collaboration. We emphasize that the possible detection of a Galactic neutrino component will allow us to break the degeneracy between our model and other scenarios featuring prominent contributions from unresolved sources and TeV halos.**Floating Dark Matter in Celestial Bodies**

2209.09834 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rebecca K. Leane and Juri Smirnov.

Dark matter (DM) can be captured in celestial bodies after scattering and losing sufficient energy to become gravitationally bound. We derive a general framework that describes the current DM distribution inside celestial objects, which self-consistently includes the effects of concentration diffusion, thermal diffusion, gravity, and capture accumulation. For DM with sufficient interactions, we show that a significant DM population can thermalize and sit towards the celestial-body surface. This floating distribution allows for new phenomenology for DM searches in a wide range of celestial bodies, including the Sun, Earth, Jupiter, Brown Dwarfs, and Exoplanets.**Neutrino forces in neutrino backgrounds**

2209.07082 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mitrajyoti Ghosh, [and 4 more]Yuval Grossman, Walter Tangarife, Xun-Jie Xu, and Bingrong Yu [hide authors].

The Standard Model predicts a long-range force, proportional to $G_F^2/r^5$, between fermions due to the exchange of a pair of neutrinos. This quantum force is feeble and has not been observed yet. In this paper, we compute this force in the presence of neutrino backgrounds, both for isotropic and directional background neutrinos. We find that for the case of directional background the force can have a $1/r$ dependence and it can be significantly enhanced compared to the vacuum case. In particular, background effects caused by reactor, solar, and supernova neutrinos enhance the force by many orders of magnitude. The enhancement, however, occurs only in the direction parallel to the direction of the background neutrinos. We discuss the experimental prospects of detecting the neutrino force in neutrino backgrounds and find that the effect is close to the available sensitivity of the current fifth force experiments. Yet, the angular spread of the neutrino flux and that of the test masses reduce the strength of this force. The results are encouraging and a detailed experimental study is called for to check if the effect can be probed.**New constraints on the dark matter-neutrino and dark matter-photon scattering cross sections from TXS 0506+056**

2209.06339 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Francesc Ferrer, Gonzalo Herrera, and Alejandro Ibarra.

The flux of high energy neutrinos and photons produced in a blazar could get attenuated when they propagate through the dark matter spike around the central black hole and the halo of the host galaxy. Using the observation by IceCube of a few high-energy neutrino events from TXS 0506+056, and their coincident gamma ray events, we obtain new constraints on the dark matter-neutrino and dark matter-photon scattering cross sections. Our constraints are orders of magnitude more stringent than those derived from considering the attenuation through the intergalactic medium and the Milky Way dark matter halo. When the cross-section increases with energy, our constraints are also stronger than those derived from the CMB and large-scale structure.**Probing Quantum Gravity with Elastic Interactions of Ultra-High-Energy Neutrinos**

2209.06282 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alfonso Garcia Soto, [and 3 more]Diksha Garg, Mary Hall Reno, and Carlos A. Argüelles [hide authors].

The next generation of radio telescopes will be sensitive to low-scale quantum gravity by measuring ultra-high-energy neutrinos. In this letter, we demonstrate for the first time that neutrino-nucleon soft interactions induced by TeV-scale gravity would significantly increase the number of events detected by the IceCube-Gen2 radio array in the EeV regime. However, we show that these experiments cannot measure the total cross section using only the angular and energy information of the neutrino flux, unless assumptions on the underlying inelasticity distribution of neutral interactions are made.**Imprints of scalar NSI on the CP-violation sensitivity using synergy among DUNE, T2HK and T2HKK**

2209.05287 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Abinash Medhi, Moon Moon Devi, and Debajyoti Dutta.

The Non-Standard Interactions (NSIs) are subdominant effects, often appearing in various extensions of SM, which may impact the neutrino oscillations through matter. It is important and interesting to explore the impact of NSIs in the ongoing and upcoming precise neutrino oscillations experiments. In this work, we have studied the imprints of a scalar-mediated NSI in three upcoming long-baseline (LBL) experiments (DUNE, T2HK, T2HKK). The effects of scalar NSI appears as a medium-dependent correction to the neutrino mass term. Its contribution scales linearly with matter density, making LBL experiments a suitable candidate to probe its effects. We show that the scalar NSI may significantly impact the oscillation probabilities, event rates at the detectors and the $\chi^2$-sensitivities of $\delta_{CP}$ measurements. We present the results of a combined analysis involving the LBL experiments (DUNE+T2HK, DUNE+T2HKK, DUNE+T2HK+T2HKK) which offer a better capability of constraining the scalar NSI parameters as well as an improved sensitivity towards CP-violation.**Majorana versus Dirac Constraints on the Neutrino Dipole Moments**

2209.03373 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, [and 3 more]Giancarlo Jusino Sánchez, Pedro A. N. Machado, and Zahra Tabrizi [hide authors].

Massive neutrinos are guaranteed to have nonzero electromagnetic moments and, since there are at least three neutrino species, these dipole moments define a matrix. Here, we estimate the current upper bounds on all independent neutrino electromagnetic moments, concentrating on Earth-bound experiments and measurements with solar neutrinos, including the very recent results reported by XENONnT. We make no simplifying assumptions and compare the hypotheses that neutrinos are Majorana fermions or Dirac fermions. In particular, we fully explore constraints in the Dirac-neutrino parameter space. Majorana and Dirac neutrinos are different; for example, the upper bounds on the magnitudes of the elements of the dipole moment matrix are weaker for Dirac neutrinos, relative to Majorana neutrinos. The potential physics reach of next-generation experiments also depends on the nature of the neutrino. We find that a next-generation experiment two orders of magnitude more sensitive to the neutrino electromagnetic moments via $\nu_{\mu}$ elastic scattering may discover that the neutrino electromagnetic moments are nonzero if the neutrinos are Dirac fermions. Instead, if the neutrinos are Majorana fermions, such a discovery is ruled out by existing solar neutrino data, unless there are more than three light neutrinos.**Testing the Gallium Anomaly**

2209.02885 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Patrick Huber.

We study the online detection by gallium capture of mono-energetic neutrinos produced by a $^{51}$Cr radioactive source in a scintillation experiment. We find that cerium-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG) is a suitable scintillator which contains about 21% of gallium per weight and has a high mass density and light yield. Combined with a highly efficient light detection system this allows tagging of the subsequent germanium decay and thus a clean distinction of gallium capture and elastic neutrino electron scattering events. With 1.5 tons of scintillator and 10 source runs of 3.4MCi, each, we obtain about 760 gallium capture events with a purity of 85% and 680,000 neutrino electron scattering events, where the latter provide a precise normalization independent of any nuclear physics. This configuration would allow to test the gallium anomaly at more than $5\sigma$ in an independent way.**Blazar constraints on neutrino-dark matter scattering**

2209.02713 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by James M. Cline, [and 7 more]Shan Gao, Fangyi Guo, Zhongan Lin, Shiyan Liu, Matteo Puel, Phillip Todd, and Tianzhuo Xiao [hide authors].

Neutrino emission in coincidence with gamma rays has been observed from the blazar TXS 0506+056 by the IceCube telescope. Neutrinos from the blazar had to pass through a dense spike of dark matter (DM) surrounding the central black hole. The observation of such a neutrino implies new upper bounds on the neutrino-DM scattering cross section as a function of DM mass. The constraint is stronger than existing ones for a range of DM masses, if the cross section rises linearly with energy. For constant cross sections, competitive bounds are also possible, depending on details of the DM spike.**Gallium Anomaly: Critical View from the Global Picture of $ν_{e}$ and $\barν_{e}$ Disappearance**

2209.00916 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Giunti, [and 4 more]Y. F. Li, C. A. Ternes, O. Tyagi, and Z. Xin [hide authors].

The significance of the Gallium Anomaly, from the BEST, GALLEX, and SAGE radioactive source experiments, is quantified using different theoretical calculations of the neutrino detection cross section, and its explanation due to neutrino oscillations is compared with the bounds from the analyses of reactor rate and spectral ratio data, $\beta$-decay data, and solar neutrino data. In the 3+1 active-sterile neutrino mixing scheme, the Gallium Anomaly is in strong tension with the individual and combined bounds of these data sets. In the combined scenario with all available data, the parameter goodness of fit is below 0.042%, corresponding to a severe tension of 4-5$\sigma$, or stronger. Therefore, we conclude that one should pursue other possible solutions beyond short-baseline oscillations for the Gallium Anomaly. We also present a new global fit of $\nu_e$ and $\bar\nu_e$ disappearance data, showing that there is a 2.6-3.3$\sigma$ preference in favor of short-baseline oscillations, which is driven by an updated analysis of reactor spectral ratio data.**Comment on "Damping of neutrino oscillations, decoherence and the lengths of neutrino wave packets''**

2209.00561 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by B. J. P. Jones.

We point out three apparent inconsistencies in the treatment of oscillation coherence from reactor neutrino and source neutrino experiments in recent paper "Damping of neutrino oscillations, decoherence and the lengths of neutrino wave packets''. First, that the dependence of the oscillation probability upon the subsequent interactions of entangled recoil particles implies causality violations and in some situations superluminal signaling; second, that integrating over a non-orthogonal basis for the entangled recoil leads to unphysical effects; and third, that the question of what interactions serve to measure the position of the initial state particle remains ambiguous. These points taken together appear to undermine the claim made therein that the effects of wave packet separation must be strictly unobservable in reactor and radioactive source based neutrino experiments.**Characterising Dark Matter-induced neutrino potentials**

2209.00442 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gabriel M. Salla.

In this paper we explore interactions between neutrinos and Dark Matter. In particular, we study how the propagation of astrophysical neutrinos can be modified by computing the most general potential generated by the galactic DM background. We use on-shell techniques to compute this potential in a completely model independent way and obtain an expression valid for any Dark Matter mass and spin. Afterwards, we use this expression to analyse under what circumstances such potential can be important at the phenomenological level, and we find that under some assumptions only ultra light scalar Dark Matter could be of any relevance to oscillation experiments.**Addressing the Short-Baseline Neutrino Anomalies with Energy-Dependent Mixing Parameters**

2209.00031 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by K. S. Babu, [and 3 more]Vedran Brdar, André de Gouvêa, and Pedro A. N. Machado [hide authors].

Several neutrino experiments have reported results that are potentially inconsistent with our current understanding of the lepton sector. A candidate solution to these so-called short-baseline anomalies is postulating the existence of new, eV-scale, mostly sterile neutrinos that mix with the active neutrinos. This hypothesis, however, is strongly disfavored once one considers all neutrino data, especially those that constrain the disappearance of muon and electron neutrinos at short-baselines. Here, we show that if the sterile-active mixing parameters depend on the energy-scales that characterize neutrino production and detection, the sterile-neutrino hypothesis may provide a reasonable fit to all neutrino data. The reason for the improved fit is that the stringent disappearance constraints on the different elements of the extended neutrino mixing matrix are associated to production and detection energy scales that are different from those that characterize the anomalous LSND and MiniBooNE appearance data. We show, via a concrete example, that secret interactions among the sterile neutrinos can lead to the results of interest.**Exploiting stellar explosion induced by the QCD phase transition in large-scale neutrino detectors**

2208.14469 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tetyana Pitik, [and 3 more]Daniel Heimsoth, Anna M. Suliga, and A. B. Balantekin [hide authors].

The centers of the core-collapse supernovae are one of the densest environments in the Universe. Under such conditions, it is conceivable that a first-order phase transition from ordinary nuclear matter to the quark-gluon plasma occurs. This transition releases a large amount of latent heat that can drive a supernova explosion and may imprint a sharp signature in the neutrino signal. We show how this snap feature, if observed at large-scale neutrino detectors, can set competitive limits on the neutrino masses and assist the localization of the supernova via triangulation. The 95\%C.L. limit on the neutrino mass can reach 0.16~eV in Ice-Cube, 0.22~eV in Hyper-Kamiokande, and 0.58~eV in DUNE, for a supernova at a distance of 10 kpc. For the same distance and in the most optimistic neutrino conversion case, the triangulation method can constrain the $1\sigma$ angular uncertainty of the supernova localization within $\sim 0.3^{\circ}-9.0^{\circ}$ in the considered pairs of the detectors, leading to an improvement up to an order of magnitude with respect to the often considered in the literature rise time of the neutronization burst.**Physics implications of recent Dresden-II reactor data**

2208.13262 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anirban Majumdar, [and 3 more]Dimitrios K. Papoulias, Rahul Srivastava, and José W. F. Valle [hide authors].

Prompted by the recent Dresden-II reactor data we examine its implications for the determination of the weak mixing angle, paying attention to the effect of the quenching function. We also determine the resulting constraints on the unitarity of the neutrino mixing matrix, as well as on the most general type of nonstandard neutral-current neutrino interactions.**Constraining Non-Standard Interactions with Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering at the European Spallation Source**

2208.11771 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sabya Sachi Chatterjee, [and 3 more]Stéphane Lavignac, O. G. Miranda, and G. Sanchez Garcia [hide authors].

The European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Sweden, will provide an intense pulsed neutrino flux allowing for high-statistics measurements of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE{\nu}NS) with advanced nuclear recoil detectors. In this paper, we investigate in detail the possibility of constraining non-standard neutrino interactions (NSIs) through such precision CE{\nu}NS measurements at the ESS, considering the different proposed detection technologies, either alone or in combination. We first study the sensitivity to neutral-current NSI parameters that each detector can reach in 3 years of data taking. We then show that operating two detectors simultaneously can significantly improve the expected sensitivity on flavor-diagonal NSI parameters. Combining the results of two detectors turns out to be even more useful when two NSI parameters are assumed to be nonvanishing at a time. In this case, suitably chosen detector combinations can reduce the degeneracies between some pairs of NSI parameters to a small region of the parameter space.**Quantum Gravitational Decoherence in the 3 Neutrino Flavor Scheme**

2208.11754 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dominik Hellmann, Heinrich Päs, and Erika Rani.

In many theories of quantum gravity quantum fluctuations of spacetime may serve as an environment for decoherence. Here we study quantum-gravitational decoherence of high energy astrophysical neutrinos in the presence of fermionic dark sectors and for a realistic three neutrino scenario. We show how violation of global symmetries expected to arise in quantum gravitational interactions provides a possibility to pin down the number of dark matter fermions in the universe. Furthermore, we predict the expected total neutrino flux and flavor ratios at experiments depending on the flavor composition at the source.**Probing neutrino interactions and dark radiation with gravitational waves**

2208.11714 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Marilena Loverde and Zachary J. Weiner.

After their generation, cosmological backgrounds of gravitational waves propagate nearly freely but for the expansion of the Universe and the anisotropic stress of free-streaming particles. Primordial signals -- both that from inflation and the infrared spectrum associated to subhorizon production mechanisms -- would carry clean information about the cosmological history of these effects. We study the modulation of the standard damping of gravitational waves by free-streaming radiation due to the decoupling (or recoupling) of interactions. We focus on nonstandard neutrino interactions in effect after the decoupling of weak interactions as well as more general scenarios in the early Universe involving other light relics. We develop semianalytic results in fully free-streaming scenarios to provide intuition for numerical results that incorporate interaction rates with a variety of temerpature dependencies. Finally, we compute the imprint of neutrino interactions on the $B$-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background, and we comment on other means to infer the presence of such effects at higher frequencies.**Recent results from the TOTEM collaboration and the discovery of the odderon**

2208.10782 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Royon.

We describe the most recent results from the TOTEM collaboration on elastic, inelastic and total cross sections as well as the odderon discovery by the D0 and TOTEM collaborations.**The carbon footprint of proposed $\rm e^+e^-$ Higgs factories**

2208.10466 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Patrick Janot and Alain Blondel.

The energy consumption of any of the $\rm e^+e^-$ Higgs factory projects that can credibly operate immediately after the end of LHC, namely three linear colliders (CLIC, operating at $\sqrt{s}=380$GeV; and ILC and $\rm C^3$, operating at $\sqrt{s}=250$ GeV) and two circular colliders (CEPC and FCC-ee, operating at $\sqrt{s}=240$ GeV), will be everything but negligible. Future Higgs boson studies may therefore have a significant environmental impact. This note proposes to include the carbon footprint for a given physics performance as a top-level gauge for the design optimization and, eventually, the choice of the future facility. The projected footprints per Higgs boson produced, evaluated using the 2021 carbon emission of available electricity, are found to vary by a factor 100 depending on the considered Higgs factory project.**Texture of Two Vanishing Subtraces in Neutrino Mass Matrix and Current Experimental Tests**

2208.10344 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Ismael, E. I. Lashin, and N. Chamoun.

We present a full phenomenological and analytical study for the neutrino mass matrix characterized by two vanishing $2\times2$ subtraces. We update one past result in light of the recent experimental data. Out of the fifteen possible textures, we find seven cases can accommodate the experimental data instead of eight ones in the past study. We also introduce few symmetry realizations for viable and nonviable textures based on non-abelian ($A_4$ or $S_4$) flavor symmetry within type II seesaw scenario.**Discovering neutrinoless double-beta decay in the era of precision neutrino cosmology**

2208.09954 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Manuel Ettengruber, [and 4 more]Matteo Agostini, Allen Caldwell, Philipp Eller, and Oliver Schulz [hide authors].

We evaluate the discovery probability of a combined analysis of proposed neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments in a scenario with normal ordered neutrino masses. The discovery probability strongly depends on the value of the lightest neutrino mass, ranging from zero in case of vanishing masses and up to 80-90\% for values just below the current constraints. We study the discovery probability in different scenarios, focusing on the exciting prospect in which cosmological surveys will measure the sum of neutrino masses. Uncertainties in nuclear matrix element calculations partially compensate each other when data from different isotopes are available. Although a discovery is not granted, the theoretical motivations for these searches and the presence of scenarios with high discovery probability strongly motivates the proposed international, multi-isotope experimental program.**Zoom in muon survival probability with sterile neutrino for CP and T-violation**

2208.09696 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kiran Sharma and Sudhanwa Patra.

We present the approximated analytic expressions for the muon survival probability in a $3+1$ mixing scenario in the presence of matter effect using the S-matrix formalism. We find that all the individual terms contributing to the muon survival probability can significantly reduce to just three contributions. The leading order contribution comes from the three flavor muon survival probability followed by the two sub-leading contributions arising from active-sterile mixing. Furthermore, to more simplify the results we adopt the well known series expansion relations about mass-hierarchy parameter $\alpha = \Delta m^2_{21} / \Delta m^2_{31}$ and the mixing angle $\sin \theta_{13}$ in the vanishing limit of $\alpha^2$. We discuss the relevance of muon survival probability to probe the CP and T-violation studies coming from the new physics. We also compare the analytic relation between vacuum and matter contributions to the muon survival probability at the leading order. Finally, we comment on the probability behavior at the various long baselines relevant to understand the atmospheric-neutrino sector and to resolve the existing mass-hierarchy problem.**Extra dimensions with light and heavy neutral leptons: An application to CE$ν$NS**

2208.09584 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Amir N. Khan.

We explore the possibility of relating extra dimensions with light and heavy Dirac-type neutral leptons and develop a framework for testing them in various laboratory experiments. The Kaluza-Klein modes in the large extra dimension models of the light neutral leptons could mix with the standard model neutrinos and produce observable effects in the oscillation experiments. We show that the chirality flipping up-scattering processes occurring through either neutrino magnetic dipole moment or the weakly coupled scalar interactions can also produce heavy Kaluza-Klein modes of the corresponding right-handed neutral leptons propagating in one or more extra dimensions. However, to conserve the four-dimensional energy-momentum, their masses must be below the maximum energy of the neutrinos in the initial state. The appreciable size of extra dimensions connected with these heavy neutral leptons can thus affect the cross-sections of these processes. This framework applies to any up-scattering process. Our work here focuses only on its application to the coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering process. We derive constraints on the size of extra dimensions using the COHERENT data in oscillation and up-scattering processes. For model with one large extra dimension for the light neutral leptons, we obtain the limits, $R \sim 3 \ \mu$m (NH) and $R \sim 2.5 \ \mu$m (IH), on the size of extra dimension corresponding to the absolute mass limit, $m_{0} \leq 3 \times 10^{-3}$ eV at 90$\%$ C.L. from the short-baseline oscillations. Using the up-scattering process for heavy neutral leptons, we obtain new parameter spaces between the size of extra dimensions and parameters of the dipole or scalar interactions.**$E_{\mathrm{iso}}$-$E_{\mathrm{p}}$ correlation of gamma ray bursts: calibration and cosmological applications**

2208.09272 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by X. D. Jia, [and 4 more]J. P. Hu, J. Yang, B. B. Zhang, and F. Y. Wang [hide authors].

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most explosive phenomena and can be used to study the expansion of Universe. In this paper, we compile a long GRB sample for the $E_{\mathrm{iso}}$-$E_{\mathrm{p}}$ correlation from Swift and Fermi observations. The sample contains 221 long GRBs with redshifts from 0.03 to 8.20. From the analysis of data in different redshift intervals, we find no statistically significant evidence for the redshift evolution of this correlation. Then we calibrate the correlation in six sub-samples and use the calibrated one to constrain cosmological parameters. Employing a piece-wise approach, we study the redshift evolution of dark energy equation of state (EOS), and find that the EOS tends to be oscillating at low redshift, but consistent with $-1$ at high redshift. It hints a dynamical dark energy at $2\sigma$ confidence level at low redshift.**UHE neutrinos encountering decaying and non-decaying magnetic fields of compact stars**

2208.06644 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Neetu Raj Singh Chundawat, Arindam Mandal, and Trisha Sarkar.

The phenomena of neutrino spin flavour precession in the presence of an extraneous magnetic field is a repercussion of neutrino magnetic moment which is consociated with the physics beyond the standard model of electroweak interactions. Ultra high energy neutrinos are spawned from a number of sources in the universe including the highly energetic astrophysical objects such as active galactic nuclei, blazar or supermassive black holes. When such high energy neutrinos pass through any compact stellar objects like neutron stars or white dwarfs, their flux can significantly reduce due to the exorbitant magnetic field provided by these compact objects. For Dirac neutrinos, such phenomena occur due to the conversion of neutrinos to their sterile counterparts. In this work, we consider a neutron star possessing a spatially varying magnetic field which may or may not decay with time. We find that, for the non-decaying magnetic field, the flux of high energy Dirac neutrinos becomes nearly half after passing through the neutron star. The flux is further enfeebled by $\sim 10\%$ in the presence of muons inside the neutron star. For decaying magnetic field, the flux reduction is abated by $\sim 5\%$ as compared to the temporally static magnetic field. In the case of a white dwarf, the depletion of flux is lesser as compared to the neutron stars.**Ultra-high energy neutrinos from high-redshift electromagnetic cascades**

2208.06440 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by AmirFarzan Esmaeili, [and 3 more]Antonio Capanema, Arman Esmaili, and Pasquale Dario Serpico [hide authors].

We study the impact of the muon pair production and double pair production processes induced by ultra-high energy photons on the cosmic microwave background. Although the muon pair production cross section is smaller than the electron pair production one, the associated energy loss length is comparable or shorter than the latter (followed by inverse Compton in the deep Klein-Nishina regime) at high-redshift, where the effect of the astrophysical radio background is expected to be negligible. By performing a simulation taking into account the details of $e/\gamma$ interactions at high energies, we show that a significant fraction of the electromagnetic energy injected at $E\gtrsim 10^{19}\,$eV at redshift $z\gtrsim 5$ is channeled into neutrinos. The double pair production plays a crucial role in enhancing the multiplicity of muon production in these electromagnetic cascades. The ultra-high energy neutrino spectrum, yet to be detected, can in principle harbour information on ultra-high energy sources in the young universe, either conventional or exotic ones, with weaker constraints from the diffuse gamma ray flux compared to their low redshift counterparts.**Implications of first LZ and XENONnT results: A comparative study of neutrino properties and light mediators**

2208.06415 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by ShivaSankar K. A., [and 4 more]Anirban Majumdar, Dimitrios K. Papoulias, Hemant Prajapati, and Rahul Srivastava [hide authors].

Next generation direct dark matter detection experiments are favorable facilities to probe neutrino properties and light mediators beyond the Standard Model. We explore the implications of the recent data reported by LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) and XENONnT collaborations on electromagnetic neutrino interactions and neutrino generalized interactions (NGIs). We show that XENONnT places the most stringent upper limits on the effective and transition neutrino magnetic moment (of the order of few $\times 10^{-12}~\mu_B$) as well as stringent constraints to neutrino millicharge (of the order of $\sim 10^{-13}~e$)--competitive to LZ--and improved by about one order of magnitude in comparison to existing constraints coming from Borexino and TEXONO. We furthermore explore the XENONnT and LZ sensitivities to simplified models with light NGIs and find improved constraints in comparison to those extracted from Borexino-Phase II data.**Evidence for PeV Proton Acceleration from Fermi-LAT Observations of SNR G106.3+2.7**

2208.05457 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ke Fang, [and 4 more]Matthew Kerr, Roger Blandford, Henrike Fleischhack, and Eric Charles [hide authors].

The existence of a "knee" at energy ~1 PeV in the cosmic-ray spectrum suggests the presence of Galactic PeV proton accelerators called "PeVatrons". Supernova Remnant (SNR) G106.3+2.7 is a prime candidate for one of these. The recent detection of very high energy (0.1-100 TeV) gamma rays from G106.3+2.7 may be explained either by the decay of neutral pions or inverse Compton scattering by relativistic electrons. We report an analysis of 12 years of Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data which shows that the GeV-TeV gamma-ray spectrum is much harder and requires a different total electron energy than the radio and X-ray spectra, suggesting it has a distinct, hadronic origin. The non-detection of gamma rays below 10 GeV implies additional constraints on the relativistic electron spectrum. A hadronic interpretation of the observed gamma rays is strongly supported. This observation confirms the long-sought connection between Galactic PeVatrons and SNRs. Moreover, it suggests that G106.3+2.7 could be the brightest member of a new population of SNRs whose gamma-ray energy flux peaks at TeV energies. Such a population may contribute to the cosmic-ray knee and be revealed by future very high energy gamma-ray detectors.**Implications of the QCD dynamics and a Super-Glashow astrophysical neutrino flux on the description of ultrahigh energy neutrino data**

2208.04597 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Victor P. Goncalves, Diego R. Gratieri, and Alex S. C. Quadros.

The number of events observed in neutrino telescopes depends on the neutrino fluxes in the Earth, their absorption while crossing the Earth and their interaction in the detector. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the QCD dynamics at high energies on the energy dependence of the average inelasticity and angular dependence of the absorption probability during the neutrino propagation through the Earth, as well in the determination of the properties of the incident astrophysical neutrino flux. Moreover, the number of events at the IceCube and IceCube - Gen2 are estimated considering different scenarios for the QCD dynamics and assuming the presence of a hypothetical Super - Glashow flux, which peaks for energies above the Glashow resonance.**Neutrino Decoherence and the Mass Hierarchy in the JUNO Experiment**

2208.04277 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eric Marzec and Joshua Spitz.

The finite size of a neutrino wavepacket at creation can affect its oscillation probability. Here, we consider the electron antineutrino wavepacket and decoherence in the context of the nuclear reactor based experiment JUNO. Given JUNO's high expected statistics [$\sim$100k IBD events ($\bar{\nu}_e p \rightarrow e^+ n$)], long baseline ($\sim$53\,km), and excellent energy resolution [$\sim$$0.03/\sqrt{E_{\mathrm{vis}}~\mathrm{(MeV)}}$], its sensitivity to the size of the wavepacket is expected to be quite strong. Unfortunately, this sensitivity may weaken the experiment's ability to measure the orientation of the neutrino mass hierarchy for currently allowed values of the wavepacket size. Here, we report both the JUNO experiment's ability to determine the hierarchy orientation in the presence of a finite wavepacket and its simultaneous sensitivity to size of the wavepacket and the hierarchy. We find that wavepacket effects are relevant for the hierarchy determination up to nearly two orders of magnitude above the current experimental lower limit on the size, noting that there is no theoretical consensus on the expectation of this value. We also consider the effect in the context of other aspects of JUNO's nominal three-neutrino oscillation measurement physics program and the prospect of future enhancements to sensitivity, including from precise measurements of $\Delta m^2_{3l}$ and a near detector.**Implications of Recent KATRIN Results for Lower-Limits on Neutrino Masses**

2208.03790 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ephraim Fischbach, [and 3 more]Dennis E. Krause, Quan Le Thien, and Carol Scarlett [hide authors].

Recently announced results from the KATRIN collaboration imply an upper bound on the effective electron anti-neutrino mass $m_{\nu_{e}}$, $m_{\nu_{e}}< 0.8~{\rm eV}/c^{2}$. Here we explore the implications of combining the KATRIN upper bound using a previously inferred lower bound on the smallest neutrino mass state, $m_{i,{\rm min}}\gtrsim 0.4~{\rm eV}/c^{2}$ implied by the stability of white dwarfs and neutron stars in the presence of long-range many-body neutrino-exchange forces. By combining a revised lower bound estimate with the expected final upper bound from KATRIN, we find that the available parameter space for $m_{\nu_{e}}$ may be closed completely within the next few years. We then extend the argument when a single light sterile neutrino flavor is present to set a lower mass limit on sterile neutrinos.**Damping of neutrino oscillations, decoherence and the lengths of neutrino wave packets**

2208.03736 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Evgeny Akhmedov and Alexei Y. Smirnov.

Spatial separation of the wave packets (WPs) of neutrino mass eigenstates leads to decoherence and damping of neutrino oscillations. Damping can also be caused by finite energy resolution of neutrino detectors or, in the case of experiments with radioactive neutrino sources, by finite width of the emitted neutrino line. We study in detail these two types of damping effects using reactor neutrino experiments and experiments with radioactive $^{51}$Cr source as examples. We demonstrate that the effects of decoherence by WP separation can always be incorporated into a modification of the energy resolution function of the detector and so are intimately entangled with it. We estimate for the first time the lengths $\sigma_x$ of WPs of reactor neutrinos and neutrinos from a radioactive $^{51}$Cr source. The obtained values, $\sigma_x = (2\times 10^{-5} - 1.4\times 10^{-4})$ cm, are at least six orders of magnitude larger than the currently available experimental lower bounds. We conclude that effects of decoherence by WP separation cannot be probed in reactor and radioactive source experiments.**Impact of Nuclear effects in Energy Reconstruction Methods on Sensitivity of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters at NO$ν$A experiment**

2208.03681 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Paramita Deka, Jaydip Singh, and Kalpana Bora.

Long baseline (LBL) neutrino experiments aim to measure the neutrino oscillation parameters to high precision. These experiments use nuclear targets for neutrino scattering and hence are inflicted with complexities of nuclear effects. Nuclear effects and their percolation into sensitivity measurement of neutrino oscillations parameters are not yet fully understood and therefore need to be dealt with carefully. In a recent work [1], we reported some results on this for NO$\nu$A experiment using the kinematic method of neutrino energy reconstruction, where it was observed that the nuclear effects are important in sensitivity analysis, and inclusion of realistic detector setup specifications increases uncertainty in this analysis as compared to ideal detector case. With this motivation, in this work, we use two methods of neutrino energy reconstruction - kinematic and calorimetric, including the nuclear effects, and study their impact on sensitivity analysis. We consider nuclear interactions such as RPA and 2p2h and compare two energy reconstruction methods with reference to events generation, measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters $\Delta m_{32}^2$ and $\theta_{23}$ for disappearance channel, mass hierarchy sensitivity, and CP-violation sensitivity for appearance channel of the NO$\nu$A experiment. It is observed that with an ideal detector setup, the kinematic method shows significant dependence on nuclear effects compared to the calorimetric method. We also investigate the impact of realistic detector setup for NO$\nu$A in these two methods (with nuclear effects) and find that the calorimetric method shows more bias (uncertainty increases) in sensitivity contours, as compared to the kinematic method. This is found to be true for both the mass hierarchies and for both neutrino and antineutrino incoming beams.**Bounds on ultralight bosons from the Event Horizon Telescope observation of Sgr A$^*$**

2208.03530 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Akash Kumar Saha, [and 5 more]Priyank Parashari, Tarak Nath Maity, Abhishek Dubey, Subhadip Bouri, and Ranjan Laha [hide authors].

Recent observation of Sagittarius A$^*$ (Sgr A$^*$) by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration has uncovered various unanswered questions in black hole (BH) physics. Besides, it may also probe various beyond the Standard Model (BSM) scenarios. One of the most profound possibilities is the search for ultralight bosons (ULBs) using BH superradiance (SR). EHT observations imply that Sgr A$^*$ has a non-zero spin. Using this observation, we derive bounds on the mass of ULBs with purely gravitational interactions. Considering self-interacting ultralight axions, we constrain new regions in the parameter space of decay constant, for a certain spin of Sgr A$^*$. Future observations of various spinning BHs can improve the present constraints on ULBs.**Unveiling the outer core composition with neutrino oscillation tomography**

2208.00532 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by L. Maderer, [and 4 more]E. Kaminski, J. A. B. Coelho, S. Bourret, and V. Van Elewyck [hide authors].

In the last 70 years, geophysics has established that the Earth's outer core is an FeNi alloy containing a few percent of light elements, whose nature and amount remain controversial today. Besides the classical combinations of silicon and oxygen, hydrogen has been advocated as the only light element that could account alone for both the density and velocity profiles of the outer core. Here we show how this question can be addressed from an independant viewpoint, by exploiting the tomographic information provided by atmospheric neutrinos, weakly-interacting particles produced in the atmosphere and constantly traversing the Earth. We evaluate the potential of the upcoming generation of atmospheric neutrino detectors for such a measurement, showing that they could efficiently detect the presence of 1 wt% of hydrogen in an FeNi core in 50 years of concomitant data taking. We then identify the main requirements for a next-generation detector to perform this measurement in a few years timescale, with the further capability to efficiently discriminate between FeNiH and FeNiSi(x)O(y) models in less than 15 years.**The brightest galaxies at Cosmic Dawn**

2207.14808 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Charlotte A. Mason, Michele Trenti, and Tommaso Treu.

Recent JWST observations suggest an excess of $z\gtrsim10$ galaxy candidates above most theoretical models. Here, we explore how the interplay between halo formation timescales, star formation efficiency and dust attenuation affects the properties and number densities of galaxies we can detect in the early universe. We calculate the theoretical upper limit on the UV luminosity function, assuming star formation is 100% efficient and all gas in halos is converted into stars, and that galaxies are at the peak age for UV emission (~10 Myr). This upper limit is ~4 orders of magnitude greater than current observations, implying these are fully consistent with star formation in $\Lambda$CDM cosmology. In a more realistic model, we use the distribution of halo formation timescales derived from extended Press-Schechter theory as a proxy for star formation rate (SFR). We predict that the galaxies observed so far at $z\gtrsim10$ are dominated by those with the fastest formation timescales, and thus most extreme SFRs and young ages. These galaxies can be upscattered by ~1.5 mag compared to the median UV magnitude vs halo mass relation. This likely introduces a selection effect at high redshift whereby only the youngest ($\lesssim$10 Myr), most highly star forming galaxies (specific SFR$\gtrsim$30 Gyr$^{-1}$) have been detected so far. Furthermore, our modelling suggests that redshift evolution at the bright end of the UV luminosity function is substantially affected by the build-up of dust attenuation. We predict that deeper JWST observations (reaching m~30) will reveal more typical galaxies with relatively older ages (~100 Myr) and less extreme specific SFRs (~10 Gyr$^{-1}$ for a $M_\mathrm{UV}$ ~ -20 galaxy at z~10).**Enhanced Small-Scale Structure in the Cosmic Dark Ages**

2207.14735 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Derek Inman and Kazunori Kohri.

We consider the consequences of a matter power spectrum which rises on small scales until eventually being cutoff by microphysical processes associated with the particle nature of dark matter. Evolving the perturbations of a weakly interacting massive particle from before decoupling until deep in the nonlinear regime, we show that nonlinear structure can form abundantly at very high redshifts. In such a scenario, dark matter annihilation is substantially increased after matter-radiation equality. Furthermore, since the power spectrum can be increased over a broad range of scales, the first star forming halos may form earlier than usual as well. The next challenge is determining how early Universe observations may constrain such enhanced dark matter perturbations.**The Profiled Feldman-Cousins technique for confidence interval construction in the presence of nuisance parameters**

2207.14353 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. A. Acero, [and 220 more]B. Acharya, P. Adamson, L. Aliaga, N. Anfimov, A. Antoshkin, E. Arrieta-Diaz, L. Asquith, A. Aurisano, A. Back, C. Backhouse, M. Baird, N. Balashov, P. Baldi, B. A. Bambah, S. Bashar, A. Bat, K. Bays, R. Bernstein, V. Bhatnagar, D. Bhattarai, B. Bhuyan, J. Bian, A. C. Booth, R. Bowles, B. Brahma, C. Bromberg, N. Buchanan, A. Butkevich, S. Calvez, T. J. Carroll, E. Catano-Mur, A. Chatla, R. Chirco, B. C. Choudhary, S. Choudhary, A. Christensen, T. E. Coan, M. Colo, L. Cremonesi, G. S. Davies, P. F. Derwent, P. Ding, Z. Djurcic, M. Dolce, D. Doyle, D. Dueñas Tonguino, E. C. Dukes, A. Dye, R. Ehrlich, M. Elkins, E. Ewart, G. J. Feldman, P. Filip, J. Franc, M. J. Frank, H. R. Gallagher, R. Gandrajula, F. Gao, A. Giri, R. A. Gomes, M. C. Goodman, V. Grichine, M. Groh, R. Group, B. Guo, A. Habig, F. Hakl, A. Hall, J. Hartnell, R. Hatcher, H. Hausner, M. He, K. Heller, V Hewes, A. Himmel, B. Jargowsky, J. Jarosz, F. Jediny, C. Johnson, M. Judah, I. Kakorin, D. M. Kaplan, A. Kalitkina, J. Kleykamp, O. Klimov, L. W. Koerner, L. Kolupaeva, S. Kotelnikov, R. Kralik, Ch. Kullenberg, M. Kubu, A. Kumar, C. D. Kuruppu, V. Kus, T. Lackey, K. Lang, P. Lasorak, J. Lesmeister, S. Lin, A. Lister, J. Liu, M. Lokajicek, J. M. C. Lopez, R. Mahji, S. Magill, M. Manrique Plata, W. A. Mann, M. T. Manoharan, M. L. Marshak, M. Martinez-Casales, V. Matveev, B. Mayes, B. Mehta, M. D. Messier, H. Meyer, T. Miao, V. Mikola, W. H. Miller, S. Mishra, S. R. Mishra, A. Mislivec, R. Mohanta, A. Moren, A. Morozova, W. Mu, L. Mualem, M. Muether, K. Mulder, D. Naples, A. Nath, N. Nayak, S. Nelleri, J. K. Nelson, R. Nichol, E. Niner, A. Norman, A. Norrick, T. Nosek, H. Oh, A. Olshevskiy, T. Olson, J. Ott, A. Pal, J. Paley, L. Panda, R. B. Patterson, G. Pawloski, D. Pershey, O. Petrova, R. Petti, D. D. Phan, R. K. Plunkett, A. Pobedimov, J. C. C. Porter, A. Rafique, L. R. Prais, V. Raj, M. Rajaoalisoa, B. Ramson, B. Rebel, P. Rojas, P. Roy, V. Ryabov, O. Samoylov, M. C. Sanchez, S. Sánchez Falero, P. Shanahan, P. Sharma, S. Shukla, A. Sheshukov, I. Singh, P. Singh, V. Singh, E. Smith, J. Smolik, P. Snopok, N. Solomey, A. Sousa, K. Soustruznik, M. Strait, L. Suter, A. Sutton, S. Swain, C. Sweeney, A. Sztuc, B. Tapia Oregui, P. Tas, B. N. Temizel, T. Thakore, R. B. Thayyullathil, J. Thomas, E. Tiras, J. Tripathi, J. Trokan-Tenorio, Y. Torun, J. Urheim, P. Vahle, Z. Vallari, J. Vasel, T. Vrba, M. Wallbank, T. K. Warburton, M. Wetstein, D. Whittington, D. A. Wickremasinghe, T. Wieber, J. Wolcott, M. Wrobel, W. Wu, Y. Xiao, B. Yaeggy, A. Yallappa Dombara, A. Yankelevich, K. Yonehara, S. Yu, Y. Yu, S. Zadorozhnyy, J. Zalesak, Y. Zhang, and R. Zwaska [hide authors].

Measuring observables to constrain models using maximum-likelihood estimation is fundamental to many physics experiments. The Profiled Feldman-Cousins method described here is a potential solution to common challenges faced in constructing accurate confidence intervals: small datasets, bounded parameters, and the need to properly handle nuisance parameters. This method achieves more accurate frequentist coverage than other methods in use, and is generally applicable to the problem of parameter estimation in neutrino oscillations and similar measurements. We describe an implementation of this method in the context of the NOvA experiment.**Unravelling the formation of the first supermassive black holes with the SKA pulsar timing array**

2207.14309 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hamsa Padmanabhan and Abraham Loeb.

Galaxy mergers at high redshifts trigger the activity of their central supermassive black holes, eventually also leading to their coalescence -- and a potential source of low-frequency gravitational waves detectable by the SKA Pulsar Timing Array (PTA). Two key parameters related to the fuelling of black holes are the Eddington ratio of quasar accretion $\eta_{\rm Edd}$, and the radiative efficiency of the accretion process, $\epsilon$ (which affects the so-called active lifetime of the quasar, $t_{\rm QSO}$). We forecast the regime of detectability of gravitational wave events with SKA PTA, finding the associated binaries to have orbital periods on the order of weeks to years, observable through relativistic Doppler velocity boosting and/or optical variability of their light curves. Combining the SKA regime of detectability with the latest observational constraints on high-redshift black hole mass and luminosity functions, and theoretically motivated prescriptions for the merger rates of dark matter haloes, we forecast the number of active counterparts of SKA PTA events expected as a function of primary black hole mass at $z \gtrsim 6$. We find that the quasar counterpart of the most massive black holes will be ${uniquely \ localizable}$ within the SKA PTA error ellipse at $z \gtrsim 6$. We also forecast the number of expected counterparts as a function of the quasars' Eddington ratio and active lifetime. Our results show that SKA PTA detections can place robust constraints on the seeding and growth mechanisms of the first supermassive black holes.**Jupiter missions as probes of dark matter**

2207.13709 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lingfeng Li and JiJi Fan.

Jupiter, the fascinating largest planet in the solar system, has been visited by nine spacecraft, which have collected a significant amount of data about Jovian properties. In this paper, we show that one type of the in situ measurements on the relativistic electron fluxes could be used to probe dark matter (DM) and dark mediator between the dark sector and our visible world. Jupiter, with its immense weight and cool core, could be an ideal capturer for DM with masses around the GeV scale. The captured DM particles could annihilate into long-lived dark mediators such as dark photons, which subsequently decay into electrons and positrons outside Jupiter. The charged particles, trapped by the Jovian magnetic field, have been measured in Jupiter missions such as the Galileo probe and the Juno orbiter. We use the data available to set upper bounds on the cross section of DM scattering off nucleons, $\sigma_{\chi n}$, for dark mediators with lifetime of order ${\cal O}(0.1-1)$s. The results show that data from Jupiter missions already probe regions in the parameter space un- or under-explored by existing DM searches, e.g., constrain $\sigma_{\chi n}$ of order $(10^{-40} - 10^{-38})$ cm$^2$ for 1 GeV DM dominantly annihilating into $e^+e^-$ through dark mediators. This study serves as an example and an initial step to explore the full physics potential of the large planetary datasets from Jupiter missions. We also outline several other potential directions related to secondary products of electrons, positron signals and solar axions.**Limits on the cosmic neutrino background**

2207.12413 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Martin Bauer and Jack D. Shergold.

We present the first comprehensive discussion of constraints on the cosmic neutrino background (C$\nu$B) overdensity, including theoretical, experimental and cosmological limits for a wide range of neutrino masses and temperatures. Additionally, we calculate the sensitivities of future direct and indirect relic neutrino detection experiments and compare the results with the existing constraints, extending several previous analyses by taking into account that the C$\nu$B reference frame may not be aligned with that of the Earth. The Pauli exclusion principle strongly disfavours overdensities $\eta_\nu \gg 1$ at small neutrino masses, but allows for overdensities $\eta_{\nu}\lesssim 125$ at the KATRIN mass bound $m_{\nu} \simeq 0.8\,\mathrm{eV}$. On the other hand, cosmology strongly favours $0.2 \lesssim \eta_{\nu} \lesssim 3.5$ in all scenarios. We find that direct detection proposals are capable of observing the C$\nu$B without a significant overdensity for neutrino masses $m_{\nu} \gtrsim 50\,\mathrm{meV}$, but require an overdensity $\eta_{\nu} \gtrsim 3\times 10^5$ outside of this range. We also demonstrate that relic neutrino detection proposals are sensitive to the helicity composition of the C$\nu$B, whilst some may be able to distinguish between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos.**Dark Matter Constraints from the Eccentric Supermassive Black Hole Binary OJ 287**

2207.10021 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ahmad Alachkar, John Ellis, and Malcolm Fairbairn.

OJ 287 is a blazar thought to be a binary system containing a ~ 18 billion solar mass primary black hole accompanied by a ~ 150 million solar mass secondary black hole in an eccentric orbit, which triggers electromagnetic flares twice in every ~ 12 year orbital period when it traverses the accretion disk of the primary. The times of these emissions are consistent with the predictions of general relativity calculated to the 4.5th post-Newtonian order. The orbit of the secondary black hole samples the gravitational field at distances between O(10) and O(50) Schwarzschild radii around the primary, and hence is sensitive to the possible presence of a dark matter spike around it. We find that the agreement of general-relativistic calculations with the measured timings of flares from OJ 287 constrains the mass of such a spike to < 3% of the primary mass.**Do Pulsar and Fast Radio Burst dispersion measures obey Benford's law?**

2207.09696 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pragna Mamidipaka and Shantanu Desai.

We check if the first significant digit of the dispersion measure of pulsars and Fast Radio Bursts (using the CHIME catalog) is consistent with the Benford distribution. We find a large disagreement with Benford's law with $\chi^2$ close to 80 for 8 degrees of freedom for both these aforementioned datasets. This corresponds to a discrepancy of about 7$\sigma$. Therefore, we conclude that the dispersion measures of pulsars and FRBs do not obey Benford's law.**Diffuse supernova neutrino background**

2207.09632 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anna M. Suliga.

Neutrinos are the second most ubiquitous Standard Model particles in the universe. On the other hand, they are also the ones least likely to interact. Connecting these two points suggests that when a neutrino is detected, it can divulge unique pieces of information about its source. Among the known neutrino sources, core-collapse supernovae in the universe are the most abundant for MeV-energies. On average, a single collapse happens every second in the observable universe and produces $10^{58}$ neutrinos. The flux of neutrinos reaching the Earth from all the core-collapse supernovae in the universe is known as diffuse supernova neutrino background. In this Chapter, the basic prediction for the diffuse supernova neutrino background is presented. This includes a discussion of an average neutrino signal from a core-collapse supernova, variability of that signal due to the remnant formed in the process, and uncertainties connected to the other astrophysical parameters determining the diffuse flux, such as cosmological supernova rate. In addition, the current experimental limits and detection perspectives of diffuse supernova neutrino background are reported.**Massive neutrino self-interactions and inflation**

2207.07142 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shouvik Roy Choudhury, Steen Hannestad, and Thomas Tram.

Certain inflationary models like Natural inflation (NI) and Coleman-Weinberg inflation (CWI) are disfavoured by cosmological data in the standard $\Lambda\textrm{CDM}+r$ model (where $r$ is the scalar-to-tensor ratio), as these inflationary models predict the regions in the $n_s-r$ parameter space that are excluded by the cosmological data at more than 2$\sigma$ (here $n_s$ is the scalar spectral index). The same is true for single field inflationary models with an inflection point that can account for all or majority of dark matter in the form of PBHs (primordial black holes). Cosmological models incorporating strongly self-interacting neutrinos (with a heavy mediator) are, however, known to prefer lower $n_s$ values compared to the $\Lambda\rm CDM$ model. Considering such neutrino self-interactions can, thus, open up the parameter space to accommodate the above inflationary models. In this work, we implement the massive neutrino self-interactions with a heavy mediator in two different ways: flavour-universal (among all three neutrinos), and flavour-specific (involving only one neutrino species). We implement the new interaction in both scalar and tensor perturbation equations of neutrinos. Interestingly, we find that the current cosmological data can support the aforementioned inflationary models at 2$\sigma$ in the presence of such neutrino self-interactions.**Model marginalized constraints on neutrino properties from cosmology**

2207.05167 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eleonora di Valentino, Stefano Gariazzo, and Olga Mena.

We present robust, model-marginalized limits on both the total neutrino mass ($\sum m_\nu$) and abundance ($N_{\rm eff}$) to minimize the role of parameterizations, priors and models when extracting neutrino properties from cosmology. The cosmological observations we consider are CMB temperature fluctuation and polarization measurements, Supernovae Ia luminosity distances, BAO observations and determinations of the growth rate parameter from the Data Release 16 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV. The degenerate neutrino mass spectrum (which implies $\sum m_\nu>0$) is weakly (moderately) preferred over the normal and inverted hierarchy possibilities, which imply the priors $\sum m_\nu>0.06$ and $\sum m_\nu>0.1$ eV respectively. Concerning the underlying cosmological model, the $\Lambda$CDM minimal scenario is almost always strongly preferred over the possible extensions explored here. The most constraining $95\%$ CL bound on the total neutrino mass in the $\Lambda$CDM+$\sum m_\nu$ picture is $\sum m_\nu< 0.087$ eV. The parameter $N_{\rm eff}$ is restricted to $3.08\pm 0.17$ ($68\%$ CL) in the $\Lambda$CDM+$N_{\rm eff}$ model. These limits barely change when considering the $\Lambda$CDM+$\sum m_\nu$+$N_{\rm eff}$ scenario. Given the robustness and the strong constraining power of the cosmological measurements employed here, the model-marginalized posteriors obtained considering a large spectra of non-minimal cosmologies are very close to the previous bounds, obtained within the $\Lambda$CDM framework in the degenerate neutrino mass spectrum. Future cosmological measurements may improve the current Bayesian evidence favouring the degenerate neutrino mass spectra, challenging therefore the consistency between cosmological neutrino mass bounds and oscillation neutrino measurements, and potentially suggesting a more complicated cosmological model and/or neutrino sector.**Chern-Simons Gravity and Neutrino Self-Interactions**

2207.05094 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stephon Alexander and Cyril Creque-Sarbinowski.

Dynamical Chern-Simons gravity (dCS) is a four-dimensional parity-violating extension of general relativity. Current models predict the effect of this extension to be negligible due to large decay constants $f$ close to the scale of grand unified theories. Here, we present a construction of dCS allowing for much smaller decay constants, ranging from sub-eV to Planck scales. Specifically, we show that if there exists a fermion species with strong self-interactions, the short-wavelength fermion modes form a bound state. This bound state can then undergo dynamical symmetry breaking and the resulting pseudoscalar develops Yukawa interactions with the remaining long-wavelength fermion modes. Due to this new interaction, loop corrections with gravitons then realize a linear coupling between the pseudoscalar and the gravitational Chern-Simons term. The strength of this coupling is set by the Yukawa coupling constant divided by the fermion mass. Therefore, since self-interacting fermions with small masses are ideal, we identify neutrinos as promising candidates. For example, if a neutrino has a mass $m_\nu \lesssim {\rm meV}$ and the Yukawa coupling is order unity, the dCS decay constant can be as small as $f \sim 10^3 m_\nu \lesssim {\rm eV}$. We discuss other potential choices for fermions.**Search for Astrophysical Neutrinos from 1FLE Blazars with IceCube**

2207.04946 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 382 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. Benda, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, B. Brinson, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, L. Heuermann, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Krupczak, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, S. McCarthy, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, Y. Merckx, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyen, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Sogaard, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Unland Elorrieta, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Veitch-Michaelis, S. Verpoest, C. Walck, W. Wang, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

The majority of astrophysical neutrinos have undetermined origins. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has observed astrophysical neutrinos but has not yet identified their sources. Blazars are promising source candidates, but previous searches for neutrino emission from populations of blazars detected in $\gtrsim$ GeV gamma-rays have not observed any significant neutrino excess. Recent findings in multi-messenger astronomy indicate that high-energy photons, co-produced with high-energy neutrinos, are likely to be absorbed and reemitted at lower energies. Thus, lower-energy photons may be better indicators of TeV-PeV neutrino production. This paper presents the first time-integrated stacking search for astrophysical neutrino emission from MeV-detected blazars in the first Fermi-LAT low energy catalog (1FLE) using ten years of IceCube muon-neutrino data. The results of this analysis are found to be consistent with a background-only hypothesis. Assuming an E$^{-2}$ neutrino spectrum and proportionality between the blazars' MeV gamma-ray fluxes and TeV-PeV neutrino flux, the upper limit on the 1FLE blazar energy-scaled neutrino flux is determined to be $1.64 \times 10^{-12}$ TeV cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ at 90% confidence level. This upper limit is approximately 1% of IceCube's diffuse muon-neutrino flux measurement.**A First Search for Solar $^8$B Neutrino in the PandaX-4T Experiment using Neutrino-Nucleus Coherent Scattering**

2207.04883 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Wenbo Ma, [and 90 more]Abdusalam Abdukerim, Chen Cheng, Zihao Bo, Wei Chen, Xun Chen, Yunhua Chen, Zhaokan Cheng, Xiangyi Cui, Yingjie Fan, Deqing Fang, Changbo Fu, Mengting Fu, Lisheng Geng, Karl Giboni, Linhui Gu, Xuyuan Guo, Chencheng Han, Ke Han, Changda He, Jinrong He, Di Huang, Yanlin Huang, Zhou Huang, Ruquan Hou, Xiangdong Ji, Yonglin Ju, Chenxiang Li, Jiafu Li, Mingchuan Li, Shu Li, Shuaijie Li, Qing Lin, Jianglai Liu, Xiaoying Lu, Lingyin Luo, Yunyang Luo, Yugang Ma, Yajun Mao, Nasir Shaheed, Yue Meng, Xuyang Ning, Ningchun Qi, Zhicheng Qian, Xiangxiang Ren, Changsong Shang, Xiaofeng Shang, Guofang Shen, Lin Si, Wenliang Sun, Andi Tan, Yi Tao, Anqing Wang, Meng Wang, Qiuhong Wang, Shaobo Wang, Siguang Wang, Wei Wang, Xiuli Wang, Zhou Wang, Yuehuan Wei, Mengmeng Wu, Weihao Wu, Jingkai Xia, Mengjiao Xiao, Xiang Xiao, Pengwei Xie, Binbin Yan, Xiyu Yan, Jijun Yang, Yong Yang, Chunxu Yu, Jumin Yuan, Ying Yuan, Zhe Yuan, Xinning Zeng, Dan Zhang, Minzhen Zhang, Peng Zhang, Shibo Zhang, Shu Zhang, Tao Zhang, Yingxin Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Li Zhao, Qibin Zheng, Jifang Zhou, Ning Zhou, Xiaopeng Zhou, Yong Zhou, and Yubo Zhou [hide authors].

A search for interactions from solar $^8$B neutrinos elastically scattering off xenon nuclei using PandaX-4T commissioning data is reported. The energy threshold of this search is further lowered compared with the previous search for dark matter, with various techniques utilized to suppress the background that emerges from data with the lowered threshold. A blind analysis is performed on the data with an effective exposure of 0.48 tonne$\cdot$year, and no significant excess of events is observed. Among results obtained using the neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering, our results give the best constraint on the solar $^8$B neutrino flux. We further provide a more stringent limit on the cross section between dark matter and nucleon in the mass range from 3 to 9 GeV/c$^2$.**Neutrino Mass Ordering -- Circumventing the Challenges using Synergy between T2HK and JUNO**

2207.04784 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sandhya Choubey, Monojit Ghosh, and Deepak Raikwal.

One of the major open problems of neutrino physics is MO (mass ordering). We discuss the prospects of measuring MO with two under-construction experiments T2HK and JUNO. JUNO alone is expected to measure MO with greater than $3\sigma$ significance as long as certain experimental challenges are met. In particular, JUNO needs better than 3$\%$ energy resolution for MO measurement. On the other hand, T2HK has rather poor prospects at measuring the MO, especially for certain ranges of the CP violating parameter $\delta_{\rm CP}$, posing a major drawback for T2HK. In this letter we show that the synergy between JUNO and T2HK will bring two-fold advantage. Firstly, the synergy between the two experiments helps us determine the MO at a very high significance. With the baseline set-up of the two experiments, we have a greater than $9\sigma$ determination of the MO for all values of $\delta_{\rm CP}$. Secondly, the synergy also allows us to relax the constraints on the two experiments. We show that JUNO, could perform extremely well even for energy resolution of 5$\%$, while for T2HK the MO problem with "bad" values of $\delta_{\rm CP}$ goes away. The MO sensitivity for the combined analysis is expected to be greater than $6\sigma$ for all values of $\delta_{\rm CP}$ and with just 5$\%$ energy resolution for JUNO.**Solar $\barν_e$ flux: Revisiting bounds on neutrino magnetic moments and solar magnetic field**

2207.04516 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Evgeny Akhmedov and Pablo Martínez-Miravé.

The interaction of neutrino transition magnetic dipole moments with magnetic fields can give rise to the phenomenon of neutrino spin-flavour precession (SFP). For Majorana neutrinos, the combined action of SFP of solar neutrinos and flavour oscillations would manifest itself as a small, yet potentially detectable, flux of electron antineutrinos coming from the Sun. Non-observation of such a flux constrains the product of the neutrino magnetic moment $\mu$ and the strength of the solar magnetic field $B$. We derive a simple analytical expression for the expected $\bar{\nu}_e$ appearance probability in the three-flavour framework and we use it to revisit the existing experimental bounds on $\mu B$. A full numerical calculation has also been performed to check the validity of the analytical result. We also present our numerical results in energy-binned form, convenient for analyses of the data of the current and future experiments searching for the solar $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux. In addition, we give a comprehensive compilation of other existing limits on neutrino magnetic moments and of the expressions for the probed effective magnetic moments in terms of the fundamental neutrino magnetic moments and leptonic mixing parameters.**Predicting leptonic CP violation via minimization of neutrino entanglement**

2207.03303 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gonçalo M. Quinta, Alexandre Sousa, and Yasser Omar.

We show how a minimization principle of quantum entanglement between the oscillating flavors of a neutrino leads to a unique prediction for the CP-violation phase in the neutrino sector without assuming extra symmetries in the Standard Model. We find a theoretical prediction consistent with either no CP-violation or a very small presence of it.**Study of matter effects in the presence of sterile neutrino using OMSD approximation**

2207.03249 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kiran Sharma and Sudhanwa Patra.

We discuss the transition and survival probabilities in $3+1$ neutrino flavor mixing scenario in presence of matter effects. We adopt the well-known OMSD(One Mass Scale Dominance) approximation to carry out our analysis. After that we perform series expansion about $\sin \theta_{13}$ term upto second order. We find that our results are consistent with the already existing $\alpha - \sin \theta_{13}$ approximated relations in the limit of vanishing $\alpha$ and phases involving sterile neutrinos. We also figure out that survival transition probability becomes independent of the fundamental and sterile CP phases under our formalism. Hence, it provides us a new way to look at only matter effects contribution to oscillation probability. Also, the transition probability at the same time gives an independent study of CP-violation arising from the sterile phases, in the vicinity of fundamental CP violation phase. We provide the relation for the atmospheric probability in the presence of matter by performing the series expansion upto linear order about parameter $A (= 2EV)$, with V being the effective matter potential under OMSD approximation.**Imprints of flavor anomalies on neutrino oscillations through dark matter halo**

2207.02962 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ashutosh Kumar Alok, Neetu Raj Singh Chundawat, and Arindam Mandal.

In this work we study the impact of new physics, stimulated by flavor anomalies, on neutrino oscillations through dense dark matter halo. Inspired by a model where a Majorana dark matter fermion and two new scalar fields contribute to $b \to s \mu^+ \mu^-$ transition at the one loop level, we study the impact of neutrino-dark matter interaction on the oscillation patterns of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos passing through this muonphilic halo located near the center of Milky Way. We find that due to this interaction, the flavor ratios of neutrinos reaching earth would be different from that of vacuum oscillations. We also consider a $Z'$ model driven by $L_{\mu}-L_{\tau}$ symmetry and containing a vector-like fermion as a dark matter candidate. It was previously shown that for such a model, the three flavors of neutrinos decouple from each other. This will render a flavor ratio similar to that of vacuum oscillations. Therefore, the interaction of neutrinos with dense dark matter halo can serve as an important tool to discriminate between flavor models with a dark connection.**A New Probe of Relic Neutrino Clustering using Cosmogenic Neutrinos**

2207.02860 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar, [and 3 more]P. S. Bhupal Dev, Ryan Plestid, and Amarjit Soni [hide authors].

We propose a new probe of cosmic relic neutrinos (C$\nu$B) using their resonant scattering against cosmogenic neutrinos. Depending on the lightest neutrino mass and the energy spectrum of the cosmogenic neutrino flux, a Standard Model vector meson (such as a hadronic $\rho$) resonance can be produced via $\nu\bar{\nu}$ annihilation. This leads to a distinct absorption feature in the cosmogenic neutrino flux at an energy solely determined by the meson mass and the neutrino mass, apart from redshift. By numerical coincidence, the position of the $\rho$-resonance overlaps with the originally predicted peak of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) neutrino flux, which offers an enhanced absorption effect at higher redshifts. We show that this absorption feature in the GZK neutrino flux may be observable in future radio-based neutrino observatories, such as IceCube-Gen2 radio, provided there exists a large overdensity in the C$\nu$B distribution. This therefore provides a new probe of C$\nu$B clustering at large redshifts, complementary to the laboratory probes (such as KATRIN) at zero redshift.**Large Extra Dimensions and neutrino experiments**

2207.02790 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. V. Forero, [and 3 more]C. Giunti, C. A. Ternes, and O. Tyagi [hide authors].

The existence of Large Extra Dimensions can be probed in various neutrino experiments. We analyze several neutrino data sets in a model with a dominant large extra dimension. We show that the Gallium anomaly can be explained with neutrino oscillations induced by the large extra dimension, but the region of parameter space which is preferred by the Gallium anomaly is in tension with the bounds from reactor rate data, as well as the data of Daya Bay and MINOS. We also present bounds obtained from the analysis of the KATRIN data. We show, that current experiments can put strong bounds on the size $R_{\text{ED}}$ of the extra dimension: $R_{\text{ED}} < 0.20~\mu\text{m}$ and $R_{\text{ED}} < 0.10~\mu\text{m}$ at 90\% C.L. for normal and inverted ordering of the standard neutrino masses, respectively.**Baseline and other effects for a sterile neutrino at DUNE**

2207.02331 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. T. Penedo and João Pulido.

We analyse the sensitivity of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to a sterile neutrino, combining information from both near and far detectors. We quantify often-neglected effects which may impact the event rate estimation in a 3+1 oscillation scenario. In particular, we find that taking into account the information on the neutrino production point, in contrast to assuming a point-like neutrino source, affects DUNE's sterile exclusion reach. Visible differences remain after the inclusion of energy bin-to-bin uncorrelated systematics. Instead, implementing exact oscillation formulae for near detector events, including a two slab density profile, does not result in any visible change in the sensitivity.**Double and multiple bangs at tau neutrino telescopes: A novel probe of sphalerons with cosmogenic neutrinos**

2207.02222 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guo-yuan Huang.

In light of the exciting campaign of cosmogenic neutrino detection, we investigate the double and multiple tau bangs detectable at future tau neutrino telescopes. Such events are expected from the Standard Model (SM) higher-order processes, which can be easily identified with broad techniques anticipated at future tau neutrino telescopes. We find that SM perturbative processes can already contribute observable double-bang events to telescopes with a sensitivity of collecting $\mathcal{O}(100)$ cosmogenic neutrino events. The detectable but suppressed rate in fact makes the double and multiple bangs an excellent probe of SM unknowns and possible new physics beyond. As a case study, the nonperturbative sphaleron process, which can copiously produce multiple tau bangs, is explored.**Updated neutrino mass constraints from galaxy clustering and CMB lensing-galaxy cross-correlation measurements**

2207.01913 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Isabelle Tanseri, [and 4 more]Steffen Hagstotz, Sunny Vagnozzi, Elena Giusarma, and Katherine Freese [hide authors].

We revisit cosmological constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses $\Sigma m_\nu$ from a combination of full-shape BOSS galaxy clustering [$P(k)$] data and measurements of the cross-correlation between Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) lensing convergence and BOSS galaxy overdensity maps [$C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$], using a simple but theoretically motivated model for the scale-dependent galaxy bias in auto- and cross-correlation measurements. We improve upon earlier related work in several respects, particularly through a more accurate treatment of the correlation and covariance between $P(k)$ and $C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$ measurements. When combining these measurements with Planck CMB data, we find a 95% confidence level upper limit of $\Sigma m_\nu<0.14\,{\rm eV}$, while slightly weaker limits are obtained when including small-scale ACTPol CMB data, in agreement with our expectations. We confirm earlier findings that (once combined with CMB data) the full-shape information content is comparable to the geometrical information content in the reconstructed BAO peaks given the precision of current galaxy clustering data, discuss the physical significance of our inferred bias and shot noise parameters, and perform a number of robustness tests on our underlying model. While the inclusion of $C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$ measurements does not currently appear to lead to substantial improvements in the resulting $\Sigma m_{\nu}$ constraints, we expect the converse to be true for near-future galaxy clustering measurements, whose shape information content will eventually supersede the geometrical one.**Dark photon superradiance quenched by dark matter**

2206.12367 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Enrico Cannizzaro, [and 3 more]Laura Sberna, Andrea Caputo, and Paolo Pani [hide authors].

Black-hole superradiance has been used to place very strong bounds on a variety of models of ultralight bosons such as axions, new light scalars, and dark photons. It is common lore to believe that superradiance bounds are broadly model independent and therefore pretty robust. In this work we show however that superradiance bounds on dark photons can be challenged by simple, compelling extensions of the minimal model. In particular, if the dark photon populates a larger dark sector and couples to dark fermions playing the role of dark matter, then superradiance bounds can easily be circumvented, depending on the mass and (dark) charge of the dark matter.**Extracting the best physics sensitivity from T2HKK: A study on optimal detector volume**

2206.10320 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Papia Panda, [and 3 more]Monojit Ghosh, Priya Mishra, and Rukmani Mohanta [hide authors].

T2HK is an upcoming long-baseline experiment in Japan which will have two water Cherenkov detector tanks of 187 kt volume each at distance of 295 km from the source. An alternative project, T2HKK is also under consideration where one of the water tanks will be moved to Korea at a distance of 1100 km. The flux at 295 km will cover the first oscillation maximum and the flux at 1100 km will mainly cover the second oscillation maximum. As physics sensitivity at the dual baseline rely on variation in statistics, dependence of systematic uncertainty, effect of second oscillation maximum and matter density, 187 kt detector volume at 295 km and 187 kt detector volume at 1100 km may not be the optimal configuration of T2HKK. Therefore, we have tried to optimize the ratio of the detector volume at both the locations by studying the interplay between the above mentioned parameters. For the analysis of neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of $\theta_{23}$ and CP precision, we have considered two values of $\delta_{\rm{CP}}$ as 270$^\circ$ and $0^\circ$ and for CP violation we have considered the value of $\delta_{\rm CP}= 270^\circ$. These values are motivated by the current best-fit values of this parameter as obtained from the experiments T2K and NO$\nu$A. Interestingly we find that if the systematic uncertainty is negligible then the T2HK setup i.e., when both the detector tanks are placed at 295 km gives the best results in terms of hierarchy sensitivity at $\delta_{\rm CP}= 270^\circ$, octant sensitivity, CP violation sensitivity and CP precision sensitivity at $\delta_{\rm CP}= 0^\circ$. For current values of systematic errors, we find that neither T2HK, nor T2HKK setup is giving better results for hierarchy, CP violation and CP precision sensitivity. The optimal detector volume which is of the range between 255 kt to 345 kt at 1100 km gives better results in those above mentioned parameters.**Probing non-standard neutrino interactions with a light boson from next galactic and diffuse supernova neutrinos**

2206.06852 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kensuke Akita, Sang Hui Im, and Mehedi Masud.

Non-standard neutrino interactions with a massive boson can produce the bosons in the core of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). After the emission of the bosons from the SN core, their subsequent decays into neutrinos can modify the SN neutrino flux. We show future observations of neutrinos from a next galactic SN in Super-Kamiokande (SK) and Hyper-Kamiokande (HK) can probe flavor-universal non-standard neutrino couplings to a light boson, improving the previous limit from the SN 1987A neutrino burst by several orders of magnitude. We also discuss sensitivity of the flavor-universal non-standard neutrino interactions in future observations of diffuse neutrinos from all the past SNe, known as the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB). According to our analysis, observations of the DSNB in HK, JUNO and DUNE experiments can probe such couplings by a factor of $\sim 2$ beyond the SN 1987A constraint. However, our result is also subject to a large uncertainty concerning the precise estimation of the DSNB.**Symmetry in neutrino oscillation in matter with non-unitarity**

2206.06474 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

Recently we have developed a method called Symmetry Finder (SF) for hunting the reparametrization symmetry in the three-neutrino system in matter. Here we apply SF to the Denton {\it et al.} (DMP) perturbation theory extended by including unitarity violation (UV), a possible low-energy manifestation of physics beyond the $\nu$SM. Implementation of UV into the SF framework yields the additional two very different constraints, which nonetheless allow remarkably consistent solutions, the eight DMP-UV symmetries. Treatment of one of the constraints, the genuine non-unitary part, leads to the key identity which entails the UV $\alpha$ parameter transformation only by rephasing, which innovates the invariance proof of the Hamiltonian. The quantum mechanical nature of the symmetry dictates the both $\nu$SM and UV variables to transform jointly, through which the response of the two sectors are related to reveal their interplay. Thus, the symmetry can serve for a tool for diagnostics, probing the interrelation between the $\nu$SM and a low-energy description of new physics.**High-Energy Astrophysical Neutrinos from Cosmic Strings**

2206.06377 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Cyril Creque-Sarbinowski, Jeffrey Hyde, and Marc Kamionkowski.

Cosmic strings that couple to neutrinos may account for a portion of the high-energy astrophysical neutrino (HEAN) flux seen by IceCube. Here, we calculate the observed spectrum of neutrinos emitted from a population of cosmic string loops that contain quasi-cusps, -kinks, or kink-kink collisions. We consider two broad neutrino emission models: one where these string features emit a neutrino directly, and one where they emit a scalar particle which then eventually decays to a neutrino. In either case, the spectrum of cosmic string neutrinos does not match that of the observed HEAN spectrum. We thus find that the maximum contribution of cosmic string neutrinos, through these two scenarios, to be at most $\sim 45$ % of the observed flux. However, we also find that the presence of cosmic string neutrinos can lead to bumps in the observed neutrino spectrum. Finally, for each of the models presented, we present the viable parameter space for neutrino emission.**Impact of late-time neutrino emission on the diffuse supernova neutrino background**

2206.05299 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nick Ekanger, [and 3 more]Shunsaku Horiuchi, Kei Kotake, and Kohsuke Sumiyoshi [hide authors].

In the absence of high-statistics supernova neutrino measurements, estimates of the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) hinge on the precision of simulations of core-collapse supernovae. Understanding the cooling phase of protoneutron star (PNS) evolution ($\gtrsim1\,{\rm s}$ after core bounce) is crucial, since approximately 50% of the energy liberated by neutrinos is emitted during the cooling phase. We model the cooling phase with a hybrid method by combining the neutrino emission predicted by 3D hydrodynamic simulations with several cooling-phase estimates, including a novel two-parameter correlation depending on the final baryonic PNS mass and the time of shock revival. We find that the predicted DSNB event rate at Super-Kamiokande can vary by a factor of $\sim2-3$ depending on the cooling-phase treatment. We also find that except for one cooling estimate, the range in predicted DSNB events is largely driven by the uncertainty in the neutrino mean energy. With a good understanding of the late-time neutrino emission, more precise DSNB estimates can be made for the next generation of DSNB searches.**Energizing gamma ray bursts via $Z^\prime$ mediated neutrino heating**

2206.03485 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tanmay Kumar Poddar, Srubabati Goswami, and Arvind Kumar Mishra.

The pair annihilation of neutrinos $(\nu\overline{\nu}\rightarrow e^+e^-)$ can energize violent stellar explosions such as gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The energy in this neutrino heating mechanism can be further enhanced by modifying the background spacetime over that of Newtonian spacetime. However, one cannot attain the maximum GRB energy $(\sim 10^{52}~\rm{erg})$ in either the Newtonian background or Schwarzschild and Hartle-Thorne background. On the other hand, using modified gravity theories or the Quintessence field as background geometries, the maximum GRB energy can be reached. In this paper, we consider extending the standard model by an extra $U(1)_{\rm{B-L}}$ gauge group and augmenting the energy deposition by neutrino pair annihilation process including contributions mediated by the $Z^\prime$ gauge boson belonging to this model. From the observed energy of GRB, we obtain constraints on $U(1)_{\rm{B-L}}$ gauge coupling in different background spacetimes. We find that the bounds on gauge coupling in modified gravity theories and quintessence background are stronger than those coming from the neutrino-electron scattering experiments in the limit of small gauge boson masses. Future GRB observations with better accuracy can further strengthen these bounds.**Evaluations of uncertainties in simulations of propagation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray nuclei derived from microscopic nuclear models**

2206.03447 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by E. Kido, [and 7 more]T. Inakura, M. Kimura, N. Kobayashi, S. Nagataki, N. Shimizu, A. Tamii, and Y. Utsuno [hide authors].

Photodisintegration is a main energy loss process for ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) nuclei in intergalactic space. Therefore, it is crucial to understand systematic uncertainty in photodisintegration when simulating the propagation of UHECR nuclei. In this work, we calculated the cross sections using the random phase approximation (RPA) of density functional theory (DFT), a microscopic nuclear model. We calculated the $E1$ strength of 29 nuclei using three different density functionals. We obtained the cross sections of photonuclear reactions, including photodisintegration, with the $E1$ strength. Then, we implemented the cross sections in the cosmic-ray propagation code CRPropa. We found that assuming certain astrophysical parameter values, the difference between UHECR energy spectrum predictions using the RPA calculation and the default photodisintegration model in CRPropa can be more than the statistical uncertainty of the spectrum. We also found that the differences between the RPA calculations and CRPropa default in certain astrophysical parameters obtained by a combined fit of UHECR energy spectrum and composition data assuming a phenomenological model of UHECR sources can be more than the uncertainty of the data.**Non-Standard Interaction of atmospheric neutrino in future experiments**

2206.02594 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pouya Bakhti, Meshkat Rajaee, and Seodong Shin.

We show the prospects of probing neutral-current non-standard interaction (NSI) in the propagation of atmospheric neutrinos in future large-volume neutrino experiments including DUNE, HK, KNO, and ORCA. For DUNE, we utilize its ability of identifying the tau neutrino event and combine the $\nu_\tau$ appearance with the $\nu_\mu$ disappearance. Based on our simulated results, the ten years of data taking of the atmospheric neutrinos can enormously improve the bounds on the NSI parameters $\varepsilon_{\mu \tau}, | \varepsilon_{\mu \mu} - \varepsilon_{\tau \tau} |$, $\varepsilon_{e \mu }$, $\varepsilon_{e \tau}$ and $| \varepsilon_{\mu \mu} - \varepsilon_{e e} |$ by a couple of orders of magnitudes. In addition, we show the expected correlations between the CP-violation phase $\delta_{CP}$ and the NSI parameters $\varepsilon_{e\mu}, \varepsilon_{e\tau}$, and $|\varepsilon_{ee} - \varepsilon_{\mu \mu}|$ and confirm the potentials of DUNE, HK, KNO (combined with HK) in excluding the "No CP violation" hypothesis at 1$\sigma$, 2$\sigma$, and 3$\sigma$, respectively.**Concept for a Space-based Near-Solar Neutrino Detector**

2206.00703 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by N. Solomey, [and 10 more]J. Folkerts, H. Meyer, C. Gimar, J. Novak, B. Doty, T. English, L. Buchele, A. Nelsen, R. McTaggart, and M. Christl [hide authors].

The concept of putting a neutrino detector in close orbit of the sun has been unexplored until very recently. The primary scientific return is to vastly enhance our understanding of the solar interior, which is a major NASA goal. Preliminary calculations show that such a spacecraft, if properly shielded, can operate in space environments while taking data from neutrino interactions. These interactions can be distinguished from random background rates of solar electromagnetic emissions, galactic charged cosmic-rays, and gamma-rays by using a double pulsed signature. Early simulations of this project have shown this veto schema to be successful in eliminating background and identifying the neutrino interaction signal in upwards of 75% of gamma ray interactions and nearly 100% of other interactions. Hence, we propose a new instrument to explore and study our sun. Due to inverse square scaling, this instrument has the potential to outperform earth-based experiments in several domains such as making measurements not accessible from the earth's orbit.**Abundances of uranium and thorium elements in Earth estimated by geoneutrino spectroscopy**

2205.14934 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Abe, [and 67 more]S. Asami, M. Eizuka, S. Futagi, A. Gando, Y. Gando, T. Gima, A. Goto, T. Hachiya, K. Hata, K. Hosokawa, K. Ichimura, S. Ieki, H. Ikeda, K. Inoue, K. Ishidoshiro, Y. Kamei, N. Kawada, Y. Kishimoto, M. Koga, M. Kurasawa, N. Maemura, T. Mitsui, H. Miyake, T. Nakahata, K. Nakamura, K. Nakamura, R. Nakamura, H. Ozaki, T. Sakai, H. Sambonsugi, I. Shimizu, Y. Shirahata, J. Shirai, K. Shiraishi, A. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Tamae, H. Watanabe, Y. Yoshida, S. Obara, A. K. Ichikawa, S. Yoshida, S. Umehara, K. Fushimi, K. Kotera, Y. Urano, B. E. Berger, B. K. Fujikawa, J. G. Learned, J. Maricic, S. N. Axani, Z. Fu, J. Smolsky, L. A. Winslow, Y. Efremenko, H. J. Karwowski, D. M. Markoff, W. Tornow, A. Li, J. A. Detwiler, S. Enomoto, M. P. Decowski, C. Grant, H. Song, T. O'Donnell, and S. Dell'Oro [hide authors].

The decay of the primordial isotopes $^{238}\mathrm{U}$, $^{235}\mathrm{U}$, $^{232}\mathrm{Th}$, and $^{40}\mathrm{K}$ have contributed to the terrestrial heat budget throughout the Earth's history. Hence the individual abundance of those isotopes are key parameters in reconstructing contemporary Earth model. The geoneutrinos produced by the radioactive decays of uranium and thorium have been observed with the Kamioka Liquid-Scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND). Those measurements have been improved with more than 18-year observation time, and improvements in detector background levels mainly by an 8-year almost rector-free period now permit spectroscopy with geoneutrinos. Our results yield the first constraint on both uranium and thorium heat contributions. Herein the KamLAND result is consistent with geochemical estimations based on elemental abundances of chondritic meteorites and mantle peridotites. The High-Q model is disfavored at 99.76% C.L. and a fully radiogenic model is excluded at 5.2$\sigma$ assuming a homogeneous heat producing element distribution in the mantle.**Dark Matter Pollution in the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background**

2205.14123 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nicole F. Bell, Matthew J. Dolan, and Sandra Robles.

The Hyper-Kamiokande (HyperK) experiment is expected to precisely measure the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background (DSNB). This requires that the backgrounds in the relevant energy range are well understood. One possible background that has not been considered thus far is the annihilation of low-mass dark matter (DM) to neutrinos. We conduct simulations of the DSNB signal and backgrounds in HyperK, and quantify the extent to which DM annihilation products can pollute the DSNB signal. We find that the presence of DM could affect the determination of the correct values of parameters of interest for DSNB physics, such as effective neutrino temperatures and star formation rates. While this opens the possibility of simultaneously characterising the DNSB and discovering dark matter via indirect detection, we argue that it would be hard to disentangle the two contributions due to the lack of angular information available at low energies.**Determination of supermassive black hole spins in local active galactic nuclei**

2205.10623 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Yu. Piotrovich, S. D. Buliga, and T. M. Natsvlishvili.

We estimated the radiative efficiency and spin value for a number of local active galactic nuclei with z < 0.34 using 3 popular models connecting the radiative efficiency with such parameters of AGNs as mass of supermassive black hole, angle between the line of sight and the axis of the accretion disk and bolometric luminosity. Analysis of the obtained data shown that the spin value decreases with cosmic time, which is in agreement with results of theoretical calculations for low redshift AGNs of other authors. Also we found that the spin value increases with the increasing mass of SMBH and bolometric luminosity. This is the expected result that corresponds to theoretical calculations. Analysis of the distribution of the spin values shown a pronounced peak in the distribution in 0.75 < a < 1.0 range. ~ 40% of objects have spin a > 0.75 and ~ 50% of objects have spin a > 0.5. This results are in a good agreement with our previous results and with the results of other authors.**Termination of Superradiance from a Binary Companion**

2205.10527 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Xi Tong, Yi Wang, and Hui-Yu Zhu.

We study the impact of a binary companion on black hole superradiance at orbital frequencies away from the gravitational-collider-physics (GCP) resonance bands. A superradiant state can couple to a strongly absorptive state via the tidal perturbation of the companion, thereby acquiring a suppressed superradiance rate. Below a critical binary separation, this superradiance rate becomes negative, and the boson cloud gets absorbed by the black hole. This critical binary separation leads to tight constraints on GCP. Especially, a companion with mass ratio $q>10^{-3}$ invalidates all GCP fine structure transitions, as well as almost all Bohr transitions except those from the $|\psi_{211}\rangle$ state. Meanwhile, the backreaction on the companion manifests itself as a torque acting on the binary, producing floating/sinking orbits that can be verified via pulsar timing. In addition, the possible termination of cloud growth may help to alleviate the current bounds on the ultralight boson mass from various null detections.**Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations induced by ultra-light dark matter and implications for KamLAND and JUNO**

2205.09769 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Marta Losada, [and 4 more]Yosef Nir, Gilad Perez, Inbar Savoray, and Yogev Shpilman [hide authors].

If ultra-light dark matter (ULDM) exists and couples to neutrinos, the neutrino oscillation probability might be significantly altered by a parametric resonance. This resonance can occur if the typical frequency of neutrino flavor-oscillations $\Delta m^2/(2E)$, where $\Delta m^2$ is the mass-squared difference of the neutrinos and $E$ is the neutrino energy, matches the oscillation frequency of the ULDM field, determined by its mass, $m_\phi$. The resonance could lead to observable effects even if the ULDM coupling is very small, and even if its typical oscillation period, given by $\tau_\phi=2\pi/m_\phi$, is much shorter than the experimental temporal resolution. Defining a small parameter $\epsilon_\phi$ to be the ratio between the contribution of the ULDM field to the neutrino mass and the vacuum value of the neutrino mass, the impact of the resonance is particularly significant if $\epsilon_\phi m_\phi L\gtrsim 4$, where $L$ is the distance between the neutrino source and the detector. Such parametric resonance can improve the fit to the KamLAND experiment measurements by about $3.5\,\sigma$ compared to standard oscillations. This scenario will be tested by the JUNO experiment.**Detector Requirements for Model-Independent Measurements of Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Cross Sections**

2205.09763 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Esteban, Steven Prohira, and John F. Beacom.

The ultrahigh energy range of neutrino physics (above $\sim 10^{7} \, \mathrm{GeV}$), as yet devoid of detections, is an open landscape with challenges to be met and discoveries to be made. Neutrino-nucleon cross sections in that range - with center-of-momentum energies $\sqrt{s} \gtrsim 4 \, \mathrm{TeV}$ - are powerful probes of unexplored phenomena. We present a simple and accurate model-independent framework to evaluate how well these cross sections can be measured for an unknown flux and generic detectors. We also demonstrate how to characterize and compare detector sensitivity. We show that cross sections can be measured to $\simeq ^{+65}_{-30}$% precision over $\sqrt{s} \simeq$ 4-140 TeV ($E_\nu = 10^7$-$10^{10}$ GeV) with modest energy and angular resolution and $\simeq 10$ events per energy decade. Many allowed novel-physics models (extra dimensions, leptoquarks, etc.) produce much larger effects. In the distant future, with $\simeq 100$ events at the highest energies, the precision would be $\simeq 15\%$, probing even QCD saturation effects.**Non-Universal Stellar Initial Mass Functions: Large Uncertainties in Star Formation Rates at $z\approx 2-4$ and Other Astrophysical Probes**

2205.07845 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joshua J. Ziegler, [and 6 more]Thomas D. P. Edwards, Anna M. Suliga, Irene Tamborra, Shunsaku Horiuchi, Shin'ichiro Ando, and Katherine Freese [hide authors].

We explore the assumption, widely used in many astrophysical calculations, that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is universal across all galaxies. By considering both a canonical Salpeter-like IMF and a non-universal IMF, we are able to compare the effect of different IMFs on multiple observables and derived quantities in astrophysics. Specifically, we consider a non-universal IMF which varies as a function of the local star formation rate, and explore the effects on the star formation rate density (SFRD), the extragalactic background light, the supernova (both core-collapse and thermonuclear) rates, and the diffuse supernova neutrino background. Our most interesting result is that our adopted varying IMF leads to much greater uncertainty on the SFRD at $z \approx 2-4$ than is usually assumed. Indeed, we find a SFRD (inferred using observed galaxy luminosity distributions) that is a factor of $\gtrsim 3$ lower than canonical results obtained using a universal Salpeter-like IMF. Secondly, the non-universal IMF we explore implies a reduction in the supernova core-collapse rate of a factor of $\sim2$, compared against a universal IMF. The other potential tracers are only slightly affected by changes to the properties of the IMF. We find that currently available data do not provide a clear preference for universal or non-universal IMF. However, improvements to measurements of the star formation rate and core-collapse supernova rate at redshifts $z \gtrsim 2$ may offer the best prospects for discernment.**Constraining super-light sterile neutrinos at Borexino and KamLAND**

2205.07574 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Zikang Chen, [and 3 more]Jiajun Liao, Jiajie Ling, and Baobiao Yue [hide authors].

The presence of a super-light sterile neutrino can lead to a dip in the survival probability of solar neutrinos, and explain the suppression of the upturn in the low energy solar neutrino data. In this work, we systematically study the survival probabilities in the 3+1 framework by taking into account of the non-adiabatic transitions and the coherence effect. We obtain an analytic equation that can predict the position of the dip. We also place constraints on the parameter space of sterile neutrinos by using the latest Borexino and KamLAND data. We find that the low and high energy neutrino data at Borexino are sensitive to different regions in the sterile neutrino parameter space. In the case with only $\theta_{01}$ being nonzero, the $\rm{{}^{8}B}$ data sets the strongest bounds at $\Delta m_{01}^{2} \approx (1.1\sim2.2)\Delta m_{21}^{2}$, while the low energy neutrino data is more sensitive to other mass-squared regions. The lowest bounds on $\Delta m_{01}^{2}$ from the $\rm{pp}$ data can reach $10^{-12} \ \rm{eV^{2}}$ because of the coherence effect. Also, due to the presence of non-adiabatic transitions, the bounds in the range of $10^{-9} \ \textrm{eV}^{2} \lesssim \Delta m_{01}^{2} \lesssim 10^{-5} \ \textrm{eV}^{2}$ become weaker as $\Delta m_{01}^{2}$ or $\sin^{2}2\theta_{01}$ decreases. We also find that in the case with only $\theta_{02}$ or $\theta_{03}$ being nonzero, the low energy solar neutrino data set similar but weaker bounds as compared to the case with only $\theta_{01}$ being nonzero. However, the bounds from the high energy solar data and the KamLAND data are largely affected by the sterile mixing angles.**Constraining Feeble Neutrino Interactions with Ultralight Dark Matter**

2205.06821 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Abhish Dev, [and 3 more]Gordan Krnjaic, Pedro Machado, and Harikrishnan Ramani [hide authors].

If ultralight $(\ll$ eV), bosonic dark matter couples to right handed neutrinos, active neutrino masses and mixing angles depend on the ambient dark matter density. When the neutrino Majorana mass, induced by the dark matter background, is small compared to the Dirac mass, neutrinos are "pseudo-Dirac" fermions that undergo oscillations between nearly degenerate active and sterile states. We present a complete cosmological history for such a scenario and find severe limits from a variety of terrestrial and cosmological observables. For scalar masses in the "fuzzy" dark matter regime ($\sim 10^{-20}$ eV), these limits exclude couplings of order $10^{-30}$, corresponding to Yukawa interactions comparable to the gravitational force between neutrinos and surpassing equivalent limits on time variation in scalar-induced electron and proton couplings.**Constraining Fundamental Constant Variations from Ultralight Dark Matter with Pulsar Timing Arrays**

2205.06817 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by David E. Kaplan, Andrea Mitridate, and Tanner Trickle.

Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) are exceptionally sensitive detectors in the frequency band $\text{nHz} \lesssim f \lesssim \mu\text{Hz}$. Ultralight dark matter (ULDM), with mass in the range $10^{-23}\,\text{eV} \lesssim m_\phi \lesssim 10^{-20}\,\text{eV}$, is one class of DM models known to generate signals in this frequency window. While purely gravitational signatures of ULDM have been studied previously, in this work we consider two signals in PTAs which arise in presence of direct couplings between ULDM and ordinary matter. These couplings induce variations in fundamental constants, i.e., particle masses and couplings. These variations can alter the moment of inertia of pulsars, inducing pulsar spin fluctuations via conservation of angular momentum, or induce apparent timing residuals due to reference clock shifts. By using mock data mimicking current PTA datasets, we show that PTA experiments outperform torsion balance and atomic clock constraints for ULDM coupled to electrons, muons, or gluons. In the case of coupling to quarks or photons, we find that PTAs and atomic clocks set similar constraints. Additionally, we discuss how future PTAs can further improve these constraints, and detail the unique properties of these signals relative to the previously studied effects of ULDM on PTAs.**Superradiant evolution of the shadow and photon ring of Sgr A$^\star$**

2205.06238 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yifan Chen, [and 3 more]Rittick Roy, Sunny Vagnozzi, and Luca Visinelli [hide authors].

Ultralight bosons can affect the dynamics of spinning black holes (BHs) via superradiant instability, which can lead to a time evolution of the supermassive BH shadow. We study prospects for witnessing the superradiance-induced BH shadow evolution, considering ultralight vector and tensor fields. We introduce two observables sensitive to the shadow time-evolution: the shadow drift, and the variation in the azimuthal angle lapse associated to the photon ring autocorrelation. The two observables are shown to be highly complementary, depending on the observer's inclination angle. Focusing on the supermassive object Sgr A$^\star$ we show that both observables can vary appreciably over human timescales of a few years in the presence of superradiant instability, leading to signatures which are well within the reach of the Event Horizon Telescope for realistic observation times (but benefiting significantly from extended observation periods), and paving the way towards probing ultralight bosons in the $\sim 10^{-17}\,{\rm eV}$ mass range.**Core-passing atmospheric neutrinos: a unique probe to discriminate between Lorentz violation and non-standard interactions**

2205.05134 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sadashiv Sahoo, [and 3 more]Anil Kumar, Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, and Amol Dighe [hide authors].

Lorentz violation and non-standard interactions are two of the most popular scenarios beyond the Standard Model of particle physics, both of which can affect neutrino oscillations significantly. However, these effects can mimic each other, and it would be difficult to distinguish between them in any fixed-baseline neutrino experiment. We show that atmospheric neutrinos, having access to a wide range of baselines, can break this degeneracy. Observations of core-passing atmospheric neutrinos and antineutrinos would be a potent tool to discriminate between these two new-physics scenarios.**First results of the nuGeN experiment on coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering**

2205.04305 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by I. Alekseev, [and 23 more]K. Balej, V. Belov, S. Evseev, D. Filosofov, M. Fomina, Z. Hons, D. Karaivanov, S. Kazartsev, J. Khushvaktov, A. Kuznetsov, A. Lubashevskiy, D. Medvedev, D. Ponomarev, A. Rakhimov, K. Shakhov, E. Shevchik, M. Shirchenko, K. Smolek, S. Rozov, I. Rozova, S. Vasilyev, E. Yakushev, and I. Zhitnikov [hide authors].

The nuGeN experiment is aimed to investigate neutrino properties using antineutrinos from the reactor of the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant. The experimental setup is located at about 11 meters from the center of the 3.1 GWth reactor core. Scattering of the antineutrinos from the reactor is detected with low energy threshold high purity germanium detector. Passive and active shieldings are used to suppress all kinds of backgrounds coming from surrounding materials and cosmic radiation. The description of the experimental setup together with the first results is presented. The data taken in regimes with reactor ON (94.50 days) and reactor OFF (47.09 days) have been compared. No significant difference between spectra of two data sets is observed, i.e. no positive signals for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering are detected. Under Standard Model assumptions about coherent neutrino scattering an upper limit on a quenching parameter k < 0.26 (90 \% C.L.) in germanium has been set.**Vector leptoquark $U_3$ and CP violation at T2K, NOvA experiments**

2205.04269 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rudra Majhi, [and 3 more]Dinesh Kumar Singha, K. N. Deepthi, and Rukmani Mohanta [hide authors].

In the current epoch of neutrino physics, many experiments are aiming for precision measurements of oscillation parameters. Thus, various new physics scenarios which alter the neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter deserve careful investigation. In this context, we study the effect of a vector leptoquark which induces non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) that modify the oscillation probabilities of neutrinos in matter. We show that such interactions provide a relatively large value of NSI parameter $\varepsilon_{e \mu}$. Considering this NSI parameter, we successfully explain the recent discrepancy between the observed $\delta_{CP}$ results of T2K and NOvA.**Multi-messenger High-Energy Signatures of Decaying Dark Matter and the Effect of Background Light**

2205.03416 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Barbara Skrzypek, Marco Chianese, and Carlos Argüelles Delgado.

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole has measured astrophysical neutrinos using through-going and starting events in the TeV to PeV energy range. The origin of these astrophysical neutrinos is still largely unresolved, and among their potential sources could be dark matter decay. Measurements of the astrophysical flux using muon neutrinos are in slight tension with starting event measurements. This tension is driven by an excess observed in the energy range of 40-200 TeV with respect to the through-going expectation. Previous works have considered the possibility that this excess may be due to heavy dark matter decay and have placed constraints using gamma-ray and neutrino data. However, these constraints are not without caveats since they rely on the modeling of the astrophysical neutrino flux and the sources of gamma-ray emission. In this work, we derive background-agnostic galactic and extragalactic constraints on decaying dark matter by considering Tibet AS$_\gamma$ data, Fermi-LAT diffuse data, and the IceCube high-energy starting event sample. For the gamma-ray limits, we investigate the uncertainties on secondary emission from electromagnetic cascades during propagation arising from the unknown intensity of the extragalactic background light. We find that such uncertainties amount to a variation of up to $\sim 55\%$ in the gamma-ray limits derived with extragalactic data. Our results imply that a significant fraction of the astrophysical neutrino flux could be due to dark matter and that ruling it out depends on the assumptions on the gamma-ray and neutrino background. The latter depends on the yet unidentified sources.**Matter effects on flavor transitions of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos based on different decoherence schemes**

2205.03164 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ding-Hui Xu and Shu-Jun Rong.

The progress of neutrino astronomy makes the precise measurement of the flavor ratio of high energy astronomical neutrinos (HANs) possible in the near future. Then matter effects and new physics effects on the flavor transition of HANs could be tested by the next-generation neutrino telescopes. In this paper we study matter effects in gas around the sources of HANs. The matter effects are dependent on both the decoherence schemes and the sources of neutrinos. We examine the predictions on the flavor ratio at Earth for typical sources with five decoherence schemes. For the adiabatic schemes, the matter effect is notable and may be identified in the special range of the electron density, irrespective of the production sources of HANs. Hence, the precise measurement of the flavor ratio would provide constrains on the propagation schemes and the matter parameter.**Confronting the prediction of leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase with experiments**

2205.02796 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yang Hwan Ahn, [and 3 more]Sin Kyu Kang, Raymundo Ramos, and Morimitsu Tanimoto [hide authors].

We update and improve past efforts to predict the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase with models that predict perturbatively modified tribimaximal or bimaximal mixing. Simple perturbations are applied to both mixing patterns in the form of rotations between two sectors. By translating these perturbed mixing matrices to the standard parameterization for the neutrino mixing matrix we derive relations between the Dirac CP-phase and the oscillation angles. We use these relations together with current experimental results to constrain the allowed range for the CP-phase and determine its probability density. Furthermore, we elaborate on the prospects for future experiments probing on the perturbations considered in this work. We present a model with $A_4$ modular symmetry that is consistent with one of the described perturbed scenarios and successfully predicts current oscillation parameter data.**Neutrino mass and mass ordering: No conclusive evidence for normal ordering**

2205.02195 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stefano Gariazzo, [and 10 more]Martina Gerbino, Thejs Brinckmann, Massimiliano Lattanzi, Olga Mena, Thomas Schwetz, Shouvik Roy Choudhury, Katherine Freese, Steen Hannestad, Christoph A. Ternes, and Mariam Tórtola [hide authors].

The extraction of the neutrino mass ordering is one of the major challenges in particle physics and cosmology, not only for its implications for a fundamental theory of mass generation in nature, but also for its decisive role in the scale of future neutrinoless double beta decay experimental searches. It has been recently claimed that current oscillation, beta decay and cosmological limits on the different observables describing the neutrino mass parameter space provide robust decisive Bayesian evidence in favor of the normal ordering of the neutrino mass spectrum [arXiv:2203.14247]. We further investigate these strong claims using a rich and wide phenomenology, with different sampling techniques of the neutrino parameter space. Contrary to the findings of Jimenez et al [arXiv:2203.14247], no decisive evidence for the normal mass ordering is found. Neutrino mass ordering analyses must rely on priors and parameterizations that are ordering-agnostic: robust results should be regarded as those in which the preference for the normal neutrino mass ordering is driven exclusively by the data, while we find a difference of up to a factor of 33 in the Bayes factors among the different priors and parameterizations exploited here. An ordering-agnostic prior would be represented by the case of parameterizations sampling over the two mass splittings and a mass scale, or those sampling over the individual neutrino masses via normal prior distributions only. In this regard, we show that the current significance in favor of the normal mass ordering should be taken as $2.7\sigma$ (i.e. moderate evidence), mostly driven by neutrino oscillation data.**The diffuse supernova neutrino background as a probe of late-time neutrino mass generation**

2205.01102 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, [and 3 more]Ivan Martinez-Soler, Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez, and Manibrata Sen [hide authors].

The relic neutrinos from old supernova explosions are among the most ancient neutrino fluxes within experimental reach. Thus, the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) could teach us if neutrino masses were different in the past (redshifts $z\lesssim 5$). Oscillations inside the supernova depend strongly on the neutrino mass-squared differences and the values of the mixing angles, rendering the DSNB energy spectrum sensitive to variations of these parameters. Considering a purely phenomenological parameterization of the neutrino masses as a function of redshift, we compute the expected local DSNB spectrum here on Earth. Given the current knowledge of neutrino oscillation parameters, specially the fact that $|U_{e3}|^2$ is small, we find that the $\nu_e$ spectrum could be significantly different from standard expectations if neutrinos were effectively massless at $z\gtrsim1$ as long as the neutrino mass ordering is normal. On the other hand, the $\overline{\nu}_e$ flux is not expected to be significantly impacted. Hence, a measurement of both the neutrino and antineutrino components of the DSNB should allow one to test the possibility of recent neutrino mass generation.**Compatibility of Neutrino DIS Data and Its Impact on Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions**

2204.13157 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by K. F. Muzakka, [and 11 more]P. Duwentäster, T. J. Hobbs, T. Ježo, M. Klasen, K. Kovařík, A. Kusina, J. G. Morfín, F. I. Olness, R. Ruiz, I. Schienbein, and J. Y. Yu [hide authors].

In global analyses of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), neutrino deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) data have been argued to exhibit tensions with the data from charged-lepton DIS. Using the nCTEQ framework, we investigate these possible tensions both internally and with the data sets used in our recent nPDF analysis nCTEQ15WZSIH. We take into account nuclear effects in the calculation of the deuteron structure function $F_2^D$ using the CJ15 analysis. The resulting nPDF fit, nCTEQ15WZSIHdeut, serves as the basis for our comparison with inclusive neutrino DIS and charm dimuon production data. Using $\chi^2$ hypothesis testing, we confirm evidence of tensions with these data and study the impact of the proton PDF baseline as well as the treatment of data correlation and normalization uncertainties. We identify the experimental data and kinematic regions that generate the tensions and present several possible approaches how a consistent global analysis with neutrino data can be performed. We show that the tension can be relieved using a kinematic cut at low $x$ ($x>0.1$) and also investigate a possibility of managing the tensions by using uncorrelated systematic errors. Finally, we present a different approach identifying a subset of neutrino data which leads to a consistent global analysis without any additional cuts. Understanding these tensions between the neutrino and charged-lepton DIS data is important not only for a better flavor separation in global analyses of nuclear and proton PDFs, but also for neutrino physics and for searches for physics beyond the Standard Model.**Timing and Multi-Channel: Novel Method for Determining the Neutrino Mass Ordering from Supernovae**

2204.13135 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar and Xun-Jie Xu.

One of the few remaining unknowns in the standard three-flavor neutrino oscillation paradigm is the ordering of neutrino masses. In this work we propose a novel method for determining neutrino mass ordering using the time information on early supernova neutrino events. In a core-collapse supernova, neutrinos are produced earlier than antineutrinos and, depending on the mass ordering which affects the adiabatic flavor evolution, may cause earlier observable signals in $\nu_e$ detection channels than in others. Hence, the time differences are sensitive to the mass ordering. We find that using the time information on the detection of the first galactic supernova events at future detectors like DUNE, JUNO and Hyper-Kamiokande, the mass ordering can already be determined at $\sim 2 \sigma$ CL, while $\mathcal{O}(10)$ events suffice for the discovery. Our method does not require high statistics and could be used within the supernova early warning system (SNEWS) which will have access to the time information on early supernova neutrino events recorded in a number of detectors. The method proposed in this paper also implies a crucial interplay between the mass ordering and the triangulation method for locating supernovae.**Antineutrino sensitivity at THEIA**

2204.12278 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stephane Zsoldos, [and 4 more]Zara Bagdasarian, Gabriel D. Orebi Gann, Andrew Barna, and Stephen Dye [hide authors].

We present the sensitivity of the Theia experiment to low-energy geo- and reactor antineutrinos. For this study, we consider one of the possible proposed designs, a 17.8-ktonne fiducial volume Theia-25 detector filled with water-based liquid scintillator placed at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF). We demonstrate Theia's sensitivity to measure the geo- and reactor antineutrinos via Inverse-Beta Decay interactions after one year of data taking with $11.9\times10^{32}$ free target protons. The expected number of detected geo- and reactor antineutrinos is $218\,^{+28}_{-20}$ and $170\,^{+24}_{-20}$, respectively. The precision of the fitting procedure has been evaluated to be 6.72% and 8.55% for geo- and reactor antineutrinos, respectively. We also demonstrate the sensitivity towards fitting individual Th and U contributions, with best fit values of $N_\text{Th}=39\,^{+18}_{-15}$ and $N_\text{U}=180\,^{+26}_{-22}$. We obtain $(\text{Th}/\text{U})=4.3\pm2.6$ after one year of data taking, and within ten years, the relative precision of the (Th/U) mass ratio will be reduced to 15%. Finally, from the fit results of individual Th and U contributions, we evaluate the mantle signal to be $S_\text{mantle} = 9.0\,\pm [4.2,4.5]$NIU. This was obtained assuming a full-range positive correlation ($\rho_c\in[0, 1]$) between Th and U, and the projected uncertainties on the crust contributions of 8.3% (Th) and 7.0% (U). When considering systematic uncertainties on the signal and background shape and fluxes, the mantle signal becomes $S_\text{mantle} = 9.3\,\pm [5.2,5.4]$NIU.**Microscopic and Macroscopic Effects in the Decoherence of Neutrino Oscillations**

2204.10696 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ting Cheng, Manfred Lindner, and Werner Rodejohann.

We present a generic structure (the layer structure) for decoherence effects in neutrino oscillations, which includes decoherence from quantum mechanical and classical uncertainties. The calculation is done by combining the concept of open quantum system and quantum field theory, forming a structure composed of phase spaces from microscopic to macroscopic level. Having information loss at different levels, quantum mechanical uncertainties parameterize decoherence by an intrinsic mass eigenstate separation effect, while decoherence for classical uncertainties is typically dominated by a statistical averaging effect. With the help of the layer structure, we classify the former as state decoherence (SD) and the latter as phase decoherence (PD), then further conclude that both SD and PD result from phase wash-out effects of different phase structures on different layers. Such effects admit for simple numerical calculations of decoherence for a given width and shape of uncertainties. While our structure is generic, so are the uncertainties, nonetheless, a few notable ones are: the wavepacket size of the external particles, the effective interaction volume at production and detection, the energy reconstruction model and the neutrino production profile. Furthermore, we estimate the experimental sensitivities for SD and PD parameterized by the uncertainty parameters, for reactor neutrinos and decay-at-rest neutrinos, using a traditional rate measuring method and a novel phase measuring method.**Very Light Sterile Neutrinos at NOvA and T2K**

2204.09130 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, Giancarlo Jusino Sánchez, and Kevin J. Kelly.

Over the last several years, our understanding of neutrino oscillations has developed significantly due to the long-baseline measurements of muon-neutrino disappearance and muon-to-electron-neutrino appearance at the T2K and NOvA experiments. However, when interpreted under the standard-three-massive-neutrinos paradigm, a tension has emerged between the two experiments' data. Here, we examine whether this tension can be alleviated when a fourth, very light neutrino is added to the picture. Specifically, we focus on the scenario in which this new neutrino has a mass similar to, or even lighter than, the three mostly-active neutrinos that have been identified to date. We find that, for some regions of parameter space, the four-neutrino framework is favored over the three-neutrino one with moderate (a little under two sigma) significance. Interpreting these results, we provide future outlook for near-term and long-term experiments if this four-neutrino framework is indeed true.**New reactor data improves robustness of neutrino mass ordering determination**

2204.09060 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Julia Gehrlein.

In neutrino oscillation physics numerous exact degeneracies exist under the name LMA-Dark. These degeneracies make it impossible to determine the sign of $\Delta m^2_{31}$ known as the atmospheric mass ordering with oscillation experiments alone in the presence of new neutrino interactions. The combination of different measurements including multiple oscillation channels and neutrino scattering experiments lifts some aspects of these degeneracies. In fact, previous measurements of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CEvNS) by COHERENT already ruled out the LMA-Dark solution for new physics with mediators heavier than $M_{Z'}\sim50$ MeV while cosmological considerations disfavor these scenarios for mediators lighter than $M_{Z'}\sim3$ MeV. Here we leverage new data from the Dresden-II experiment which provides the strongest bounds on CEvNS with reactor neutrinos to date. We show that this data completely removes the degeneracies in the $\nu_e$ sector for mediators down to the MeV scale at which point constraints from the early universe take over. While the LMA-Dark degeneracy is lifted in the $\nu_e$ sector, it can still be restored in the $\nu_\mu$ and $\nu_\tau$ sector or with very specific couplings to up and down quarks, and we speculate on a path forward.**Independent determination of the Earth's orbital parameters with solar neutrinos in Borexino**

2204.07029 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Appel, [and 78 more]Z. Bagdasarian, D. Basilico, G. Bellini, J. Benziger, R. Biondi, B. Caccianiga, F. Calaprice, A. Caminata, A. Chepurnov, D. D'Angelo, A. Derbin, A. Di Giacinto, V. Di Marcello, X. F. Ding, A. Di Ludovico, L. Di Noto, I. Drachnev, D. Franco, C. Galbiati, C. Ghiano, M. Giammarchi, A. Goretti, A. S. Goettel, M. Gromov, D. Guffanti, Aldo Ianni, Andrea Ianni, A. Jany, V. Kobychev, G. Korga, S. Kumaran, M. Laubenstein, E. Litvinovich, P. Lombardi, I. Lomskaya, L. Ludhova, G. Lukyanchenko, I. Machulin, J. Martyn, E. Meroni, L. Miramonti, M. Misiaszek, V. Muratova, R. Nugmanov, L. Oberauer, V. Orekhov, F. Ortica, M. Pallavicini, L. Pelicci, O. Penek, L. Pietrofaccia, N. Pilipenko, A. Pocar, G. Raikov, M. T. Ranalli, G. Ranucci, A. Razeto, A. Re, M. Redchuk, N. Rossi, S. Schoenert, D. Semenov, G. Settanta, M. Skorokhvatov, A. Singhal, O. Smirnov, A. Sotnikov, R. Tartaglia, G. Testera, E. Unzhakov, A. Vishneva, R. B. Vogelaar, F. von Feilitzsch, M. Wojcik, M. Wurm, S. Zavatarelli, K. Zuber, and G. Zuzel [hide authors].

Since the beginning of 2012, the Borexino collaboration has been reporting precision measurements of the solar neutrino fluxes, emitted in the proton-proton chain and in the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen cycle. The experimental sensitivity achieved in Phase-II and Phase-III of the Borexino data taking made it possible to detect the annual modulation of the solar neutrino interaction rate due to the eccentricity of Earth's orbit, with a statistical significance greater than 5$\sigma$. This is the first precise measurement of the Earth's orbital parameters based solely on solar neutrinos and an additional signature of the solar origin of the Borexino signal. The complete periodogram of the time series of the Borexino solar neutrino detection rate is also reported, exploring frequencies between one cycle/year and one cycle/day. No other significant modulation frequencies are found. The present results were uniquely made possible by Borexino's decade-long high-precision solar neutrino detection.**Analytic treatment of 3-flavor neutrino oscillation and decay in matter**

2204.05803 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dibya S. Chattopadhyay, [and 3 more]Kaustav Chakraborty, Amol Dighe, and Srubabati Goswami [hide authors].

We present compact analytic expressions for 3-flavor neutrino oscillation probabilities with invisible neutrino decay, where matter effects have been explicitly included. We take into account the possibility that the oscillation and decay components of the effective Hamiltonian do not commute. This is achieved by employing the techniques of inverse Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) expansion and the Cayley-Hamilton theorem applied in the 3-flavor framework. If only the vacuum mass eigenstate $\nu_3$ decays, we show that the treatment of neutrino propagation may be reduced to an effective 2-flavor analysis in the One Mass Scale Dominance (OMSD) approximation. The oscillation probabilities for $P_{\mu\mu}$, $P_{ee}$, $P_{e\mu}$ and $P_{\mu e}$ -- relevant for reactor, long baseline and atmospheric neutrino experiments -- are obtained as perturbative expansions for the case of only $\nu_3$ decay, as well as for the more general scenario where all components of the decay matrix are non-zero. The analytic results thus obtained match the exact numerical results for constant density matter to a high precision and provide physical insights into possible effects of the decay of neutrinos as they propagate through Earth matter. We find that the effects of neutrino decay are most likely to be observable in $P_{\mu\mu}$. We also point out that at any long baseline, the oscillation dips in $P_{\mu\mu}$ can show higher survival probabilities in the case with decay than without decay, and explain this feature using our analytic approximations.**Exploring the Fate of Stellar Core Collapse with Supernova Relic Neutrinos**

2204.04880 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yosuke Ashida and Ken'ichiro Nakazato.

Core collapse of massive stars leads to different fates for various physical factors, which gives different spectra of the emitted neutrinos. We focus on the supernova relic neutrinos (SRNs) as a probe to investigate the stellar collapse fate. We present the SRN fluxes and event rate spectra at a detector for three resultant states after stellar core collapse, the typical mass neutron star, the higher mass neutron star, or the failed supernova forming a black hole, based on different nuclear equations of state. Then possible SRN fluxes are formed as mixtures of the three components. We also show the expected sensitivities at the next-generation water-based Cherenkov detectors, SK-Gd and Hyper-Kamiokande, as constraining the mixture fractions. This study provides a practical example of extracting astrophysical constraints through SRN measurement.**Sterile neutrino production at small mixing in the early universe**

2204.04224 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gonzalo Alonso-Álvarez and James M. Cline.

Sterile neutrinos can be produced in the early universe via interactions with their active counterparts. For small active-sterile mixing angles, thermal equilibrium with the standard model plasma is not reached and sterile neutrinos are only produced via flavor oscillations. We study in detail this regime, taking into account matter potentials and decoherence effects caused by elastic scatterings with the plasma. We find that resonant oscillations occurring at temperatures $T\lesssim 10\,\mathrm{GeV}$ lead to a significant enhancement of the sterile neutrino production rate. Taking this into account, we improve constraints on the active-sterile mixing from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, excluding mixing angles down to $\theta_s\sim 10^{-10}-10^{-16}$ for sterile neutrino masses in the $10\,\mathrm{MeV}$ to $10\,\mathrm{GeV}$ range. We observe that if sterile neutrinos predominantly decay into metastable hidden sector particles, this process provides a novel dark matter production mechanism, consistent with the sterile neutrino origin of light neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism.**Constraining New Physics with Borexino Phase-II spectral data**

2204.03011 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Coloma, [and 4 more]M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, Michele Maltoni, João Paulo Pinheiro, and Salvador Urrea [hide authors].

We present a detailed analysis of the spectral data of Borexino Phase II, with the aim of exploiting its full potential to constrain scenarios beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we quantify the constraints imposed on neutrino magnetic moments, neutrino non-standard interactions, and several simplified models with light scalar, pseudoscalar or vector mediators. Our analysis shows perfect agreement with those performed by the collaboration on neutrino magnetic moments and neutrino non-standard interactions in the same restricted cases and expands beyond those, stressing the interplay between flavour oscillations and flavour non-diagonal interaction effects for the correct evaluation of the event rates. For simplified models with light mediators we show the power of the spectral data to obtain robust limits beyond those previously estimated in the literature.**Cored Dark Matter halos in the Cosmic Neutrino Background**

2204.01431 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Wonsub Cho, Ki-Young Choi, and Hee Jung Kim.

We study the impact of the interaction between DM and the cosmic neutrino background on the evolution of galactic dark matter halos. The energy transfer from the neutrinos to the dark matter can heat the center of the galaxy and make it cored. This effect is efficient for the small galaxies such as the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and we can put conservative constraint on the non-relativistic elastic scattering cross section as $\sigma_{\chi\nu}\lesssim 10^{-31} {\rm cm}^2$ for 0.1 keV dark matter and 0.1 eV neutrino.**Visible Neutrino Decays and the Impact of the Daughter-Neutrino Mass**

2203.14976 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, Manibrata Sen, and Jean Weill.

We compute the differential decay width of two- and three-body neutrino decays, assuming neutrinos are Dirac fermions and allowing for the possibility that the decay-daughters have nonzero masses. We examine different hypotheses for the interaction that mediates neutrino decay and concentrate on identifying circumstances where the decay-daughters can significantly impact the neutrino-decay signature at different experiments. We are especially interested in decay daughters produced by right-chiral neutrino fields, when the mass of the daughter plays a decisive role. As a concrete example, we compare the effects of visible and invisible antineutrino decays at the JUNO experimental setup.**Neutrino Masses and Mass Hierarchy: Evidence for the Normal Hierarchy**

2203.14247 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Raul Jimenez, [and 4 more]Carlos Pena-Garay, Kathleen Short, Fergus Simpson, and Licia Verde [hide authors].

The latest cosmological constraints on the sum of neutrino masses, in combination with the latest laboratory measurements on oscillations, provide ``decisive" Bayesian evidence for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy. We show that this result holds across very different prior alternatives by exploring two extremes on the range of prior choices. In fact, while the specific numerical value for the Evidence depends on the choice of prior, the Bayesian odds remain greater than 140:1 across very different prior choices. For Majorana neutrinos this has important implications for the upper limit of the neutrino-less double beta decay half life and thus for the technology and resources needed for future double beta decay experiments.**PeV Tau Neutrinos to Unveil Ultra-High-Energy Sources**

2203.13827 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles, [and 3 more]Francis Halzen, Ali Kheirandish, and Ibrahim Safa [hide authors].

The observation of ultra-high-energy EeV-energy cosmogenic neutrinos provides a direct path to identifying the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays; searches have so far resulted in only upper limits on their flux. However, with the realization of cubic-kilometer detectors such as IceCube and, in the near future, KM3NeT, GVD-Baikal, and similar instruments, we anticipate the observation of PeV-energy cosmic neutrinos with high statistics. In this context, we draw attention to the opportunity to identify EeV tau neutrinos at PeV energy using Earth-traversing tau neutrinos. We show that Cherenkov detectors can improve their sensitivity to transient point sources by more than an order of magnitude by indirectly observing EeV tau neutrinos with initial energies that are nominally beyond their reach. This new technique also improves their sensitivity to the ultra-high-energy diffuse neutrino flux by up to a factor of two. Our work exemplifies how observing tau neutrinos at PeV energies provides an unprecedented reach to EeV fluxes.**No CC-NSI explanation of the Gallium anomaly**

2203.13659 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlo Giunti and Christoph Andreas Ternes.

We show that the Gallium anomaly can not be explained by CC-NSI.**Rocks, Water and Noble Liquids: Unfolding the Flavor Contents of Supernova Neutrinos**

2203.12696 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sebastian Baum, Francesco Capozzi, and Shunsaku Horiuchi.

Measuring core-collapse supernova neutrinos, both from individual supernovae within the Milky Way and from past core collapses throughout the Universe (the diffuse supernova neutrino background, or DSNB), is one of the main goals of current and next generation neutrino experiments. Detecting the heavy-lepton flavor (muon and tau types, collectively $\nu_x$) component of the flux is particularly challenging due to small statistics and large backgrounds. While the next galactic neutrino burst will be observed in a plethora of neutrino channels, allowing to measure a small number of $\nu_x$ events, only upper limits are anticipated for the diffuse $\nu_x$ flux even after decades of data taking with conventional detectors. However, paleo-detectors could measure the time-integrated flux of neutrinos from galactic core-collapse supernovae via flavor-blind neutral current interactions. In this work, we show how combining a measurement of the average galactic core-collapse supernova flux with paleo detectors and measurements of the DSNB electron-type neutrino fluxes with the next-generation water Cherenkov detector Hyper-Kamiokande and the liquid noble gas detector DUNE will allow to determine the mean supernova $\nu_x$ flux parameters with precision of order ten percent.**Testing Non-Standard Interactions Between Solar Neutrinos and Quarks with Super-Kamiokande**

2203.11772 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, [and 272 more]:, P. Weatherly, K. Abe, C. Bronner, Y. Hayato, K. Hiraide, M. Ikeda, K. Iyogi, J. Kameda, Y. Kanemura, Y. Kataoka, Y. Kato, Y. Kishimoto, S. Miki, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, T. Mochizuki, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, T. Okada, K. Okamoto, A. Orii, G. Pronost, K. Sato, H. Sekiya, M. Shiozawa, Y. Sonoda, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeda, Y. Takemoto, A. Takenaka, H. Tanaka, S. Tasaka, X. Wang, S. Watanabe, T. Yano, S. Han, T. Kajita, K. Kaneyuki, K. Okumura, T. Tashiro, R. Wang, J. Xia, G. D. Megias, L. Labarga, B. Zaldivar, B. W. Pointon, F. d. M. Blaszczyk, C. Kachulis, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, S. Sussman, L. Wan, T. Wester, S. Berkman, S. Tobayama, J. Bian, M. Elnimr, N. J. Griskevich, W. R. Kropp, S. Locke, S. Mine, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, V. Takhistov, A. Yankelevich, K. S. Ganezer, J. Hill, J. Y. Kim, I. T. Lim, R. G. Park, B. Bodur, Z. Li, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, L. Bernard, A. Coffani, O. Drapier, A. Giampaolo, S. El Hedri, J. Imber, Th. A. Mueller, P. Paganini, B. Quilain, A. D. Santos, T. Ishizuka, T. Nakamura, J. S. Jang, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, S. Cao, J. Amey, L. H. V. Anthony, R. P. Litchfield, W. Y. Ma, D. Martin, M. Scott, A. A. Sztuc, Y. Uchida, M. O. Wascko, V. Berardi, M. G. Catanesi, R. A. Intonti, E. Radicioni, N. F. Calabria, L. N. Machado, G. De Rosa, G. Collazuol, F. Iacob, M. Lamoureux, M. Mattiazzi, N. Ospina, L. Ludovici, M. Gonin, Y. Maekawa, Y. Nishimura, M. Friend, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, M. Jakkapu, T. Kobayashi, T. Matsubara, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, T. Boschi, F. Di Lodovico, J. Gao, T. Katori, J. Migenda, M. Taani, S. Zsoldos, KE. Abe, M. Hasegawa, Y. Isobe, Y. Kotsar, H. Miyabe, H. Ozaki, T. Sugimoto, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Ashida, J. Feng, T. Hayashino, S. Hirota, M. Jiang, T. Kikawa, M. Mori, T. Nakaya, R. A. Wendell, K. Yasutome, P. Fernandez, N. McCauley, P. Mehta, A. Pritchard, K. M. Tsui, Y. Fukuda, Y. Itow, H. Menjo, M. Murase, K. Frankiewicz, J. Lagoda, S. M. Lakshmi, M. Mandal, P. Mijakowski, Y. S. Prabhu, J. Zalipska, M. Jia, J. Jiang, C. K. Jung, X. Li, J. L. Palomino, G. Santucci, C. Vilela, M. J. Wilking, C. Yanagisawa, D. Fukuda, K. Hagiwara, M. Harada, H. Ishino, S. Ito, H. Kitagawa, Y. Koshio, W. Ma, S. Sakai, M. Sakuda, Y. Takahira, C. Xu, Y. Kuno, G. Barr, D. Barrow, L. Cook, A. Goldsack, S. Samani, C. Simpson, D. Wark, S. Molina Sedgwick, R. Tacik, F. Nova, J. Y. Yang, S. J. Jenkins, M. Malek, J. M. McElwee, O. Stone, M. D. Thiesse, L. F. Thompson, H. Okazawa, Y. Choi, S. B. Kim, J. W. Seo, I. Yu, A. Ichikawa, K. D. Nakamura, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, K. Iwamoto, K. Nakagiri, Y. Nakajima, Y. Suda, N. Taniuchi, M. Yokoyama, K. Martens, M. Murdoch, M. R. Vagins, D. Hamabe, S. Izumiyama, M. Kuze, Y. Okajima, T. Yoshida, M. Inomoto, M. Ishitsuka, H. Ito, T. Kinoshita, R. Matsumoto, M. Shinoki, T. Suganuma, M. Yonenaga, J. F. Martin, C. M. Nantais, H. A. Tanaka, T. Towstego, R. Akutsu, P. de Perio, V. Gousy-Leblanc, M. Hartz, A. Konaka, P. de Perio, N. W. Prouse, S. Chen, B. D. Xu, B. Zhang, M. Posiadala-Zezula, D. Hadley, M. Nicholson, M. O'Flaherty, B. Richards, A. Ali, B. Jamieson, P. Giorgio, Ll. Marti, A. Minamino, G. Pintaudi, S. Sano, R. Sasaki, and K. Wada [hide authors].

Non-Standard Interactions (NSI) between neutrinos and matter affect the neutrino flavor oscillations. Due to the high matter density in the core of the Sun, solar neutrinos are suited to probe these interactions. Using the $277$ kton-yr exposure of Super-Kamiokande to $^{8}$B solar neutrinos, we search for the presence of NSI. Our data favors the presence of NSI with down quarks at 1.8$\sigma$, and with up quarks at 1.6$\sigma$, with the best fit NSI parameters being ($\epsilon_{11}^{d},\epsilon_{12}^{d}$) = (-3.3, -3.1) for $d$-quarks and ($\epsilon_{11}^{u},\epsilon_{12}^{u}$) = (-2.5, -3.1) for $u$-quarks. After combining with data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and Borexino, the significance increases by 0.1$\sigma$.**Snowmass White Paper: Beyond the Standard Model effects on Neutrino Flavor**

2203.10811 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. A. Argüelles, [and 25 more]G. Barenboim, M. Bustamante, P. Coloma, P. B. Denton, I. Esteban, Y. Farzan, E. Fernández Martínez, D. V. Forero, A. M. Gago, T. Katori, R. Lehnert, M. Ross-Lonergan, A. M. Suliga, Z. Tabrizi, L. Anchordoqui, K. Chakraborty, J. Conrad, A. Das, C. S. Fong, B. R. Littlejohn, M. Maltoni, D. Parno, J. Spitz, J. Tang, and S. Wissel [hide authors].

Neutrinos are one of the most promising messengers for signals of new physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). On the theoretical side, their elusive nature, combined with their unknown mass mechanism, seems to indicate that the neutrino sector is indeed opening a window to new physics. On the experimental side, several long-standing anomalies have been reported in the past decades, providing a strong motivation to thoroughly test the standard three-neutrino oscillation paradigm. In this Snowmass21 white paper, we explore the potential of current and future neutrino experiments to explore BSM effects on neutrino flavor during the next decade.**Constraining ultra-high-energy cosmic ray composition through cross-correlations**

2203.09538 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Konstantinos Tanidis, Federico R. Urban, and Stefano Camera.

The chemical composition of the highest end of the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray spectrum is very hard to measure experimentally, and to this day it remains mostly unknown. Since the trajectories of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are deflected in the magnetic field of the Galaxy by an angle that depends on their atomic number $Z$, it could be possible to indirectly measure $Z$ by quantifying the amount of such magnetic deflections. In this paper we show that, using the angular harmonic cross-correlation between ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and galaxies, we could effectively distinguish different atomic numbers with current data. As an example, we show how, if $Z=1$, the cross-correlation can exclude a $39\%$ fraction of Fe56 nuclei at $2\sigma$ for rays above $100\text{EeV}$.**Weaker yet again: mass spectrum-consistent cosmological constraints on the neutrino lifetime**

2203.09075 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joe Zhiyu Chen, [and 3 more]Isabel M. Oldengott, Giovanni Pierobon, and Yvonne Y. Y. Wong [hide authors].

We consider invisible neutrino decay $\nu_H \to \nu_l + \phi$ in the ultra-relativistic limit and compute the neutrino anisotropy loss rate relevant for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. Improving on our previous work which assumed massless $\nu_l$ and $\phi$, we reinstate in this work the daughter neutrino mass $m_{\nu l}$ in a manner consistent with the experimentally determined neutrino mass splittings. We find that a nonzero $m_{\nu l}$ introduces a new phase space factor in the loss rate $\Gamma_{\rm T}$ proportional to $(\Delta m_\nu^2/m_{\nu_H}^2)^2$ in the limit of a small squared mass gap between the parent and daughter neutrinos, i.e., $\Gamma_{\rm T} \sim (\Delta m_\nu^2/m_{\nu H}^2)^2 (m_{\nu H}/E_\nu )^5 (1/\tau_0)$, where $\tau_0$ is the $\nu_H$ rest-frame lifetime. Using a general form of this result, we update the limit on $\tau_0$ using the Planck 2018 CMB data. We find that for a parent neutrino of mass $m_{\nu H} \lesssim 0.1 {\rm eV}$, the new phase space factor weakens the constraint on its lifetime by up to a factor of 50 if $\Delta m_\nu^2$ corresponds to the atmospheric mass gap and up to $10^{5}$ if the solar mass gap, in comparison with naive estimates that assume $m_{\nu l}=0$. The revised constraints are (i) $\tau^0 \gtrsim (6 \to 10) \times 10^5~{\rm s}$ and $\tau^0 \gtrsim (400 \to 500)~{\rm s}$ if only one neutrino decays to a daughter neutrino separated by, respectively, the atmospheric and the solar mass gap, and (ii) $\tau^0 \gtrsim (2 \to 3) \times 10^7~{\rm s}$ in the case of two decay channels with one near-common atmospheric mass gap. In contrast to previous, naive limits which scale as $m_{\nu H}^5$, these mass spectrum-consistent $\tau_0$ constraints are remarkably independent of the parent mass and open up a swath of parameter space within the projected reach of IceCube and other neutrino telescopes in the next two decades.**Tau Neutrinos in the Next Decade: from GeV to EeV**

2203.05591 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Roshan Mammen Abraham, [and 65 more]Jaime Alvarez-Muñiz, Carlos A. Argüelles, Akitaka Ariga, Tomoko Ariga, Adam Aurisano, Dario Autiero, Mary Bishai, Nilay Bostan, Mauricio Bustamante, Austin Cummings, Valentin Decoene, André de Gouvêa, Giovanni De Lellis, Albert De Roeck, Peter B. Denton, Antonia Di Crescenzo, Milind V. Diwan, Yasaman Farzan, Anatoli Fedynitch, Jonathan L. Feng, Laura J. Fields, Alfonso Garcia, Maria Vittoria Garzelli, Julia Gehrlein, Christian Glaser, Katarzyna Grzelak, Steffen Hallmann, V Hewes, D. Indumathi, Ahmed Ismail, Sudip Jana, Yu Seon Jeong, Kevin J. Kelly, Spencer R. Klein, Felix Kling, Thomas Kosc, Umut Kose, D. Jason Koskinen, John Krizmanic, Jeff Lazar, Yichen Li, Ivan Martinez-Soler, Irina Mocioiu, Jiwoo Nam, Valentin Niess, Nepomuk Otte, Sameer Patel, Roberto Petti, Remy L. Prechelt, Steven Prohira, Miriama Rajaoalisoa, Mary Hall Reno, Ibrahim Safa, Carlos Sarasty-Segura, R. Thiru Senthil, Juliana Stachurska, Oleksandr Tomalak, Sebastian Trojanowski, Roger Alexandre Wendell, Dawn Williams, Stephanie Wissel, Barbara Yaeggy, Enrique Zas, Pavel Zhelnin, and Jing-yu Zhu [hide authors].

Tau neutrinos are the least studied particle in the Standard Model. This whitepaper discusses the current and expected upcoming status of tau neutrino physics with attention to the broad experimental and theoretical landscape spanning long-baseline, beam-dump, collider, and astrophysical experiments. This whitepaper was prepared as a part of the NuTau2021 Workshop.**Consequences of the Dresden-II reactor data for the weak mixing angle and new physics**

2203.02414 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Aristizabal Sierra, V. De Romeri, and D. K. Papoulias.

The Dresden-II reactor experiment has recently reported a suggestive evidence for the observation of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, using a germanium detector. Given the low recoil energy threshold, these data are particularly interesting for a low-energy determination of the weak mixing angle and for the study of new physics leading to spectral distortions at low momentum transfer. Using two hypotheses for the quenching factor, we study the impact of the data on: (i) The weak mixing angle at a renormalization scale of $\sim 10\,\text{MeV}$, (ii) neutrino generalized interactions with light mediators, (iii) the sterile neutrino dipole portal. The results for the weak mixing angle show a strong dependence on the quenching factor choice. Although still with large uncertainties, the Dresden-II data provide for the first time a determination of $\sin^2\theta_W$ at such scale using coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering data. Tight upper limits are placed on the light vector, scalar and tensor mediator scenarios. Kinematic constraints implied by the reactor anti-neutrino flux and the ionization energy threshold allow the sterile neutrino dipole portal to produce up-scattering events with sterile neutrino masses up to $\sim 8\,$MeV. In this context, we find that limits are also sensitive to the quenching factor choice, but in both cases competitive with those derived from XENON1T data and more stringent that those derived with COHERENT data, in the same sterile neutrino mass range.**Search for the Majorana Nature of Neutrinos in the Inverted Mass Ordering Region with KamLAND-Zen**

2203.02139 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by KamLAND-Zen Collaboration, [and 74 more]:, S. Abe, S. Asami, M. Eizuka, S. Futagi, A. Gando, Y. Gando, T. Gima, A. Goto, T. Hachiya, K. Hata, S. Hayashida, K. Hosokawa, K. Ichimura, S. Ieki, H. Ikeda, K. Inoue, K. Ishidoshiro, Y. Kamei, N. Kawada, Y. Kishimoto, M. Koga, M. Kurasawa, N. Maemura, T. Mitsui, H. Miyake, T. Nakahata, K. Nakamura, K. Nakamura, R. Nakamura, H. Ozaki, T. Sakai, H. Sambonsugi, I. Shimizu, J. Shirai, K. Shiraishi, A. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Tamae, K. Ueshima, H. Watanabe, Y. Yoshida, S. Obara, A. K. Ichikawa, D. Chernyak, A. Kozlov, K. Z. Nakamura, S. Yoshida, Y. Takemoto, S. Umehara, K. Fushimi, K. Kotera, Y. Urano, B. E. Berger, B. K. Fujikawa, J. G. Learned, J. Maricic, S. N. Axani, J. Smolsky, Z. Fu, L. A. Winslow, Y. Efremenko, H. J. Karwowski, D. M. Markoff, W. Tornow, S. Dell'Oro, T. O'Donnell, J. A. Detwiler, S. Enomoto, M. P. Decowski, C. Grant, A. Li, and H. Song [hide authors].

The KamLAND-Zen experiment has provided stringent constraints on the neutrinoless double-beta ($0\nu\beta\beta$) decay half-life in $^{136}$Xe using a xenon-loaded liquid scintillator. We report an improved search using an upgraded detector with almost double the amount of xenon and an ultralow radioactivity container, corresponding to an exposure of 970 kg yr of $^{136}$Xe. These new data provide valuable insight into backgrounds, especially from cosmic muon spallation of xenon, and have required the use of novel background rejection techniques. We obtain a lower limit for the $0\nu\beta\beta$ decay half-life of $T_{1/2}^{0\nu} > 2.3 \times 10^{26}$ yr at 90% C.L., corresponding to upper limits on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of 36-156 meV using commonly adopted nuclear matrix element calculations.**An absolute $ν$ mass measurement with the DUNE experiment**

2203.00024 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Federica Pompa, [and 3 more]Francesco Capozzi, Olga Mena, and Michel Sorel [hide authors].

Time of flight delay in the supernova neutrino signal offers a unique tool to set model-independent constraints on the absolute neutrino mass. The presence of a sharp time structure during a first emission phase, the so-called neutronization burst in the electron neutrino flavor time distribution, makes this channel a very powerful one. Large liquid argon underground detectors will provide precision measurements of the time dependence of the electron neutrino fluxes. We derive here a new $\nu$ mass sensitivity attainable at the future DUNE far detector from a future supernova collapse in our galactic neighborhood, finding a sub-eV reach under favorable scenarios. These values are competitive with those expected for laboratory direct neutrino mass searches.**Theia: Summary of physics program. Snowmass White Paper Submission**

2202.12839 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Askins, [and 86 more]Z. Bagdasarian, N. Barros, E. W. Beier, A. Bernstein, E. Blucher, R. Bonventre, E. Bourret, E. J. Callaghan, J. Caravaca, M. Diwan, S. T. Dye, J. Eisch, A. Elagin, T. Enqvist, U. Fahrendholz, V. Fischer, K. Frankiewicz, C. Grant, D. Guffanti, C. Hagner, A. Hallin, C. M. Jackson, R. Jiang, T. Kaptanoglu, J. R. Klein, Yu. G. Kolomensky, C. Kraus, F. Krennrich, T. Kutter, T. Lachenmaier, B. Land, K. Lande, L. Lebanowski, J. G. Learned, V. A. Li, V. Lozza, L. Ludhova, M. Malek, S. Manecki, J. Maneira, J. Maricic, J. Martyn, A. Mastbaum, C. Mauger, M. Mayer, J. Migenda, F. Moretti, J. Napolitano, B. Naranjo, M. Nieslony, L. Oberauer, G. D. Orebi Gann, J. Ouellet, T. Pershing, S. T. Petcov, L. Pickard, R. Rosero, M. C. Sanchez, J. Sawatzki, S. H. Seo, M. Smiley, M. Smy, A. Stahl, H. Steiger, M. R. Stock, H. Sunej, R. Svoboda, E. Tiras, W. H. Trzaska, M. Tzanov, M. Vagins, C. Vilela, Z. Wang, J. Wang, M. Wetstein, M. J. Wilking, L. Winslow, P. Wittich, B. Wonsak, E. Worcester, M. Wurm, G. Yang, M. Yeh, E. D. Zimmerman, S. Zsoldos, and K. Zuber [hide authors].

Theia would be a novel, "hybrid" optical neutrino detector, with a rich physics program. This paper is intended to provide a brief overview of the concepts and physics reach of Theia. Full details can be found in the Theia white paper [1].**Matter Effects of Sterile Neutrino in Light of Renormalization-Group Equations**

2202.09851 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shuge Zeng and Fanrong Xu.

The renormalization-group equation (RGE) approach to neutrino matter effects is further developed in this work. We derive a complete set of differential equations for effective mixing elements, masses and Jarlskog-like invariants in presence of a light sterile neutrino. The evolutions of mixing elements as well as Jarlskog-like invariants are obtained by numerically solving these differential equations. We calculate terrestrial matter effects in long-baseline (LBL) experiments, taking NOvA, T2K and DUNE as examples. In both three-flavor and four-flavor frameworks, electron-neutrino survival probabilities as well as the day-night asymmetry of solar neutrino are also evaluated as a further examination of the RGE approach.**Improving CP Measurement with THEIA and Muon Decay at Rest**

2202.05038 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shao-Feng Ge, Chui-Fan Kong, and Pedro Pasquini.

We explore the possibility of using the recently proposed THEIA detector to measure the $\bar \nu_\mu \rightarrow \bar \nu_e$ oscillation with neutrinos from a muon decay at rest ($\mu$DAR) source to improve the leptonic CP phase measurement. Due to its intrinsic low-energy beam, this $\mu$THEIA configuration ($\mu$DAR neutrinos at THEIA) is only sensitive to the genuine leptonic CP phase $\delta_D$ and not contaminated by the matter effect. With detailed study of neutrino energy reconstruction and backgrounds at the THEIA detector, we find that the combination with the high-energy DUNE can significantly reduce the CP uncertainty, especially around the maximal CP violation cases $\delta_D = \pm 90^\circ$. Both the $\mu$THEIA-25 with 17kt and $\mu$THEIA-100 with 70kt fiducial volumes are considered. For DUNE + $\mu$THEIA-100, the CP uncertainty can be better than $8^\circ$.**Detecting Beyond the Standard Model Interactions of Solar Neutrinos in Low-Threshold Dark Matter Detectors**

2202.01254 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Schwemberger and Tien-Tien Yu.

As low-threshold dark matter detectors advance in development, they will become sensitive to recoils from solar neutrinos which opens up the possibility to explore neutrino properties. We predict the enhancement of the event rate of solar neutrino scattering from Beyond the Standard Model interactions in low-threshold DM detectors, with a focus on silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, xenon, and argon-based detectors. We consider a set of general neutrino interactions, which fall into five categories: the neutrino magnetic moment as well as interactions mediated by four types of mediators (scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial vector), and consider coupling these mediators to either quarks or electrons. Using these predictions, we place constraints on the mass and couplings of each mediator and the neutrino magnetic moment from current low-threshold detectors like SENSEI, Edelweiss, and SuperCDMS, as well as projections relevant for future experiments such as DAMIC-M, Oscura, Darwin, and ARGO. We find that such low-threshold detectors can improve current constraints by up to two orders of magnitude for vector mediators and one order of magnitude for scalar mediators.**Influence of cross-sectional uncertainty on sensitivity studies of DUNE and T2HK experiments**

2201.08040 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ritu Devi, Jaydip Singh, and Baba Potukuchi.

The ultimate objectives of ongoing and upcoming neutrino experiments are the precise measurement of neutrino mixing parameters and the confirmation of mass hierarchy. The systematic inaccuracy in the cross-section models introduces inaccuracy in the neutrino mixing parameters estimation. It is important to secure a large decrease of uncertainties, particularly those relating to cross-section, neutrino-nucleus interactions, and neutrino-energy reconstruction, in order to achieve these ambitious goals. In this research article, we use three alternative neutrino event generators, GENIE, NuWro, and GiBUU, to analyze sensitivity studies of T2HK, DUNE, and combined sensitivity of DUNE, and T2HK for mass hierarchy, CP violation, and octant degeneracy caused by cross-section uncertainties. The cross-section models of these generators are separate and independent.**Can NSI affect non-local correlations in neutrino oscillations?**

2201.05580 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Bhavna Yadav, [and 3 more]Trisha Sarkar, Khushboo Dixit, and Ashutosh Kumar Alok [hide authors].

Non-local correlations in entangled systems are usually captured by measures such as Bell's inequality violation. It was recently shown that in neutrino systems, a measure of non-local advantage of quantum coherence (NAQC) can be considered as a stronger measure of non-local correlations as compared to the Bell's inequality violation. In this work, we analyze the effects of non standard interaction (NSI) on these measures in the context of two flavour neutrino oscillations for DUNE, MINOS, T2K, KamLAND, JUNO and Daya Bay experimental set-ups. We find that even in the presence of NSI, Bell's inequality violation occurs in the entire energy range whereas the NAQC violation is observed only in some specific energy range justifying the more elementary feature of NAQC. Further, we find that NSI can enhance the violation of NAQC and Bell's inequality parameter in the higher energy range of a given experimental set-up; these enhancements being maximal for the KamLAND experiment. However, the possible enhancement in the violation of the Bell's inequality parameter over the standard model prediction can be up to 11% whereas for NAQC it is 7%. Thus although NAQC is a comparatively stronger witness of nonclassicality, it shows lesser sensitivity to NSI effects in comparison to the Bell's inequality parameter.**Impact of Wave Packet Separation in Low-Energy Sterile Neutrino Searches**

2201.05108 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles, Toni Bertólez-Martínez, and Jordi Salvado.

Light sterile neutrinos have been motivated by anomalies observed in short-baseline neutrino experiments.Among them, radioactive-source and reactor experiments have provided evidence and constraints, respectively, for electron neutrino disappearance compatible with an eV-scale neutrino. The results from these observations are seemingly in conflict. This letter brings into focus the assumption that the neutrino wave packet can be approximated as a plane wave, which is adopted in all analyses of such experiments. We demonstrate that the damping of oscillations, e.g., due to a finite wave packet size, solve the tension between these electron-flavor observations and constraints.**Constraining Light Mediators via Detection of Coherent Elastic Solar Neutrino Nucleus Scattering**

2201.05015 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yu-Feng Li and Shuo-yu Xia.

Dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments are entering the multiple-ton era and will be sensitive to the coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) of solar neutrinos, enabling the possibility to explore contributions from new physics with light mediators at the low energy range. In this paper we consider light mediator models (scalar, vector and axial vector) and the corresponding contributions to the solar neutrino CE$\nu$NS process. Motivated by the current status of new generation of DM direct detection experiments and the future plan, we study the sensitivity of light mediators in DM direct detection experiments of different nuclear targets and detector techniques. The constraints from the latest $^8$B solar neutrino measurements of XENON-1T are also derived. Finally, We show that the solar neutrino CE$\nu$NS process can provide stringent limitation on the $ L_{\mu}-L_{\tau} $ model with the vector mediator mass below 100 MeV, covering the viable parameter space of the solution to the $ (g-2)_{\mu}$ anomaly.**Strong constraints on neutrino nonstandard interactions from TeV-scale $ν_μ$ disappearance at IceCube**

2201.03566 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 383 more]R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. Benda, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, M. Boddenberg, F. Bontempo, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, B. Brinson, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, S. Browne, A. Burgman, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Mari{ş}, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, S. McCarthy, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguy{\~{ê}}n, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, M. Pittermann, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, R. Reimann, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Veitch-Michaelis, S. Verpoest, C. Walck, W. Wang, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

We report a search for nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI) using eight years of TeV-scale atmospheric muon neutrino data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. By reconstructing incident energies and zenith angles for atmospheric neutrino events, this analysis presents unified confidence intervals for the NSI parameter $\epsilon_{\mu \tau}$. The best-fit value is consistent with no NSI at a p-value of 25.2%. With a 90% confidence interval of $-0.0041 \leq \epsilon_{\mu \tau} \leq 0.0031$ along the real axis and similar strength in the complex plane, this result is the strongest constraint on any NSI parameter from any oscillation channel to date.**MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE Combined Fit to a 3+1 Sterile Neutrino Scenario**

2201.01724 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo, [and 38 more]B. C. Brown, J. M. Conrad, R. Dharmapalan, A. Diaz, Z. Djurcic, D. A. Finley, R. Ford, G. T. Garvey, S. Gollapinni, A. Hourlier, E. -C. Huang, N. W. Kamp, G. Karagiorgi, T. Katori, T. Kobilarcik, K. Lin, W. C. Louis, C. Mariani, W. Marsh, G. B. Mills, J. Mirabal-Martinez, C. D. Moore, R. H. Nelson, J. Nowak, Z. Pavlovic, H. Ray, B. P. Roe, A. D. Russell, A. Schneider, M. H. Shaevitz, J. Spitz, I. Stancu, R. Tayloe, R. T. Thornton, M. Tzanov, R. G. Van de Water, D. H. White, and E. D. Zimmerman [hide authors].

This letter presents the results from the MiniBooNE experiment within a full "3+1" scenario where one sterile neutrino is introduced to the three-active-neutrino picture. In addition to electron-neutrino appearance at short-baselines, this scenario also allows for disappearance of the muon-neutrino and electron-neutrino fluxes in the Booster Neutrino Beam, which is shared by the MicroBooNE experiment. We present the 3+1 fit to the MiniBooNE electron-(anti)neutrino and muon-(anti)neutrino data alone, and in combination with MicroBooNE electron-neutrino data. The best-fit parameters of the combined fit with the exclusive CCQE analysis (inclusive analysis) are $\Delta m^2 = 0.29 eV^2 (0.33 eV^2)$, $|U_{e4}|^2 = 0.016 (0.500)$, $|U_{\mu 4}|^2 = 0.500 (0.500)$, and $\sin^2(2\theta_{\mu e})=0.0316 (1.0)$. Comparing the no-oscillation scenario to the 3+1 model, the data prefer the 3+1 model with a $\Delta \chi^2/\text{dof} = 24.7 / 3 (17.3 / 3)$, a $4.3\sigma (3.4\sigma)$ preference assuming the asymptotic approximation given by Wilks' theorem.**Search for non-standard neutrino interactions with 10 years of ANTARES data**

2112.14517 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Albert, [and 147 more]S. Alves, M. André, M. Anghinolfi, G. Anton, M. Ardid, S. Ardid, J. -J. Aubert, J. Aublin, B. Baret, S. Basa, B. Belhorma, M. Bendahman, F. Benfenati, V. Bertin, S. Biagi, M. Bissinger, J. Boumaaza, M. Bouta, M. C. Bouwhuis, H. Brânzas, R. Bruijn, J. Brunner, J. Busto, B. Caiffi, D. Calvo, A. Capone, L. Caramete, J. Carr, V. Carretero, S. Celli, M. Chabab, T. N. Chau, R. Cherkaoui El Moursli, T. Chiarusi, M. Circella, A. Coleiro, R. Coniglione, P. Coyle, A. Creusot, A. F. Díaz, G. de Wasseige, C. Distefano, I. Di Palma, A. Domi, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, D. Drouhin, T. Eberl, T. van Eeden, D. van Eijk, N. El Khayati, A. Enzenhöfer, P. Fermani, G. Ferrara, F. Filippini, L. Fusco, Y. Gatelet, P. Gay, H. Glotin, R. Gozzini, R. Gracia Ruiz, K. Graf, C. Guidi, S. Hallmann, H. van Haren, A. J. Heijboer, Y. Hello, J. J. Hernández-Rey, J. Hößl, J. Hofestädt, F. Huang, G. Illuminati, C. W. James, B. Jisse-Jung, M. de Jong, P. de Jong, M. Kadler, O. Kalekin, U. Katz, N. R. Khan-Chowdhury, A. Kouchner, I. Kreykenbohm, V. Kulikovskiy, R. Lahmann, R. Le Breton, S. LeStum, D. Lefèvre, E. Leonora, G. Levi, M. Lincetto, D. Lopez-Coto, S. Loucatos, L. Maderer, J. Manczak, M. Marcelin, A. Margiotta, A. Marinelli, J. A. Martínez-Mora, B. Martino, K. Melis, P. Migliozzi, A. Moussa, R. Muller, L. Nauta, S. Navas, E. Nezri, B. Ó Fearraigh, A. Paun, G. E. Pavalas, C. Pellegrino, M. Perrin-Terrin, V. Pestel, P. Piattelli, C. Pieterse, C. Poirè, V. Popa, T. Pradier, N. Randazzo, D. Real, S. Reck, G. Riccobene, A. Romanov, A. Sánchez-Losa, F. Salesa Greus, D. F. E. Samtleben, M. Sanguineti, P. Sapienza, J. Schnabel, J. Schumann, F. Schüssler, J. Seneca, M. Spurio, Th. Stolarczyk, M. Taiuti, Y. Tayalati, T. Thakore, S. J. Tingay, B. Vallage, V. Van Elewyck, F. Versari, S. Viola, D. Vivolo, J. Wilms, S. Zavatarelli, A. Zegarelli, J. D. Zornoza, and J. Zúñiga [hide authors].

Non-standard interactions of neutrinos arising in many theories beyond the Standard Model can significantly alter matter effects in atmospheric neutrino propagation through the Earth. In this paper, a search for deviations from the prediction of the standard 3-flavour atmospheric neutrino oscillations using the data taken by the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. Ten years of atmospheric neutrino data collected from 2007 to 2016, with reconstructed energies in the range from $\sim$16 GeV to $100$ GeV, have been analysed. A log-likelihood ratio test of the dimensionless coefficients $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$ and $\varepsilon_{\tau\tau} - \varepsilon_{\mu\mu}$ does not provide clear evidence of deviations from standard interactions. For normal neutrino mass ordering, the combined fit of both coefficients yields a value 1.7$\sigma$ away from the null result. However, the 68% and 95% confidence level intervals for $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$ and $\varepsilon_{\tau\tau} - \varepsilon_{\mu\mu}$, respectively, contain the null value. Best fit values, one standard deviation errors and bounds at the 90% confidence level for these coefficients are given for both normal and inverted mass orderings. The constraint on $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$ is among the most stringent to date and it further restrains the strength of possible non-standard interactions in the $\mu - \tau$ sector.**Damping signatures at JUNO, a medium-baseline reactor neutrino oscillation experiment**

2112.14450 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by JUNO collaboration, [and 606 more]Jun Wang, Jiajun Liao, Wei Wang, Angel Abusleme, Thomas Adam, Shakeel Ahmad, Rizwan Ahmed, Sebastiano Aiello, Muhammad Akram, Fengpeng An, Qi An, Giuseppe Andronico, Nikolay Anfimov, Vito Antonelli, Tatiana Antoshkina, Burin Asavapibhop, João Pedro Athayde Marcondes de André, Didier Auguste, Andrej Babic, Nikita Balashov, Wander Baldini, Andrea Barresi, Davide Basilico, Eric Baussan, Marco Bellato, Antonio Bergnoli, Thilo Birkenfeld, Sylvie Blin, David Blum, Simon Blyth, Anastasia Bolshakova, Mathieu Bongrand, Clément Bordereau, Dominique Breton, Augusto Brigatti, Riccardo Brugnera, Riccardo Bruno, Antonio Budano, Mario Buscemi, Jose Busto, Ilya Butorov, Anatael Cabrera, Hao Cai, Xiao Cai, Yanke Cai, Zhiyan Cai, Riccardo Callegari, Antonio Cammi, Agustin Campeny, Chuanya Cao, Guofu Cao, Jun Cao, Rossella Caruso, Cédric Cerna, Jinfan Chang, Yun Chang, Pingping Chen, Po-An Chen, Shaomin Chen, Xurong Chen, Yi-Wen Chen, Yixue Chen, Yu Chen, Zhang Chen, Jie Cheng, Yaping Cheng, Alexey Chetverikov, Davide Chiesa, Pietro Chimenti, Artem Chukanov, Gérard Claverie, Catia Clementi, Barbara Clerbaux, Selma Conforti Di Lorenzo, Daniele Corti, Flavio Dal Corso, Olivia Dalager, Christophe De La Taille, Jiawei Deng, Zhi Deng, Ziyan Deng, Wilfried Depnering, Marco Diaz, Xuefeng Ding, Yayun Ding, Bayu Dirgantara, Sergey Dmitrievsky, Tadeas Dohnal, Dmitry Dolzhikov, Georgy Donchenko, Jianmeng Dong, Evgeny Doroshkevich, Marcos Dracos, Frédéric Druillole, Ran Du, Shuxian Du, Stefano Dusini, Martin Dvorak, Timo Enqvist, Heike Enzmann, Andrea Fabbri, Lukas Fajt, Donghua Fan, Lei Fan, Jian Fang, Wenxing Fang, Marco Fargetta, Dmitry Fedoseev, Vladko Fekete, Li-Cheng Feng, Qichun Feng, Richard Ford, Amélie Fournier, Haonan Gan, Feng Gao, Alberto Garfagnini, Arsenii Gavrikov, Marco Giammarchi, Agnese Giaz, Nunzio Giudice, Maxim Gonchar, Guanghua Gong, Hui Gong, Yuri Gornushkin, Alexandre Göttel, Marco Grassi, Christian Grewing, Vasily Gromov, Minghao Gu, Xiaofei Gu, Yu Gu, Mengyun Guan, Nunzio Guardone, Maria Gul, Cong Guo, Jingyuan Guo, Wanlei Guo, Xinheng Guo, Yuhang Guo, Paul Hackspacher, Caren Hagner, Ran Han, Yang Han, Muhammad Sohaib Hassan, Miao He, Wei He, Tobias Heinz, Patrick Hellmuth, Yuekun Heng, Rafael Herrera, YuenKeung Hor, Shaojing Hou, Yee Hsiung, Bei-Zhen Hu, Hang Hu, Jianrun Hu, Jun Hu, Shouyang Hu, Tao Hu, Zhuojun Hu, Chunhao Huang, Guihong Huang, Hanxiong Huang, Wenhao Huang, Xin Huang, Xingtao Huang, Yongbo Huang, Jiaqi Hui, Lei Huo, Wenju Huo, Cédric Huss, Safeer Hussain, Ara Ioannisian, Roberto Isocrate, Beatrice Jelmini, Kuo-Lun Jen, Ignacio Jeria, Xiaolu Ji, Xingzhao Ji, Huihui Jia, Junji Jia, Siyu Jian, Di Jiang, Wei Jiang, Xiaoshan Jiang, Ruyi Jin, Xiaoping Jing, Cécile Jollet, Jari Joutsenvaara, Sirichok Jungthawan, Leonidas Kalousis, Philipp Kampmann, Li Kang, Rebin Karaparambil, Narine Kazarian, Khanchai Khosonthongkee, Denis Korablev, Konstantin Kouzakov, Alexey Krasnoperov, Andre Kruth, Nikolay Kutovskiy, Pasi Kuusiniemi, Tobias Lachenmaier, Cecilia Landini, Sébastien Leblanc, Victor Lebrin, Frederic Lefevre, Ruiting Lei, Rupert Leitner, Jason Leung, Demin Li, Fei Li, Fule Li, Haitao Li, Huiling Li, Jiaqi Li, Mengzhao Li, Min Li, Nan Li, Nan Li, Qingjiang Li, Ruhui Li, Shanfeng Li, Tao Li, Weidong Li, Weiguo Li, Xiaomei Li, Xiaonan Li, Xinglong Li, Yi Li, Yufeng Li, Zhaohan Li, Zhibing Li, Ziyuan Li, Hao Liang, Hao Liang, Daniel Liebau, Ayut Limphirat, Sukit Limpijumnong, Guey-Lin Lin, Shengxin Lin, Tao Lin, Jiajie Ling, Ivano Lippi, Fang Liu, Haidong Liu, Hongbang Liu, Hongjuan Liu, Hongtao Liu, Hui Liu, Jianglai Liu, Jinchang Liu, Min Liu, Qian Liu, Qin Liu, Runxuan Liu, Shuangyu Liu, Shubin Liu, Shulin Liu, Xiaowei Liu, Xiwen Liu, Yan Liu, Yunzhe Liu, Alexey Lokhov, Paolo Lombardi, Claudio Lombardo, Kai Loo, Chuan Lu, Haoqi Lu, Jingbin Lu, Junguang Lu, Shuxiang Lu, Xiaoxu Lu, Bayarto Lubsandorzhiev, Sultim Lubsandorzhiev, Livia Ludhova, Arslan Lukanov, Fengjiao Luo, Guang Luo, Pengwei Luo, Shu Luo, Wuming Luo, Vladimir Lyashuk, Bangzheng Ma, Qiumei Ma, Si Ma, Xiaoyan Ma, Xubo Ma, Jihane Maalmi, Yury Malyshkin, Roberto Carlos Mandujano, Fabio Mantovani, Francesco Manzali, Xin Mao, Yajun Mao, Stefano M. Mari, Filippo Marini, Sadia Marium, Cristina Martellini, Gisele Martin-Chassard, Agnese Martini, Matthias Mayer, Davit Mayilyan, Ints Mednieks, Yue Meng, Anselmo Meregaglia, Emanuela Meroni, David Meyhöfer, Mauro Mezzetto, Jonathan Miller, Lino Miramonti, Paolo Montini, Michele Montuschi, Axel Müller, Massimiliano Nastasi, Dmitry V. Naumov, Elena Naumova, Diana Navas-Nicolas, Igor Nemchenok, Minh Thuan Nguyen Thi, Feipeng Ning, Zhe Ning, Hiroshi Nunokawa, Lothar Oberauer, Juan Pedro Ochoa-Ricoux, Alexander Olshevskiy, Domizia Orestano, Fausto Ortica, Rainer Othegraven, Hsiao-Ru Pan, Alessandro Paoloni, Sergio Parmeggiano, Yatian Pei, Nicomede Pelliccia, Anguo Peng, Haiping Peng, Frédéric Perrot, Pierre-Alexandre Petitjean, Fabrizio Petrucci, Oliver Pilarczyk, Luis Felipe Piñeres Rico, Artyom Popov, Pascal Poussot, Wathan Pratumwan, Ezio Previtali, Fazhi Qi, Ming Qi, Sen Qian, Xiaohui Qian, Zhen Qian, Hao Qiao, Zhonghua Qin, Shoukang Qiu, Muhammad Usman Rajput, Gioacchino Ranucci, Neill Raper, Alessandra Re, Henning Rebber, Abdel Rebii, Bin Ren, Jie Ren, Barbara Ricci, Markus Robens, Mathieu Roche, Narongkiat Rodphai, Aldo Romani, Bedřich Roskovec, Christian Roth, Xiangdong Ruan, Xichao Ruan, Saroj Rujirawat, Arseniy Rybnikov, Andrey Sadovsky, Paolo Saggese, Simone Sanfilippo, Anut Sangka, Nuanwan Sanguansak, Utane Sawangwit, Julia Sawatzki, Fatma Sawy, Michaela Schever, Cédric Schwab, Konstantin Schweizer, Alexandr Selyunin, Andrea Serafini, Giulio Settanta, Mariangela Settimo, Zhuang Shao, Vladislav Sharov, Arina Shaydurova, Jingyan Shi, Yanan Shi, Vitaly Shutov, Andrey Sidorenkov, Fedor Šimkovic, Chiara Sirignano, Jaruchit Siripak, Monica Sisti, Maciej Slupecki, Mikhail Smirnov, Oleg Smirnov, Thiago Sogo-Bezerra, Sergey Sokolov, Julanan Songwadhana, Boonrucksar Soonthornthum, Albert Sotnikov, Ondřej Šrámek, Warintorn Sreethawong, Achim Stahl, Luca Stanco, Konstantin Stankevich, Dušan Štefánik, Hans Steiger, Jochen Steinmann, Tobias Sterr, Matthias Raphael Stock, Virginia Strati, Alexander Studenikin, Shifeng Sun, Xilei Sun, Yongjie Sun, Yongzhao Sun, Narumon Suwonjandee, Michal Szelezniak, Jian Tang, Qiang Tang, Quan Tang, Xiao Tang, Alexander Tietzsch, Igor Tkachev, Tomas Tmej, Marco Danilo Claudio Torri, Konstantin Treskov, Andrea Triossi, Giancarlo Troni, Wladyslaw Trzaska, Cristina Tuve, Nikita Ushakov, Johannes van den Boom, Stefan van Waasen, Guillaume Vanroyen, Vadim Vedin, Giuseppe Verde, Maxim Vialkov, Benoit Viaud, Cornelius Moritz Vollbrecht, Cristina Volpe, Vit Vorobel, Dmitriy Voronin, Lucia Votano, Pablo Walker, Caishen Wang, Chung-Hsiang Wang, En Wang, Guoli Wang, Jian Wang, Kunyu Wang, Lu Wang, Meifen Wang, Meng Wang, Meng Wang, Ruiguang Wang, Siguang Wang, Wei Wang, Wenshuai Wang, Xi Wang, Xiangyue Wang, Yangfu Wang, Yaoguang Wang, Yi Wang, Yi Wang, Yifang Wang, Yuanqing Wang, Yuman Wang, Zhe Wang, Zheng Wang, Zhimin Wang, Zongyi Wang, Muhammad Waqas, Apimook Watcharangkool, Lianghong Wei, Wei Wei, Wenlu Wei, Yadong Wei, Kaile Wen, Liangjian Wen, Christopher Wiebusch, Steven Chan-Fai Wong, Bjoern Wonsak, Diru Wu, Qun Wu, Zhi Wu, Michael Wurm, Jacques Wurtz, Christian Wysotzki, Yufei Xi, Dongmei Xia, Xiaochuan Xie, Yuguang Xie, Zhangquan Xie, Zhizhong Xing, Benda Xu, Cheng Xu, Donglian Xu, Fanrong Xu, Hangkun Xu, Jilei Xu, Jing Xu, Meihang Xu, Yin Xu, Yu Xu, Baojun Yan, Taylor Yan, Wenqi Yan, Xiongbo Yan, Yupeng Yan, Anbo Yang, Changgen Yang, Chengfeng Yang, Huan Yang, Jie Yang, Lei Yang, Xiaoyu Yang, Yifan Yang, Yifan Yang, Haifeng Yao, Zafar Yasin, Jiaxuan Ye, Mei Ye, Ziping Ye, Ugur Yegin, Frédéric Yermia, Peihuai Yi, Na Yin, Xiangwei Yin, Zhengyun You, Boxiang Yu, Chiye Yu, Chunxu Yu, Hongzhao Yu, Miao Yu, Xianghui Yu, Zeyuan Yu, Zezhong Yu, Chengzhuo Yuan, Ying Yuan, Zhenxiong Yuan, Ziyi Yuan, Baobiao Yue, Noman Zafar, Andre Zambanini, Vitalii Zavadskyi, Shan Zeng, Tingxuan Zeng, Yuda Zeng, Liang Zhan, Aiqiang Zhang, Feiyang Zhang, Guoqing Zhang, Haiqiong Zhang, Honghao Zhang, Jiawen Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jin Zhang, Jingbo Zhang, Jinnan Zhang, Peng Zhang, Qingmin Zhang, Shiqi Zhang, Shu Zhang, Tao Zhang, Xiaomei Zhang, Xuantong Zhang, Xueyao Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yinhong Zhang, Yiyu Zhang, Yongpeng Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yumei Zhang, Zhenyu Zhang, Zhijian Zhang, Fengyi Zhao, Jie Zhao, Rong Zhao, Shujun Zhao, Tianchi Zhao, Dongqin Zheng, Hua Zheng, Minshan Zheng, Yangheng Zheng, Weirong Zhong, Jing Zhou, Li Zhou, Nan Zhou, Shun Zhou, Tong Zhou, Xiang Zhou, Jiang Zhu, Kangfu Zhu, Kejun Zhu, Zhihang Zhu, Bo Zhuang, Honglin Zhuang, Liang Zong, and Jiaheng Zou [hide authors].

We study damping signatures at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a medium-baseline reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. These damping signatures are motivated by various new physics models, including quantum decoherence, $\nu_3$ decay, neutrino absorption, and wave packet decoherence. The phenomenological effects of these models can be characterized by exponential damping factors at the probability level. We assess how well JUNO can constrain these damping parameters and how to disentangle these different damping signatures at JUNO. Compared to current experimental limits, JUNO can significantly improve the limits on $\tau_3/m_3$ in the $\nu_3$ decay model, the width of the neutrino wave packet $\sigma_x$, and the intrinsic relative dispersion of neutrino momentum $\sigma_{\rm rel}$.**Neutrino oscillations in Earth for probing dark matter inside the core**

2112.14201 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anuj Kumar Upadhyay, [and 3 more]Anil Kumar, Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, and Amol Dighe [hide authors].

Atmospheric neutrinos offer the possibility of probing dark matter inside the core of the Earth in a unique way, through Earth matter effects in neutrino oscillations. For example, if dark matter constitutes 40% of the mass inside the core, a detector like ICAL at INO with muon charge identification capability can be sensitive to it at around 2$\sigma$ confidence level with 1000 kt$\cdot$yr exposure. We demonstrate that while the dark matter profile will be hard to identify, the baryonic matter profile inside the core can be probed in a manner complementary to the seismic measurements.**Improved cosmological constraints on the neutrino mass and lifetime**

2112.13862 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guillermo F. Abellán, [and 5 more]Zackaria Chacko, Abhish Dev, Peizhi Du, Vivian Poulin, and Yuhsin Tsai [hide authors].

We present cosmological constraints on the sum of neutrino masses as a function of the neutrino lifetime, in a framework in which neutrinos decay into dark radiation after becoming non-relativistic. We find that in this regime the cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and (uncalibrated) luminosity distance to supernovae from the Pantheon catalog constrain the sum of neutrino masses $\sum m_\nu$ to obey $\sum m_\nu< 0.42$ eV at (95$\%$ C.L.). While the the bound has improved significantly as compared to the limits on the same scenario from Planck 2015, it still represents a significant relaxation of the constraints as compared to the stable neutrino case. We show that most of the improvement can be traced to the more precise measurements of low-$\ell$ polarization data in Planck 2018, which leads to tighter constraints on $\tau_{\rm reio}$ (and thereby on $A_s$), breaking the degeneracy arising from the effect of (large) neutrino masses on the amplitude of the CMB power spectrum.**Neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments: From measurements to parameter space**

2112.12817 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Aristizabal Sierra, [and 3 more]O. G. Miranda, D. K. Papoulias, and G. Sanchez Garcia [hide authors].

Searches for neutrino magnetic moments/transitions in low energy neutrino scattering experiments are sensitive to effective couplings which are an intricate function of the Hamiltonian parameters. We study the parameter space dependence of these couplings in the Majorana (transitions) and Dirac (moments) cases, as well as the impact of the current most stringent experimental upper limits on the fundamental parameters. In the Majorana case we find that for reactor, short-baseline and solar neutrinos, CP violation can be understood as a measurement of parameter space vectors misalignments. The presence of nonvanishing CP phases opens a blind spot region where -- regardless of how large the parameters are -- no signal can be observed in either reactor or short-baseline experiments. Identification of these regions requires a combination of different data sets and allows for the determination of those CP phases. We point out that stringent bounds not necessarily imply suppressed Hamiltonian couplings, thus allowing for regions where disparate upper limits can be simultaneously satisfied. In contrast, in the Dirac case stringent experimental upper limits necessarily translate into tight bounds on the fundamental couplings. In terms of parameter space vectors, we provide a straightforward mapping of experimental information into parameter space.**Depletion of atmospheric neutrino fluxes from parton energy loss**

2112.10791 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by François Arleo, Greg Jackson, and Stéphane Peigné.

The phenomenon of fully coherent energy loss (FCEL) in the collisions of protons on light ions affects the physics of cosmic ray air showers. As an illustration, we address two closely related observables: hadron production in forthcoming proton-oxygen collisions at the LHC, and the atmospheric neutrino fluxes induced by the semileptonic decays of hadrons produced in proton-air collisions. In both cases, a significant nuclear suppression due to FCEL is predicted. The conventional and prompt neutrino fluxes are suppressed by $\sim 10...25\%$ in their relevant neutrino energy ranges. Previous estimates of atmospheric neutrino fluxes should be scaled down accordingly to account for FCEL.**The Return of the Templates: Revisiting the Galactic Center Excess with Multi-Messenger Observations**

2112.09706 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ilias Cholis, [and 3 more]Yi-Ming Zhong, Samuel D. McDermott, and Joseph P. Surdutovich [hide authors].

The Galactic center excess (GCE) remains one of the most intriguing discoveries from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. We revisit the characteristics of the GCE by first producing a new set of high-resolution galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission templates, which are ultimately due to cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium. Using multi-messenger observations we constrain the properties of the galactic diffuse emission. The broad properties of the GCE that we find in this work are qualitatively unchanged despite the introduction of this new set of templates, though its quantitative features appear mildly different than those obtained in previous analyses. In particular, we find a high-energy tail at higher significance than previously reported. This tail is very prominent in the northern hemisphere, and less so in the southern hemisphere. This strongly affects one prominent interpretation of the excess: known millisecond pulsars are incapable of producing this high-energy emission, even in the relatively softer southern hemisphere, and are therefore disfavored as the sole explanation of the GCE. The annihilation of dark matter particles of mass $40^{+10}_{-7}$ GeV (95$\%$ CL) to $b$ quarks with a cross-section of $\sigma v = 1.4^{+0.6}_{-0.3} \times 10^{-26}$ cm$^{3}$s$^{-1}$ provides a good fit to the excess especially in the relatively cleaner southern sky. Dark matter of the same mass range annihilating to $b$ quarks or heavier dark matter particles annihilating to heavier Standard Model bosons can combine with millisecond pulsars to provide a good fit to the southern hemisphere emission. As part of this paper, we make publicly available all of our templates and the data covariance matrix we have generated to account for systematic uncertainties.[abridged]**Probing New Physics at Future Tau Neutrino Telescopes**

2112.09476 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guo-yuan Huang, [and 3 more]Sudip Jana, Manfred Lindner, and Werner Rodejohann [hide authors].

We systematically investigate new physics scenarios that can modify the interactions between neutrinos and matter at upcoming tau neutrino telescopes, which will test neutrino-proton collisions with energies $ \gtrsim 45~{\rm TeV}$, and can provide unique insights to the elusive tau neutrino. At such high energy scales, the impact of parton distribution functions of second and third generations of quarks (usually suppressed) can be comparable to the contribution of first generation with small momentum fraction, hence making tau neutrino telescopes an excellent facility to probe new physics associated with second and third families. Among an inclusive set of particle physics models, we identify new physics scenarios at tree level that can give competitive contributions to the neutrino cross sections while staying within laboratory constraints: charged/neutral Higgs and leptoquarks. Our analysis is close to the actual experimental configurations of the telescopes, and we perform a $\chi^2$-analysis on the energy and angular distributions of the tau events. By numerically solving the propagation equations of neutrino and tau fluxes in matter, we obtain the sensitivities of representative upcoming tau neutrino telescopes, GRAND, POEMMA and Trinity, to the charged Higgs and leptoquark models. While each of the experiments can achieve a sensitivity better than the current collider reaches for certain models, their combination is remarkably complementary in probing the new physics. In particular, the new physics will affect the energy and angular distributions in different ways at those telescopes.**Towards Probing the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background in All Flavors**

2112.09168 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anna M. Suliga, John F. Beacom, and Irene Tamborra.

Fully understanding the average core-collapse supernova requires detecting the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) in all flavors. While the DSNB $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux is near detection, and the DSNB $\nu_e$ flux has a good upper limit and prospects for improvement, the DSNB $\nu_x$ (each of $\nu_\mu, \nu_\tau, \bar{\nu}_\mu, \bar{\nu}_\tau$) flux has a poor limit and heretofore had no clear path for improved sensitivity. We show that a succession of xenon-based dark matter detectors -- XENON1T (completed), XENONnT/LUX-ZEPLIN (running), and DARWIN (proposed) -- can dramatically improve sensitivity to DSNB $\nu_x$ the neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering channel. XENON1T could match the present sensitivity of $\sim 10^3 \; \mathrm{cm}^{-2}~\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ per $\nu_x$ flavor, XENONnT/LUX-ZEPLIN would have linear improvement of sensitivity with exposure, and a long run of DARWIN could reach a flux sensitivity of $\sim 10 \; \mathrm{cm}^{-2}~\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. Together, these would also contribute to greatly improve bounds on non-standard scenarios. Ultimately, to reach the standard flux range of $\sim 1 \; \mathrm{cm}^{-2}~\mathrm{s}^{-1}$, even larger exposures will be needed, which we show may be possible with the series of proposed lead-based RES-NOVA detectors.**On T violation in non-standard neutrino oscillation scenarios**

2112.08801 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Schwetz and Alejandro Segarra.

We discuss time reversal (T) violation in neutrino oscillations in generic new physics scenarios. A general parameterization is adopted to describe flavour evolution, which captures a wide range of new physics effects, including non-standard neutrino interactions, non-unitarity, and sterile neutrinos in a model-independent way. In this framework, we discuss general properties of time reversal in the context of long-baseline neutrino experiments. Special attention is given to fundamental versus environmental T violation in the presence of generic new physics. We point out that T violation in the disappearance channel requires new physics which modifies flavour mixing at neutrino production and detection. We use time-dependent perturbation theory to study the effect of non-constant matter density along the neutrino path, and quantify the effects for the well studied baselines of the DUNE, T2HK, and T2HKK projects. The material presented here provides the phenomenological background for the model-independent test of T violation proposed by us in Ref. [1].**Excess of Tau events at SND@LHC, FASER$ν$ and FASER$ν$2**

2112.08799 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Saeed Ansarifard and Yasaman Farzan.

During the run III of the LHC, the forward experiments FASER$\nu$ and SND@LHC will be able to detect the Charged Current (CC) interactions of the high energy neutrinos of all three flavors produced at the ATLAS Interaction Point (IP). This opportunity may unravel mysteries of the third generation leptons. We build three models that can lead to a tau excess at these detectors through the following Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) beyond Standard Model (SM) processes: (1) $\pi^+ \to \mu^+ \nu_\tau$; (2) $\pi^+ \to \mu^+ \bar{\nu}_\tau$ and (3) $\nu_e+{\rm nucleus}\to \tau +X$. We comment on the possibility of solving the $(g-2)_\mu$ anomaly and the $\tau$ decay anomalies within these models. We study the potential of the forward experiments to discover the $\tau$ excess or to constrain these models in case of no excess. We then compare the reach of the forward experiments with that of the previous as well as next generation experiments such as DUNE. We also discuss how the upgrade of FASER$\nu$ can distinguish between these models by studying the energy spectrum of the tau.**Tau Appearance from High-Energy Neutrino Interactions**

2112.06937 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alfonso Garcia Soto, [and 3 more]Pavel Zhelnin, Ibrahim Safa, and Carlos A. Argüelles [hide authors].

High-energy muon- and electron-neutrinos yield a non-negligible flux of tau neutrinos as they propagate through Earth. In this letter, we address the impact of this additional component in the PeV and EeV energy regimes for the first time. This contribution is predicted to be significantly larger than the atmospheric background above 300 TeV, and alters current and future neutrino telescopes' capabilities to discover a cosmic tau-neutrino flux. Further we demonstrate that Earthskimming neutrino experiments, designed to observe tau neutrinos, will be sensitive to cosmogenic neutrinos even in extreme scenarios without a primary tau-neutrino component.**Toward diagnosing neutrino non-unitarity through CP phase correlations**

2112.06178 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

We discuss correlations between the $\nu$SM CP phase $\delta$ and the phases that originate from new physics which causes neutrino-sector unitarity violation (UV) at low energies. This study is motivated to provide one of the building pieces for a machinery to diagnose non-unitarity, our ultimate goal. We extend the perturbation theory of neutrino oscillation in matter proposed by Denton {\it et al.}~(DMP) to include the UV effect expressed by the $\alpha$ parametrization. By analyzing the DMP-UV perturbation theory to first order, we are able to draw a completed picture of the $\delta$ - UV phase correlations in the whole kinematical region covered by the terrestrial neutrino experiments. There exist the two regions with the characteristically different patterns of the correlations: (1) the chiral-type $[e^{- i \delta } \alpha_{\mu e}, ~e^{ - i \delta} \alpha_{\tau e}, ~\alpha_{\tau \mu}]$ (PDG convention) correlation in the entire high-energy region $\vert \rho E \vert \gsim 6~(\text{g/cm}^3)$ GeV, and (2) (blobs of the $\alpha$ parameters) - $e^{ \pm i \delta}$ correlation in anywhere else. Some relevant aspects for measurement of the UV parameters, such as the necessity of determining all the $\alpha_{\beta \gamma}$ elements at once, are also pointed out.**Neutrino Transition in Dark Matter**

2112.05057 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eung Jin Chun.

An ultralight dark matter may have interesting implications in neutrino physics which have been studied actively in recent years. It is pointed out that there appears yet unexplored medium effect in neutrino transitions which occurs at the first order in perturbation of the neutrino-medium interaction. We derive the general formula for the neutrino transition probability in a medium which describes the standard neutrino oscillation as well as the new medium contribution. It turns out that such an effect constrains the model parameter space more than ever.**Neutrino Mass Bounds in the era of Tension Cosmology**

2112.02993 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eleonora Di Valentino and Alessandro Melchiorri.

The measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies made by the Planck satellite provide extremely tight upper bounds on the total neutrino mass scale ($\Sigma m_{\nu}<0.26 eV$ at $95\%$ C.L.). However, as recently discussed in the literature, Planck data show anomalies that could affect this result. Here we provide new constraints on neutrino masses using the recent and complementary CMB measurements from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope DR4 and the South Polar Telescope SPT-3G experiments. We found that both the ACT-DR4 and SPT-3G data, when combined with WMAP, mildly suggest a neutrino mass with $\Sigma m_{\nu}=0.68 \pm 0.31$ eV and $\Sigma m_{\nu}=0.46_{-0.36}^{+0.14}$ eV at $68 \%$ C.L, respectively. Moreover, when CMB lensing from the Planck experiment is included, the ACT-DR4 data now indicates a neutrino mass above the two standard deviations, with $\Sigma m_{\nu}=0.60_{-0.50}^{+0.44}$ eV at $95 \%$, while WMAP+SPT-3G provides a weak upper limit of $\Sigma m_{\nu}<0.37$ eV at $68 \%$ C.L.. Interestingly, these results are consistent with the Planck CMB+Lensing constraint of $\Sigma m_{\nu} = 0.41_{-0.25}^{+0.17}$ eV at $68 \%$ C.L. when variation in the $A_{\rm lens}$ parameter are considered. We also show that these indications are still present after the inclusion of BAO or SN-Ia data in extended cosmologies that are usually considered to solve the so-called Hubble tension. A combination of ACT-DR4, WMAP, BAO and constraints on the Hubble constant from the SH0ES collaboration gives $\Sigma m_{\nu}=0.39^{+0.13}_{-0.25}$ eV at $68 \%$ C.L. in extended cosmologies. We conclude that a total neutrino mass above the $0.26$ eV limit still provides an excellent fit to several cosmological data and that future data must be considered before safely ruling it out.**Time- and space-varying neutrino masses from soft topological defects**

2112.02107 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gia Dvali, Lena Funcke, and Tanmay Vachaspati.

We study the formation and evolution of topological defects that arise in the post-recombination phase transition predicted by the gravitational neutrino mass model in [Dvali, Funcke, 2016]. In the transition, global skyrmions, monopoles, strings, and domain walls form due to the spontaneous breaking of the neutrino flavor symmetry. These defects are unique in their softness and origin, as they appear at a very low energy scale, they only require Standard Model particle content, and they differ fundamentally depending on the Majorana or Dirac nature of the neutrinos. One of the observational signatures is the time- and space-dependence of the neutrino mass matrix, which could be observable in future experiments such as DUNE or in the event of a near-future galactic supernova explosion. Already existing data rules out parts of the parameter space in the Majorana case. The detection of this effect could shed light onto the open question of the Dirac versus Majorana neutrino nature.**Short-baseline oscillation scenarios at JUNO and TAO**

2112.00379 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by V. S. Basto-Gonzalez, [and 4 more]D. V. Forero, C. Giunti, A. A. Quiroga, and C. A. Ternes [hide authors].

We study the sensitivity of JUNO and TAO to the oscillations induced by two well-motivated scenarios beyond the standard model: Large Extra Dimensions (LED) and light sterile neutrinos in the context of 3+1 neutrino mixing. We find that JUNO+TAO can set competitive bounds on the parameter space of each scenario. In particular, we find that JUNO+TAO can be competitive with MINOS, DUNE or KATRIN in the context of LED. If LED are present in nature, we show that the parameters could be measured with a similar precision as the standard oscillation parameters. We also show that JUNO+TAO can test nearly all of the parameter space preferred by Gallium experiments in the context of 3+1 mixing. Finally, we discuss the possibility to distinguish the two scenarios from each other.**Leptogenesis and eV scale sterile neutrino**

2111.14719 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Srubabati Goswami, [and 3 more]Vishnudath K. N., Ananya Mukherjee, and Nimmala Narendra [hide authors].

We consider the minimal extended seesaw model which can accommodate an eV scale sterile neutrino. The scenario also includes three heavy right handed neutrinos in addition to the light sterile neutrino. In this model, the active-sterile mixing act as non-unitary parameters. If the values of these mixing angles are of $\mathcal{O}(0.1)$, the model introduces deviation of the PMNS matrix from unitarity to this order. We find that the oscillation data from various experiments imposes an upper bound on the lightest heavy neutrino mass scale as $\sim 10^{11}$ GeV in the context of this model. We study {\it vanilla} leptogenesis in this scheme, where the decay of the heavy right handed neutrinos in the early universe can give rise to the observed baryon asymmetry. Here, even though the eV scale sterile neutrino does not participate directly in leptogenesis, its effect is manifested through the non-unitary effects. We find that the parameter space that can give rise to successful leptogenesis is constrained by the bounds on the active-sterile mixing as obtained from the global analysis.**The UHECR dipole and quadrupole in the latest data from the original Auger and TA surface detectors**

2111.14593 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter Tinyakov, [and 15 more]Luis Anchordoqui, Teresa Bister, Jonathan Biteau, Lorenzo Caccianiga, Rogério de Almeida, Olivier Deligny, Armando di Matteo, Ugo Giaccari, Diego Harari, Jihyun Kim, Mikhail Kuznetsov, Ioana Mariş, Grigory Rubtsov, Sergey Troitsky, and Federico Urban [hide authors].

The sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are still unknown, but assuming standard physics, they are expected to lie within a few hundred megaparsecs from us. Indeed, over cosmological distances cosmic rays lose energy to interactions with background photons, at a rate depending on their mass number and energy and properties of photonuclear interactions and photon backgrounds. The universe is not homogeneous at such scales, hence the distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays is expected to reflect the inhomogeneities in the distribution of galaxies; the shorter the energy loss lengths, the stronger the expected anisotropies. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields can blur and distort the picture, but the magnitudes of the largest-scale anisotropies, namely the dipole and quadrupole moments, are the most robust to their effects. Measuring them with no bias regardless of any higher-order multipoles is not possible except with full-sky coverage. In this work, we achieve this in three energy ranges (approximately 8--16 EeV, 16--32 EeV, and 32--$\infty$ EeV) by combining surface-detector data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory until 2020 and at the Telescope Array (TA) until 2019, before the completion of the upgrades of the arrays with new scintillator detectors. We find that the full-sky coverage achieved by combining Auger and TA data reduces the uncertainties on the north-south components of the dipole and quadrupole in half compared to Auger-only results.**Non-minimal Lorentz invariance violation in light of muon anomalous magnetic moment and long-baseline neutrino oscillation data**

2111.14336 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hai-Xing Lin, [and 3 more]Pedro Pasquini, Jian Tang, and Sampsa Vihonen [hide authors].

In light of the increasing hints of new physics at the muon $g-2$ and neutrino oscillation experiments, we consider the recently observed tension in the long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments as a potential indication of Lorentz invariance violation. For this purpose, the latest data from T2K and NO$\nu$A is analysed in presence of non-minimal Lorentz invariance violation. Indeed, we find that isotropic violation in dimensions $D =$ 4, 5 and 6 can alleviate the tension in neutrino oscillation data by 0.4$-$2.4$\sigma$ CL significance, with the isotropic coefficient $\gamma^{(5)}_{\tau \tau} =$ 3.58$\times$10$^{-32}$GeV$^{-1}$ yielding the best fit. At the same time, the anomalous muon $g-2$ result can be reproduced with an additional non-isotropic violation of $d^{zt} =$ -1.7$\times$10$^{-25}$. The analysis highlights the possibility of simultaneous relaxation of experimental tensions with Lorentz invariance violation of mixed nature.**Neutrino propagation when mass eigenstates and decay eigenstates mismatch**

2111.13128 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dibya S. Chattopadhyay, [and 4 more]Kaustav Chakraborty, Amol Dighe, Srubabati Goswami, and S. M. Lakshmi [hide authors].

We point out that the Hermitian and anti-Hermitian components of the effective Hamiltonian for decaying neutrinos cannot be simultaneously diagonalized by unitary transformations for all matter densities. We develop a formalism for the two-flavor neutrino propagation through matter of uniform density, for neutrino decay to invisible states. Employing a resummation of the Zassenhaus expansion, we obtain compact analytic expressions for neutrino survival and conversion probabilities, to first and second order in the "mismatch parameter" $\bar{\gamma}$.**T-violating effect in $ν_τ (\barν_τ)-$nucleon quasielastic scattering**

2111.13021 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Fatima, M. Sajjad Athar, and S. K. Singh.

The production cross sections and polarization observables of the $\tau$ leptons produced in the $|\Delta S| = 0$ and $1$ induced $\nu_{\tau}(\bar{\nu}_{\tau})-N$ quasielastic scattering have been studied. The effect of T violation, in the case of $\Delta S=0$ and 1 processes, and the SU(3) symmetry breaking effects, in the case of $\Delta S=1$ processes, on the total scattering cross sections as well polarization observables are explored. Experimentally, it would be possible to observe these effects in the forthcoming (anti)neutrino experiments like DUNE, SHiP and DsTau.**Exploring the effects of Scalar Non Standard Interactions on the CP violation sensitivity at DUNE**

2111.12943 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Abinash Medhi, Debajyoti Dutta, and Moon Moon Devi.

The Neutrino oscillations have provided an excellent opportunity to study new-physics beyond the Standard Model, popularly known as BSM. The unknown couplings involving neutrinos, termed non-standard interactions (NSI), may appear as `new-physics' in different neutrino experiments. The neutrino NSI offers significant effects on neutrino oscillations and CP-sensitivity, which may be probed in various neutrino experiments. The idea of neutrinos coupling with a scalar has evolved recently and looks promising. The effects of scalar NSI may appear as a perturbation to the neutrino mass matrix in the neutrino Hamiltonian. It modifies the neutrino mass matrix and may provide a direct possibility of probing neutrino mass models. As the scalar NSI affects the neutrino mass matrix in the Hamiltonian, its effect is energy independent. Moreover, the matter effects due to scalar NSI scales linearly with the matter density. In this work, we have performed a model-independent study of the effects of scalar NSI at long baseline neutrino experiments, taking DUNE as a case study. We have performed such a thorough study for DUNE for the first time. Various neutrino parameters may get affected due to the inclusion of scalar NSI as it modifies the effective mass matrix of neutrinos. We have explored the impact of scalar NSI in neutrino oscillations and its impact on the measurements of various mixing parameters. We have probed the effects of scalar NSI on different oscillation channels relevant to the experiment. We have also explored the impact of various possible elements in the scalar NSI term on the CP-violation sensitivity at DUNE.**What can CMB observations tell us about the neutrino distribution function?**

2111.12726 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by James Alvey, Miguel Escudero, and Nashwan Sabti.

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations have been used extensively to constrain key properties of neutrinos, such as their mass. However, these inferences are typically dependent on assumptions about the cosmological model, and in particular upon the distribution function of neutrinos in the early Universe. In this paper, we aim to assess the full extent to which CMB experiments are sensitive to the shape of the neutrino distribution. We demonstrate that Planck and CMB-S4-like experiments have no prospects for detecting particular features in the distribution function. Consequently, we take a general approach and marginalise completely over the form of the neutrino distribution to derive constraints on the relativistic and non-relativistic neutrino energy densities, characterised by $N_\mathrm{eff} = 3.0 \pm 0.4$ and $\rho_{\nu,0}^{\rm NR} < 14 \, \mathrm{eV}\,\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$ at 95% CL, respectively. The fact that these are the only neutrino properties that CMB data can constrain has important implications for neutrino mass limits from cosmology. Specifically, in contrast to the $\Lambda$CDM case where CMB and BAO data tightly constrain the sum of neutrinos masses to be $\sum m_\nu < 0.12 \, \mathrm{eV}$, we explicitly show that neutrino masses as large as $\sum m_\nu \sim 3 \, \mathrm{eV}$ are perfectly consistent with this data. Importantly, for this to be the case, the neutrino number density should be suitably small such that the bound on $\rho_{\nu,0}^\mathrm{NR} = \sum m_\nu n_{\nu,0}$ is still satisfied. We conclude by giving an outlook on the opportunities that may arise from other complementary experimental probes, such as galaxy surveys, neutrino mass experiments and facilities designed to directly detect the cosmic neutrino background.**Statistical significance of the sterile-neutrino hypothesis in the context of reactor and gallium data**

2111.12530 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jeffrey M. Berryman, [and 4 more]Pilar Coloma, Patrick Huber, Thomas Schwetz, and Albert Zhou [hide authors].

We evaluate the statistical significance of the 3+1 sterile-neutrino hypothesis using $\nu_e$ and $\bar\nu_e$ disappearance data from reactor, solar and gallium radioactive source experiments. Concerning the latter, we investigate the implications of the recent BEST results. For reactor data we focus on relative measurements independent of flux predictions. For the problem at hand, the usual $\chi^2$-approximation to hypothesis testing based on Wilks' theorem has been shown in the literature to be inaccurate. We therefore present results based on Monte Carlo simulations, and find that this typically reduces the significance by roughly $1\,\sigma$ with respect to the na\"ive expectation. We find no significant indication in favor of sterile-neutrino oscillations from reactor data. On the other hand, gallium data (dominated by the BEST result) show more than $5\,\sigma$ of evidence supporting the sterile-neutrino hypothesis, favoring oscillation parameters in agreement with constraints from reactor data. This explanation is, however, in significant tension ($\sim 3\,\sigma$) with solar neutrino experiments. In order to assess the robustness of the signal for gallium experiments we present a discussion of the impact of cross-section uncertainties on the results.**A close look on 2-3 mixing angle with DUNE in light of current neutrino oscillation data**

2111.11748 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, [and 3 more]Ritam Kundu, Suprabh Prakash, and Masoom Singh [hide authors].

Recent global fit analyses of oscillation data show a preference for normal mass ordering (NMO) at 2.5$\sigma$ and provide 1.6$\sigma$ indications for lower $\theta_{23}$ octant and leptonic CP violation. A high-precision measurement of $\theta_{23}$ is pivotal to convert these hints into discoveries. In this work, we study in detail the capabilities of DUNE to establish the deviation from maximal $\theta_{23}$ and to resolve its octant at high confidence levels. We exhibit the possible correlations and degeneracies among $\sin^2\theta_{23}$, $\Delta m^2_{31}$, and $\delta_{CP}$ in disappearance and appearance oscillation channels at the probability and event levels. Introducing for the first time, a bi-events plot in the plane of total $\nu$ and $\bar\nu$ disappearance events, we discuss the impact of $\sin^2\theta_{23}$ - $\Delta m^2_{31}$ degeneracy in establishing non-maximal $\theta_{23}$ and show how this degeneracy can be resolved by exploiting the spectral shape information in $\nu$ and $\bar\nu$ disappearance events. A 3$\sigma$ (5$\sigma$) determination of non-maximal $\theta_{23}$ is possible in DUNE in total 7 years if $\sin^2\theta_{23} \lesssim 0.465~(0.450)$ or $\sin^2\theta_{23} \gtrsim 0.554~(0.572)$ for any value of $\delta_{CP}$ and NMO. We study the individual contributions from appearance and disappearance channels, impact of systematic uncertainties and marginalization over oscillation parameters, importance of spectral analysis and data from both $\nu$ and $\bar\nu$ runs, while analyzing DUNE's sensitivity to establish non-maximal $\theta_{23}$. DUNE can resolve the octant of $\theta_{23}$ at 4.2$\sigma$ (5$\sigma$) using 7 (10) years of run assuming $\sin^2\theta_{23}$ = 0.455, $\delta_{CP}$ = $223^\circ$, and NMO. DUNE can improve the current relative 1$\sigma$ precision on $\sin^2\theta_{23}$ ($\Delta m^2_{31}$) by a factor of 4.4 (2.8) using 7 years of run.**Improved Characterization of the Astrophysical Muon-Neutrino Flux with 9.5 Years of IceCube Data**

2111.10299 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 379 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, M. Boddenberg, F. Bontempo, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, B. Brinson, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, S. Browne, A. Burgman, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyên, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, M. Pittermann, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, R. Reimann, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

We present a measurement of the high-energy astrophysical muon-neutrino flux with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The measurement uses a high-purity selection of ~650k neutrino-induced muon tracks from the Northern celestial hemisphere, corresponding to 9.5 years of experimental data. With respect to previous publications, the measurement is improved by the increased size of the event sample and the extended model testing beyond simple power-law hypotheses. An updated treatment of systematic uncertainties and atmospheric background fluxes has been implemented based on recent models. The best-fit single power-law parameterization for the astrophysical energy spectrum results in a normalization of $\phi_{\mathrm{@100TeV}}^{\nu_\mu+\bar{\nu}_\mu} = 1.44_{-0.26}^{+0.25} \times 10^{-18}\,\mathrm{GeV}^{-1}\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\mathrm{s}^{-1}\mathrm{sr}^{-1}$ and a spectral index $\gamma_{\mathrm{SPL}} = 2.37_{-0.09}^{+0.09}$, constrained in the energy range from $15\,\mathrm{TeV}$ to $5\,\mathrm{PeV}$. The model tests include a single power law with a spectral cutoff at high energies, a log-parabola model, several source-class specific flux predictions from the literature and a model-independent spectral unfolding. The data is well consistent with a single power law hypothesis, however, spectra with softening above one PeV are statistically more favorable at a two sigma level.**Neutrino meets ultralight dark matter: $\boldsymbol{0νββ}$ decay and cosmology**

2111.08732 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guo-yuan Huang and Newton Nath.

We explore the neutrinoless double beta ($0\nu \beta\beta$) decay induced by an ultralight dark matter field coupled to neutrinos. The effect on $0\nu\beta\beta$ decay is significant if the coupling violates the lepton number, for which the $\Delta L=2$ transition is directly driven by the dark matter field without further suppression of small neutrino masses. As the ultralight dark matter can be well described by a classical field, the effect features a periodic modulation pattern in decay events. However, we find that in the early Universe such coupling will be very likely to alter the standard cosmological results. In particular, the requirement of neutrino free-streaming before the matter-radiation equality severely constrains the parameter space, such that the future $0\nu \beta\beta$ decay experiments can hardly see any signal even with a meV sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass.**Nonunitarity of the lepton mixing matrix at the European Spallation Source**

2111.08673 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sabya Sachi Chatterjee, [and 3 more]O. G. Miranda, M. Tórtola, and J. W. F. Valle [hide authors].

If neutrinos get mass through the exchange of lepton mediators, as in seesaw schemes, the neutrino appearance probabilities in oscillation experiments are modified due to effective nonunitarity of the lepton mixing matrix. This also leads to new CP phases and an ambiguity in underpinning the ''conventional'' phase of the three-neutrino paradigm. We study the CP sensitivities of various setups based at the European spallation source neutrino super-beam (ESSnuSB) experiment in the presence of nonunitarity. We also examine its potential in constraining the associated new physics parameters. Moreover, we show how the combination of DUNE and ESSnuSB can help further improve the sensitivities on the nonunitarity parameters.**Non-standard Neutrino and $Z'$ Interactions at the FASER$ν$ and the LHC**

2111.08375 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kingman Cheung, C. J. Ouseph, and TseChun Wang.

We study the impact of non-standard neutrino interactions in the context of a new gauge boson $Z'$ in neutral-current deep-inelastic scattering performed in ForwArd Search ExpeRiment-$\nu$ (FASER$\nu$) and in monojet production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We simulate the neutral-current deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering $\nu N \rightarrow \nu N$ at FASER$\nu$ in the presence of an additional $Z'$ boson, and estimate the anticipated sensitivities to the gauge coupling in a wide range of $Z'$ mass. At the LHC, we study the effect of $Z'$ on monojet production, which can be enhanced in regions with large missing transverse momenta. We then use the recent results from ATLAS with an integrated luminosity of 139 fb$^{-1}$ to improve the limits on the gauge coupling of $Z'$. We interpret such limits on $Z'$ gauge couplings as bounds on effective non-standard neutrino interactions. We show that the FASER$\rm \nu$ and the LHC results cover the medium and high energy scales, respectively, and complement one another.**Status and Perspectives of Neutrino Physics**

2111.07586 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Sajjad Athar, [and 18 more]Steven W. Barwick, Thomas Brunner, Jun Cao, Mikhail Danilov, Kunio Inoue, Takaaki Kajita, Marek Kowalski, Manfred Lindner, Kenneth R. Long, Nathalie Palanque-Delabrouille, Werner Rodejohann, Heidi Schellman, Kate Scholberg, Seon-Hee Seo, Nigel J. T. Smith, Walter Winter, Geralyn P. Zeller, and Renata Zukanovich Funchal [hide authors].

This review demonstrates the unique role of the neutrino by discussing in detail the physics of and with neutrinos. We deal with neutrino sources, neutrino oscillations, absolute masses, interactions, the possible existence of sterile neutrinos, and theoretical implications. In addition, synergies of neutrino physics with other research fields are found, and requirements to continue successful neutrino physics in the future, in terms of technological developments and adequate infrastructures, are stressed.**Probing Neutrino-Portal Dark Matter at the Forward Physics Facility**

2111.05868 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kevin J. Kelly, [and 3 more]Felix Kling, Douglas Tuckler, and Yue Zhang [hide authors].

The Forward Physics Facility (FPF), planned to operate near the ATLAS interaction point at the LHC, offers exciting new terrain to explore neutrino properties at TeV energy scales. It will reach an unprecedented regime for terrestrial neutrino experiments and provide the opportunity to reveal new physics of neutrinos at higher energy scales. We demonstrate that future detectors at the FPF have the potential to discover new mediators that couple predominantly to neutrinos, with masses between 0.3 and 20 GeV and small couplings not yet probed by existing searches. Such a neutrinophilic mediator is well motivated for addressing the origin of several neutrino-portal dark matter candidates, including thermal freeze-out and sterile-neutrino dark matter scenarios. Experimentally, the corresponding signatures include neutrino charged-current scattering events associated with large missing transverse momentum, and excessive apparent tau-neutrino events. We discuss the FPF detector capabilities needed for this search, most importantly the hadronic energy resolution.**Sterile Neutrino Searches with MicroBooNE: Electron Neutrino Disappearance**

2111.05793 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton.

A sterile neutrino is a well motivated minimal new physics model that leaves an imprint in neutrino oscillations. Over the last two decades, a number of hints pointing to a sterile neutrino have emerged, many of which are pointing near $m_4\sim1$ eV. Here we show how MicroBooNE data can be used to search for electron neutrino disappearance using each of their four analysis channels. We find a hint for oscillations with the highest single channel significance of $2.4\sigma$ (using the Feldman-Cousins approach) coming from the Wire-Cell analysis and a simplified treatment of the experimental systematics. The preferred parameters are $\sin^2(2\theta_{14})=0.35^{+0.19}_{-0.16}$ and $\Delta m^2_{41}=1.25^{+0.74}_{-0.39}$ eV$^2$. This region of parameter space is in good agreement with existing hints from source experiments, is at a similar frequency but higher mixing than indicated by reactor anti-neutrinos, and is at the edge of the region allowed by solar neutrino data. Existing unanalyzed data from MicroBooNE could increase the sensitivity to the $>3\sigma$ level.**Scalable Qubit Representations of Neutrino Mixing Matrices**

2111.05401 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. J. Molewski and B. J. P. Jones.

Oscillating neutrino beams exhibit quantum coherence over distances of thousands of kilometers. Their unambiguously quantum nature suggests an appealing test system for direct quantum simulation. Such techniques may enable presently analytically intractable calculations involving multi-neutrino entanglements, such as collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae, but only once oscillation phenomenology is properly re-expressed in the language of quantum circuits. Here we resolve outstanding conceptual issues regarding encoding of arbitrarily mixed neutrino flavor states in the Hilbert space of an n-qubit quantum computer. We introduce algorithms to encode mixing and oscillation of any number of flavor-mixed neutrinos, both with and without CP-violation, with an efficient number of prescriptive input parameters in terms of sub-rotations of the PMNS matrix in standard form. Examples encoded for an IBM-Q quantum computer are shown to converge to analytic predictions both with and without CP-violation.**Galactic rotation curves versus ultralight dark matter: A systematic comparison with SPARC data**

2111.03070 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nitsan Bar, Kfir Blum, and Chen Sun.

We look for and place observational constraints on the imprint of ultralight dark matter (ULDM) soliton cores in rotation-dominated galaxies. Extending previous analyses, we find a conservative constraint which disfavors the soliton-host halo relation found in some numerical simulations over a broad range in the ULDM particle mass $m$. Combining the observational constraints with theoretical arguments for the efficiency of soliton formation via gravitational dynamical relaxation, and assuming that the soliton-halo relation is correct, our results disfavor ULDM from comprising 100\% of the total cosmological dark matter in the range $10^{-24}~{\rm eV}\lesssim m\lesssim10^{-20}~{\rm eV}$. The constraints probe the ULDM fraction down to $f\lesssim0.3$ of the total dark matter.**Non-standard interactions from the future neutrino solar sector**

2111.03031 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. Martínez-Miravé, S. Molina Sedgwick, and M. Tórtola.

The next-generation neutrino experiment JUNO will determine the solar oscillation parameters - $\sin^2 \theta_{12}$ and $\Delta m^2_{21}$ - with great accuracy, in addition to measuring $\sin^2\theta_{13}$, $\Delta m^2_{31}$, and the mass ordering. In parallel, the continued study of solar neutrinos at Hyper-Kamiokande will provide complementary measurements in the solar sector. In this paper, we address the expected sensitivity to non-universal and flavour-changing non-standard interactions (NSI) with $d$-type quarks from the combination of these two future neutrino experiments. We also show the robustness of their measurements of the solar parameters $\sin^2 \theta_{12}$ and $\Delta m^2_{21}$ in the presence of NSI. We study the impact of the exact experimental configuration of the Hyper-Kamiokande detector, and conclude it is of little relevance in this scenario. Finally, we find that the LMA-D solution is expected to be present if no additional input from non-oscillation experiments is considered.**$pp$ Solar Neutrinos at DARWIN**

2111.02421 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, [and 3 more]Emma McGinness, Ivan Martinez-Soler, and Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez [hide authors].

The DARWIN collaboration recently argued that DARWIN (DARk matter WImp search with liquid xenoN) can collect, via neutrino--electron scattering, a large, useful sample of solar $pp$-neutrinos, and measure their survival probability with sub-percent precision. We explore the physics potential of such a sample in more detail. We estimate that, with 300 ton-years of data, DARWIN can also measure, with the help of current solar neutrino data, the value of $\sin^2\theta_{13}$, with the potential to exclude $\sin^2\theta_{13}=0$ close to the three-sigma level. We explore in some detail how well DARWIN can constrain the existence of a new neutrino mass-eigenstate $\nu_4$ that is quasi-mass-degenerate with $\nu_1$ and find that DARWIN's sensitivity supersedes that of all current and near-future searches for new, very light neutrinos. In particular, DARWIN can test the hypothesis that $\nu_1$ is a pseudo-Dirac fermion as long as the induced mass-squared difference is larger than $10^{-13}$ eV$^2$, one order of magnitude more sensitive than existing constraints. Throughout, we allowed for the hypotheses that DARWIN is filled with natural xenon or $^{136}$Xe-depleted xenon.**Anisotropies of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in a scenario with nearby sources**

2111.00560 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Silvia Mollerach and Esteban Roulet.

The images of ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray sources get distorted, in an energy dependent way, by the effects of Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. These deflections can also affect the observed cosmic ray spectrum, specially when the sources are transient. We study scenarios in which one or a few nearby extragalactic sources, such as CenA or M81/M82, provide the dominant contribution to the cosmic ray flux above the ankle of the spectrum. We discuss the effects of the angular dispersion induced by the turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields, and the coherent deflections caused by the regular Galactic magnetic field, with the associated multiple imaging of the sources. We consider the possible contribution from those sources to the dipolar distribution discovered by the Pierre Auger Observatory above 8 EeV, as well as to the hot spots hinted in the observations by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array observatories at higher energies, taking into account the mixed nature of the cosmic ray composition.**Model-Independent Constraints on Non-Unitary Neutrino Mixing from High-Precision Long-Baseline Experiments**

2111.00329 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, [and 3 more]Sudipta Das, Alessio Giarnetti, and Davide Meloni [hide authors].

Our knowledge on the active 3$\nu$ mixing angles ($\theta_{12}$, $\theta_{13}$, and $\theta_{23}$) and the CP phase $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ is becoming accurate day-by-day enabling us to test the unitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix with utmost precision. Future high-precision long-baseline experiments are going to play an important role in this direction. In this work, we study the impact of possible non-unitary neutrino mixing (NUNM) in the context of next-generation long-baseline experiments DUNE and T2HKK/JD+KD having one detector in Japan (T2HK/JD) and a second detector in Korea (KD). We estimate the sensitivities of these setups to place direct, model-independent, and competitive constraints on various NUNM parameters. We demonstrate the possible correlations between the NUNM parameters, $\theta_{23}$, and $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$. Our numerical results obtained using only far detector data and supported by simple approximate analytical expressions of the oscillation probabilities in matter, reveal that JD+KD has better sensitivities for $|\alpha_{21}|$ and $\alpha_{22}$ as compared to DUNE, due to its larger statistics in the appearance channel and less systematic uncertainties in the disappearance channel, respectively. For $|\alpha_{31}|$, $|\alpha_{32}|$, and $\alpha_{33}$, DUNE gives better constraints as compared to JD+KD, due to its larger matter effect and wider neutrino energy spectrum. For $\alpha_{11}$, both DUNE and JD+KD give similar bounds. We also show how much the bounds on the NUNM parameters can be improved by combining the prospective data from DUNE and JD+KD setups. We find that due to zero-distance effects, the near detectors alone can also constrain $\alpha_{11}$, $|\alpha_{21}|$, and $\alpha_{22}$ in both these setups. Finally, we observe that the $\nu_\tau$ appearance sample in DUNE can improve the constraints on $|\alpha_{32}|$ and $\alpha_{33}$.**Time variation of the atmospheric neutrino flux at dark matter detectors**

2110.14723 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yi Zhuang, Louis E. Strigari, and Rafael F. Lang.

The cosmic ray flux at the lowest energies, $\lesssim 10$ GeV, is modulated by the solar cycle, inducing a time variation that is expected to carry over into the atmospheric neutrino flux at these energies. Here we estimate this time variation of the atmospheric neutrino flux at five prospective underground locations for multi-tonne scale dark matter detectors (CJPL, Kamioka, LNGS, SNOlab and SURF). We find that between solar minimum and solar maximum, the normalization of the flux changes by $\sim 30\%$ at a high-latitude location such as SURF, while it changes by a smaller amount, $\lesssim 10\%$, at LNGS. A dark matter detector that runs for a period extending through solar cycles will be most effective at identifying this time variation. This opens the possibility to distinguish such neutrino-induced nuclear recoils from dark matter-induced nuclear recoils, thus allowing for the possibility of using timing information to break through the "neutrino floor."**TauRunner: A Public Python Program to Propagate Neutral and Charged Leptons**

2110.14662 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ibrahim Safa, [and 5 more]Jeffrey Lazar, Alex Pizzuto, Oswaldo Vasquez, Carlos A. Argüelles, and Justin Vandenbroucke [hide authors].

In the past decade IceCube's observations have revealed a flux of astrophysical neutrinos extending to $10^{7}~\rm{GeV}$. The forthcoming generation of neutrino observatories promises to grant further insight into the high-energy neutrino sky, with sensitivity reaching energies up to $10^{12}~\rm{GeV}$. At such high energies, a new set of effects becomes relevant, which was not accounted for in the last generation of neutrino propagation software. Thus, it is important to develop new simulations which efficiently and accurately model lepton behavior at this scale. We present TauRunner a PYTHON-based package that propagates neutral and charged leptons. TauRunner supports propagation between $10~\rm{GeV}$ and $10^{12}~\rm{GeV}$. The package accounts for all relevant secondary neutrinos produced in charged-current tau neutrino interactions. Additionally, tau energy losses of taus produced in neutrino interactions is taken into account, and treated stochastically. Finally, TauRunner is broadly adaptable to divers experimental setups, allowing for user-specified trajectories and propagation media, neutrino cross sections, and initial spectra.**A full parametrization of the $9\times 9$ active-sterile flavor mixing matrix in the inverse or linear seesaw scenario of massive neutrinos**

2110.12705 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by He-chong Han and Zhi-zhong Xing.

The inverse and linear seesaw scenarios are two typical extensions of the canonical seesaw mechanism, which contain much more sterile degrees of freedom but can naturally explain the smallness of three active neutrino masses at a sufficiently low energy scale (e.g., the TeV scale). To fully describe the mixing among three active neutrinos, three sterile neutrinos and three extra gauge-singlet neutral fermions in either of these two seesaw paradigms, we present the {\it first} full parametrization of the $9\times 9$ flavor mixing matrix in terms of 36 rotation angles and 36 CP-violating phases. The exact inverse and linear seesaw formulas are derived, respectively; and possible deviations of the $3\times 3$ active neutrino mixing matrix from its unitary limit are discussed by calculating the effective Jarlskog invariants and unitarity nonagons.**Measurement of the Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering Cross Section on CsI by COHERENT**

2110.07730 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Akimov, [and 75 more]P. An, C. Awe, P. S. Barbeau, B. Becker, V. Belov, I. Bernardi, M. A. Blackston, C. Bock, A. Bolozdynya, J. Browning, B. Cabrera-Palmer, D. Chernyak, E. Conley, J. Daughhetee, J. Detwiler, K. Ding, M. R. Durand, Y. Efremenko, S. R. Elliott, L. Fabris, M. Febbraro, A. Gallo Rosso, A. Galindo-Uribarri, M. P. Green, M. R. Heath, S. Hedges, D. Hoang, M. Hughes, T. Johnson, A. Khromov, A. Konovalov, E. Kozlova, A. Kumpan, L. Li, J. M. Link, J. Liu, K. Mann, D. M. Markoff, J. Mastroberti, P. E. Mueller, J. Newby, D. S. Parno, S. I. Penttila, D. Pershey, R. Rapp, H. Ray, J. Raybern, O. Razuvaeva, D. Reyna, G. C. Rich, J. Ross, D. Rudik, J. Runge, D. J. Salvat, A. M. Salyapongse, K. Scholberg, A. Shakirov, G. Simakov, G. Sinev, W. M. Snow, V. Sosnovstsev, B. Suh, R. Tayloe, K. Tellez-Giron-Flores, I. Tolstukhin, E. Ujah, J. Vanderwerp, R. L. Varner, C. J. Virtue, G. Visser, T. Wongjirad, Y. -R. Yen, J. Yoo, C. -H. Yu, and J. Zettlemoyer [hide authors].

We measured the cross section of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (\cevns{}) using a CsI[Na] scintillating crystal in a high flux of neutrinos produced at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New data collected before detector decommissioning has more than doubled the dataset since the first observation of \cevns{}, achieved with this detector. Systematic uncertainties have also been reduced with an updated quenching model, allowing for improved precision. With these analysis improvements, the COHERENT collaboration determined the cross section to be $(165^{+30}_{-25})\times10^{-40}$~cm$^2$, consistent with the standard model, giving the most precise measurement of \cevns{} yet. The timing structure of the neutrino beam has been exploited to compare the \cevns{} cross section from scattering of different neutrino flavors. This result places leading constraints on neutrino non-standard interactions while testing lepton flavor universality and measures the weak mixing angle as $\sin^2\theta_{W}=0.220^{+0.028}_{-0.026}$ at $Q^2\approx(50\text{ MeV})^2$**Ultra-high-energy neutrino scattering in an anomalous U(1) effective field theory**

2110.07517 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Chuan-Hung Chen, Cheng-Wei Chiang, and Chun-Wei Su.

A unique characteristic of exponentially growing scattering amplitude arises in an anomalous Abelian effective field theory when an extremely light Dirac neutrino mass is introduced to break the symmetry. We show that the low energy effective Lagrangian can be made explicitly gauge invariant with the help of a nonlinear representation of the Goldstone or Stueckelberg field. We study the peculiar feature of exponential growth in the ultra-high-energy neutrino-nucleon inelastic scattering. It is found that the inelastic scattering cross section is highly sensitive to the ratio of gauge coupling to the gauge boson mass, $g_X/m_X$. When the IceCube measurement of ultra-high-energy neutrinos, which is consistent with the standard model prediction up to $E_\nu \sim 6$ PeV, is taken into account, the inferred constraint on $g_X/m_X$ is more severe than that obtained from the events of mono-lepton$+$missing transverse energy at the LHC. A muon collider with a collision energy of $10$ TeV can be a good environment other than hadron colliders to probe the novel effect.**Reactor antineutrino anomaly in light of recent flux model refinements**

2110.06820 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Giunti, [and 3 more]Y. F. Li, C. A. Ternes, and Z. Xin [hide authors].

We study the status of the reactor antineutrino anomaly in light of recent reactor flux models obtained with the conversion and summation methods. We present a new improved calculation of the IBD yields of the standard Huber-Mueller (HM) model and those of the new models. We show that the reactor rates and the fuel evolution data are consistent with the predictions of the Kurchatov Institute (KI) conversion model and with those of the Estienne-Fallot (EF) summation model, leading to a plausible robust demise of the reactor antineutrino anomaly. We show that the results of several goodness of fit tests favor the KI and EF models over other models that we considered. We also discuss the implications of the new reactor flux models for short-baseline neutrino oscillations due to active-sterile oscillations. We show that reactor data give upper bounds on active-sterile neutrino mixing that are not very different for the reactor flux models under consideration and are in tension with the large mixing required by the Gallium anomaly that has been refreshed by the recent results of the BEST experiment.**Effect of non-unitary mixing on the mass hierarchy and CP violation determination at the Protvino to Orca experiment**

2110.02917 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Daljeet Kaur, Nafis Rezwan Khan Chowdhury, and Ushak Rahaman.

In this paper, we have estimated the neutrino mass ordering and the CP violation sensitivity of the proposed Protvino to Orca (P2O) experiment after 6 years of data-taking. Both unitary and non-unitary $3\times 3$ neutrino mass mixing have been considered in the simulations. A forecast analysis deriving possible future constraints on non-unitary parameters at P2O have been performed.**Novel constraints on neutrino physics beyond the standard model from the CONUS experiment**

2110.02174 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by CONUS Collaboration, [and 12 more]H. Bonet, A. Bonhomme, C. Buck, K. Fülber, J. Hakenmüller, G. Heusser, T. Hugle, M. Lindner, W. Maneschg, T. Rink, H. Strecker, and R. Wink [hide authors].

The measurements of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) experiments have opened up the possibility to constrain neutrino physics beyond the standard model of elementary particle physics. Furthermore, by considering neutrino-electron scattering in the keV-energy region, it is possible to set additional limits on new physics processes. Here, we present constraints that are derived from CONUS germanium data on beyond the standard model (BSM) processes like tensor and vector non-standard interactions (NSIs) in the neutrino-quark sector, as well as light vector and scalar mediators. Thanks to the realized low background levels in the CONUS experiment at ionization energies below 1 keV, we are able to set the world's best limits on tensor NSIs from CE$\nu$NS and constrain the scale of corresponding new physics to lie above 360 GeV. For vector NSIs, the derived limits strongly depend on the assumed ionization quenching factor within the detector material, since small quenching factors largely suppress potential signals for both, the expected standard model CE$\nu$NS process and the vector NSIs. Furthermore, competitive limits on scalar and vector mediators are obtained from the CE$\nu$NS channel at reactor-site which allow to probe coupling constants as low as $5\cdot10^{-5}$ of low mediator masses, assuming the currently favored quenching factor regime. The consideration of neutrino-electron scatterings allows to set even stronger constraints for mediator masses below $\sim1$ MeV and $\sim 10$ MeV for scalar and vector mediators, respectively.**Neutrino Oscillations through the Earth's Core**

2110.01148 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Rebekah Pestes.

Neutrinos have two properties that make them fairly unique from other known particles: extremely low cross sections and flavor changing oscillations. With a good knowledge of the oscillation parameters soon in hand, it will become possible to detect low-energy atmospheric neutrinos sensitive to the forward elastic scattering off electrons in the Earth's core providing a measurement of the core properties and the matter effect itself. As the dynamics of the Earth's core are complicated and in a difficult to probe environment, additional information from upcoming neutrino experiments will provide feedback into our knowledge of geophysics as well as useful information about exoplanet formation and various new physics scenarios including dark matter. In addition, we can probe the existence of the matter effect in the Earth and constrain the non-standard neutrino interaction parameter $\epsilon_{ee}^\oplus$. We show how DUNE's sensitivity to low-energy atmospheric neutrino oscillations can provide a novel constraint on the density and radius of the Earth's core at the 9\% level and the Earth's matter effect at the 5\% level. Finally, we illuminate the physics behind low-energy atmospheric neutrino resonances in the Earth.**Search for Neutrino-Induced Neutral Current $Δ$ Radiative Decay in MicroBooNE and a First Test of the MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess Under a Single-Photon Hypothesis**

2110.00409 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by MicroBooNE collaboration, [and 187 more]P. Abratenko, R. An, J. Anthony, L. Arellano, J. Asaadi, A. Ashkenazi, S. Balasubramanian, B. Baller, C. Barnes, G. Barr, V. Basque, L. Bathe-Peters, O. Benevides Rodrigues, S. Berkman, A. Bhanderi, A. Bhat, M. Bishai, A. Blake, T. Bolton, J. Y. Book, L. Camilleri, D. Caratelli, I. Caro Terrazas, R. Castillo Fernandez, F. Cavanna, G. Cerati, Y. Chen, D. Cianci, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, L. Cooper-Troendle, J. I. Crespo-Anadon, M. Del Tutto, S. R. Dennis, P. Detje, A. Devitt, R. Diurba, R. Dorrill, K. Duffy, S. Dytman, B. Eberly, A. Ereditato, J. J. Evans, R. Fine, G. A. Fiorentini Aguirre, R. S. Fitzpatrick, B. T. Fleming, N. Foppiani, D. Franco, A. P. Furmanski, D. Garcia-Gamez, S. Gardiner, G. Ge, S. Gollapinni, O. Goodwin, E. Gramellini, P. Green, H. Greenlee, W. Gu, R. Guenette, P. Guzowski, L. Hagaman, O. Hen, C. Hilgenberg, G. A. Horton-Smith, A. Hourlier, R. Itay, C. James, X. Ji, L. Jiang, J. H. Jo, R. A. Johnson, Y. J. Jwa, D. Kalra, N. Kamp, N. Kaneshige, G. Karagiorgi, W. Ketchum, M. Kirby, T. Kobilarcik, I. Kreslo, R. LaZur, I. Lepetic, K. Li, Y. Li, K. Lin, B. R. Littlejohn, W. C. Louis, X. Luo, K. Manivannan, C. Mariani, D. Marsden, J. Marshall, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, K. Mason, A. Mastbaum, N. McConkey, V. Meddage, T. Mettler, K. Miller, J. Mills, K. Mistry, T. Mohayai, A. Mogan, J. Moon, M. Mooney, A. F. Moor, C. D. Moore, L. Mora Lepin, J. Mousseau, M. Murphy, D. Naples, A. Navrer-Agasson, M. Nebot-Guinot, R. K. Neely, D. A. Newmark, J. Nowak, M. Nunes, O. Palamara, V. Paolone, A. Papadopoulou, V. Papavassiliou, S. F. Pate, N. Patel, A. Paudel, Z. Pavlovic, E. Piasetzky, I. Ponce-Pinto, S. Prince, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, V. Radeka, A. Rafique, M. Reggiani-Guzzo, L. Ren, L. C. J. Rice, L. Rochester, J. Rodriguez Rondon, M. Rosenberg, M. Ross-Lonergan, G. Scanavini, D. W. Schmitz, A. Schukraft, W. Seligman, M. H. Shaevitz, R. Sharankova, J. Shi, J. Sinclair, A. Smith, E. L. Snider, M. Soderberg, S. Soldner-Rembold, P. Spentzouris, J. Spitz, M. Stancari, J. St. John, T. Strauss, K. Sutton, S. Sword-Fehlberg, A. M. Szelc, W. Tang, K. Terao, C. Thorpe, D. Totani, M. Toups, Y. -T. Tsai, M. A. Uchida, T. Usher, W. Van De Pontseele, B. Viren, M. Weber, H. Wei, Z. Williams, S. Wolbers, T. Wongjirad, M. Wospakrik, K. Wresilo, N. Wright, W. Wu, E. Yandel, T. Yang, G. Yarbrough, L. E. Yates, H. W. Yu, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, and C. Zhang [hide authors].

We report results from a search for neutrino-induced neutral current (NC) resonant $\Delta$(1232) baryon production followed by $\Delta$ radiative decay, with a $\langle0.8\rangle$~GeV neutrino beam. Data corresponding to MicroBooNE's first three years of operations (6.80$\times$10$^{20}$ protons on target) are used to select single-photon events with one or zero protons and without charged leptons in the final state ($1\gamma1p$ and $1\gamma0p$, respectively). The background is constrained via an in-situ high-purity measurement of NC $\pi^0$ events, made possible via dedicated $2\gamma1p$ and $2\gamma0p$ selections. A total of 16 and 153 events are observed for the $1\gamma1p$ and $1\gamma0p$ selections, respectively, compared to a constrained background prediction of $20.5 \pm 3.65 \text{(sys.)} $ and $145.1 \pm 13.8 \text{(sys.)} $ events. The data lead to a bound on an anomalous enhancement of the normalization of NC $\Delta$ radiative decay of less than $2.3$ times the predicted nominal rate for this process at the 90% confidence level (CL). The measurement disfavors a candidate photon interpretation of the MiniBooNE low-energy excess as a factor of $3.18$ times the nominal NC $\Delta$ radiative decay rate at the 94.8% CL, in favor of the nominal prediction, and represents a greater than $50$-fold improvement over the world's best limit on single-photon production in NC interactions in the sub-GeV neutrino energy range**DUNE atmospheric neutrinos: Earth Tomography**

2110.00003 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kevin J. Kelly, [and 3 more]Pedro A. N. Machado, Ivan Martinez-Soler, and Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez [hide authors].

In this paper we show that the DUNE experiment can measure the Earth's density profile by analyzing atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The crucial feature that enables such measurement is the detailed event reconstruction capability of liquid argon time projection chambers. This allows for studying the sub-GeV atmospheric neutrino component, which bears a rich oscillation phenomenology, strongly dependent on the matter potential sourced by the Earth. We provide a pedagogical discussion of the MSW and parametric resonances and their role in measuring the core and mantle densities. By performing a detailed simulation, accounting for particle reconstruction at DUNE, nuclear physics effects relevant to neutrino-argon interactions and several uncertainties on the atmospheric neutrino flux, we manage to obtain a robust estimate of DUNE's sensitivity to the Earth matter profile. We find that DUNE can measure the total mass of the Earth at 8.4% precision with an exposure of 400~kton-year. By accounting for previous measurements of the total mass and moment of inertia of the Earth, the core, lower mantle and upper mantle densities can be determined with 8.8%, 13% and 22% precision, respectively, for the same exposure. Finally, DUNE could take atmospheric neutrino data while the beam is being commissioned and far detector modules are up and running. For a low exposure run of 60~kton-year, which would correspond to two far detectors running for three years, we have found that the core density could be measured by DUNE at $\sim30\%$ precision.**Testing sterile neutrino mixing with present and future solar neutrino data**

2109.14898 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kim Goldhagen, [and 3 more]Michele Maltoni, Shayne Reichard, and Thomas Schwetz [hide authors].

We investigate the sensitivity of solar neutrino data to mixing of sterile neutrinos with masses $\gtrsim$ eV. For current data, we perform a Feldman-Cousins analysis to derive a robust limit on the sterile neutrino mixing. The solar neutrino limit excludes significant regions of the parameter space relevant to hints from reactor and radioactive gallium source experiments. We then study the sensitivity of upcoming solar neutrino data, most notably elastic neutrino-electron scattering in the DARWIN and DUNE experiments as well as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering in DARWIN. These high precision measurements will increase the sensitivity to sterile neutrino mixing by about a factor of 4.5 compared to present limits. As a by-product, we introduce a simplified solar neutrino analysis using only four data points: the low- and high-energy $\nu_e$ survival and transition probabilities. We show that this simplified analysis is in excellent agreement with a full solar neutrino analysis; it is very easy to handle numerically and can be applied to any new physics model in which the energy dependence of the $\nu_e$ transition probabilities is not significantly modified.**Tau Neutrino Identification in Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations Without Particle Identification or Unitarity**

2109.14576 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton.

The largest tau neutrino dataset to date is IceCube's atmospheric tau neutrino appearance dataset containing $>1,000$ tau neutrino and antineutrino events as determined by a fit to a standard three-flavor oscillation framework. On an event-by-event basis, however, it is impossible to know that any given event is a tau neutrino as they are identical to either an electron neutrino charged-current event or a neutral-current interaction of any active flavor. Nonetheless, we conclusively show that, using only the cascade sample even without knowledge of the oscillation parameters and without assuming that the lepton mixing matrix is unitary, tau neutrino identification is still possible and there is no viable scenario in which all of the tau neutrino candidates are actually electron neutrinos. This is primarily due to the matter effect and the tau lepton production threshold, as well as the fact that tau neutrinos are systematically reconstructed at a lower energy than electron neutrinos due to one or more outgoing neutrinos. This conclusively shows that it is possible for an atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiment to confirm that $U_{\tau1}$, $U_{\tau2}$, and $U_{\tau3}$ are not all zero even with limited particle identification.**New oscillation and scattering constraints on the tau row matrix elements without assuming unitarity**

2109.14575 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Julia Gehrlein.

The tau neutrino is the least well measured particle in the Standard Model. Most notably, the tau neutrino row of the lepton mixing matrix is quite poorly constrained when unitarity is not assumed. In this paper, we identify data sets involving tau neutrinos that improve our understanding of the tau neutrino part of the mixing matrix, in particular $\nu_\tau$ appearance in atmospheric neutrinos. We present new results on the elements of the tau row leveraging existing constraints on the electron and muon rows for the cases of unitarity violation, with and without kinematically accessible steriles. We also show the expected sensitivity due to upcoming experiments and demonstrate that the tau neutrino row precision may be comparable to the muon neutrino row in a careful combined fit.**Lorentz symmetry and high-energy neutrino astronomy**

2109.13973 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles and Teppei Katori.

The search of violation of Lorentz symmetry, or Lorentz violation (LV), is an active research field. The effects of LV are expected to be very small and special systems are often used to search it. High-energy astrophysical neutrinos offer a unique system to search signatures of LV due to the three factors: high neutrino energy, long propagation distance, and the presence of quantum mechanical interference. In this brief review, we introduce tests of LV and summarize existing searches of LV using atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos.**Non-unitary Leptonic Flavor Mixing and CP Violation in Neutrino-antineutrino Oscillations**

2109.13622 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yilin Wang and Shun Zhou.

If massive neutrinos are Majorana particles, then the lepton number should be violated in nature and neutrino-antineutrino oscillations $\nu^{}_\alpha \leftrightarrow \overline{\nu}^{}_\beta$ (for $\alpha, \beta = e, \mu, \tau$) will definitely take place. In the present paper, we study the properties of CP violation in neutrino-antineutrino oscillations with the non-unitary leptonic flavor mixing matrix, which is actually a natural prediction in the canonical seesaw model due to the mixing between light and heavy Majorana neutrinos. The oscillation probabilities $P(\nu^{}_\alpha \to \overline{\nu}^{}_\beta)$ and $P(\overline{\nu}^{}_\alpha \to \nu^{}_\beta)$ are derived, and the CP asymmetries ${\cal A}^{}_{\alpha \beta} \equiv [P(\nu^{}_\alpha \to \overline{\nu}^{}_\beta) - P(\overline{\nu}^{}_\alpha \to \nu^{}_\beta)]/[P(\nu^{}_\alpha \to \overline{\nu}^{}_\beta) + P(\overline{\nu}^{}_\alpha \to \nu^{}_\beta)]$ are also calculated. Taking into account current experimental bounds on the leptonic unitarity violation, we show that the CP asymmetries induced by the non-unitary mixing parameters can significantly deviate from those in the limit of a unitary leptonic flavor mixing.**Updating $ν_{3}$ lifetime from solar antineutrino spectra**

2109.13272 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Picoreti, [and 3 more]D. Pramanik, P. C. de Holanda, and O. L. G. Peres [hide authors].

We study the production of antineutrinos from the solar neutrinos due the Majorana neutrino decays of neutrino to antineutrino. Using the antineutrino spectra from KamLAND and Borexino, we present newest limits on the lifetime of $\nu_{3}$ in this scenario. We consider $\nu_{3} \rightarrow \bar{\nu}_{1} + X$ and $\nu_{3} \rightarrow \bar{\nu}_{2} + X$ channels assuming scalar or pseudo-scalar interactions. For hierarchical mass-splittings, the limits obtained by us are $\tau_{3}/m_{3}~\geq 7\times 10^{-5} s/eV$ and $\tau_{3}/m_{3}~\geq 1\times 10^{-5} s/eV$ for the two channels at $90\%$ C.L. We found that the newest bound is five orders of magnitude better than the atmospheric and long-baseline bounds.**Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background Search at Super-Kamiokande**

2109.11174 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, [and 221 more]:, K. Abe, C. Bronner, Y. Hayato, K. Hiraide, M. Ikeda, S. Imaizumi, J. Kameda, Y. Kanemura, Y. Kataoka, S. Miki, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, Y. Nagao, M. Nakahata, S. Nakayama, T. Okada, K. Okamoto, A. Orii, G. Pronost, H. Sekiya, M. Shiozawa, Y. Sonoda, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeda, Y. Takemoto, A. Takenaka, H. Tanaka, S. Watanabe, T. Yano, S. Han, T. Kajita, K. Okumura, T. Tashiro, J. Xia, G. D. Megias, D. Bravo-Bergu, L. Labarga, Ll. Marti, B. Zaldivar, B. W. Pointon, F. d. M. Blaszczyk, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. Wan, T. Wester, J. Bian, N. J. Griskevich, W. R. Kropp, S. Locke, S. Mine, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, V. Takhistov, J. Hill, J. Y. Kim, I. T. Lim, R. G. Park, B. Bodur, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, S. Cao, L. Bernard, A. Coffani, O. Drapier, S. El Hedri, A. Giampaolo, M. Gonin, Th. A. Mueller, P. Paganini, B. Quilain, T. Ishizuka, T. Nakamura, J. S. Jang, J. G. Learned, L. H. V. Anthony, D. Martin, M. Scott, A. A. Sztuc, Y. Uchida, V. Berardi, M. G. Catanesi, E. Radicioni, N. F. Calabria, L. N. Machado, G. De Rosa, G. Collazuol, F. Iacob, M. Lamoureux, M. Mattiazzi, N. Ospina, L. Ludovici, Y. Maekawa, Y. Nishimura, M. Friend, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, M. Jakkapu, T. Matsubara, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, Y. Kotsar, Y. Nakano, H. Ozaki, T. Shiozawa, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, A. Ali, Y. Ashida, J. Feng, S. Hirota, T. Kikawa, M. Mori, T. Nakaya, R. A. Wendell, K. Yasutome, P. Fernandez, N. McCauley, P. Mehta, K. M. Tsui, Y. Fukuda, Y. Itow, H. Menjo, T. Niwa, K. Sato, M. Tsukada, J. Lagoda, S. M. Lakshmi, P. Mijakowski, J. Zalipska, J. Jiang, C. K. Jung, C. Vilela, M. J. Wilking, C. Yanagisawa, K. Hagiwara, M. Harada, T. Horai, H. Ishino, S. Ito, H. Kitagawa, Y. Koshio, W. Ma, N. Piplani, S. Sakai, G. Barr, D. Barrow, L. Cook, A. Goldsack, S. Samani, D. Wark, F. Nova, T. Boschi, F. Di Lodovico, J. Gao, J. Migenda, M. Taani, S. Zsoldos, J. Y. Yang, S. J. Jenkins, M. Malek, J. M. McElwee, O. Stone, M. D. Thiesse, L. F. Thompson, H. Okazawa, S. B. Kim, J. W. Seo, I. Yu, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, K. Iwamoto, K. Nakagiri, Y. Nakajima, N. Ogawa, M. Yokoyama, K. Martens, M. R. Vagins, M. Kuze, S. Izumiyama, T. Yoshida, M. Inomoto, M. Ishitsuka, H. Ito, T. Kinoshita, R. Matsumoto, K. Ohta, M. Shinoki, T. Suganuma, A. K. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, J. F. Martin, H. A. Tanaka, T. Towstego, R. Akutsu, V. Gousy-Leblanc, M. Hartz, A. Konaka, P. de Perio, N. W. Prouse, S. Chen, B. D. Xu, Y. Zhang, M. Posiadala-Zezula, D. Hadley, M. O'Flaherty, B. Richards, B. Jamieson, J. Walker, A. Minamino, K. Okamoto, G. Pintaudi, S. Sano, and R. Sasaki [hide authors].

A new search for the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) flux has been conducted at Super-Kamiokande (SK), with a $22.5\times2970$-kton$\cdot$day exposure from its fourth operational phase IV. The new analysis improves on the existing background reduction techniques and systematic uncertainties and takes advantage of an improved neutron tagging algorithm to lower the energy threshold compared to the previous phases of SK. This allows for setting the world's most stringent upper limit on the extraterrestrial $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux, for neutrino energies below 31.3 MeV. The SK-IV results are combined with the ones from the first three phases of SK to perform a joint analysis using $22.5\times5823$ kton$\cdot$days of data. This analysis has the world's best sensitivity to the DSNB $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux, comparable to the predictions from various models. For neutrino energies larger than 17.3 MeV, the new combined $90\%$ C.L. upper limits on the DSNB $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux lie around $2.7$ cm$^{-2}$$\cdot$$\text{sec}^{-1}$, strongly disfavoring the most optimistic predictions. Finally, potentialities of the gadolinium phase of SK and the future Hyper-Kamiokande experiment are discussed.**The Forward Physics Facility: Sites, Experiments, and Physics Potential**

2109.10905 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Luis A. Anchordoqui, [and 80 more]Akitaka Ariga, Tomoko Ariga, Weidong Bai, Kincso Balazs, Brian Batell, Jamie Boyd, Joseph Bramante, Mario Campanelli, Adrian Carmona, Francesco G. Celiberto, Grigorios Chachamis, Matthew Citron, Giovanni De Lellis, Albert De Roeck, Hans Dembinski, Peter B. Denton, Antonia Di Crecsenzo, Milind V. Diwan, Liam Dougherty, Herbi K. Dreiner, Yong Du, Rikard Enberg, Yasaman Farzan, Jonathan L. Feng, Max Fieg, Patrick Foldenauer, Saeid Foroughi-Abari, Alexander Friedland, Michael Fucilla, Jonathan Gall, Maria Vittoria Garzelli, Francesco Giuli, Victor P. Goncalves, Marco Guzzi, Francis Halzen, Juan Carlos Helo, Christopher S. Hill, Ahmed Ismail, Ameen Ismail, Richard Jacobsson, Sudip Jana, Yu Seon Jeong, Krzysztof Jodlowski, Kevin J. Kelly, Felix Kling, Fnu Karan Kumar, Zhen Liu, Rafal Maciula, Roshan Mammen Abraham, Julien Manshanden, Josh McFayden, Mohammed M. A. Mohammed, Pavel M. Nadolsky, Nobuchika Okada, John Osborne, Hidetoshi Otono, Vishvas Pandey, Alessandro Papa, Digesh Raut, Mary Hall Reno, Filippo Resnati, Adam Ritz, Juan Rojo, Ina Sarcevic, Christiane Scherb, Holger Schulz, Pedro Schwaller, Dipan Sengupta, Torbjörn Sjöstrand, Tyler B. Smith, Dennis Soldin, Anna Stasto, Antoni Szczurek, Zahra Tabrizi, Sebastian Trojanowski, Yu-Dai Tsai, Douglas Tuckler, Martin W. Winkler, Keping Xie, and Yue Zhang [hide authors].

The Forward Physics Facility (FPF) is a proposal to create a cavern with the space and infrastructure to support a suite of far-forward experiments at the Large Hadron Collider during the High Luminosity era. Located along the beam collision axis and shielded from the interaction point by at least 100 m of concrete and rock, the FPF will house experiments that will detect particles outside the acceptance of the existing large LHC experiments and will observe rare and exotic processes in an extremely low-background environment. In this work, we summarize the current status of plans for the FPF, including recent progress in civil engineering in identifying promising sites for the FPF and the experiments currently envisioned to realize the FPF's physics potential. We then review the many Standard Model and new physics topics that will be advanced by the FPF, including searches for long-lived particles, probes of dark matter and dark sectors, high-statistics studies of TeV neutrinos of all three flavors, aspects of perturbative and non-perturbative QCD, and high-energy astroparticle physics.**Potential for a precision measurement of solar $pp$ neutrinos in the Serappis Experiment**

2109.10782 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lukas Bieger, [and 58 more]Thilo Birkenfeld, David Blum, Wilfried Depnering, Timo Enqvist, Heike Enzmann, Feng Gao, Christoph Genster, Alexandre Göttel, Christian Grewing, Maxim Gromov, Paul Hackspacher, Caren Hagner, Tobias Heinz, Philipp Kampmann, Michael Karagounis, Andre Kruth, Pasi Kuusiniemi, Tobias Lachenmaier, Daniel Liebau, Runxuan Liu, Kai Loo, Livia Ludhova, David Meyhöfer, Axel Müller, Pavithra Muralidharan, Lothar Oberauer, Rainer Othegraven, Nina Parkalian, Yatian Pei, Oliver Pilarczyk, Henning Rebber, Markus Robens, Christian Roth, Julia Sawatzki, Konstantin Schweizer, Giulio Settanta, Maciej Slupecki, Oleg Smirnov, Achim Stahl, Hans Steiger, Jochen Steinmann, Tobias Sterr, Matthias Raphael Stock, Jian Tang, Eric Theisen, Alexander Tietzsch, Wladyslaw Trzaska, Johannes van den Boom, Stefan van Waasen, Cornelius Vollbrecht, Christopher Wiebusch, Bjoern Wonsak, Michael Wurm, Christian Wysotzki, Yu Xu, Ugur Yegin, Andre Zambanini, and Jan Züfle [hide authors].

The Serappis (SEarch for RAre PP-neutrinos In Scintillator) project aims at a precision measurement of the flux of solar $pp$ neutrinos on the few-percent level. Such a measurement will be a relevant contribution to the study of solar neutrino oscillation parameters and a sensitive test of the solar luminosity constraint. The concept of Serappis relies on a small organic liquid scintillator detector ($\sim$20 m$^3$) with excellent energy resolution ($\sim$2.5 % at 1 MeV), low internal background and sufficient shielding from surrounding radioactivity. This can be achieved by a minor upgrade of the OSIRIS facility at the site of the JUNO neutrino experiment in southern China. To go substantially beyond current accuracy levels for the $pp$ flux, an organic scintillator with ultra-low $^{14}$C levels (below $10^{-18}$) is required. The existing OSIRIS detector and JUNO infrastructure will be instrumental in identifying suitable scintillator materials, offering a unique chance for a low-budget high-precision measurement of a fundamental property of our Sun that will be otherwise hard to access.**Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino and charged lepton propagation in the Earth with nuPyProp**

2109.08198 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sameer Patel, [and 18 more]Mary Hall Reno, Yosui Akaike, Luis Anchordoqui, Douglas Bergman, Isaac Buckland, Austin Cummings, Johannes Eser, Claire Guépin, John F. Krizmanic, Simon Mackovjak, Angela Olinto, Thomas Paul, Alex Reustle, Andrew Romero-Wolf, Fred Sarazin, Tonia Venters, Lawrence Wiencke, and Stephanie Wissel [hide authors].

An accurate modeling of neutrino flux attenuation and the distribution of leptons they produce in transit through the Earth is an essential component to determine neutrino flux sensitivities of underground, sub-orbital and space-based detectors. Through neutrino oscillations over cosmic distances, astrophysical neutrino sources are expected to produce nearly equal fluxes of electron, muon and tau neutrinos. Of particular interest are tau neutrinos that interact in the Earth at modest slant depths to produce $\tau$-leptons. Some $\tau$-leptons emerge from the Earth and decay in the atmosphere to produce extensive air showers. Future balloon-borne and satellite-based optical Cherenkov neutrino telescopes will be sensitive to upward air showers from tau neutrino induced $\tau$-lepton decays. We present nuPyProp, a python code that is part of the nuSpaceSim package. nuPyProp generates look-up tables for exit probabilities and energy distributions for $\nu_\tau\to \tau$ and $\nu_\mu\to \mu$ propagation in the Earth. This flexible code runs with either stochastic or continuous electromagnetic energy losses for the lepton transit through the Earth. Current neutrino cross section models and energy loss models are included along with templates for user input of other models. Results from nuPyProp are compared with other recent simulation packages for neutrino and charged lepton propagation. Sources of modeling uncertainties are described and quantified.**SNEWPY: A Data Pipeline from Supernova Simulations to Neutrino Signals**

2109.08188 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Amanda L. Baxter, [and 19 more]Segev BenZvi, Joahan Castaneda Jaimes, Alexis Coleiro, Marta Colomer Molla, Damien Dornic, Tomer Goldhagen, Anne M. Graf, Spencer Griswold, Alec Habig, Remington Hill, Shunsaku Horiuchi James P. Kneller Rafael F. Lang, Massimiliano Lincetto, Jost Migenda, Ko Nakamura, Evan O'Connor, Andrew Renshaw, Kate Scholberg, Navya Uberoi, and Arkin Worlikar [hide authors].

Current neutrino detectors will observe hundreds to thousands of neutrinos from a Galactic supernovae, and future detectors will increase this yield by an order of magnitude or more. With such a data set comes the potential for a huge increase in our understanding of the explosions of massive stars, nuclear physics under extreme conditions, and the properties of the neutrino. However, there is currently a large gap between supernova simulations and the corresponding signals in neutrino detectors, which will make any comparison between theory and observation very difficult. SNEWPY is an open-source software package which bridges this gap. The SNEWPY code can interface with supernova simulation data to generate from the model either a time series of neutrino spectral fluences at Earth, or the total time-integrated spectral fluence. Data from several hundred simulations of core-collapse, thermonuclear, and pair-instability supernovae is included in the package. This output may then be used by an event generator such as sntools or an event rate calculator such as SNOwGLoBES. Additional routines in the SNEWPY package automate the processing of the generated data through the SNOwGLoBES software and collate its output into the observable channels of each detector. In this paper we describe the contents of the package, the physics behind SNEWPY, the organization of the code, and provide examples of how to make use of its capabilities.**An Altarelli Cocktail for the MiniBooNE Anomaly?**

2109.08157 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar and Joachim Kopp.

We critically examine a number of theoretical uncertainties affecting the MiniBooNE short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in an attempt to better understand the observed excess of electron-like events. We re-examine the impact of fake charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) events, the background due to neutral current $\pi^0$ production, and the single-photon background. For all processes, we compare the predictions of different event generators (GENIE, GiBUU, NUANCE, and NuWro) and, for GENIE, of different tunes. Where MiniBooNE uses data-driven background predictions, we discuss the uncertainties affecting the relation between the signal sample and the control sample. In the case of the single-photon background, we emphasize the uncertainties in the radiative branching ratios of heavy hadronic resonances. We find that not even a combination of uncertainties in different channels adding up unfavorably (an "Altarelli cocktail") appears to be sufficient to resolve the MiniBooNE anomaly. We finally investigate how modified background predictions affect the fit of a $3+1$ sterile neutrino scenario. We carefully account for full four-flavor oscillations not only in the signal, but also in the background and control samples. We emphasize that because of the strong correlation between MiniBooNE's $\nu_e$ and $\nu_\mu$ samples, a sterile neutrino mixing only with $\nu_\mu$ is sufficient to explain the anomaly, even though the well-known tension with external constraints on $\nu_\mu$ disappearance persists.**Measuring tau neutrino appearance probability via unitarity**

2109.06933 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Martinez-Soler and Hisakazu Minakata.

We propose a {\em unitarity method} for determining $\tau$ neutrino appearance probability $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{\tau})$ in long-baseline (LBL) accelerator experiments and atmospheric neutrino observations. When simultaneous in situ measurements of $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{\mu})$ and $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{e})$ proceed, as is typical in the LBL experiments, one can use unitarity to "measure" $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{\tau})$. A theorists' toy analysis for the model-independent determination of $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{\mu})$ and $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{e})$ is presented by using the NOvA data. It is shown in our analysis that $\lsim$5\% (8\%) measurement of $\tau$ neutrino appearance probability in neutrino (antineutrino) mode is possible in the peak region $1.5 \lesssim E_\nu \lesssim 2.5$ GeV. The $\nu$SM-independent nature of determination of the probabilities is emphasized.**Neutrino Interaction Physics in Neutrino Telescopes**

2109.04430 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Teppei Katori, Juan Pablo Yanez, and Tianlu Yuan.

Neutrino telescopes can observe neutrino interactions starting at GeV energies by sampling a small fraction of the Cherenkov radiation produced by charged secondary particles. These experiments instrument volumes massive enough to collect substantial samples of neutrinos up to the TeV scale as well as small samples at the PeV scale. This unique ability of neutrino telescopes has been exploited to study the properties of neutrino interactions across energies that cannot be accessed with man-made beams. Here we present the methods and results obtained by IceCube, the most mature neutrino telescope in operation, and offer a glimpse of what the future holds in this field.**Heavy neutral leptons below the kaon mass at hodoscopic detectors**

2109.03831 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles, Nicolò Foppiani, and Matheus Hostert.

Heavy neutral leptons ($N$) below the kaon mass are severely constrained by cosmology and lab-based searches for their decays in flight. If $N$ interacts via an additional force, $N\to\nu e^+e^-$ decays are enhanced and cosmological limits can be avoided. We show that the T2K and MicroBooNE neutrino experiments provide the best limits on the mixing of $N$ with muon-neutrinos, outperforming past-generation experiments, previously thought to dominate. We constrain models with electromagnetically-decaying and long-lived $N$, such as in a transition-magnetic-moment portal and in a leptophilic axion-like particle portal, invoked to explain the MiniBooNE excess. By considering these models as representative examples, our results show that explanations of the MiniBooNE excess that involve $e^+e^-$ pairs from long-lived particles are in tension with T2K, PS191, and MicroBooNE data. Similarly, these searches also constrain MiniBooNE explanations based on single photons due to the associated $e^+e^-$ decay mode via a virtual photon.**Constraining the neutrino mass using a multi-tracer combination of two galaxy surveys and CMB lensing**

2109.03763 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mario Ballardini and Roy Maartens.

Measuring the total neutrino mass is one of the most exciting opportunities available with next-generation cosmological data sets. We study the possibility of detecting the total neutrino mass using large-scale clustering in 21cm intensity mapping and photometric galaxy surveys, together with CMB information. We include the scale-dependent halo bias contribution due to the presence of massive neutrinos, and use a multi-tracer analysis in order to reduce cosmic variance. The multi-tracer combination of an SKAO-MID 21cm intensity map with Stage~4 CMB dramatically shrinks the uncertainty on total neutrino mass to $\sigma(M_\nu) \simeq 45\,$meV, using only linear clustering information ($k_{\rm max} = 0.1\, h/$Mpc) and without a prior on optical depth. When we add to the multi-tracer the clustering information expected from LSST, the forecast is $\sigma(M_\nu) \simeq 12\,$meV.**Mass Composition of UHECRs from $X_{\rm max}$ Distributions Recorded by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array Observatories**

2109.03626 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nicusor Arsene.

In this paper we infer the mass composition of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) from measurements of $X_{\rm max}$ distributions recorded at the Pierre Auger (2014) and Telescope Array (TA) (2016) Observatories, by fitting them with all possible combinations of Monte Carlo (MC) templates from a large set of primary species (p, He, C, N, O, Ne, Si and Fe), as predicted by EPOS-LHC, QGSJETII-04 and Sibyll 2.1 hadronic interaction models. We use the individual fractions of nuclei reconstructed from one experiment in each energy interval to build equivalent MC $X_{\rm max}$ distributions, which we compare with the experimental $X_{\rm max}$ distributions of the other experiment, applying different statistical tests of compatibility. The results obtained from both experiments confirm that the mass composition of the UHECRs is dominated ($\gtrsim$$70\%$) by protons and He nuclei {in the energy range investigated $\lg E (\rm eV)$ = [17.8--19.3] (Auger) and $\lg E \rm (eV)$ = [18.2--19.0] (TA).} The indirect comparisons between the $X_{\rm max}$ distributions recorded by the two experiments show that the degree of compatibility of the two datasets is good, even excellent in some high energy intervals, especially above the ankle ($\lg E (\rm eV) \sim 18.7$). However, our study reveals that, at low energies, further effort in data analysis is required in order to harmonize the results of the two experiments.**Near-horizon microstructure and superradiant instability of black holes**

2109.03376 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rong-Zhen Guo, Chen Yuan, and Qing-Guo Huang.

Ultralight bosons, as important candidates of dark matter, can condense around spinning black holes (BHs) to form long-lived ``boson clouds'' due to superradiance instability. The boson-BH system can be observed through gravitational wave detection and may become a new window to find traces of ultralight bosons. In this letter we explore the effects on the superradiant instability of BHs from the near-horizon microstructure. By introducing the reflection parameter near a BH horizon, we derived analytical results on the corrections to both energy levels of bosonic cloud and its characteristic frequencies of superradiance instability. Our results imply that the evolution of a boson-BH system and gravitational waves it emits would be influenced by the near-horizon physics of a BH.**Fog on the horizon: a new definition of the neutrino floor for direct dark matter searches**

2109.03116 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ciaran A. J. O'Hare.

The neutrino floor is a theoretical lower limit on WIMP-like dark matter models that are discoverable in direct detection experiments. It is commonly interpreted as the point at which dark matter signals become hidden underneath a remarkably similar-looking background from neutrinos. However, it has been known for some time that the neutrino floor is not a hard limit, but can be pushed past with sufficient statistics. As a consequence, some have recently advocated for calling it the "neutrino fog" instead. The downside of current methods of deriving the neutrino floor are that they rely on arbitrary choices of experimental exposure and energy threshold. Here we propose to define the neutrino floor as the boundary of the neutrino fog, and develop a calculation free from these assumptions. The technique is based on the derivative of a hypothetical experimental discovery limit as a function of exposure, and leads to a neutrino floor that is only influenced by the systematic uncertainties on the neutrino flux normalisations. Our floor is broadly similar to those found in the literature, but differs by almost an order of magnitude in the sub-GeV range, and above 20~GeV.**Unstable Cosmic Neutrino Capture**

2109.02900 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kensuke Akita, Gaetano Lambiase, and Masahide Yamaguchi.

Future direct observations of the Cosmic Neutrino Background (C$\nu$B) have the potential to explore a neutrino lifetime, especially in the region of the age of the universe, $t_0=4.35\times 10^{17}\ {\rm s}$. We forecast constraints on neutrino decay via capture of the C$\nu$B on tritium, with emphasis on the PTOLEMY-type experiment. In addition, in some cases of invisible neutrino decay into lighter neutrinos in the Standard Model and invisible particles, we can constrain not only the neutrino lifetime but also the masses of the invisible particles. For this purpose, we also formulate the energy spectra of the lighter neutrinos produced by 2-body and 3-body decays, and those of the electrons emitted in the process of the detection of the lighter neutrinos.**Probing neutrino decay scenarios by using the Earth matter effects on supernova neutrinos**

2109.02737 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Edwin A. Delgado, Hiroshi Nunokawa, and Alexander A. Quiroga.

The observation of Earth matter effects in the spectrum of neutrinos coming from a next galactic core-collapse supernova (CCSN) could, in principle, reveal if neutrino mass ordering is normal or inverted. One of the possible ways to identify the mass ordering is through the observation of the modulations that appear in the spectrum when neutrinos travel through the Earth before they arrive at the detector. These features in the neutrino spectrum depend on two factors, the average neutrino energies, and the difference between the primary neutrino fluxes of electron and other flavors produced inside the supernova. However, recent studies indicate that the Earth matter effect for CCSN neutrinos is expected to be rather small and difficult to be observed by currently operating or planned neutrino detectors mainly because of the similarity of average energies and fluxes between electron and other flavors of neutrinos, unless the distance to CCSN is significantly smaller than the typically expected one, $\sim 10$ kpc. Here, we are looking towards the possibility if the non-standard neutrino properties such as decay of neutrinos can enhance the Earth matter effect. In this work we show that invisible neutrino decay can potentially enhance significantly the Earth matter effect for both $\nu_e$ and $\bar{\nu}_e$ channels at the same time for both mass orderings, even if the neutrino spectra between electron and other flavors of neutrinos are very similar, which is a different feature not expected for CCSN neutrinos with standard oscillation without the decay effect.**Connecting the Extremes: A Story of Supermassive Black Holes and Ultralight Dark Matter**

2109.01678 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hooman Davoudiasl, Peter B. Denton, and Julia Gehrlein.

The formation of ultra rare supermassive black holes (SMBHs), with masses of $\mathcal O(10^9\,M_\odot)$, in the first billion years of the Universe remains an open question in astrophysics. At the same time, ultralight dark matter (DM) with mass in the vicinity of $\mathcal O(10^{-20}~\text{eV})$ has been motivated by small scale DM distributions. Though this type of DM is constrained by various astrophysical considerations, certain observations could be pointing to modest evidence for it. We present a model with a confining first order phase transition at $\sim 10$ keV temperatures, facilitating production of $\mathcal O(10^9\,M_\odot)$ primordial SMBHs. Such a phase transition can also naturally lead to the implied mass for a motivated ultralight axion DM candidate, suggesting that SMBHs and ultralight DM may be two sides of the same cosmic coin. We consider constraints and avenues to discovery from superradiance and a modification to $N_{\rm eff}$. On general grounds, we also expect primordial gravitational waves -- from the assumed first order phase transition -- characterized by frequencies of $\mathcal O(10^{-12}-10^{-9}~\text{Hz})$. This frequency regime is largely uncharted, but could be accessible to pulsar timing arrays if the primordial gravitational waves are at the higher end of this frequency range, as could be the case in our assumed confining phase transition.**Low exposure long-baseline neutrino oscillation sensitivity of the DUNE experiment**

2109.01304 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by DUNE Collaboration, [and 1156 more]A. Abed Abud, B. Abi, R. Acciarri, M. A. Acero, M. R. Adames, G. Adamov, D. Adams, M. Adinolfi, A. Aduszkiewicz, J. Aguilar, Z. Ahmad, J. Ahmed, B. Aimard, B. Ali-Mohammadzadeh, T. Alion, K. Allison, S. Alonso Monsalve, M. AlRashed, C. Alt, A. Alton, P. Amedo, J. Anderson, C. Andreopoulos, M. Andreotti, M. P. Andrews, F. Andrianala, S. Andringa, N. Anfimov, A. Ankowski, M. Antoniassi, M. Antonova, A. Antoshkin, S. Antusch, A. Aranda-Fernandez, L. O. Arnold, M. A. Arroyave, J. Asaadi, L. Asquith, A. Aurisano, V. Aushev, D. Autiero, M. Ayala-Torres, F. Azfar, A. Back, H. Back, J. J. Back, C. Backhouse, I. Bagaturia, L. Bagby, N. Balashov, S. Balasubramanian, P. Baldi, B. Baller, B. Bambah, F. Barao, G. Barenboim, G. J. Barker, W. Barkhouse, C. Barnes, G. Barr, J. Barranco Monarca, A. Barros, N. Barros, J. L. Barrow, A. Basharina-Freshville, A. Bashyal, V. Basque, E. Belchior, J. B. R. Battat, F. Battisti, F. Bay, J. L. Bazo Alba, J. F. Beacom, E. Bechetoille, B. Behera, L. Bellantoni, G. Bellettini, V. Bellini, O. Beltramello, N. Benekos, C. Benitez Montiel, F. Bento Neves, J. Berger, S. Berkman, P. Bernardini, R. M. Berner, S. Bertolucci, M. Betancourt, A. Betancur Rodríguez, A. Bevan, Y. Bezawada, T. J. C. Bezerra, A. Bhardwaj, V. Bhatnagar, M. Bhattacharjee, S. Bhuller, B. Bhuyan, S. Biagi, J. Bian, M. Biassoni, K. Biery, B. Bilki, M. Bishai, A. Bitadze, A. Blake, F. D. M. Blaszczyk, G. C. Blazey, E. Blucher, J. Boissevain, S. Bolognesi, T. Bolton, L. Bomben, M. Bonesini, M. Bongrand, C. Bonilla-Diaz, F. Bonini, A. Booth, F. Boran, S. Bordoni, A. Borkum, N. Bostan, P. Bour, C. Bourgeois, D. Boyden, J. Bracinik, D. Braga, D. Brailsford, A. Branca, A. Brandt, J. Bremer, C. Brew, S. J. Brice, C. Brizzolari, C. Bromberg, J. Brooke, A. Bross, G. Brunetti, M. Brunetti, N. Buchanan, H. Budd, I. Butorov, I. Cagnoli, D. Caiulo, R. Calabrese, P. Calafiura, J. Calcutt, M. Calin, S. Calvez, E. Calvo, A. Caminata, M. Campanelli, D. Caratelli, G. Carini, B. Carlus, M. F. Carneiro, P. Carniti, I. Caro Terrazas, H. Carranza, T. Carroll, J. F. Castaño Forero, A. Castillo, C. Castromonte, E. Catano-Mur, C. Cattadori, F. Cavalier, F. Cavanna, S. Centro, G. Cerati, A. Cervelli, A. Cervera Villanueva, M. Chalifour, A. Chappell, E. Chardonnet, N. Charitonidis, A. Chatterjee, S. Chattopadhyay, H. Chen, M. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Cheon, D. Cherdack, C. Chi, S. Childress, A. Chiriacescu, G. Chisnall, K. Cho, S. Choate, D. Chokheli, P. S. Chong, A. Christensen, D. Christian, G. Christodoulou, A. Chukanov, M. Chung, E. Church, V. Cicero, P. Clarke, T. E. Coan, A. G. Cocco, J. A. B. Coelho, N. Colton, E. Conley, R. Conley, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, S. Copello, L. Cremaldi, L. Cremonesi, J. I. Crespo-Anadón, M. Crisler, E. Cristaldo, R. Cross, A. Cudd, C. Cuesta, Y. Cui, D. Cussans, O. Dalager, H. da Motta, L. Da Silva Peres, C. David, Q. David, G. S. Davies, S. Davini, J. Dawson, K. De, P. Debbins, I. De Bonis, M. P. Decowski, A. de Gouvêa, P. C. De Holanda, I. L. De Icaza Astiz, A. Deisting, P. De Jong, A. Delbart, D. Delepine, M. Delgado, A. Dell'Acqua, P. De Lurgio, J. R. T. de Mello Neto, D. M. DeMuth, S. Dennis, C. Densham, G. W. Deptuch, A. De Roeck, V. De Romeri, G. De Souza, R. Devi, R. Dharmapalan, M. Dias, F. Diaz, J. S. Díaz, S. Di Domizio, L. Di Giulio, P. Ding, L. Di Noto, C. Distefano, R. Diurba, M. Diwan, Z. Djurcic, D. Doering, S. Dolan, F. Dolek, M. J. Dolinski, L. Domine, D. Douglas, D. Douillet, G. Drake, F. Drielsma, L. Duarte, D. Duchesneau, K. Duffy, P. Dunne, H. Duyang, O. Dvornikov, D. A. Dwyer, A. S. Dyshkant, M. Eads, A. Earle, D. Edmunds, J. Eisch, L. Emberger, S. Emery, A. Ereditato, T. Erjavec, C. O. Escobar, G. Eurin, J. J. Evans, E. Ewart, A. C. Ezeribe, K. Fahey, A. Falcone, M. Fani', C. Farnese, Y. Farzan, D. Fedoseev, J. Felix, Y. Feng, E. Fernandez-Martinez, P. Fernandez Menendez, M. Fernandez Morales, F. Ferraro, L. Fields, P. Filip, F. Filthaut, A. Fiorentini, M. Fiorini, R. S. Fitzpatrick, W. Flanagan, B. Fleming, R. Flight, S. Fogarty, W. Foreman, D. V. Forero, J. Fowler, W. Fox, J. Franc, K. Francis, D. Franco, J. Freeman, J. Freestone, J. Fried, A. Friedland, F. Fuentes Robayo, S. Fuess, I. K. Furic, A. P. Furmanski, A. Gabrielli, A. Gago, H. Gallagher, A. Gallas, A. Gallego-Ros, N. Gallice, V. Galymov, E. Gamberini, T. Gamble, F. Ganacim, R. Gandhi, R. Gandrajula, F. Gao, S. Gao, D. Garcia-Gamez, M. Á. García-Peris, S. Gardiner, D. Gastler, J. Gauvreau, G. Ge, N. Geffroy, B. Gelli, A. Gendotti, S. Gent, Z. Ghorbani-Moghaddam, P. Giammaria, T. Giammaria, D. Gibin, I. Gil-Botella, S. Gilligan, C. Girerd, A. K. Giri, D. Gnani, O. Gogota, M. Gold, S. Gollapinni, K. Gollwitzer, R. A. Gomes, L. V. Gomez Bermeo, L. S. Gomez Fajardo, F. Gonnella, J. A. Gonzalez-Cuevas, D. Gonzalez-Diaz, M. Gonzalez-Lopez, M. C. Goodman, O. Goodwin, S. Goswami, C. Gotti, E. Goudzovski, C. Grace, R. Gran, E. Granados, P. Granger, A. Grant, C. Grant, D. Gratieri, P. Green, L. Greenler, J. Greer, J. Grenard, W. C. Griffith, M. Groh, J. Grudzinski, K. Grzelak, W. Gu, E. Guardincerri, V. Guarino, M. Guarise, R. Guenette, E. Guerard, M. Guerzoni, D. Guffanti, A. Guglielmi, B. Guo, V. Gupta, K. K. Guthikonda, R. Gutierrez, P. Guzowski, M. M. Guzzo, S. Gwon, C. Ha, A. Habig, H. Hadavand, R. Haenni, A. Hahn, J. Haiston, P. Hamacher-Baumann, T. Hamernik, P. Hamilton, J. Han, D. A. Harris, J. Hartnell, T. Hartnett, J. Harton, T. Hasegawa, C. Hasnip, R. Hatcher, K. W. Hatfield, A. Hatzikoutelis, C. Hayes, K. Hayrapetyan, J. Hays, E. Hazen, M. He, A. Heavey, K. M. Heeger, J. Heise, S. Henry, M. A. Hernandez Morquecho, K. Herner, V Hewes, T. Hill, S. J. Hillier, A. Himmel, E. Hinkle, L. R. Hirsch, J. Ho, J. Hoff, A. Holin, E. Hoppe, G. A. Horton-Smith, M. Hostert, A. Hourlier, B. Howard, R. Howell, I. Hristova, M. S. Hronek, J. Huang, G. Iles, N. Ilic, A. M. Iliescu, R. Illingworth, G. Ingratta, A. Ioannisian, B. Irwin, L. Isenhower, R. Itay, C. M. Jackson, V. Jain, E. James, W. Jang, B. Jargowsky, F. Jediny, D. Jena, Y. S. Jeong, C. Jesús-Valls, X. Ji, L. Jiang, S. Jiménez, A. Jipa, R. Johnson, N. Johnston, B. Jones, S. B. Jones, M. Judah, C. K. Jung, T. Junk, Y. Jwa, M. Kabirnezhad, A. Kaboth, I. Kadenko, D. Kaira, I. Kakorin, A. Kalitkina, F. Kamiya, N. Kaneshige, G. Karagiorgi, G. Karaman, A. Karcher, M. Karolak, Y. Karyotakis, S. Kasai, S. P. Kasetti, L. Kashur, N. Kazaryan, E. Kearns, P. Keener, K. J. Kelly, E. Kemp, O. Kemularia, W. Ketchum, S. H. Kettell, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, A. Khvedelidze, D. Kim, B. King, B. Kirby, M. Kirby, J. Klein, K. Koehler, L. W. Koerner, D. H. Koh, S. Kohn, P. P. Koller, L. Kolupaeva, D. Korablev, M. Kordosky, T. Kosc, U. Kose, V. A. Kostelecký, K. Kothekar, L. Kreczko, F. Krennrich, I. Kreslo, W. Kropp, Y. Kudenko, V. A. Kudryavtsev, S. Kulagin, J. Kumar, P. Kumar, P. Kunze, N. Kurita, C. Kuruppu, V. Kus, T. Kutter, J. Kvasnicka, D. Kwak, A. Lambert, B. J. Land, C. E. Lane, K. Lang, T. Langford, M. Langstaff, J. Larkin, P. Lasorak, D. Last, C. Lastoria, A. Laundrie, G. Laurenti, A. Lawrence, I. Lazanu, R. LaZur, M. Lazzaroni, T. Le, S. Leardini, J. Learned, P. LeBrun, T. LeCompte, C. Lee, S. Y. Lee, G. Lehmann Miotto, R. Lehnert, M. A. Leigui de Oliveira, M. Leitner, L. M. Lepin, S. W. Li, T. Li, Y. Li, H. Liao, C. S. Lin, Q. Lin, S. Lin, R. A. Lineros, J. Ling, A. Lister, B. R. Littlejohn, J. Liu, S. Lockwitz, T. Loew, M. Lokajicek, I. Lomidze, K. Long, T. Lord, J. M. LoSecco, W. C. Louis, X. -G. Lu, K. B. Luk, B. Lunday, X. Luo, E. Luppi, T. Lux, V. P. Luzio, D. MacFarlane, A. A. Machado, P. Machado, C. T. Macias, J. R. Macier, A. Maddalena, A. Madera, P. Madigan, S. Magill, K. Mahn, A. Maio, A. Major, J. A. Maloney, G. Mandrioli, R. C. Mandujano, J. Maneira, L. Manenti, S. Manly, A. Mann, K. Manolopoulos, M. Manrique Plata, V. N. Manyam, L. Manzanillas, M. Marchan, A. Marchionni, W. Marciano, D. Marfatia, C. Mariani, J. Maricic, R. Marie, F. Marinho, A. D. Marino, D. Marsden, M. Marshak, C. M. Marshall, J. Marshall, J. Marteau, J. Martin-Albo, N. Martinez, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, P. Martínez Miravé, S. Martynenko, V. Mascagna, K. Mason, A. Mastbaum, F. Matichard, S. Matsuno, J. Matthews, C. Mauger, N. Mauri, K. Mavrokoridis, I. Mawby, R. Mazza, A. Mazzacane, E. Mazzucato, T. McAskill, E. McCluskey, N. McConkey, K. S. McFarland, C. McGrew, A. McNab, A. Mefodiev, P. Mehta, P. Melas, O. Mena, H. Mendez, P. Mendez, D. P. Méndez, A. Menegolli, G. Meng, M. D. Messier, W. Metcalf, T. Mettler, M. Mewes, H. Meyer, T. Miao, G. Michna, T. Miedema, V. Mikola, R. Milincic, G. Miller, W. Miller, J. Mills, C. Milne, O. Mineev, A. Minotti, O. G. Miranda, S. Miryala, C. S. Mishra, S. R. Mishra, A. Mislivec, D. Mladenov, I. Mocioiu, K. Moffat, N. Moggi, R. Mohanta, T. A. Mohayai, N. Mokhov, J. Molina, L. Molina Bueno, E. Montagna, A. Montanari, C. Montanari, D. Montanari, L. M. Montano Zetina, J. Moon, S. H. Moon, M. Mooney, A. F. Moor, D. Moreno, C. Morris, C. Mossey, E. Motuk, C. A. Moura, J. Mousseau, G. Mouster, W. Mu, L. Mualem, J. Mueller, M. Muether, S. Mufson, F. Muheim, A. Muir, M. Mulhearn, D. Munford, H. Muramatsu, S. Murphy, J. Musser, J. Nachtman, S. Nagu, M. Nalbandyan, R. Nandakumar, D. Naples, S. Narita, A. Nath, A. Navrer-Agasson, N. Nayak, M. Nebot-Guinot, K. Negishi, J. K. Nelson, J. Nesbit, M. Nessi, D. Newbold, M. Newcomer, D. Newhart, H. Newton, R. Nichol, F. Nicolas-Arnaldos, E. Niner, K. Nishimura, A. Norman, A. Norrick, R. Northrop, P. Novella, J. A. Nowak, M. Oberling, J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux, A. Olivier, A. Olshevskiy, Y. Onel, Y. Onishchuk, J. Ott, L. Pagani, S. Pakvasa, G. Palacio, O. Palamara, S. Palestini, J. M. Paley, M. Pallavicini, C. Palomares, J. L. Palomino-Gallo, W. Panduro Vazquez, E. Pantic, V. Paolone, V. Papadimitriou, R. Papaleo, A. Papanestis, S. Paramesvaran, S. Parke, E. Parozzi, Z. Parsa, M. Parvu, S. Pascoli, L. Pasqualini, J. Pasternak, J. Pater, C. Patrick, L. Patrizii, R. B. Patterson, S. J. Patton, T. Patzak, A. Paudel, B. Paulos, L. Paulucci, Z. Pavlovic, G. Pawloski, D. Payne, V. Pec, S. J. M. Peeters, E. Pennacchio, A. Penzo, O. L. G. Peres, J. Perry, D. Pershey, G. Pessina, G. Petrillo, C. Petta, R. Petti, V. Pia, F. Piastra, L. Pickering, F. Pietropaolo, R. Plunkett, R. Poling, X. Pons, N. Poonthottathil, F. Poppi, S. Pordes, J. Porter, M. Potekhin, R. Potenza, B. V. K. S. Potukuchi, J. Pozimski, M. Pozzato, S. Prakash, T. Prakash, M. Prest, S. Prince, F. Psihas, D. Pugnere, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, V. Radeka, J. Rademacker, B. Radics, A. Rafique, E. Raguzin, M. Rai, M. Rajaoalisoa, I. Rakhno, A. Rakotonandrasana, L. Rakotondravohitra, Y. A. Ramachers, R. Rameika, M. A. Ramirez Delgado, B. Ramson, A. Rappoldi, G. Raselli, P. Ratoff, S. Raut, R. F. Razakamiandra, E. Rea, J. S. Real, B. Rebel, M. Reggiani-Guzzo, T. Rehak, J. Reichenbacher, S. D. Reitzner, H. Rejeb Sfar, A. Renshaw, S. Rescia, F. Resnati, A. Reynolds, M. Ribas, S. Riboldi, C. Riccio, G. Riccobene, L. C. J. Rice, J. Ricol, A. Rigamonti, Y. Rigaut, D. Rivera, A. Robert, L. Rochester, M. Roda, P. Rodrigues, M. J. Rodriguez Alonso, E. Rodriguez Bonilla, J. Rodriguez Rondon, S. Rosauro-Alcaraz, M. Rosenberg, P. Rosier, B. Roskovec, M. Rossella, M. Rossi, J. Rout, P. Roy, A. Rubbia, C. Rubbia, B. Russell, D. Ruterbories, A. Rybnikov, A. Saa-Hernandez, R. Saakyan, S. Sacerdoti, T. Safford, N. Sahu, P. Sala, N. Samios, O. Samoylov, M. C. Sanchez, V. Sandberg, D. A. Sanders, D. Sankey, S. Santana, M. Santos-Maldonado, N. Saoulidou, P. Sapienza, C. Sarasty, I. Sarcevic, G. Savage, V. Savinov, A. Scaramelli, A. Scarff, A. Scarpelli, H. Schellman, S. Schifano, P. Schlabach, D. Schmitz, K. Scholberg, A. Schukraft, E. Segreto, A. Selyunin, C. R. Senise, J. Sensenig, M. Seoane, A. Sergi, D. Sgalaberna, M. H. Shaevitz, S. Shafaq, M. Shamma, R. Sharankova, H. R. Sharma, R. Sharma, R. Kumar, T. Shaw, C. Shepherd-Themistocleous, A. Sheshukov, S. Shin, I. Shoemaker, D. Shooltz, R. Shrock, H. Siegel, L. Simard, F. Simon, J. Sinclair, G. Sinev, Jaydip Singh, J. Singh, L. Singh, V. Singh, R. Sipos, F. W. Sippach, G. Sirri, A. Sitraka, K. Siyeon, K. Skarpaas, A. Smith, E. Smith, P. Smith, J. Smolik, M. Smy, E. L. Snider, P. Snopok, D. Snowden-Ifft, M. Soares Nunes, H. Sobel, M. Soderberg, S. Sokolov, C. J. Solano Salinas, S. Söldner-Rembold, S. R. Soleti, N. Solomey, V. Solovov, W. E. Sondheim, M. Sorel, A. Sotnikov, J. Soto-Oton, A. Sousa, K. Soustruznik, F. Spagliardi, M. Spanu, J. Spitz, N. J. C. Spooner, K. Spurgeon, M. Stancari, L. Stanco, R. Stein, H. M. Steiner, A. F. Steklain Lisbôa, J. Stewart, B. Stillwell, J. Stock, F. Stocker, T. Stokes, M. Strait, T. Strauss, A. Stuart, J. G. Suarez, H. Sullivan, D. Summers, A. Surdo, V. Susic, L. Suter, C. M. Sutera, R. Svoboda, B. Szczerbinska, A. M. Szelc, H. A. Tanaka, B. Tapia Oregui, A. Tapper, S. Tariq, E. Tatar, R. Tayloe, A. M. Teklu, M. Tenti, K. Terao, C. A. Ternes, F. Terranova, G. Testera, T. Thakore, A. Thea, J. L. Thompson, C. Thorn, S. C. Timm, V. Tishchenko, L. Tomassetti, A. Tonazzo, D. Torbunov, M. Torti, M. Tortola, F. Tortorici, N. Tosi, D. Totani, M. Toups, C. Touramanis, R. Travaglini, J. Trevor, S. Trilov, W. H. Trzaska, Y. Tsai, Y. -T. Tsai, Z. Tsamalaidze, K. V. Tsang, N. Tsverava, S. Tufanli, C. Tull, E. Tyley, M. Tzanov, L. Uboldi, M. A. Uchida, J. Urheim, T. Usher, S. Uzunyan, M. R. Vagins, P. Vahle, G. A. Valdiviesso, R. Valentim, Z. Vallari, E. Vallazza, J. W. F. Valle, S. Vallecorsa, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, F. Varanini, D. Vargas, G. Varner, J. Vasel, S. Vasina, G. Vasseur, N. Vaughan, K. Vaziri, S. Ventura, A. Verdugo, S. Vergani, M. A. Vermeulen, M. Verzocchi, M. Vicenzi, H. Vieira de Souza, C. Vignoli, C. Vilela, B. Viren, T. Vrba, T. Wachala, A. V. Waldron, M. Wallbank, C. Wallis, H. Wang, J. Wang, L. Wang, M. H. L. S. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Warburton, D. Warner, M. O. Wascko, D. Waters, A. Watson, P. Weatherly, A. Weber, M. Weber, H. Wei, A. Weinstein, D. Wenman, M. Wetstein, A. White, L. H. Whitehead, D. Whittington, M. J. Wilking, C. Wilkinson, Z. Williams, F. Wilson, R. J. Wilson, W. Wisniewski, J. Wolcott, T. Wongjirad, A. Wood, K. Wood, E. Worcester, M. Worcester, C. Wret, W. Wu, W. Wu, Y. Xiao, F. Xie, E. Yandel, G. Yang, K. Yang, T. Yang, A. Yankelevich, N. Yershov, K. Yonehara, T. Young, B. Yu, H. Yu, H. Yu, J. Yu, W. Yuan, R. Zaki, J. Zalesak, L. Zambelli, B. Zamorano, A. Zani, L. Zazueta, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, K. Zeug, C. Zhang, M. Zhao, E. Zhivun, G. Zhu, E. D. Zimmerman, S. Zucchelli, J. Zuklin, V. Zutshi, and R. Zwaska [hide authors].

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will produce world-leading neutrino oscillation measurements over the lifetime of the experiment. In this work, we explore DUNE's sensitivity to observe charge-parity violation (CPV) in the neutrino sector, and to resolve the mass ordering, for exposures of up to 100 kiloton-megawatt-years (kt-MW-yr). The analysis includes detailed uncertainties on the flux prediction, the neutrino interaction model, and detector effects. We demonstrate that DUNE will be able to unambiguously resolve the neutrino mass ordering at a 3$\sigma$ (5$\sigma$) level, with a 66 (100) kt-MW-yr far detector exposure, and has the ability to make strong statements at significantly shorter exposures depending on the true value of other oscillation parameters. We also show that DUNE has the potential to make a robust measurement of CPV at a 3$\sigma$ level with a 100 kt-MW-yr exposure for the maximally CP-violating values $\delta_{\rm CP}} = \pm\pi/2$. Additionally, the dependence of DUNE's sensitivity on the exposure taken in neutrino-enhanced and antineutrino-enhanced running is discussed. An equal fraction of exposure taken in each beam mode is found to be close to optimal when considered over the entire space of interest.**Using Secondary Tau Neutrinos to Probe Heavy Dark Matter Decays in Earth**

2108.13412 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Matthew Saveliev and Jeffrey Hyde.

Dark matter particles can be gravitationally trapped by celestial bodies, motivating searches for localized annihilation or decay. If neutrinos are among the decay products, then IceCube and other neutrino observatories could detect them. We investigate this scenario for dark matter particles above $m_{\chi} \gtrsim$ PeV producing tau neutrino signals, using updated modeling of dark matter capture and thermalization. At these energies, tau neutrino regeneration is an important effect during propagation through Earth, allowing detection at distances far longer than one interaction length. We show how large energy loss of tau leptons above $\sim$ PeV drives a wide range of initial energies to the same final energy spectrum of "secondary" tau neutrinos at the detector, and we provide an analytic approximation to the numerical results. This effect enables an experiment to constrain decays that occur at very high energies, and we examine the reach of the IceCube high-energy starting event (HESE) sample in the parameter space of trapped dark matter annihilations and decays above PeV. We find that the parameter space probed by IceCube searches would require dark matter cross sections in tension with existing direct-detection bounds.**Energy-Dependent Neutrino Mixing Parameters at Oscillation Experiments**

2108.11961 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by K. S. Babu, [and 3 more]Vedran Brdar, André de Gouvêa, and Pedro A. N. Machado [hide authors].

Neutrino mixing parameters are subject to quantum corrections and hence are scale dependent. This means that the mixing parameters associated to the production and detection of neutrinos need not coincide since these processes are characterized by different energy scales. We show that, in the presence of relatively light new physics, the scale dependence of the mixing parameters can lead to observable consequences in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, such as T2K and NOvA, and in neutrino telescopes like IceCube. We discuss some of the experimental signatures of this scenario, including zero-baseline flavor transitions, new sources of CP-invariance violation, and apparent inconsistencies among measurements of mixing angles at different experiments or oscillation channels. Finally, we present simple, ultraviolet-complete models of neutrino masses which lead to observable running of the neutrino mixing matrix below the weak scale.**An Improved Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters by the NOvA Experiment**

2108.08219 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. A. Acero, [and 204 more]P. Adamson, L. Aliaga, N. Anfimov, A. Antoshkin, E. Arrieta-Diaz, L. Asquith, A. Aurisano, A. Back, C. Backhouse, M. Baird, N. Balashov, P. Baldi, B. A. Bambah, S. Bashar, K. Bays, R. Bernstein, V. Bhatnagar, D. Bhattarai, B. Bhuyan, J. Bian, J. Blair, A. C. Booth, R. Bowles, C. Bromberg, N. Buchanan, A. Butkevich, S. Calvez, T. J. Carroll, E. Catano-Mur, B. C. Choudhary, A. Christensen, T. E. Coan, M. Colo, L. Cremonesi, G. S. Davies, P. F. Derwent, P. Ding, Z. Djurcic, M. Dolce, D. Doyle, D. Dueñas Tonguino, E. C. Dukes, H. Duyang, R. Ehrlich, M. Elkins, E. Ewart, G. J. Feldman, P. Filip, J. Franc, M. J. Frank, H. R. Gallagher, R. Gandrajula, F. Gao, A. Giri, R. A. Gomes, M. C. Goodman, V. Grichine, M. Groh, R. Group, B. Guo, A. Habig, F. Hakl, A. Hall, J. Hartnell, R. Hatcher, H. Hausner, M. He, K. Heller, V. Hewes, A. Himmel, A. Holin, J. Huang, B. Jargowsky, J. Jarosz, F. Jediny, C. Johnson, M. Judah, I. Kakorin, D. M. Kaplan, A. Kalitkina, R. Keloth, O. Klimov, L. W. Koerner, L. Kolupaeva, S. Kotelnikov, R. Kralik, Ch. Kullenberg, M. Kubu, A. Kumar, C. D. Kuruppu, V. Kus, T. Lackey, K. Lang, P. Lasorak, J. Lesmeister, S. Lin, A. Lister, J. Liu, M. Lokajicek, S. Magill, M. Manrique Plata, W. A. Mann, M. L. Marshak, M. Martinez-Casales, V. Matveev, B. Mayes, D. P. Méndez, M. D. Messier, H. Meyer, T. Miao, W. H. Miller, S. R. Mishra, A. Mislivec, R. Mohanta, A. Moren, A. Morozova, W. Mu, L. Mualem, M. Muether, S. Mufson, K. Mulder, D. Naples, N. Nayak, J. K. Nelson, R. Nichol, E. Niner, A. Norman, A. Norrick, T. Nosek, H. Oh, A. Olshevskiy, T. Olson, J. Ott, J. Paley, R. B. Patterson, G. Pawloski, O. Petrova, R. Petti, D. D. Phan, R. K. Plunkett, J. C. C. Porter, A. Rafique, F. Psihas, V. Raj, M. Rajaoalisoa, B. Ramson, B. Rebel, P. Rojas, P. Roy, V. Ryabov, O. Samoylov, M. C. Sanchez, S. Sánchez Falero, P. Shanahan, A. Sheshukov, P. Singh, V. Singh, E. Smith, J. Smolik, P. Snopok, N. Solomey, A. Sousa, K. Soustruznik, M. Strait, L. Suter, A. Sutton, S. Swain, C. Sweeney, A. Sztuc, R. L. Talaga, B. Tapia Oregui, P. Tas, T. Thakore, R. B. Thayyullathil, J. Thomas, E. Tiras, J. Tripathi, J. Trokan-Tenorio, A. Tsaris, Y. Torun, J. Urheim, P. Vahle, Z. Vallari, J. Vasel, P. Vokac, T. Vrba, M. Wallbank, T. K. Warburton, M. Wetstein, D. Whittington, D. A. Wickremasinghe, S. G. Wojcicki, J. Wolcott, W. Wu, Y. Xiao, A. Yallappa Dombara, A. Yankelevich, K. Yonehara, S. Yu, Y. Yu, S. Zadorozhnyy, J. Zalesak, Y. Zhang, and R. Zwaska [hide authors].

We present new $\nu_\mu\rightarrow\nu_e$, $\nu_\mu\rightarrow\nu_\mu$, $\overline{\nu}_\mu\rightarrow\overline{\nu}_e$, and $\overline{\nu}_\mu\rightarrow\overline{\nu}_\mu$ oscillation measurements by the NOvA experiment, with a 50% increase in neutrino-mode beam exposure over the previously reported results. The additional data, combined with previously published neutrino and antineutrino data, are all analyzed using improved techniques and simulations. A joint fit to the $\nu_e$, $\nu_\mu$, $\overline{\nu}_e$, and $\overline{\nu}_\mu$ candidate samples within the 3-flavor neutrino oscillation framework continues to yield a best-fit point in the normal mass ordering and the upper octant of the $\theta_{23}$ mixing angle, with $\Delta m^{2}_{32} = (2.41\pm0.07)\times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$ and $\sin^2\theta_{23} = 0.57^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$. The data disfavor combinations of oscillation parameters that give rise to a large asymmetry in the rates of $\nu_e$ and $\overline{\nu}_e$ appearance. This includes values of the CP-violating phase in the vicinity of $\delta_\text{CP} = \pi/2$ which are excluded by $>3\sigma$ for the inverted mass ordering, and values around $\delta_\text{CP} = 3\pi/2$ in the normal ordering which are disfavored at 2$\sigma$ confidence.**Combined sensitivity of JUNO and KM3NeT/ORCA to the neutrino mass ordering**

2108.06293 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by KM3NeT Collaboration, [and 277 more]S. Aiello, A. Albert, M. Alshamsi, S. Alves Garre, Z. Aly, A. Ambrosone, F. Ameli, M. Andre, G. Androulakis, M. Anghinolfi, M. Anguita, M. Ardid, S. Ardid, J. Aublin, C. Bagatelas, B. Baret, S. Basegmez du Pree, M. Bendahman, F. Benfenati, E. Berbee, A. M. van den Berg, V. Bertin, S. Biagi, M. Boettcher, M. Bou Cabo, J. Boumaaza, M. Bouta, M. Bouwhuis, C. Bozza, H. Brânzaş, R. Bruijn, J. Brunner, R. Bruno, E. Buis, R. Buompane, J. Busto, B. Caiffi, D. Calvo, S. Campion, A. Capone, V. Carretero, P. Castaldi, S. Celli, M. Chabab, N. Chau, A. Chen, S. Cherubini, V. Chiarella, T. Chiarusi, M. Circella, R. Cocimano, J. A. B. Coelho, A. Coleiro, M. Colomer Molla, R. Coniglione, P. Coyle, A. Creusot, A. Cruz, G. Cuttone, R. Dallier, B. De Martino, I. Di Palma, A. F. Díaz, D. Diego-Tortosa, C. Distefano, A. Domi, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, M. Dörr, D. Drouhin, T. Eberl, A. Eddyamoui, T. van Eeden, D. van Eijk, I. El Bojaddaini, A. Enzenhöfer, V. Espinosa, P. Fermani, G. Ferrara, M. D. Filipovic, F. Filippini, L. A. Fusco, T. Gal, J. García Méndez, A. Garcia Soto, F. Garufi, Y. Gatelet, C. Gatius, N. Geisselbrecht, L. Gialanella, E. Giorgio, S. R. Gozzini, R. Gracia, K. Graf, G. Grella, D. Guderian, C. Guidi, B. Guillon, M. Gutiérrez, J. Haefner, S. Hallmann, H. Hamdaoui, H. van Haren, A. Heijboer, A. Hekalo, L. Hennig, J. J. Hernández-Rey, J. Hofestädt, F. Huang, W. Idrissi Ibnsalih, G. Illuminati, C. W. James, M. de Jong, P. de Jong, B. J. Jung, P. Kalaczynski, O. Kalekin, U. F. Katz, N. R. Khan Chowdhury, G. Kistauri, F. van der Knaap, P. Kooijman, A. Kouchner, V. Kulikovskiy, M. Labalme, R. Lahmann, M. Lamoureux, G. Larosa, C. Lastoria, A. Lazo, R. Le Breton, S. Le Stum, G. Lehaut, O. Leonardi, F. Leone, E. Leonora, N. Lessing, G. Levi, M. Lincetto, M. Lindsey Clark, T. Lipreau, C. Llorens Alvarez, F. Longhitano, D. Lopez-Coto, A. Lygda, L. Maderer, J. Majumdar, J. Mańczak, A. Margiotta, A. Marinelli, C. Markou, L. Martin, J. A. Martínez-Mora, A. Martini, F. Marzaioli, S. Mastroianni, K. W. Melis, G. Miele, P. Migliozzi, E. Migneco, P. Mijakowski, L. S. Miranda, C. M. Mollo, M. Moser, A. Moussa, R. Muller, M. Musumeci, L. Nauta, S. Navas, C. A. Nicolau, B. Nkosi, B. Ó Fearraigh, M. O'Sullivan, M. Organokov, A. Orlando, J. Palacios González, G. Papalashvili, R. Papaleo, A. M. Păun, G. E. Păvălaş, C. Pellegrino, M. Perrin-Terrin, V. Pestel, P. Piattelli, C. Pieterse, O. Pisanti, C. Poirè, V. Popa, T. Pradier, I. Probst, S. Pulvirenti, G. Quéméner, N. Randazzo, S. Razzaque, D. Real, S. Reck, G. Riccobene, A. Romanov, A. Rovelli, F. Salesa Greus, D. F. E. Samtleben, A. Sánchez Losa, M. Sanguineti, D. Santonocito, P. Sapienza, J. Schnabel, M. F. Schneider, J. Schumann, H. M. Schutte, J. Seneca, I. Sgura, R. Shanidze, A. Sharma, A. Sinopoulou, B. Spisso, M. Spurio, D. Stavropoulos, S. M. Stellacci, M. Taiuti, Y. Tayalati, H. Thiersen, S. Tingay, S. Tsagkli, V. Tsourapis, E. Tzamariudaki, D. Tzanetatos, V. Van Elewyck, G. Vasileiadis, F. Versari, D. Vivolo, G. de Wasseige, J. Wilms, R. Wojaczyński, E. de Wolf, T. Yousfi, S. Zavatarelli, A. Zegarelli, D. Zito, J. D. Zornoza, J. Zúñiga, N. Zywucka, JUNO Collaboration members, :, S. Ahmad, J. P. A. M. de André, E. Baussan, C. Bordereau, A. Cabrera, C. Cerna, G. Donchenko, E. A. Doroshkevich, M. Dracos, F. Druillole, C. Jollet, L. N. Kalousis, P. Kampmann, K. Kouzakov, A. Lokhov, B. K. Lubsandorzhiev, S. B. Lubsandorzhiev, A. Meregaglia, L. Miramonti, F. Perrot, L. F. Piñeres Rico, A. Popov, R. Rasheed, M. Settimo, K. Stankevich, H. Steiger, M. R. Stock, A. Studenikin, A. Triossi, W. Trzaska, M. Vialkov, B. Wonsak, J. Wurtz, and F. Yermia [hide authors].

This article presents the potential of a combined analysis of the JUNO and KM3NeT/ORCA experiments to determine the neutrino mass ordering. This combination is particularly interesting as it significantly boosts the potential of either detector, beyond simply adding their neutrino mass ordering sensitivities, by removing a degeneracy in the determination of $\Delta m_{31}^2$ between the two experiments when assuming the wrong ordering. The study is based on the latest projected performances for JUNO, and on simulation tools using a full Monte Carlo approach to the KM3NeT/ORCA response with a careful assessment of its energy systematics. From this analysis, a $5\sigma$ determination of the neutrino mass ordering is expected after 6 years of joint data taking for any value of the oscillation parameters. This sensitivity would be achieved after only 2 years of joint data taking assuming the current global best-fit values for those parameters for normal ordering.**Probing the environments surrounding ultrahigh energy cosmic ray accelerators and their implications for astrophysical neutrinos**

2108.05512 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Marco Stein Muzio, Glennys R. Farrar, and Michael Unger.

We explore inferences on ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) source environments -- constrained by the spectrum and composition of UHECRs and non-observation of extremely high energy neutrinos -- and their implications for the observed high energy astrophysical neutrino spectrum. We find acceleration mechanisms producing power-law CR spectra~$\propto E^{-2}$ are compatible with UHECR data, if CRs at high rigidities are in the quasi-ballistic diffusion regime as they escape their source environment. Both gas-dominated and photon-dominated source environments are able to account for UHECR observations, however photon-dominated sources give a better fit. Additionally, gas-dominated sources are in tension with current neutrino constraints. Accurate measurement of the neutrino flux at $\sim 10$ PeV will provide crucial information on the viability of gas-dominated sources, as well as whether diffusive shock acceleration is consistent with UHECR observations. We also show that UHECR sources are able to give a good fit to the high energy portion of the astrophysical neutrino spectrum, above $\sim$ PeV. This common origin of UHECRs and high energy astrophysical neutrinos is natural if air shower data is interpreted with the Sibyll2.3c hadronic interaction model, which gives the best-fit to UHECRs and astrophysical neutrinos in the same part of parameter space, but not for EPOS-LHC.**The potential of CMS as a high-energy neutrino scattering experiment**

2108.05370 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Patrick Foldenauer, Felix Kling, and Peter Reimitz.

With its enormous number of produced neutrinos the LHC is a prime facility to study the behaviour of high-energy neutrinos. In this paper we propose a novel search strategy for identifying neutrino scattering via displaced appearing jets in the high granularity calorimeter (HGCAL) of the CMS endcap in the high luminosity run of the LHC. We demonstrate in a cut-and-count based analysis how the enormous hadronic background can be reduced while keeping most of the neutrino signal. This paper serves as a proof-of-principle study to illustrate the feasibility of the first direct observation of high-energetic neutrinos coming from $W$ decays.**Searches for light dark matter using condensed matter systems**

2108.03239 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yonatan Kahn and Tongyan Lin.

Identifying the nature of dark matter (DM) has long been a pressing question for particle physics. In the face of ever-more-powerful exclusions and null results from large-exposure searches for TeV-scale DM interacting with nuclei, a significant amount of attention has shifted to lighter (sub-GeV) DM candidates. Direct detection of the light dark matter in our galaxy by observing DM scattering off a target system requires new approaches compared to prior searches. Lighter DM particles have less available kinetic energy, and achieving a kinematic match between DM and the target mandates the proper treatment of collective excitations in condensed matter systems, such as charged quasiparticles or phonons. In this context, the condensed matter physics of the target material is crucial, necessitating an interdisciplinary approach. In this review, we provide a self-contained introduction to direct detection of keV--GeV DM with condensed matter systems. We give a brief survey of dark matter models and basics of condensed matter, while the bulk of the review deals with the theoretical treatment of DM-nucleon and DM-electron interactions. We also review recent experimental developments in detector technology, and conclude with an outlook for the field of sub-GeV DM detection over the next decade.**First results from a search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$ν$NS) at a reactor site**

2108.02880 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. Colaresi, [and 6 more]J. I. Collar, T. W. Hossbach, A. R. L. Kavner, C. M. Lewis, A. E. Robinson, and K. M. Yocum [hide authors].

The deployment of a low-noise 3 kg p-type point contact germanium detector at the Dresden-II power reactor, 8 meters from its 2.96 GW$_{th}$ core, is described. This location provides an unprecedented (anti)neutrino flux of 8.1$\times 10^{13} ~\bar{\nu_{e}}/$cm$^{2}$s. When combined with the 0.2 keV$_{ee}$ detector threshold achieved, a first measurement of CE$\nu$NS from a reactor source appears to be within reach. We report on the characterization and abatement of backgrounds during initial runs, deriving improved limits on extensions of the Standard Model involving a light vector mediator, from preliminary data.**Searching for a Galactic component in the IceCube track-like neutrino events**

2108.01805 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gregory S. Vance, [and 3 more]Kimberly L. Emig, Cecilia Lunardini, and Rogier A. Windhorst [hide authors].

Searches for spatial associations between high-energy neutrinos observed at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory and known astronomical objects may hold the key to establishing the neutrinos' origins and the origins of hadronic cosmic rays. While extragalactic sources like the blazar TXS 0506+056 merit significant attention, Galactic sources may also represent part of the puzzle. Here, we explore whether open clusters and supernova remnants in the Milky Way contribute measurably to the IceCube track-like neutrino events above 200 TeV. By searching for positional coincidences with catalogs of known astronomical objects, we can identify and investigate neutrino events whose origins are potentially Galactic. We use Monte Carlo randomization together with models of the Galactic plane in order to determine whether these coincidences are more likely to be causal associations or random chance. In all analyses presented, the number of coincidences detected was found to be consistent with the null hypothesis of chance coincidence. Our results imply that the combined contribution of Galactic open clusters and supernova remnants to the track-like neutrino events detected at IceCube is well under 30%. This upper limit is compatible with the results presented in other Galactic neutrino studies.**Re-examination of the Time Structure of the SN1987A Neutrino Burst Data in Kamiokande-II**

2108.01783 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yuichi Oyama.

The seven seconds' gap in the Kamiokande-II SN1987A neutrino data is reexamined.**The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND) Project**

2108.00032 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kumiko Kotera.

The GRAND project aims to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, cosmic rays and gamma rays, with an array of $200,000$ radio antennas over $200,000\,{\rm km}^2$, split into $\sim 20$ sub-arrays of $\sim 10,000\,{\rm km}^2$ deployed worldwide. The strategy of GRAND is to detect air showers above $10^{17}\,$eV that are induced by the interaction of ultra-high-energy particles in the atmosphere or in the Earth crust, through its associated coherent radio-emission in the $50-200\,$MHz range. In its final configuration, GRAND plans to reach a neutrino-sensitivity of $\sim 10^{-10}\,{\rm GeV}\,{\rm cm}^{-2}\,{\rm s}^{-1}\,{\rm sr}^{-1}$ above $5\times 10^{17}\,$eV combined with a sub-degree angular resolution. GRANDProto300, the 300-antenna pathfinder array, is planned to start data-taking in 2021. It aims at demonstrating autonomous radio detection of inclined air-showers, and study cosmic rays around the transition between Galactic and extra-Galactic sources. We present preliminary designs and simulation results, plans for the ongoing, staged approach to construction, and the rich research program made possible by the proposed sensitivity and angular resolution.**Search for neutrino non-standard interactions with ANTARES and KM3NeT-ORCA**

2107.14296 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. J. Hernández Rey, [and 4 more]N. R. Khan Chowdhury, J. Manczak, S. Navas, and J. D. Zornoza [hide authors].

Non-standard interactions (NSIs) in the propagation of neutrinos in matter can lead to significant deviations in neutrino oscillations expected within the standard 3-neutrino framework. These additional interactions would result in an anomalous flux of neutrinos observable at neutrino telescopes. The ANTARES detector and its next-generation successor, KM3NeT, located in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea, have the potential to measure sub-dominant effects in neutrino oscillations, coming from non-standard neutrino interactions. In this contribution, a likelihood-based search for NSIs with 10 years of atmospheric muon-neutrino data recorded with ANTARES is reported and sensitivity projections for KM3NeT/ORCA, based on realistic detector simulations, are shown. The bounds obtained with ANTARES in the NSI $\mu - \tau$ sector constitute the most stringent limits up to date.**Recent Progress in Solar Atmospheric Neutrino Searches with IceCube**

2107.13696 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joshua Villarreal, Gerrit Roellinghoff, and Jeffrey Lazar.

Cosmic-rays interacting with nucleons in the solar atmosphere produce a cascade of particles that give rise to a flux of high-energy neutrinos and gamma-rays. Fermi has observed this gamma-ray flux; however, the associated neutrino flux has escaped observation. In this contribution, we put forward two strategies to detect these neutrinos, which, if seen, would push forward our understanding of the solar atmosphere and provide a new testing ground of neutrino properties. First, we will extend the previous analysis, which used high-energy through-going muon events collected in the years of maximum solar activity and yielded only flux upper limits, to include data taken during the solar minimum from 2018 to 2020. Extending the analysis to the solar minimum is important as the gamma-ray data collected during past solar cycles indicates a possible enhancement in the high-energy neutrino flux. Second, we will incorporate sub-TeV events and include contributions from all neutrino flavors. These will improve our analysis sensitivity since the solar atmospheric spectrum is soft and, due to oscillation, contains significant contributions of all neutrino flavors. As we will present in this contribution, these complementary strategies yield a significant improvement in sensitivity, making substantial progress towards observing this flux.**Probing Secret Interactions of Astrophysical Neutrinos in the High-Statistics Era**

2107.13568 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Esteban, [and 3 more]Sujata Pandey, Vedran Brdar, and John F. Beacom [hide authors].

Do neutrinos have sizable self-interactions? They might. Laboratory constraints are weak, so strong effects are possible in astrophysical environments and the early universe. Observations with neutrino telescopes can provide an independent probe of neutrino self ("secret") interactions, as the sources are distant and the cosmic neutrino background intervenes. We define a roadmap for making decisive progress on testing secret neutrino interactions governed by a light mediator. This progress will be enabled by IceCube-Gen2 observations of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. Critical to this is our comprehensive treatment of the theory, taking into account previously neglected or overly approximated effects, as well as including realistic detection physics. We show that IceCube-Gen2 can realize the full potential of neutrino astronomy for testing neutrino self-interactions, being sensitive to cosmologically relevant interaction models. To facilitate forthcoming studies, we release nuSIProp, a code that can also be used to study neutrino self-interactions from a variety of sources.**JUNO's prospects for determining the neutrino mass ordering**

2107.12410 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by David V. Forero, [and 3 more]Stephen J. Parke, Christoph A. Ternes, and Renata Zukanovich Funchal [hide authors].

The flagship measurement of the JUNO experiment is the determination of the neutrino mass ordering. Here we revisit its prospects to make this determination by 2030, using the current global knowledge of the relevant neutrino parameters as well as current information on the reactor configuration and the critical parameters of the JUNO detector. We pay particular attention to the non-linear detector energy response. Using the measurement of $\theta_{13}$ from Daya Bay, but without information from other experiments, we estimate the probability of JUNO determining the neutrino mass ordering at $\ge$ 3$\sigma$ to be 31% by 2030. As this probability is particularly sensitive to the true values of the oscillation parameters, especially $\Delta m^2_{21}$, JUNO's improved measurements of $\sin^2 \theta_{12}$, $\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $|\Delta m^2_{ee}|$, obtained after a couple of years of operation, will allow an updated estimate of the probability that JUNO alone can determine the neutrino mass ordering by the end of the decade. Combining JUNO's measurement of $|\Delta m^2_{ee}|$ with other experiments in a global fit will most likely lead to an earlier determination of the mass ordering.**Symmetry Finder applied to the 1-3 mass eigenstate exchange symmetry**

2107.12086 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

In a previous paper, Symmetry Finder (SF) method is proposed to find the reparametrization symmetry of the state-exchange type in neutrino oscillation in matter. It has been applied successfully to the 1-2 state exchange symmetry in the DMP perturbation theory, yielding the eight symmetries. In this paper, we apply the SF method to the atmospheric-resonance perturbation theory to uncover the 1-3 state relabeling symmetries. The pure 1-3 state symmetry takes the unique position that it is practically impossible to formulate in vacuum under the conventional choice of the flavor mixing matrix. In contrast, our SF method produces the sixteen 1-3 state exchange symmetries in matter. The relationship between the symmetries in the original (vacuum plus matter) Hamiltonian and the ones in the diagonalized system is discussed.**Ultralight bosons for strong gravity applications from simple Standard Model extensions**

2107.09493 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Felipe F. Freitas, [and 7 more]Carlos A. R. Herdeiro, António P. Morais, António Onofre, Roman Pasechnik, Eugen Radu, Nicolas Sanchis-Gual, and Rui Santos [hide authors].

We construct families, and concrete examples, of simple extensions of the Standard Model that can yield ultralight {real or} complex vectors or scalars with potential astrophysical relevance. Specifically, the mass range for these putative fundamental bosons ($\sim 10^{-10}-10^{-20}$ eV) would lead dynamically to both new non-black hole compact objects (bosonic stars) and new non-Kerr black holes, with masses of $\sim M_\odot$ to $\sim 10^{10} M_\odot$, corresponding to the mass range of astrophysical black hole candidates (from stellar mass to supermassive). For each model, we study the properties of the mass spectrum and interactions after spontaneous symmetry breaking, discuss its theoretical viability and caveats, as well as some of its potential and most relevant phenomenological implications {linking them to the} physics of compact objects.**Searching for High-Energy Neutrinos from Core-Collapse Supernovae with IceCube**

2107.09317 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jannis Necker.

IceCube is a cubic kilometer neutrino detector array in the Antarctic ice that was designed to search for astrophysical, high-energy neutrinos. It has detected a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos that appears to be of extragalactic origin. A possible contribution to this diffuse flux could stem from core-collapse supernovae. The high-energy neutrinos could either come from the interaction of the ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium or a jet, emanating from the star's core, that stalls in the star's envelope. Here, we will present results of a stacking analysis to search for this high-energy neutrino emission from core-collapse supernovae using 7 years of $\nu_\mu$ track events from IceCube.**The Future of Solar Neutrinos**

2107.08613 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by G. D. Orebi Gann, [and 3 more]K. Zuber, D. Bemmerer, and A. Serenelli [hide authors].

In this article we review the current state of the field of solar neutrinos, including flavour oscillations, non-standard effects, solar models, cross section measurements, and the broad experimental program thus motivated and enabled. We discuss the historical discoveries that contributed to current knowledge, and define critical open questions to be addressed in the next decade. We discuss the state of the art of standard solar models, including uncertainties and problems related to the solar composition, and review experimental and model solar neutrino fluxes, including future prospects. We review the state of the art of the nuclear reaction data relevant for solar fusion in the proton-proton chain and carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle. Finally, we review the current and future experimental program that can address outstanding questions in this field.**Updated physics performance of the ESSnuSB experiment**

2107.07585 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Alekou, [and 50 more]E. Baussan, N. Blaskovic Kraljevic, M. Blennow, M. Bogomilov, E. Bouquerel, A. Burgman, C. J. Carlile, J. Cederkall, P. Christiansen, M. Collins, E. Cristaldo Morales, L. D'Alessi, H. Danared, J. P. A. M. de André, J. P. Delahaye, M. Dracos, I. Efthymiopoulos, T. Ekelöf, M. Eshraqi, G. Fanourakis, E. Fernandez-Martinez, B. Folsom, M. Ghosh, G. Gokbulut, L. Halić, A. Kayis Topaksu, B. Kliček, K. Krhač, M. Lindroos, M. Mezzetto, M. Oglakci, T. Ohlsson, M. Olvegård, T. Ota, J. Park, G. Petkov, P. Poussot, S. Rosauro-Alcaraz, G. Stavropoulos, M. Stipčević, F. Terranova, J. Thomas, T. Tolba, R. Tsenov, G. Vankova-Kirilova, N. Vassilopoulos, E. Wildner, J. Wurtz, O. Zormpa, and Y. Zou [hide authors].

In this paper, we present the physics performance of the ESSnuSB experiment in the standard three flavor scenario using the updated neutrino flux calculated specifically for the ESSnuSB configuration and updated migration matrices for the far detector. Taking conservative systematic uncertainties corresponding to a normalization error of $5\%$ for signal and $10\%$ for background, we find that there is $10\sigma$ $(13\sigma)$ CP violation discovery sensitivity for the baseline option of 540 km (360 km) at $\delta_{\rm CP} = \pm 90^\circ$. The corresponding fraction of $\delta_{\rm CP}$ for which CP violation can be discovered at more than $5 \sigma$ is $70\%$. Regarding CP precision measurements, the $1\sigma$ error associated with $\delta_{\rm CP} = 0^\circ$ is around $5^\circ$ and with $\delta_{\rm CP} = -90^\circ$ is around $14^\circ$ $(7^\circ)$ for the baseline option of 540 km (360 km). For hierarchy sensitivity, one can have $3\sigma$ sensitivity for 540 km baseline except $\delta_{\rm CP} = \pm 90^\circ$ and $5\sigma$ sensitivity for 360 km baseline for all values of $\delta_{\rm CP}$. The octant of $\theta_{23}$ can be determined at $3 \sigma$ for the values of: $\theta_{23} > 51^\circ$ ($\theta_{23} < 42^\circ$ and $\theta_{23} > 49^\circ$) for baseline of 540 km (360 km). Regarding measurement precision of the atmospheric mixing parameters, the allowed values at $3 \sigma$ are: $40^\circ < \theta_{23} < 52^\circ$ ($42^\circ < \theta_{23} < 51.5^\circ$) and $2.485 \times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2 < \Delta m^2_{31} < 2.545 \times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$ ($2.49 \times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2 < \Delta m^2_{31} < 2.54 \times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$) for the baseline of 540 km (360 km).**Multimessenger Analysis Strategy for Core-Collapse Supernova Search: Gravitational Waves and Low-energy Neutrinos**

2107.02050 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Odysse Halim, [and 6 more]Claudio Casentini, Marco Drago, Viviana Fafone, Kate Scholberg, Carlo Francesco Vigorito, and Giulia Pagliaroli [hide authors].

Core-collapse supernovae are fascinating astrophysical objects for multimessenger studies. Gravitational waves (GWs) are expected to play a role in the supernova explosion mechanism, but their modelling is also challenging due to the stochastic nature of the dynamics and the vast possible progenitors, and moreover, the GW detection from these objects is still elusive with the already advanced detectors. Low-energy neutrinos will be emitted enormously during the core-collapse explosion and can help for the gravitational wave counterpart search. In this work we develop a multi-messenger strategy to search for such astrophysical objects by exploiting a global network of both low-energy neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. First, we discuss how to improve the detection potential of the neutrino sub-network by exploiting the temporal behaviour of a neutrino burst from a core-collapse supernova. We show that with the proposed approach neutrino detectors can gain at least $10\%$ of detection efficiency at the distance where their efficiency drops. Then, we combine the information provided by GW and neutrino in a multimessenger strategy. In particular, we obtain an increase of the probability to detect the GW signal from a CCSN at $60$ kpc from zero when using only GW analysis to $\sim 33\%$ with our combined GW-$\nu$ approach. Keywords: multimessenger, supernova, core-collapse, low-energy neutrino, gravitational wave.**Sensitivity to light sterile neutrino mixing parameters with KM3NeT/ORCA**

2107.00344 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Aiello, [and 247 more]A. Albert, M. Alshamsi, S. Alves Garre, Z. Aly, A. Ambrosone, F. Ameli, M. Andre, G. Androulakis, M. Anghinolfi, M. Anguita, G. Anton, M. Ardid, S. Ardid, J. Aublin, C. Bagatelas, B. Baret, S. Basegmez du Pree, M. Bendahman, F. Benfenati, E. Berbee, A. M. van den Berg, V. Bertin, S. Biagi, M. Bissinger, M. Boettcher, M. Bou Cabo, J. Boumaaza, M. Bouta, M. Bouwhuis, C. Bozza, H. Brânzaş, F. Bretaudeau, R. Bruijn, J. Brunner, R. Bruno, E. Buis, R. Buompane, J. Busto, B. Caiffi, D. Calvo, S. Campion, A. Capone, V. Carretero, P. Castaldi, S. Celli, M. Chabab, N. Chau, A. Chen, S. Cherubini, V. Chiarella, T. Chiarusi, M. Circella, R. Cocimano, J. A. B. Coelho, A. Coleiro, M. Colomer Mollac, R. Coniglione, P. Coyle, A. Creusot, A. Cruz, G. Cuttone, R. Dallier, B. De Martino, M. De Palma, I. Di Palma, A. F. Díaz, D. Diego-Tortosan, C. Distefano, A. Domi, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, M. Dorr, D. Drouhin, T. Eberl, A. Eddyamoui, T. van Eeden, D. van Eijk, I. El Bojaddaini, D. Elsaesser, A. Enzenhofer, V. Espinosa, P. Fermani, G. Ferrara, M. D. Filipovic, F. Filippini, L. A. Fusco, T. Gal, J. Garcıa Mendez, A. Garcia Soto, F. Garufi, Y. Gatelet, N. Geisselbrecht, L. Gialanella, E. Giorgio, S. R. Gozzini, R. Gracia, K. Graf, G. Grella, D. Guderian, C. Guid, M. Gutierrez, J. Haefner, S. Hallmann, H. Hamdaoui, H. van Haren, A. Heijboer, A. Hekalo, L. Hennig, J. J. Hernandez-Rey, J. Hofestadt, F. Huang, W. Idrissi Ibnsalih, G. Illuminati, C. W. James, M. de Jong, P. de Jong, B. J. Jung, M. Kadler, P. Kalaczynski, O. Kalekin, U. F. Katz, N. R. Khan Chowdhury, G. Kistauri, F. van der Knaap, P. Kooijman, A. Kouchner, V. Kulikovskiy, R. Lahmann, M. Lamoureux, G. Lara, G. Larosa, C. Lastoria, R. Le Breton, S. Le Stum, O. Leonardi, F. Leone, E. Leonora, N. Lessing, G. Levi, M. Lincetto, M. Lindsey Clark, T. Lipreau, F. Longhitano, D. Lopez-Coto, A. Lygda, L. Maderer, J. Mańczak, K. Mannheim, A. Margiotta, A. Marinelli, C. Markou, L. Martin, J. A. Martínez-Mora, A. Martini, F. Marzaioli, S. Mastroianni, K. W. Melis, G. Miele, P. Migliozzi, E. Migneco, P. Mijakowski, L. S. Miranda, C. M. Mollo, M. Moser, A. Moussa, R. Muller, M. Musumeci, L. Nauta, S. Navas, C. A. Nicolau, B. Nkosi, B. Ó Fearraigh, M. O'Sullivan, M. Organokov, A. Orlando, J. Palacios González, G. Papalashvili, R. Papaleo, C. Pastore, A. M. Păun, G. E. Păv ălaş, C. Pellegrino, S. Peña Martínez, M. Perrin-Terrin, V. Pestel, P. Piattelli, C. Pieterse, O. Pisanti, C. Poirè, V. Pontoriere, V. Popa, T. Pradier, I. Probst, G. Pühlhofer, S. Pulvirenti, N. Randazzo, S. Razzaque, D. Real, S. Reck, G. Riccobene, A. Romanov, A. Rovelli, F. Salesa Greus, D. F. E. Samtleben, A. Sánchez Losa, M. Sanguineti, A. Santangelo, D. Santonocito, P. Sapienza, J. Schnabel, M. F. Schneider, J. Schumann, H. M. Schutte, J. Seneca, I. Sgura, R. Shanidze, A. Sharma, A. Sinopoulou, B. Spisso, M. Spurio, D. Stavropoulos, S. M. Stellacci, M. Taiuti, F. Tatone, Y. Tayalati, T. Thakore, H. Thiersen, S. Tingay, S. Tsagkli, V. Tsourapis, E. Tzamariudaki, D. Tzanetatos, V. Van Elewyck, G. Vasileiadis, F. Versari, D. Vivolo, G. de Wasseige, J. Wilms, R. Wojaczyński, E. de Wolf, T. Yousfi, S. Zavatarelli, A. Zegarelli, D. Zito, J. D. Zornoza, J. Zúñiga, and N. Zywucka [hide authors].

KM3NeT/ORCA is a next-generation neutrino telescope optimised for atmospheric neutrino oscillations studies. In this paper, the sensitivity of ORCA to the presence of a light sterile neutrino in a 3+1 model is presented. After three years of data taking, ORCA will be able to probe the active-sterile mixing angles $\theta_{14}$, $\theta_{24}$, $\theta_{34}$ and the effective angle $\theta_{\mu e}$, over a broad range of mass squared difference $\Delta m^2_{41} \sim [10^{-5}, 10]$ $\rm{eV}^2$, allowing to test the eV-mass sterile neutrino hypothesis as the origin of short baseline anomalies, as well as probing the hypothesis of a very light sterile neutrino, not yet constrained by cosmology. ORCA will be able to explore a relevant fraction of the parameter space not yet reached by present measurements.**Model-independent test of T violation in neutrino oscillations**

2106.16099 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Schwetz and Alejandro Segarra.

We propose a method to establish time reversal symmetry violation at future neutrino oscillation experiments in a largely model-independent way. We introduce a general parametrization of flavour transition probabilities which holds under weak assumptions and covers a large class of new-physics scenarios. This can be used to search for the presence of T-odd components in the transition probabilities by comparing data at different baselines but at the same neutrino energies. We show that this test can be performed already with experiments at three different baselines and might be feasible with experiments under preparation/consideration.**Exploring SMEFT Induced Non-Standard Interactions from COHERENT to Neutrino Oscillations**

2106.15800 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yong Du, [and 4 more]Hao-Lin Li, Jian Tang, Sampsa Vihonen, and Jiang-Hao Yu [hide authors].

We investigate the prospects of next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments DUNE, T2HK and JUNO including TAO within Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT). We also re-interpret COHERENT data in this framework. Considering both charged and neutral current neutrino Non-Standard Interactions (NSIs), we analyse dimension-6 SMEFT operators and derive lower bounds to UV scale $\Lambda$. The most powerful probe is obtained on ${\cal O}_{{ledq}_{1211}}$ with $\Lambda \gtrsim$ 450 TeV due to the electron neutrino sample in T2HK near detector. We find DUNE and JUNO to be complementary to T2HK in exploring different subsets of SMEFT operators at about 25 TeV. We conclude that near detectors play a significant role in each experiment. We also find COHERENT with CsI and LAr targets to be sensitive to new physics up to $\sim$900 GeV.**Testing non-standard neutrino interactions in (anti)-electron neutrino disappearance experiments**

2106.15725 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mariano Chaves, Orlando Luis Goulart Peres, and Pedro Cunha de Holanda.

We search for scalar and tensor non-standard interactions using (anti)-electron neutrino disappearance in oscillation data. We found a slight preference for non-zero CP violation, coming from both tensor and scalar interactions. The preference for CP violation is lead by Daya Bay low-energy data with a significance that reaches $\sim1.7\sigma$ in the global analysis (and $\sim2.1\sigma$ when considering only medium baseline reactors data) compared to the standard neutrino oscillation scenario.**On the most constraining cosmological neutrino mass bounds**

2106.15267 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eleonora Di Valentino, Stefano Gariazzo, and Olga Mena.

We present here up-to-date neutrino mass limits exploiting the most recent cosmological data sets. By making use of the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature fluctuation and polarization measurements, Supernovae Ia luminosity distances, Baryon Acoustic Oscillation observations and determinations of the growth rate parameter, we are able to set the most constraining bound to date, $\sum m_\nu<0.09$ eV at $95\%$~CL. This very tight limit is obtained without the assumption of any prior on the value of the Hubble constant and highly compromises the viability of the inverted mass ordering as the underlying neutrino mass pattern in nature. The results obtained here further strengthen the case for very large multitracer spectroscopic surveys as unique laboratories for cosmological relics, such as neutrinos: that would be the case of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey and of the Euclid mission.**Resonance refraction and neutrino oscillations**

2106.13829 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alexei Y. Smirnov and Victor B. Valera.

The refraction index and matter potential depend on neutrino energy and this dependence has a resonance character associated to the production of the mediator in the $s-$channel. For light mediators and light particles of medium (background) the resonance can be realized at energies accessible to laboratory experiments. We study properties of the energy dependence of the potential for different C-asymmetries of background. Interplay of the background potential and the vacuum term leads to (i) bump in the oscillation probability in the resonance region, (ii) dip related to the MSW resonance in the background, (iii) substantial deviation of the effective $\Delta m^2$ above the resonance from the low energy value, etc. We considered generation of mixing in the background. Interactions with background shifts the energy of usual MSW resonance and produces new MSW resonances. Searches of the background effects allow us to put bounds on new interactions of neutrinos and properties of the background. We show that explanation of the MiniBooNE excess, as the bump due to resonance refraction, is excluded.**Parameter symmetries of neutrino oscillations in vacuum, matter, and approximation schemes**

2106.12436 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Stephen J. Parke.

Expressions for neutrino oscillations contain a high degree of symmetry, but typical forms for the oscillation probabilities mask these symmetries of the oscillation parameters. We elucidate the $2^7$ parameter symmetries of the vacuum parameters and draw connections to the choice of definitions of the parameters as well as interesting degeneracies. We also show that in the presence of matter an \emph{additional} set of $2^7$ parameter symmetries exist of the matter parameters. Due to the complexity of the exact expressions for neutrino oscillations in matter, numerous approximations have been developed; we show that under certain assumptions, approximate expressions have at most $2^6$ additional parameter symmetries of the matter parameters. We also include one parameter symmetry related to the LMA-Dark degeneracy that holds under the assumption of CPT invariance; this adds one additional factor of two to all of the above cases. Explicit, non-trivial examples are given of how physical observables in neutrino oscillations, such as the probabilities, CP violation, the position of the solar and atmospheric resonance, and the effective $\Delta m^2$'s for disappearance probabilities, are invariant under all of the above symmetries. We investigate which of these parameter symmetries apply to numerous approximate expressions in the literature and show that a more careful consideration of symmetries improves the precision of approximations.**Symmetry Finder: A method for hunting symmetry in neutrino oscillation**

2106.11472 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

Symmetry in neutrino oscillation serves for a better understanding of the physical properties of the phenomenon. We present a systematic way of finding symmetry in neutrino oscillation, which we call Symmetry Finder (SF). By extending the known framework in vacuum into a matter environment, we derive the SF equation, a powerful machinery for identifying symmetry in the system. After learning lessons on symmetry in the Zaglauer-Schwarzer system with a matter equivalent of the vacuum symmetry, we apply the SF method to the Denton et al. (DMP) perturbation theory to first order. We show that the method is so powerful that we uncover the eight reparametrization symmetries with the $1 \leftrightarrow 2$ state exchange in DMP, denoted as IA, IB, $\cdot \cdot \cdot$, IVB, all new except for IA. The transformations consist of the both fundamental and dynamical variables, indicating their equal importance. It is also shown that all the symmetries discussed in this paper can be understood as the Hamiltonian symmetries, which ensures their all-order validity and applicability to varying density matter.**A deuterated liquid scintillator for supernova neutrino detection**

2106.10927 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Bhavesh Chauhan, Basudeb Dasgupta, and Vivek Datar.

For the next galactic supernova, operational neutrino telescopes will measure the neutrino flux several hours before their optical counterparts. Existing detectors, relying mostly on charged current interactions, are mostly sensitive to $\bar{\nu}_e$ and to a lesser extent to $\nu_e$. In order to measure the flux of other flavors ($\nu_{\mu},\bar{\nu}_{\mu},\nu_{\tau},\text{and}~\bar{\nu}_{\tau}$), we need to observe their neutral current interactions with the detector. Such a measurement is not only crucial for overall normalization of the supernova neutrino flux but also for understanding the intricate neutrino oscillation physics. A deuterium based detector will be sensitive to all neutrino flavors. In this paper, we propose a 1 kton deuterated liquid scintillator (DLS) based detector that will see about 435 neutral current events and 170 (108) charged current $\nu_e$ ($\bar{\nu}_e$) events from a fiducial supernova at a distance of 10 kpc from Earth. We explore the possibility of extracting spectral information from the neutral current channel $\overset{\scriptscriptstyle(-)}{\nu} d \rightarrow \overset{\scriptscriptstyle(-)}{\nu}np$ by measuring the quenched kinetic energy of the proton in the final state, where the neutron in the final state is tagged and used to reduce backgrounds. We also discuss the secondary interactions of the recoil neutrons in the detector.**Neutrino As The Dark Force**

2106.08339 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nicholas Orlofsky and Yue Zhang.

We point out a novel role for the Standard Model neutrino in dark matter phenomenology where the exchange of neutrinos generates a long-range potential between dark matter particles. The resulting dark matter self interaction could be sufficiently strong to impact small-scale structure formation, without the need of any dark force carrier. This is a generic feature of theories where dark matter couples to the visible sector through the neutrino portal. It is highly testable with improved decay rate measurements at future $Z$, Higgs, and $\tau$ factories, as well as precision cosmology.**All-flavor constraints on nonstandard neutrino interactions and generalized matter potential with three years of IceCube DeepCore data**

2106.07755 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 373 more]R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, R. An, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, S. Browne, A. Burgman, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, C. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, A. R. Fazely, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, M. Gündüz, C. Günther, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, T. McElroy, F. McNally, K. Meagher, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyên, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, M. Pittermann, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, and Z. Zhang [hide authors].

We report constraints on nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI) from the observation of atmospheric neutrinos with IceCube, limiting all individual coupling strengths from a single dataset. Furthermore, IceCube is the first experiment to constrain flavor-violating and nonuniversal couplings simultaneously. Hypothetical NSI are generically expected to arise due to the exchange of a new heavy mediator particle. Neutrinos propagating in matter scatter off fermions in the forward direction with negligible momentum transfer. Hence the study of the matter effect on neutrinos propagating in the Earth is sensitive to NSI independently of the energy scale of new physics. We present constraints on NSI obtained with an all-flavor event sample of atmospheric neutrinos based on three years of IceCube DeepCore data. The analysis uses neutrinos arriving from all directions, with reconstructed energies between 5.6 GeV and 100 GeV. We report constraints on the individual NSI coupling strengths considered singly, allowing for complex phases in the case of flavor-violating couplings. This demonstrates that IceCube is sensitive to the full NSI flavor structure at a level competitive with limits from the global analysis of all other experiments. In addition, we investigate a generalized matter potential, whose overall scale and flavor structure are also constrained.**Aspects of gravitational decoherence in neutrino lensing**

2106.07671 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Himanshu Swami, Kinjalk Lochan, and Ketan M. Patel.

We study decoherence effects in neutrino flavour oscillations in curved spacetime with particular emphasis on the lensing in a Schwarzschild geometry. Assuming Gaussian wave packets for neutrinos, we argue that the decoherence length derived from the exponential suppression of the flavour transition amplitude depends on the proper time of the geodesic connecting the events of the production and detection in general gravitational setting. In the weak gravity limit, the proper time between two events of given proper distance is smaller than that in the flat spacetime. Therefore, in presence of a Schwarzschild object, the neutrino wave packets have to travel relatively more physical distance in space to lapse the same amount of proper time before they decoher. For non-radial propagation applicable to the lensing phenomena, we show that the decoherence, in general, is sensitive to the absolute values of neutrino masses as well as the classical trajectories taken by neutrinos between the source and detector along with the spatial widths of neutrino wave packets. At distances beyond the decoherence length, the probability of neutrino flavour transition due to lensing attains a value which depends only on the leptonic mixing parameters. Hence, the observability of neutrino lensing significantly depends on these parameters and in-turn the lensing can provide useful information about them.**Sterile Neutrinos**

2106.05913 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Basudeb Dasgupta and Joachim Kopp.

Neutrinos, being the only fermions in the Standard Model of Particle Physics that do not possess electromagnetic or color charges, have the unique opportunity to communicate with fermions outside the Standard Model through mass mixing. Such Standard Model-singlet fermions are generally referred to as "sterile neutrinos''. In this review article, we discuss the theoretical and experimental motivation for sterile neutrinos, as well as their phenomenological consequences. With the benefit of hindsight in 2020, we point out potentially viable and interesting ideas. We focus in particular on sterile neutrinos that are light enough to participate in neutrino oscillations, but we also comment on the benefits of introducing heavier sterile states. We discuss the phenomenology of eV-scale sterile neutrinos in terrestrial experiments and in cosmology, we survey the global data, and we highlight various intriguing anomalies. We also expose the severe tension that exists between different data sets and prevents a consistent interpretation of the global data in at least the simplest sterile neutrino models. We discuss non-minimal scenarios that may alleviate some of this tension. We briefly review the status of keV-scale sterile neutrinos as dark matter and the possibility of explaining the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe through leptogenesis driven by yet heavier sterile neutrinos.**Impact of Improved Energy Resolution on DUNE sensitivity to Neutrino Non-Standard Interactions**

2106.04597 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sabya Sachi Chatterjee, P. S. Bhupal Dev, and Pedro A. N. Machado.

The full physics potential of the next-generation Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is still being explored. In particular, there have been some recent studies on the possibility of improving DUNE's neutrino energy reconstruction. The main motivation is that a better determination of the neutrino energy in an event-by-event basis will translate into an improved measurement of the Dirac $CP$ phase and other neutrino oscillation parameters. To further motivate studies and improvements on the neutrino energy reconstruction, we evaluate the impact of energy resolution at DUNE on an illustrative new physics scenario, viz. non-standard interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter. We show that a better energy resolution in comparison to the ones given in the DUNE conceptual and technical design reports may significantly enhance the experimental sensitivity to NSI, particularly when degeneracies are present. While a better reconstruction of the first oscillation peak helps disentangling standard $CP$ effects from those coming from NSIs, we find that the second oscillation peak also plays a nontrivial role in improving DUNE's sensitivity.**Closing the Neutrino "BSM Gap": Physics Potential of Atmospheric Through-Going Muons at DUNE**

2106.01508 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Austin Schneider, [and 3 more]Barbara Skrzypek, Carlos A. Argüelles, and Janet M. Conrad [hide authors].

Many Beyond-Standard Model physics signatures are enhanced in high-energy neutrino interactions. To explore these signatures, ultra-large Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube exploit event samples with charged current muon neutrino interactions > 1 TeV. Most of these interactions occur below the detector volume, and produce muons that enter the detector. However, the large spacing between detectors leads to inefficiency for measuring muons with energies below or near the critical energy of 400 GeV. In response, IceCube has built a densely instrumented region within the larger detector. This provides large samples of well-reconstructed interactions that are contained within the densely instrumented region, extending up to energies of ~50 GeV. This leaves a gap of relatively unexplored atmospheric-neutrino events with energies between 50 GeV and 1 TeV in the ultra-large detectors. In this paper we point out that interesting Beyond Standard Model signatures may appear in this energy window, and that early running of the DUNE far detectors can give insight into new physics that may appear in this range.**New sources of leptonic CP violation at the DUNE neutrino experiment**

2106.00030 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Giarnetti and D. Meloni.

We check the capability of the DUNE neutrino experiment to detect new sources of leptonic CP violation beside the single phase expected in the Standard Model. We illustrate our strategy based on the measurement of CP asymmetries in the case New Physics will show up as Non-Standard neutrino Interactions and sterile neutrino states and show that the most promising one, once the experimental errors are taken into account in both scenarios, is the one related to the $\nu_\mu \to \nu_e$ transition.**Neutrino Oscillations at JUNO, the Born Rule, and Sorkin's Triple Path Interference**

2105.14061 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Patrick Huber, [and 4 more]Hisakazu Minakata, Djordje Minic, Rebekah Pestes, and Tatsu Takeuchi [hide authors].

We argue that neutrino oscillations at JUNO offer a unique opportunity to study Sorkin's triple-path interference, which is predicted to be zero in canonical quantum mechanics by virtue of the Born rule. In particular, we compute the expected bounds on triple-path interference at JUNO and demonstrate that they are comparable to those already available from electromagnetic probes. Furthermore, the neutrino probe of the Born rule is much more direct due to an intrinsic independence from any boundary conditions, whereas such dependence on boundary conditions is always present in the case of electromagnetic probes. Thus, neutrino oscillations present an ideal probe of this aspect of the foundations of quantum mechanics.**The framework for a common origin of $δ_{\rm CKM}$ and $δ_{\rm PMNS}$**

2105.14054 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by João M. Alves, [and 4 more]Francisco J. Botella, Gustavo C. Branco, Fernando Cornet-Gomez, and Miguel Nebot [hide authors].

We analyse a possible connection between CP violations in the quark and lepton sectors, parametrised by the CKM and PMNS phases. If one assumes that CP breaking arises from complex Yukawa couplings, both in the quark and lepton sectors, the above connection is not possible in general, since Yukawa couplings in the two sectors have independent flavour structures. We show that both the CKM and PMNS phases can instead be generated by a vacuum phase in a class of two Higgs doublet models, and in this case a connection may be established. This scenario requires the presence of scalar FCNC at tree level, both in the quark and lepton sectors. The appearance of these FCNC is an obstacle and a blessing. An obstacle since one has to analyse which models are able to conform to the strict experimental limits on FCNC, both in the quark and lepton sectors. A blessing, because this class of models is falsifiable since FCNC arise at a level which can be probed experimentally in the near future, specially in the processes $h\to e^\pm\tau^\mp$ and $t\to h c$. The connection between CP violations in CKM and PMNS is explicitely illustrated in models with Minimal Flavour Violation.**First Dark Matter Search Results From Coherent CAPTAIN-Mills**

2105.14020 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo, [and 49 more]S. Biedron, J. Boissevain, M. Borrego, M. Chavez-Estrada, A. Chavez, J. M. Conrad, R. L. Cooper, A. Diaz, J. R. Distel, J. D'Olivo, E. Dunton, B. Dutta, A. Elliott, D. Evans, D. Fields, J. Greenwood, M. Gold, J. Gordon, E. D. Guarincerri, E. C. Huang, N. Kamp, C. Kelsey, K. Knickerbocker, R. Lake, W. C. Louis, R. Mahapatra, S. Maludze, J. Mirabal, R. Moreno, H. Neog, P. deNiverville, V. Pandey, J. Plata-Salas, D. Poulson, H. Ray, E. Renner, T. J. Schaub, M. H. Shaevitz, D. Smith, W. Sondheim, A. M. Szelc, C. Taylor, W. H. Thompson, M. Tripathi, R. T. Thornton, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, S. Verma, and K. Walker [hide authors].

This paper describes the operation of the Coherent CAPTAIN-Mills (CCM) detector located at the Lujan Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). CCM is a 10-ton liquid argon (LAr) detector located 20 meters from a high flux neutron/neutrino source and is designed to search for sterile neutrinos ($\nu_s$) and light dark matter (LDM). An engineering run was performed in Fall 2019 to study the characteristics of the CCM120 detector by searching for coherent scattering signals consistent with $\nu_s$'s and LDM resulting from $\pi^+$ and $\pi^0$ decays in the tungsten target. New parameter space in a leptophobic dark matter model was excluded for DM masses between $\sim2.0$ and 30 MeV. The lessons learned from this run have guided the development and construction of the new CCM200 detector that will begin operations in 2021 and significantly improve on these searches.**Hot spots in the neutrino flux created by cosmic rays from Cygnus and Vela?**

2105.13378 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Bouyahiaoui, M. Kachelriess, and D. V. Semikoz.

An analysis of 7.5 years of data in the high-energy starting event sample has been recently published by the IceCube collaboration. The hottest spot in a search for neutrino sources was found far above the Galactic plane and is thus, at first sight, difficult to reconcile with a Galactic origin. In this work, we calculate the cosmic ray (CR) density around nearby, young supernova remnants assuming anisotropic diffusion. Combining the obtained CR densities with the matter distribution deduced from extinction maps, we find two prominent hot spots: The one close to the most significant point in the IceCube search for point sources is created by CRs from the Cygnus loop and has an intensity corresponding to two to four neutrino events. Another, more extended one may be caused by CRs from Vela if CR trajectories are sufficiently disturbed by the magnetic field in the shell around the superbubble Loop I.**SN1987A still shining: A Quest for Pseudo-Dirac Neutrinos**

2105.12736 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Martinez-Soler, Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez, and Manibrata Sen.

Ever since the discovery of neutrinos, we have wondered if neutrinos are their own antiparticles. One remarkable possibility is that neutrinos have a pseudo-Dirac nature, predicting a tiny mass difference between active and sterile states. We analyze the neutrino data from SN1987A in the light of active-sterile oscillations and find a mild preference ($\Delta\chi^2\approx 3$) for $\delta m^2=6.31\times 10^{-20}{\rm eV}^2$. Notably, the same data is able to exclude $\delta m^2\sim[2.55,3.01]\times 10^{-20}{\rm eV}^2$ with $\Delta\chi^2> 9$, the tiniest mass differences constrained so far. We further consider the next-generation of experiments and demonstrate their sensitivity exploring the nature of the neutrino mass.**Probing the Particle Spectrum of Nature with Evaporating Black Holes**

2105.10506 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Michael J. Baker and Andrea Thamm.

Photons radiated from an evaporating black hole in principle provide complete information on the particle spectrum of nature up to the Planck scale. If an evaporating black hole were to be observed, it would open a unique window onto models beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. To demonstrate this, we compute the limits that could be placed on the size of a dark sector. We find that observation of an evaporating black hole at a distance of 0.01 parsecs could probe dark sector models containing one or more copies of the Standard Model particles, with any mass scale up to 100 TeV.**Constraining active-sterile neutrino transition magnetic moments at DUNE near and far detectors**

2105.09699 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Schwetz, Albert Zhou, and Jing-Yu Zhu.

We consider the sensitivity of the DUNE experiment to a heavy neutral lepton, HNL (also known as sterile neutrino) in the mass range from a few MeV to a few GeV, interacting with the Standard Model via a transition magnetic moment to the active neutrinos, the so-called dipole portal. The HNL is produced via the upscattering of active neutrinos, and the subsequent decay inside the detector provides a single-photon signal. We show that the tau-neutrino dipole portal can be efficiently probed at the DUNE far detector, using the tau-neutrino flux generated by neutrino oscillations, while the near detector provides better sensitivity to the electron- and muon-neutrino dipole portal. DUNE will be able to explore large regions of currently unconstrained parameter space and has comparable sensitivity to other planned dedicated experiments, such as SHiP. We also comment briefly on the sensitivity to pure HNL mixing with the tau neutrino at the DUNE far detector.**Heavy Neutrino searches through Double-Bang Events at Super-Kamiokande, DUNE, and Hyper-Kamiokande**

2105.09357 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mack Atkinson, [and 4 more]Pilar Coloma, Ivan Martinez-Soler, Noemi Rocco, and Ian M. Shoemaker [hide authors].

A variety of new physics scenarios allow for neutrinos to up-scatter into a heavy neutral lepton state. For a range of couplings and neutrino energies, the heavy neutrino may travel some distance before decaying to visible final states. When both the up-scattering and decay occur within the detector volume, these "double bang" events produce distinctive phenomenology with very low background. In this work, we first consider the current sensitivity at Super-Kamiokande via the atmospheric neutrino flux, and find current data may already provide new constraints. We then examine projected future sensitivity at DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, including both atmospheric and beam flux contributions to double-bang signals.**New Interference Effects from Light Gauge Bosons in Neutrino-Electron Scattering**

2105.09309 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. S. Bhupal Dev, [and 3 more]Doojin Kim, Kuver Sinha, and Yongchao Zhang [hide authors].

We point out that light gauge boson mediators could induce new interference effects in neutrino-electron scattering that can be used to enhance the sensitivity of neutrino-flavor-selective high-intensity neutrino experiments, such as DUNE. We particularly emphasize a destructive interference effect, leading to a deficit between the Standard Model expectation and the experimental measurement of the differential cross-sections, which is prominent only in either the neutrino or the antineutrino mode, depending on the mediator couplings. Therefore, the individual neutrino (or antineutrino) mode could allow for sensitivity reaches superior to the combined analysis, and moreover, could distinguish between different types of gauge boson mediators.**Violation of Equivalence Principle in Neutrino Sector: Probing the Extended Parameter Space**

2105.08744 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Arman Esmaili.

The oscillation of neutrino flavors, due to its interferometry nature, is extremely sensitive to the phase differences developing during the propagation of neutrinos. In this paper we investigate the effect of the Violation of Equivalence Principle (VEP) on the flavor oscillation probabilities of atmospheric and cosmic neutrinos observed at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. Assuming a general parameterization of VEP, dubbed extended parameter space, we show that the synergy between the collected data of high energy atmospheric and cosmic neutrinos severely constrains the VEP parameters. Also, the projected sensitivity of IceCube-Gen2 to VEP parameters is discussed.**First direct neutrino-mass measurement with sub-eV sensitivity**

2105.08533 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Aker, [and 127 more]A. Beglarian, J. Behrens, A. Berlev, U. Besserer, B. Bieringer, F. Block, B. Bornschein, L. Bornschein, M. Böttcher, T. Brunst, T. S. Caldwell, R. M. D. Carney, L. La Cascio, S. Chilingaryan, W. Choi, K. Debowski, M. Deffert, M. Descher, D. Díaz Barrero, P. J. Doe, O. Dragoun, G. Drexlin, K. Eitel, E. Ellinger, R. Engel, S. Enomoto, A. Felden, J. A. Formaggio, F. M. Fränkle, G. B. Franklin, F. Friedel, A. Fulst, K. Gauda, W. Gil, F. Glück, R. Grössle, R. Gumbsheimer, V. Gupta, T. Höhn, V. Hannen, N. Haußmann, K. Helbing, S. Hickford, R. Hiller, D. Hillesheimer, D. Hinz, T. Houdy, A. Huber, A. Jansen, C. Karl, F. Kellerer, J. Kellerer, M. Klein, C. Köhler, L. Köllenberger, A. Kopmann, M. Korzeczek, A. Kovalík, B. Krasch, H. Krause, N. Kunka, T. Lasserre, T. L. Le, O. Lebeda, B. Lehnert, A. Lokhov, M. Machatschek, E. Malcherek, M. Mark, A. Marsteller, E. L. Martin, C. Melzer, A. Menshikov, S. Mertens, J. Mostafa, K. Müller, S. Niemes, P. Oelpmann, D. S. Parno, A. W. P. Poon, J. M. L. Poyato, F. Priester, M. Röllig, C. Röttele, R. G. H. Robertson, W. Rodejohann, C. Rodenbeck, M. Ryšavý, R. Sack, A. Saenz, P. Schäfer, A. Schaller, L. Schimpf, K. Schlösser, M. Schlösser, L. Schlüter, S. Schneidewind, M. Schrank, B. Schulz, A. Schwemmer, M. Šefčík, V. Sibille, D. Siegmann, M. Slezák, M. Steidl, M. Sturm, M. Sun, D. Tcherniakhovski, H. H. Telle, L. A. Thorne, T. Thümmler, N. Titov, I. Tkachev, K. Urban, K. Valerius, D. Vénos, A. P. Vizcaya Hernández, C. Weinheimer, S. Welte, J. Wendel, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wolf, S. Wüstling, W. Xu, Y. -R. Yen, S. Zadoroghny, and G. Zeller [hide authors].

We report the results of the second measurement campaign of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment. KATRIN probes the effective electron anti-neutrino mass, $m_{\nu}$, via a high-precision measurement of the tritium $\beta$-decay spectrum close to its endpoint at $18.6\,\mathrm{keV}$. In the second physics run presented here, the source activity was increased by a factor of 3.8 and the background was reduced by $25\,\%$ with respect to the first campaign. A sensitivity on $m_{\nu}$ of $0.7\,\mathrm{eV/c^2}$ at $90\,\%$ confidence level (CL) was reached. This is the first sub-eV sensitivity from a direct neutrino-mass experiment. The best fit to the spectral data yields $m_{\nu}^2 = (0.26\pm0.34)\,\mathrm{eV^4/c^4}$, resulting in an upper limit of $m_{\nu}<0.9\,\mathrm{eV/c^2}$ ($90\,\%$ CL). By combining this result with the first neutrino mass campaign, we find an upper limit of $m_{\nu}<0.8\,\mathrm{eV/c^2}$ ($90\,\%$ CL).**Cosmological radiation density with non-standard neutrino-electron interactions**

2105.08168 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pablo F. de Salas, [and 4 more]Stefano Gariazzo, Pablo Martínez-Miravé, Sergio Pastor, and Mariam Tórtola [hide authors].

Neutrino non-standard interactions (NSI) with electrons are known to alter the picture of neutrino decoupling from the cosmic plasma. NSI modify both flavour oscillations through matter effects, and the annihilation and scattering between neutrinos and electrons and positrons in the thermal plasma. In view of the forthcoming cosmological observations, we perform a precision study of the impact of non-universal and flavour-changing NSI on the effective number of neutrinos, $N_{eff}$. We present the variation of $N_{eff}$ arising from the different NSI parameters and discuss the existing degeneracies among them, from cosmology alone and in relation to the current bounds from terrestrial experiments. Even though cosmology is generally less sensitive to NSI than these experiments, we find that future cosmological data would provide competitive and complementary constraints for some of the couplings and their combinations.**Neutrinos as a probe of the Universe**

2105.07502 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Luis A. Anchordoqui and Thomas J. Weiler.

A brief essay on how studying neutrinos can help us to better understand the Universe.**Z-Boson Decays into Majorana or Dirac (Heavy) Neutrinos**

2105.06576 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alain Blondel, André de Gouvêa, and Boris Kayser.

We computed the kinematics of Z-boson decay into a heavy-light neutrino pair when the Z-boson is produced at rest in electron-positron collisions, including the subsequent decay of the heavy neutrino into a visible final state containing a charged-lepton. We concentrated on heavy-neutrino masses of order dozens of GeV and the issue of addressing the nature of the neutrinos - Dirac fermions or Majorana fermions. We find that while it is not possible to tell the nature of the heavy and light neutrinos on an event-by-event basis, the nature of the neutrinos can nonetheless be inferred given a large-enough sample of heavy-light neutrino pairs. We identify two observables sensitive to the nature of neutrinos. One is the forward-backward asymmetry of the daughter-charged-leptons. This asymmetry is exactly zero if the neutrinos are Majorana fermions and is non-zero (and opposite) for positively- and negatively-charged daughter-leptons if the neutrinos are Dirac fermions. The other observable is the polarization of the heavy neutrino, imprinted in the laboratory-frame energy distribution of the daughter-charged-leptons. Dirac neutrinos and antineutrinos produced in electron-positron collisions at the Z-pole are strongly polarized while Majorana neutrinos are at most as polarized as the $Z$-bosons.**Global constraints on neutral-current generalized neutrino interactions**

2105.06484 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by F. J. Escrihuela, [and 3 more]L. J. Flores, O. G. Miranda, and Javier Rendón [hide authors].

We study generalized neutrino interactions (GNI) for several neutrino processes, including neutrinos from electron-positron collisions, neutrino-electron scattering, and neutrino deep inelastic scattering. We constrain scalar, pseudoscalar, and tensor new physics effective couplings, based on the standard model effective field theory at low energies. We have performed a global analysis for the different effective couplings. We also present the different individual constraints for each effective parameter (scalar, pseudoscalar, and tensor). Being a global analysis, we show robust results for the restrictions on the different GNI parameters and improve some of these bounds.**Searching for new physics through neutrino non-standard interactions**

2105.06191 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yong Du.

Due to the absence of any definite signals of new physics at colliders and from precision measurements, it has gradually become more and more popular in the community to utilize the effective field theory (EFT) framework in searching for new physics in a model-independent manner. In this letter, working in the EFT framework and focusing on neutrino non-standard interactions (NSIs), we report our most recent results on these NSIs from considering terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments Daya Bay, Double Chooz, RENO, T2K and NO$\nu$A, and precision measurements of $N_{\rm eff}$ from Planck and CMB-S4.**How to Assess the Carbon Footprint of a Large-Scale Physics Project**

2105.04610 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Clarisse Aujoux, Odile Blanchard, and Kumiko Kotera.

Large-scale experiments are building blocks of the physics community: they involve a large fraction of the scientific staff working in multiple countries, and absorb a significant volume of the science budget. They are also a collection of carbon-emitting sources and practices. As such, it is essential to assess their environmental impact. We describe here a methodology to estimate the main greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a large-scale astrophysics collaboration project, using transparent open data. The goal is neither to consider all possible emission sources of a project, nor to calculate accurate values. It is rather to identify the biggest emission sources of the project, obtain orders of magnitude for them and analyse their relative weights. We discuss methods to quantify the GHG-generating activities and their related emission factors for the three typical biggest emission sources that can be controlled by the collaboration: travel, digital and hardware.**On the Tau flavor of the cosmic neutrino flux**

2105.03272 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yasaman Farzan.

Observation of high energy cosmic neutrinos by ICECUBE has ushered in a new era in exploring both cosmos and new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). In the standard picture, although mostly $\nu_\mu$ and $\nu_e$ are produced in the source, oscillation will produce $\nu_\tau$ {\it en route}. Certain beyond SM scenarios, like interaction with ultralight DM can alter this picture. Thus, the flavor composition of the cosmic neutrino flux can open up the possibility of exploring certain beyond the SM scenarios that are inaccessible otherwise. We show that the $\tau$ flavor holds a special place among the neutrino flavors in elucidating new physics. Interpreting the two anomalous events observed by ANITA as $\nu_\tau$ events makes the tau flavor even more intriguing. We study how the detection of the two tau events by ICECUBE constrains the interaction of the neutrinos with ultralight dark matter and discuss the implications of this interaction for even higher energy cosmic neutrinos detectable by future radio telescopes such as ARA, ARIANNA and GRAND. We also revisit the $3+1$ neutrino scheme as a solution to the two anomalous ANITA events and clarify a misconception that exists in the literature about the evolution of high energy neutrinos in matter within the $3+1$ scheme with a possibility of scattering off nuclei. We show that the existing bounds on the flux of $\nu_\tau$ with energy of EeV rules out this solution for the ANITA events. We show that the $3+1$ solution can be saved from both this bound and from the bound on the extra relativistic degrees of freedom in the early universe by turning on the interaction of neutrinos with ultralight dark matter.**Dirac CP phases in a 3+1 neutrino scenario with $μ-τ$ symmetry**

2105.01205 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eduardo Becerra-García and Abdel Pérez-Lorenzana.

A sterile neutrino in the $3+1$ scheme, where the sterile accounts for neutrino anomalies not explained solely by the weak active neutrinos, arises as a natural source for the breaking of the $\mu-\tau$ symmetry suggested by oscillation neutrino data. We explore the predictions for the Dirac CP phases in this scenario, with and without sterile neutrino decay, and show that current limits on $\delta_{CP}$ suggest a normal hierarchy and a lightest neutrino scale below 0.1~eV as the most plausible explanation for that, when Majorana phases are null. Other Dirac phases turn out to be non zero as well.**High-energy cosmic neutrinos as a probe of the vector mediator scenario in light of the muon $g-2$ anomaly and Hubble tension**

2104.15136 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jose Alonso Carpio, [and 3 more]Kohta Murase, Ian M. Shoemaker, and Zahra Tabrizi [hide authors].

In light of the recent Muon $g-2$ experiment data from Fermilab, we investigate the implications of a gauged $L_{\mu} - L_{\tau}$ model for high energy neutrino telescopes. It has been suggested that a new gauge boson at the MeV scale can both account for the Muon $g-2$ data and alleviate the tension in the Hubble parameter measurements. It also strikes signals at IceCube from the predicted resonance scattering between high-energy neutrinos and the cosmic neutrino background. We revisit this model based on the latest IceCube shower data, and perform a four-parameter fit to find a preferred region. While the data are consistent with the absence of resonant signatures from secret interactions, we find the preferred region consistent with the muon $g-2$ anomaly and Hubble tension. We demonstrate that future neutrino telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2 can probe this unique parameter space, and point out that successful measurements would infer the neutrino mass with $0.05~{\rm eV}\lesssim \Sigma m_\nu\lesssim 0.3~{\rm eV}$.**Passive low-energy nuclear recoil detection with color centers**

2104.13926 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Bernadette K. Cogswell, Apurva Goel, and Patrick Huber.

Crystal damage events such as tracks and point defects have been used to record and detect radiation for a long time and recently they have been proposed as a means for dark matter detection. Color centers can be read out optically and we propose a scheme based on selective plane illumination microscopy for sub-micron imaging of large volumes corresponding to kilogram mass detectors. This class of detectors would be passive and would operate at room temperature. We apply these concepts to the detection of reactor neutrinos using coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CEvNS). Crystal damage formation energies are intrinsically on the order of 25eV, resulting in similarly low nuclear recoil thresholds. This would enable the first observation of reactor neutrino CEvNS with detectors as small as 10g. Additionally, a competitive search for spin-dependent dark matter scattering down to a dark matter mass of 0.3GeV could be possible. Passive crystal detectors might also be attractive for nuclear non-proliferation safeguards if used to monitor reactor power and to put limits on plutonium production. The passive nature and small footprint of the proposed detectors implies that these might fit well within accepted reactor safeguards operations.**CNNs for enhanced background discrimination in DSNB searches in large-scale water-Gd detectors**

2104.13426 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by David Maksimović, Michael Nieslony, and Michael Wurm.

Gadolinium-loading of large water Cherenkov detectors is a prime method for the detection of the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background (DSNB). While the enhanced neutron tagging capability greatly reduces single-event backgrounds, correlated events mimicking the IBD coincidence signature remain a potentially harmful background. Neutral-Current (NC) interactions of atmospheric neutrinos potentially dominate the DSNB signal especially in the low-energy range of the observation window that reaches from about 12 to 30 MeV. The present paper investigates a novel method for the discrimination of this background. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) offer the possibility for a direct analysis and classification of the PMT hit patterns of the prompt events. Based on the events generated in a simplified SuperKamiokande-like detector setup, we find that a trained CNN can maintain a signal efficiency of 96 % while reducing the residual NC background to 2 % of the original rate. Comparing to recent predictions of the DSNB signal and measurements of the NC background levels in Super-Kamiokande, the corresponding signal-to-background ratio is about 4:1, providing excellent conditions for a DSNB discovery.**The Smallest Neutrino Mass Revisited**

2104.09050 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shun Zhou.

As is well known, the smallest neutrino mass turns out to be vanishing in the minimal seesaw model, since the effective neutrino mass matrix $M^{}_\nu$ is of rank two due to the fact that only two heavy right-handed neutrinos are introduced. In this paper, we point out that the one-loop matching condition for the effective dimension-five neutrino mass operator can make an important contribution to the smallest neutrino mass. By using the available one-loop matching condition and two-loop renormalization group equations in the supersymmetric version of the minimal seesaw model, we explicitly calculate the smallest neutrino mass in the case of normal neutrino mass ordering and find $m^{}_1 \in [10^{-10}, 10^{-8}]~{\rm eV}$ at the Fermi scale $\Lambda^{}_{\rm F} = 91.2~{\rm GeV}$, where the range of $m^{}_1$ results from the uncertainties on the choice of the seesaw scale $\Lambda^{}_{\rm SS}$ and on the input values of relevant parameters at $\Lambda^{}_{\rm SS}$.**Combined analysis of neutrino decoherence at reactor experiments**

2104.05806 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, Valentina De Romeri, and Christoph A. Ternes.

Reactor experiments are well suited to probe the possible loss of coherence of neutrino oscillations due to wave-packets separation. We combine data from the short-baseline experiments Daya Bay and the Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation (RENO) and from the long baseline reactor experiment KamLAND to obtain the best current limit on the reactor antineutrino wave-packet width, $\sigma > 2.1 \times 10^{-4}$ nm at 90% CL. We also find that the determination of standard oscillation parameters is robust, i.e., it is mostly insensitive to the presence of hypothetical decoherence effects once one combines the results of the different reactor neutrino experiments.**Extragalactic magnetic field constraints from ultra-high-energy cosmic rays from local galaxies**

2104.05732 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Arjen van Vliet, [and 3 more]Andrea Palladino, Andrew Taylor, and Walter Winter [hide authors].

We interpret the correlation between local star-forming galaxy positions and ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) directions, recently detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO), in terms of physical parameters: the local density of sources and the magnetic fields governing the UHECR propagation. We include a Galactic magnetic field model on top of a random extragalactic magnetic field description to determine the level of UHECR deflections expected from an ensemble of source positions. Besides deflections in magnetic fields, we also take into account energy losses with background photon fields as well as spectrum and composition measurements by the PAO. We find consistency between the PAO anisotropy measurement and the local star-forming galaxy density for large extragalactic magnetic field strengths with $B > 0.2 \ \rm nG$ (for a coherence length of $1 \ \rm Mpc$) at the $5\sigma$ confidence level. Larger source densities lead to more isotropic background and consequently allow for weaker extragalactic magnetic fields. However, the acceleration of UHECR by such abundant sources is more challenging to motivate. Too large source densities and extragalactic magnetic field strengths, on the other hand, are also disfavored as that decreases the expected level of anisotropy. This leads to upper limits of $B < 22 \ \rm nG$ and $\rho_0 < 8.4 \cdot 10^{-2} \ \rm Mpc^{-3}$ at the 90\% confidence level.**Three-Body Decays of Heavy Dirac and Majorana Fermions**

2104.05719 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, [and 3 more]Patrick J. Fox, Boris J. Kayser, and Kevin J. Kelly [hide authors].

Nonzero neutrino masses imply the existence of degrees of freedom and interactions beyond those in the Standard Model. A powerful indicator of what these might be is the nature of the massive neutrinos: Dirac fermions versus Majorana fermions. While addressing the nature of neutrinos is often associated with searches for lepton-number violation, there are several other features that distinguish Majorana from Dirac fermions. Here, we compute in great detail the kinematics of the daughters of the decays into charged-leptons and neutrinos of hypothetical heavy neutral leptons at rest. We allow for the decay to be mediated by the most general four-fermion interaction Lagrangian. We demonstrate, for example, that when the daughter charged-leptons have the same flavor or the detector is insensitive to their charges, polarized Majorana-fermion decays have zero forward/backward asymmetry in the direction of the outgoing neutrino (relative to the parent spin), whereas Dirac-fermion decays can have large asymmetries. Going beyond studying forward/backward asymmetries, we also explore the fully-differential width of the three-body decays. It contains a wealth of information not only about the nature of the new fermions but also the nature of the interactions behind their decays.**Probing non-unitary neutrino mixing via long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments based at J-PARC**

2104.04315 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C Soumya.

This paper investigates the capability of long-baseline experiments, which are making use of neutrinos that are coming from Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), in establishing the unitarity of active-neutrino mixing by ruling out the non-unitary mixing scheme as a function of true values of CP-violating phase $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$. It is found that T2HK can establish unitarity of active neutrino mixing at above 2$\sigma$ C.L. irrespective of neutrino mass hierarchy and true value of $\delta_{CP}$, if non-unitary (NU) parameter $\alpha_{21}$ is of the order of $10^{-2}$. Further, this paper is also discuss the bound on NU parameter in 21 sector and sensitivity limit of these experiments in determining NU parameter. It is found that the bounds on $\left(\alpha_{21}/2\right)$ are 0.028, 0.0026, 0.005 at 2$\sigma$ C.L. respectively for T2K, T2HK, and T2HKK. Moreover, it is also found that the sensitivity limit of T2HK on NU parameter is far better than that of both T2HKK and T2K.**Coherent neutrino scattering and the Migdal effect on the quenching factor**

2104.01811 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jiajun Liao, Hongkai Liu, and Danny Marfatia.

Recent measurements of the germanium quenching factor deviate significantly from the predictions of the standard Lindhard model for nuclear recoil energies below a keV. This departure may be explained by the Migdal effect in neutron scattering on germanium. We show that the Migdal effect on the quenching factor can mimic the signal of a light Z' or light scalar mediator in coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering experiments with reactor antineutrinos. It is imperative that the quenching factor of nuclei with low recoil energy thresholds be precisely measured close to threshold to avoid such confusion. This will also help in experimental searches of light dark matter.**CP-Violating and Charged Current Neutrino Non-standard Interactions in CE$ν$NS**

2104.00425 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Amir N. Khan, Douglas W. McKay, and Werner Rodejohann.

Neutrino non-standard interactions (NSI) can be constrained using coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering. We discuss here two aspects in this respect, namely the effects of (i) charged current NSI in neutrino production and (ii) CP-violating phases associated with neutral current NSI in neutrino detection. Effects of CP-phases require the simultaneous presence of two different flavor-changing neutral current NSI parameters. Applying these two scenarios to the COHERENT measurement, we derive limits on charged current NSI and find that more data is required to compete with the existing limits. Regarding CP-phases, we show how the limits on the NSI parameters depend dramatically on the values of the phases. Accidentally, the same parameters influencing coherent scattering also show up in neutrino oscillation experiments. We find that COHERENT provides complementary constraints on the set of NSI parameters that can explain the discrepancy in the best-fit value of the standard CP-phase obtained by T2K and NO$\nu$A, while the significance with which the LMA-Dark solution is ruled out can be weakened by the presence of additional NSI parameters introduced here.**Sterile neutrinos with non-standard interactions in $β$- and $0νββ$-decay experiments**

2104.00140 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Wouter Dekens, Jordy de Vries, and Tom Tong.

Charged currents are probed in low-energy precision $\beta$-decay experiments and at high-energy colliders, both of which aim to measure or constrain signals of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics. In light of future $\beta$-decay and LHC measurements that will further explore these non-standard interactions, we investigate what neutrinoless double-$\beta$ decay ($0\nu\beta\beta$) experiments can tell us if a nonzero signal were to be found. Using a recently developed effective-field-theory framework, we consider the effects that interactions with right-handed neutrinos have on $0\nu\beta\beta$ and discuss the range of neutrino masses that current and future $0\nu\beta\beta$ measurements can probe, assuming neutrinos are Majorana particles. For non-standard interactions at the level suggested by recently observed hints in $\beta$ decays, we show that next-generation $0\nu\beta\beta$ experiments can determine the Dirac or Majorana nature of neutrinos, for sterile neutrino masses larger than $\mathcal O(10)$ eV.**Boosted dark matter from diffuse supernova neutrinos**

2104.00027 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anirban Das and Manibrata Sen.

The XENON collaboration recently reported an excess of electron recoil events in the low energy region with a significance of around $3.3\sigma$. An explanation of this excess in terms of thermal dark matter seems challenging. We propose a scenario where dark matter in the Milky Way halo gets boosted as a result of scattering with the diffuse supernova neutrino background. This interaction can accelerate the dark-matter to semi-relativistic velocities, and this flux, in turn, can scatter with the electrons in the detector, thereby providing a much better fit to the data. We identify regions in the parameter space of dark-matter mass and interaction cross-section which satisfy the excess. Furthermore, considering the data only hypothesis, we also impose bounds on the dark-matter scattering cross-section, which are competitive with bounds from other experiments.**Future searches for light sterile neutrinos at nuclear reactors**

2104.00005 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jeffrey M. Berryman, Luis A. Delgadillo, and Patrick Huber.

We study the optimization of a green-field, two-baseline reactor experiment with respect to the sensitivity for electron antineutrino disappearance in search of a light sterile neutrino. We consider both commercial and research reactors and identify as key factors the distance of closest approach and detector energy resolution. We find that a total of 5 tons of detectors deployed at a commercial reactor with a closest approach of 25 m can probe the mixing angle $\sin^22\theta$ down to $\sim5\times10^{-3}$ around $\Delta m^2\sim 1$ eV$^2$. The same detector mass deployed at a research reactor can be sensitive up to $\Delta m^2\sim20-30$ eV$^2$ assuming a closest approach of 3 m and excellent energy resolution, such as that projected for the Taishan Antineutrino Observatory. We also find that lithium doping of the reactor could be effective in increasing the sensitivity for higher $\Delta m^2$ values.**Neutrino signals of lightcone fluctuations resulting from fluctuating space-time**

2103.15313 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Stuttard.

One of the most common expectations of a quantum theory of gravity is that space-time is uncertain or fluctuating at microscopic scales, making it a stochastic medium for particle propagation. Particles traversing this space-time may experience fluctuations in travel times or velocities, together referred to as lightcone fluctuations, with even very small effects potentially accumulating into observable signals over large distances. In this work we present a heuristic model of lightcone fluctuations and study the resulting modifications to neutrino propagation, including neutrino decoherence and arrival time spread. We show the expected scale of such effects due to `natural' Planck scale physics and consider how they may be observed in neutrino detectors, and compare the potential of neutrinos to $\gamma$-ray astronomy. Using simulations of neutrino mass states propagating in a fluctuating environment, we determine an analytic decoherence operator in the framework of open quantum systems to quantitatively evaluate neutrino decoherence resulting from lightcone fluctuations, allowing experimental constraints on neutrino decoherence to be connected to Planck scale fluctuations in space-time and $\gamma$-ray results.**Evolution of Neutrino Mass-Mixing Parameters in Matter with Non-Standard Interactions**

2103.13431 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, [and 3 more]Sudipta Das, Mehedi Masud, and Pragyanprasu Swain [hide authors].

We explore the role of matter effect in the evolution of neutrino oscillation parameters in the presence of lepton-flavor-conserving and lepton-flavor-violating neutral-current non-standard interactions (NSI) of the neutrino. We derive simple approximate analytical expressions showing the evolution/running of mass-mixing parameters in matter with energy in the presence of standard interactions (SI) and SI+NSI (considering both positive and negative values of real NSI parameters). We observe that only the NSI parameters in the (2,3) block, namely $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$ and $(\gamma - \beta) \equiv (\varepsilon_{\tau\tau} - \varepsilon_{\mu\mu})$ affect the running of $\theta_{23}$. Though all the NSI parameters influence the evolution of $\theta_{13}$, $\varepsilon_{e\mu}$ and $\varepsilon_{e\tau}$ show a stronger impact at the energies relevant for DUNE. $\theta_{12}$ quickly approaches to $\sim$ $90^{\circ}$ with increasing energy in both SI and SI+NSI cases. The change in $\Delta m^2_{21,m}$ is quite significant as compared to $\Delta m^2_{31,m}$ both in SI and SI+NSI frameworks. Flipping the signs of the NSI parameters alters the way in which mass-mixing parameters run with energy. We demonstrate the utility of our approach in addressing several important features related to neutrino oscillation such as: a) unraveling interesting degeneracies between $\theta_{23}$ and NSI parameters, b) estimating the resonance energy in presence of NSI when $\theta_{13}$ in matter becomes maximal, c) figuring out the required baselines and energies to have maximal matter effect in $\nu_{\mu}$ $\rightarrow$ $\nu_{e}$ transition in the presence of different NSI parameters, and d) studying the impact of NSI parameters $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$ and $(\gamma - \beta)$ on the $\nu_{\mu} \to \nu_{\mu}$ survival probability.**Non-standard neutrino oscillations: perspective from unitarity triangles**

2103.11143 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mehedi Masud, [and 3 more]Poonam Mehta, Christoph A. Ternes, and Mariam Tortola [hide authors].

We formulate an alternative approach based on unitarity triangles to describe neutrino oscillations in presence of non-standard interactions (NSI). Using perturbation theory, we derive the expression for the oscillation probability in case of NSI and cast it in terms of the three independent parameters of the leptonic unitarity triangle (LUT). The form invariance of the probability expression (even in presence of new physics scenario as long as the mixing matrix is unitary) facilitates a neat geometric view of neutrino oscillations in terms of LUT. We examine the regime of validity of perturbative expansions in the NSI case and make comparisons with approximate expressions existing in literature. We uncover some interesting dependencies on NSI terms while studying the evolution of LUT parameters and the Jarlskog invariant. Interestingly, the geometric approach based on LUT allows us to express the oscillation probabilities for a given pair of neutrino flavours in terms of only three (and not four) degrees of freedom which are related to the geometric properties (sides and angles) of the triangle. Moreover, the LUT parameters are invariant under rephasing transformations and independent of the parameterization adopted.**Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering with the $ν$BDX-DRIFT directional detector at next generation neutrino facilities**

2103.10857 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Aristizabal Sierra, [and 4 more]Bhaskar Dutta, Doojin Kim, Daniel Snowden-Ifft, and Louis E. Strigari [hide authors].

We discuss various aspects of a neutrino physics program that can be carried out with the neutrino Beam-Dump eXperiment DRIFT ($\nu$BDX-DRIFT) detector using neutrino beams produced in next generation neutrino facilities. $\nu$BDX-DRIFT is a directional low-pressure TPC detector suitable for measurements of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) using a variety of gaseous target materials which include carbon disulfide, carbon tetrafluoride and tetraethyllead, among others. The neutrino physics program includes standard model (SM) measurements and beyond the standard model (BSM) physics searches. Focusing on the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) beamline at Fermilab, we first discuss basic features of the detector and estimate backgrounds, including beam-induced neutron backgrounds. We then quantify the CE$\nu$NS signal in the different target materials and study the sensitivity of $\nu$BDX-DRIFT to measurements of the weak mixing angle and neutron density distributions. We consider as well prospects for new physics searches, in particular sensitivities to effective neutrino non-standard interactions.**Coherence of oscillations in matter and supernova neutrinos**

2103.10149 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yago P. Porto-Silva and Alexei Yu. Smirnov.

We study the propagation coherence for neutrino oscillations in media with different density profiles. For each profile, we find the dependence of the coherence length, $L_{coh}$, on neutrino energy and address the issue of correspondence of results in the distance and energy-momentum representations. The key new feature in matter is existence of energy ranges with enhanced coherence around the energies $E_0$ of "infinite coherence" at which $L_{coh} \rightarrow \infty$. In the configuration space, the infinite coherence corresponds to equality of the (effective) group velocities of the eigenstates. In constant density medium, there is a unique $E_0$, which coincides with the MSW resonance energy of oscillations of mass states and is close to the MSW resonance energy of flavor states. In the case of massless neutrinos or negligible masses in a very dense medium the coherence persists continuously. In the adiabatic case, the infinite coherence is realized for periodic density change. Adiabaticity violation changes the shape factors of the wave packets (WPs) and leads to their spread. In a medium with sharp density changes (jumps), splitting of the eigenstates occurs at crossing of each jump. We study the increase of the coherence length in a single jump and periodic density jumps - castle-wall (CW) profiles. For the CW profile, there are several $E_0$ corresponding to parametric resonances. We outlined applications of the results for supernova neutrinos. In particular, we show that coherence between two shock wave fronts leads to observable oscillation effects, and our analysis suggests that the decoherence can be irrelevant for flavor transformations in the central parts of collapsing stars.**Determining the Neutrino Mass Ordering and Oscillation Parameters with KM3NeT/ORCA**

2103.09885 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Aiello, [and 241 more]A. Albert, S. Alves Garre, Z. Aly, A. Ambrosone, F. Ameli, M. Andre, G. Androulakis, M. Anghinolfi, M. Anguita, G. Anton, M. Ardid, S. Ardid, J. Aublin, C. Bagatelas, B. Baret, S. Basegmez du Pree, M. Bendahman, F. Benfenati, E. Berbee, A. M. van den Berg, V. Bertin, S. Biagi, M. Bissinger, M. Boettcher, M. Bou Cabo, J. Boumaaza, M. Bouta, M. Bouwhuis, C. Bozza, H. Brânzaş, R. Bruijn, J. Brunner, R. Bruno, E. Buis, R. Buompane, J. Busto, B. Caiffi, D. Calvo, A. Capone, V. Carretero, P. Castaldi, S. Celli, M. Chabab, N. Chau, A. Chen, S. Cherubini, V. Chiarella, T. Chiarusi, M. Circella, R. Cocimano, J. A. B. Coelho, A. Coleiro, M. Colomer Molla, R. Coniglione, P. Coyle, A. Creusot, A. Cruz, G. Cuttone, R. Dallier, B. De Martino, M. De Palma, M. Di Marino, I. Di Palma, A. F. Díaz, D. Diego-Tortosa, C. Distefano, A. Domi, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, M. Dörr, D. Drouhin, T. Eberl, A. Eddyamoui, T. van Eeden, D. van Eijk, I. El Bojaddaini, D. Elsaesser, A. Enzenhöfer, V. Espinosa, P. Fermani, G. Ferrara, M. D. Filipovic, F. Filippini, L. A. Fusco, T. Gal, A. Garcia Soto, F. Garufi, Y. Gatelet, N. Geisselbrecht, L. Gialanella, E. Giorgio, S. R. Gozzini, R. Gracia, K. Graf, D. Grasso, G. Grella, D. Guderian, C. Guidi, J. Haefner, S. Hallmann, H. Hamdaoui, H. van Haren, A. Heijboer, A. Hekalo, L. Hennig, J. J. Hernández-Rey, J. Hofestädt, F. Huang, W. Idrissi Ibnsalih, G. Illuminati, C. W. James, M. de Jong, P. de Jong, B. J. Jung, M. Kadler, P. Kalaczyński, O. Kalekin, U. F. Katz, N. R. Khan Chowdhury, G. Kistauri, F. van der Knaap, P. Kooijman, A. Kouchner, M. Kreter, V. Kulikovskiy, R. Lahmann, M. Lamoureux, G. Larosa, C. Lastoria, R. Le Breton, S. Le Stum, O. Leonardi, F. Leone, E. Leonora, N. Lessing, G. Levi, M. Lincetto, M. Lindsey Clark, T. Lipreau, F. Longhitano, D. Lopez-Coto, L. Maderer, J. Mańczak, K. Mannheim, A. Margiotta, A. Marinelli, C. Markou, L. Martin, J. A. Martínez-Mora, A. Martini, F. Marzaioli, S. Mastroianni, K. W. Melis, G. Miele, P. Migliozzi, E. Migneco, P. Mijakowski, L. S. Miranda, C. M. Mollo, M. Morganti, M. Moser, A. Moussa, R. Muller, M. Musumeci, L. Nauta, S. Navas, C. A. Nicolau, B. Ó Fearraigh, M. O'Sullivan, M. Organokov, A. Orlando, J. Palacios González, G. Papalashvili, R. Papaleo, C. Pastore, A. M. Păun, G. E. Păvălaş, C. Pellegrino, M. Perrin-Terrin, V. Pestel, P. Piattelli, C. Pieterse, K. Pikounis, O. Pisanti, C. Poirè, V. Popa, T. Pradier, G. Pühlhofer, S. Pulvirenti, O. Rabyang, F. Raffaelli, N. Randazzo, S. Razzaque, D. Real, S. Reck, G. Riccobene, A. Romanov, A. Rovelli, F. Salesa Greus, D. F. E. Samtleben, A. Sánchez Losa, M. Sanguineti, A. Santangelo, D. Santonocito, P. Sapienza, J. Schnabel, M. F. Schneider, J. Schumann, H. M. Schutte, J. Seneca, I. Sgura, R. Shanidze, A. Sharma, A. Sinopoulou, B. Spisso, M. Spurio, D. Stavropoulos, S. M. Stellacci, M. Taiuti, Y. Tayalati, E. Tenllado, H. Thiersen, S. Tingay, V. Tsourapis, E. Tzamariudaki, D. Tzanetatos, V. Van Elewyck, G. Vasileiadis, F. Versari, D. Vivolo, G. de Wasseige, J. Wilms, R. Wojaczyński, E. de Wolf, T. Yousfi, S. Zavatarelli, A. Zegarelli, D. Zito, J. D. Zornoza, J. Zúñiga, and N. Zywucka [hide authors].

The next generation of water Cherenkov neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea are under construction offshore France (KM3NeT/ORCA) and Sicily (KM3NeT/ARCA). The KM3NeT/ORCA detector features an energy detection threshold which allows to collect atmospheric neutrinos to study flavour oscillation. This paper reports the KM3NeT/ORCA sensitivity to this phenomenon. The event reconstruction, selection and classification are described. The sensitivity to determine the neutrino mass ordering was evaluated and found to be 4.4 $\sigma$ if the true ordering is normal and 2.3 $\sigma$ if inverted, after three years of data taking. The precision to measure $\Delta m^2_{32}$ and $\theta_{23}$ were also estimated and found to be $85\cdot10^{-6}$ eV$^2$ and $(^{+1.9}_{-3.1})^{\circ}$ for normal neutrino mass ordering and, $75\cdot10^{-6}$ eV$^2$ and $(^{+2.0}_{-7.0})^{\circ}$ for inverted ordering. Finally, a unitarity test of the leptonic mixing matrix by measuring the rate of tau neutrinos is described. Three years of data taking were found to be sufficient to exclude $\nu_{\tau}$ and $\bar{\nu}_{\tau}$ event rate variations larger than 20% at $3\sigma$ level.**Sailing the CE$ν$NS Seas of Non-Standard Neutrino Interactions with the Coherent CAPTAIN Mills Experiment**

2103.08401 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ian M. Shoemaker and Eli Welch.

We study future coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) modifications from a variety of possible models at the Coherent CAPTAIN Mills (CCM) experiment at Los Alamos. We show that large regions of Non-Standard Neutrino Interaction (NSI) parameter space will be excluded rapidly, and that stringent new bounds on the gauge coupling in $Z'$ models will also be placed. As a result, CCM will be able to rule out LMA-D solutions for a large class of models with MeV-scale mediators.**Experiment Simulation Configurations Approximating DUNE TDR**

2103.04797 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by DUNE Collaboration, [and 973 more]B. Abi, R. Acciarri, M. A. Acero, G. Adamov, D. Adams, M. Adinolfi, Z. Ahmad, J. Ahmed, T. Alion, S. Alonso Monsalve, C. Alt, J. Anderson, C. Andreopoulos, M. P. Andrews, F. Andrianala, S. Andringa, A. Ankowski, M. Antonova, S. Antusch, A. Aranda-Fernandez, A. Ariga, L. O. Arnold, M. A. Arroyave, J. Asaadi, A. Aurisano, V. Aushev, D. Autiero, F. Azfar, H. Back, J. J. Back, C. Backhouse, P. Baesso, L. Bagby, R. Bajou, S. Balasubramanian, P. Baldi, B. Bambah, F. Barao, G. Barenboim, G. J. Barker, W. Barkhouse, C. Barnes, G. Barr, J. Barranco Monarca, N. Barros, J. L. Barrow, A. Bashyal, V. Basque, F. Bay, J. L. Bazo Alba, J. F. Beacom, E. Bechetoille, B. Behera, L. Bellantoni, G. Bellettini, V. Bellini, O. Beltramello, D. Belver, N. Benekos, F. Bento Neves, J. Berger, S. Berkman, P. Bernardini, R. M. Berner, H. Berns, S. Bertolucci, M. Betancourt, Y. Bezawada, M. Bhattacharjee, B. Bhuyan, S. Biagi, J. Bian, M. Biassoni, K. Biery, B. Bilki, M. Bishai, A. Bitadze, A. Blake, B. Blanco Siffert, F. D. M. Blaszczyk, G. C. Blazey, E. Blucher, J. Boissevain, S. Bolognesi, T. Bolton, M. Bonesini, M. Bongrand, F. Bonini, A. Booth, C. Booth, S. Bordoni, A. Borkum, T. Boschi, N. Bostan, P. Bour, S. B. Boyd, D. Boyden, J. Bracinik, D. Braga, D. Brailsford, A. Brandt, J. Bremer, C. Brew, E. Brianne, S. J. Brice, C. Brizzolari, C. Bromberg, G. Brooijmans, J. Brooke, A. Bross, G. Brunetti, N. Buchanan, H. Budd, D. Caiulo, P. Calafiura, J. Calcutt, M. Calin, S. Calvez, E. Calvo, L. Camilleri, A. Caminata, M. Campanelli, D. Caratelli, G. Carini, B. Carlus, P. Carniti, I. Caro Terrazas, H. Carranza, A. Castillo, C. Castromonte, C. Cattadori, F. Cavalier, F. Cavanna, S. Centro, G. Cerati, A. Cervelli, A. Cervera Villanueva, M. Chalifour, C. Chang, E. Chardonnet, A. Chatterjee, S. Chattopadhyay, J. Chaves, H. Chen, M. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Cherdack, C. Chi, S. Childress, A. Chiriacescu, K. Cho, S. Choubey, A. Christensen, D. Christian, G. Christodoulou, E. Church, P. Clarke, T. E. Coan, A. G. Cocco, J. A. B. Coelho, E. Conley, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, L. Corwin, P. Cotte, L. Cremaldi, L. Cremonesi, J. I. Crespo-Anadón, E. Cristaldo, R. Cross, C. Cuesta, Y. Cui, D. Cussans, M. Dabrowski, H. da Motta, L. Da Silva Peres, C. David, Q. David, G. S. Davies, S. Davini, J. Dawson, K. De, R. M. De Almeida, P. Debbins, I. De Bonis, M. P. Decowski, A. de Gouvêa, P. C. De Holanda, I. L. De Icaza Astiz, A. Deisting, P. De Jong, A. Delbart, D. Delepine, M. Delgado, A. Dell'Acqua, P. De Lurgio, J. R. T. de Mello Neto, D. M. DeMuth, S. Dennis, C. Densham, G. Deptuch, A. De Roeck, V. De Romeri, J. J. De Vries, R. Dharmapalan, M. Dias, F. Diaz, J. S. Díaz, S. Di Domizio, L. Di Giulio, P. Ding, L. Di Noto, C. Distefano, R. Diurba, M. Diwan, Z. Djurcic, N. Dokania, M. J. Dolinski, L. Domine, D. Douglas, F. Drielsma, D. Duchesneau, K. Duffy, P. Dunne, T. Durkin, H. Duyang, O. Dvornikov, D. A. Dwyer, A. S. Dyshkant, M. Eads, D. Edmunds, J. Eisch, S. Emery, A. Ereditato, C. O. Escobar, L. Escudero Sanchez, J. J. Evans, E. Ewart, A. C. Ezeribe, K. Fahey, A. Falcone, C. Farnese, Y. Farzan, J. Felix, E. Fernandez-Martinez, P. Fernandez Menendez, F. Ferraro, L. Fields, A. Filkins, F. Filthaut, R. S. Fitzpatrick, W. Flanagan, B. Fleming, R. Flight, J. Fowler, W. Fox, J. Franc, K. Francis, D. Franco, J. Freeman, J. Freestone, J. Fried, A. Friedland, S. Fuess, I. Furic, A. P. Furmanski, A. Gago, H. Gallagher, A. Gallego-Ros, N. Gallice, V. Galymov, E. Gamberini, T. Gamble, R. Gandhi, R. Gandrajula, S. Gao, D. Garcia-Gamez, M. Á. García-Peris, S. Gardiner, D. Gastler, G. Ge, B. Gelli, A. Gendotti, S. Gent, Z. Ghorbani-Moghaddam, D. Gibin, I. Gil-Botella, C. Girerd, A. K. Giri, D. Gnani, O. Gogota, M. Gold, S. Gollapinni, K. Gollwitzer, R. A. Gomes, L. V. Gomez Bermeo, L. S. Gomez Fajardo, F. Gonnella, J. A. Gonzalez-Cuevas, M. C. Goodman, O. Goodwin, S. Goswami, C. Gotti, E. Goudzovski, C. Grace, M. Graham, E. Gramellini, R. Gran, E. Granados, A. Grant, C. Grant, D. Gratieri, P. Green, S. Green, L. Greenler, M. Greenwood, J. Greer, W. C. Griffith, M. Groh, J. Grudzinski, K. Grzelak, W. Gu, V. Guarino, R. Guenette, A. Guglielmi, B. Guo, K. K. Guthikonda, R. Gutierrez, P. Guzowski, M. M. Guzzo, S. Gwon, A. Habig, A. Hackenburg, H. Hadavand, R. Haenni, A. Hahn, J. Haigh, J. Haiston, T. Hamernik, P. Hamilton, J. Han, K. Harder, D. A. Harris, J. Hartnell, T. Hasegawa, R. Hatcher, E. Hazen, A. Heavey, K. M. Heeger, J. Heise, K. Hennessy, S. Henry, M. A. Hernandez Morquecho, K. Herner, L. Hertel, A. S. Hesam, V Hewes, A. Higuera, T. Hill, S. J. Hillier, A. Himmel, J. Hoff, C. Hohl, A. Holin, E. Hoppe, G. A. Horton-Smith, M. Hostert, A. Hourlier, B. Howard, R. Howell, J. Huang, J. Huang, J. Hugon, G. Iles, N. Ilic, A. M. Iliescu, R. Illingworth, A. Ioannisian, R. Itay, A. Izmaylov, E. James, B. Jargowsky, F. Jediny, C. Jesùs-Valls, X. Ji, L. Jiang, S. Jiménez, A. Jipa, A. Joglekar, C. Johnson, R. Johnson, B. Jones, S. Jones, C. K. Jung, T. Junk, Y. Jwa, M. Kabirnezhad, A. Kaboth, I. Kadenko, F. Kamiya, G. Karagiorgi, A. Karcher, M. Karolak, Y. Karyotakis, S. Kasai, S. P. Kasetti, L. Kashur, N. Kazaryan, E. Kearns, P. Keener, K. J. Kelly, E. Kemp, W. Ketchum, S. H. Kettell, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, A. Khvedelidze, D. Kim, B. King, B. Kirby, M. Kirby, J. Klein, K. Koehler, L. W. Koerner, S. Kohn, P. P. Koller, M. Kordosky, T. Kosc, U. Kose, V. A. Kostelecký, K. Kothekar, F. Krennrich, I. Kreslo, Y. Kudenko, V. A. Kudryavtsev, S. Kulagin, J. Kumar, R. Kumar, C. Kuruppu, V. Kus, T. Kutter, A. Lambert, K. Lande, C. E. Lane, K. Lang, T. Langford, P. Lasorak, D. Last, C. Lastoria, A. Laundrie, A. Lawrence, I. Lazanu, R. LaZur, T. Le, J. Learned, P. LeBrun, G. Lehmann Miotto, R. Lehnert, M. A. Leigui de Oliveira, M. Leitner, M. Leyton, L. Li, S. Li, S. W. Li, T. Li, Y. Li, H. Liao, C. S. Lin, S. Lin, A. Lister, B. R. Littlejohn, J. Liu, S. Lockwitz, T. Loew, M. Lokajicek, I. Lomidze, K. Long, K. Loo, D. Lorca, T. Lord, J. M. LoSecco, W. C. Louis, K. B. Luk, X. Luo, N. Lurkin, T. Lux, V. P. Luzio, D. MacFarland, A. A. Machado, P. Machado, C. T. Macias, J. R. Macier, A. Maddalena, P. Madigan, S. Magill, K. Mahn, A. Maio, J. A. Maloney, G. Mandrioli, J. Maneira, L. Manenti, S. Manly, A. Mann, K. Manolopoulos, M. Manrique Plata, A. Marchionni, W. Marciano, D. Marfatia, C. Mariani, J. Maricic, F. Marinho, A. D. Marino, M. Marshak, C. Marshall, J. Marshall, J. Marteau, J. Martin-Albo, N. Martinez, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, S. Martynenko, K. Mason, A. Mastbaum, M. Masud, S. Matsuno, J. Matthews, C. Mauger, N. Mauri, K. Mavrokoridis, R. Mazza, A. Mazzacane, E. Mazzucato, E. McCluskey, N. McConkey, K. S. McFarland, C. McGrew, A. McNab, A. Mefodiev, P. Mehta, P. Melas, M. Mellinato, O. Mena, S. Menary, H. Mendez, A. Menegolli, G. Meng, M. D. Messier, W. Metcalf, M. Mewes, H. Meyer, T. Miao, G. Michna, T. Miedema, J. Migenda, R. Milincic, W. Miller, J. Mills, C. Milne, O. Mineev, O. G. Miranda, S. Miryala, C. S. Mishra, S. R. Mishra, A. Mislivec, D. Mladenov, I. Mocioiu, K. Moffat, N. Moggi, R. Mohanta, T. A. Mohayai, N. Mokhov, J. Molina, L. Molina Bueno, A. Montanari, C. Montanari, D. Montanari, L. M. Montano Zetina, J. Moon, M. Mooney, A. Moor, D. Moreno, B. Morgan, C. Morris, C. Mossey, E. Motuk, C. A. Moura, J. Mousseau, W. Mu, L. Mualem, J. Mueller, M. Muether, S. Mufson, F. Muheim, A. Muir, M. Mulhearn, H. Muramatsu, S. Murphy, J. Musser, J. Nachtman, S. Nagu, M. Nalbandyan, R. Nandakumar, D. Naples, S. Narita, D. Navas-Nicolás, N. Nayak, M. Nebot-Guinot, L. Necib, K. Negishi, J. K. Nelson, J. Nesbit, M. Nessi, D. Newbold, M. Newcomer, D. Newhart, R. Nichol, E. Niner, K. Nishimura, A. Norman, A. Norrick, R. Northrop, P. Novella, J. A. Nowak, M. Oberling, A. Olivares Del Campo, A. Olivier, Y. Onel, Y. Onishchuk, J. Ott, L. Pagani, S. Pakvasa, O. Palamara, S. Palestini, J. M. Paley, M. Pallavicini, C. Palomares, E. Pantic, V. Paolone, V. Papadimitriou, R. Papaleo, A. Papanestis, S. Paramesvaran, S. Parke, Z. Parsa, M. Parvu, S. Pascoli, L. Pasqualini, J. Pasternak, J. Pater, C. Patrick, L. Patrizii, R. B. Patterson, S. J. Patton, T. Patzak, A. Paudel, B. Paulos, L. Paulucci, Z. Pavlovic, G. Pawloski, D. Payne, V. Pec, S. J. M. Peeters, Y. Penichot, E. Pennacchio, A. Penzo, O. L. G. Peres, J. Perry, D. Pershey, G. Pessina, G. Petrillo, C. Petta, R. Petti, F. Piastra, L. Pickering, F. Pietropaolo, J. Pillow, J. Pinzino, R. Plunkett, R. Poling, X. Pons, N. Poonthottathil, S. Pordes, M. Potekhin, R. Potenza, B. V. K. S. Potukuchi, J. Pozimski, M. Pozzato, S. Prakash, T. Prakash, S. Prince, G. Prior, D. Pugnere, K. Qi, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, R. Raboanary, V. Radeka, J. Rademacker, B. Radics, A. Rafique, E. Raguzin, M. Rai, M. Rajaoalisoa, I. Rakhno, H. T. Rakotondramanana, L. Rakotondravohitra, Y. A. Ramachers, R. Rameika, M. A. Ramirez Delgado, B. Ramson, A. Rappoldi, G. Raselli, P. Ratoff, S. Ravat, H. Razafinime, J. S. Real, B. Rebel, D. Redondo, M. Reggiani-Guzzo, T. Rehak, J. Reichenbacher, S. D. Reitzner, A. Renshaw, S. Rescia, F. Resnati, A. Reynolds, G. Riccobene, L. C. J. Rice, K. Rielage, Y. Rigaut, D. Rivera, L. Rochester, M. Roda, P. Rodrigues, M. J. Rodriguez Alonso, J. Rodriguez Rondon, A. J. Roeth, H. Rogers, S. Rosauro-Alcaraz, M. Rossella, J. Rout, S. Roy, A. Rubbia, C. Rubbia, B. Russell, J. Russell, D. Ruterbories, R. Saakyan, S. Sacerdoti, T. Safford, N. Sahu, P. Sala, N. Samios, M. C. Sanchez, D. A. Sanders, D. Sankey, S. Santana, M. Santos-Maldonado, N. Saoulidou, P. Sapienza, C. Sarasty, I. Sarcevic, G. Savage, V. Savinov, A. Scaramelli, A. Scarff, A. Scarpelli, T. Schaffer, H. Schellman, P. Schlabach, D. Schmitz, K. Scholberg, A. Schukraft, E. Segreto, J. Sensenig, I. Seong, A. Sergi, F. Sergiampietri, D. Sgalaberna, M. H. Shaevitz, S. Shafaq, M. Shamma, H. R. Sharma, R. Sharma, T. Shaw, C. Shepherd-Themistocleous, S. Shin, D. Shooltz, R. Shrock, L. Simard, N. Simos, J. Sinclair, G. Sinev, J. Singh, J. Singh, V. Singh, R. Sipos, F. W. Sippach, G. Sirri, A. Sitraka, K. Siyeon, D. Smargianaki, A. Smith, A. Smith, E. Smith, P. Smith, J. Smolik, M. Smy, P. Snopok, M. Soares Nunes, H. Sobel, M. Soderberg, C. J. Solano Salinas, S. Söldner-Rembold, N. Solomey, V. Solovov, W. E. Sondheim, M. Sorel, J. Soto-Oton, A. Sousa, K. Soustruznik, F. Spagliardi, M. Spanu, J. Spitz, N. J. C. Spooner, K. Spurgeon, R. Staley, M. Stancari, L. Stanco, H. M. Steiner, J. Stewart, B. Stillwell, J. Stock, F. Stocker, T. Stokes, M. Strait, T. Strauss, S. Striganov, A. Stuart, D. Summers, A. Surdo, V. Susic, L. Suter, C. M. Sutera, R. Svoboda, B. Szczerbinska, A. M. Szelc, R. Talaga, H. A. Tanaka, B. Tapia Oregui, A. Tapper, S. Tariq, E. Tatar, R. Tayloe, A. M. Teklu, M. Tenti, K. Terao, C. A. Ternes, F. Terranova, G. Testera, A. Thea, J. L. Thompson, C. Thorn, S. C. Timm, A. Tonazzo, M. Torti, M. Tortola, F. Tortorici, D. Totani, M. Toups, C. Touramanis, J. Trevor, W. H. Trzaska, Y. T. Tsai, Z. Tsamalaidze, K. V. Tsang, N. Tsverava, S. Tufanli, C. Tull, E. Tyley, M. Tzanov, M. A. Uchida, J. Urheim, T. Usher, M. R. Vagins, P. Vahle, G. A. Valdiviesso, E. Valencia, Z. Vallari, J. W. F. Valle, S. Vallecorsa, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, D. Vanegas Forero, F. Varanini, D. Vargas, G. Varner, J. Vasel, G. Vasseur, K. Vaziri, S. Ventura, A. Verdugo, S. Vergani, M. A. Vermeulen, M. Verzocchi, H. Vieira de Souza, C. Vignoli, C. Vilela, B. Viren, T. Vrba, T. Wachala, A. V. Waldron, M. Wallbank, H. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Warburton, D. Warner, M. Wascko, D. Waters, A. Watson, P. Weatherly, A. Weber, M. Weber, H. Wei, A. Weinstein, D. Wenman, M. Wetstein, M. R. While, A. White, L. H. Whitehead, D. Whittington, M. J. Wilking, C. Wilkinson, Z. Williams, F. Wilson, R. J. Wilson, J. Wolcott, T. Wongjirad, K. Wood, L. Wood, E. Worcester, M. Worcester, C. Wret, W. Wu, W. Wu, Y. Xiao, G. Yang, T. Yang, N. Yershov, K. Yonehara, T. Young, B. Yu, J. Yu, R. Zaki, J. Zalesak, L. Zambelli, B. Zamorano, A. Zani, L. Zazueta, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, K. Zeug, C. Zhang, M. Zhao, E. Zhivun, G. Zhu, E. D. Zimmerman, M. Zito, S. Zucchelli, J. Zuklin, V. Zutshi, and R. Zwaska [hide authors].

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a next-generation long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment consisting of a high-power, broadband neutrino beam, a highly capable near detector located on site at Fermilab, in Batavia, Illinois, and a massive liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) far detector located at the 4850L of Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota. The long-baseline physics sensitivity calculations presented in the DUNE Physics TDR, and in a related physics paper, rely upon simulation of the neutrino beam line, simulation of neutrino interactions in the near and far detectors, fully automated event reconstruction and neutrino classification, and detailed implementation of systematic uncertainties. The purpose of this posting is to provide a simplified summary of the simulations that went into this analysis to the community, in order to facilitate phenomenological studies of long-baseline oscillation at DUNE. Simulated neutrino flux files and a GLoBES configuration describing the far detector reconstruction and selection performance are included as ancillary files to this posting. A simple analysis using these configurations in GLoBES produces sensitivity that is similar, but not identical, to the official DUNE sensitivity. DUNE welcomes those interested in performing phenomenological work as members of the collaboration, but also recognizes the benefit of making these configurations readily available to the wider community.**Non-unitary neutrino mixing in short and long-baseline experiments**

2103.01998 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. V. Forero, [and 3 more]C. Giunti, C. A. Ternes, and M. Tortola [hide authors].

Non-unitary neutrino mixing in the light neutrino sector is a direct consequence of type-I seesaw neutrino mass models. In these models, light neutrino mixing is described by a sub-matrix of the full lepton mixing matrix and, then, it is not unitary in general. In consequence, neutrino oscillations are characterized by additional parameters, including new sources of CP violation. Here we perform a combined analysis of short and long-baseline neutrino oscillation data in this extended mixing scenario. We did not find a significant deviation from unitary mixing, and the complementary data sets have been used to constrain the non-unitarity parameters. We have also found that the T2K and NOvA tension in the determination of the Dirac CP-phase is not alleviated in the context of non-unitary neutrino mixing.**Does inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis produce an inhomogeneous element distribution today?**

2103.01832 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Robert J. Scherrer.

Inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) produces a spatially inhomogeneous distribution of element abundances at $T \sim 10^9$ K, but subsequent element diffusion will tend to erase these inhomogeneities. We calculate the cosmological comoving diffusion length for the BBN elements. This diffusion length is limited by atomic scattering and is therefore dominated by diffusion when the atoms are neutral, between the redshifts of recombination and reionization. We find that the comoving diffusion length today is $d_{com} \approx 70$ pc for all of the elements of interest except $^7$Li, for which $d_{com}$ is an order of magnitude smaller because $^7$Li remains ionized throughout the relevant epoch. This comoving diffusion length corresponds to a substellar baryonic mass scale and is roughly equal to the horizon scale at BBN. These results lend support to the possibility that inhomogeneities on scales larger than the horizon at BBN could lead to a spatially inhomogeneous distribution of elements today, while purely subhorizon fluctuations at BBN can result only in a homogeneous element distribution at present.**Long-lived bi$\boldsymbolν$o at the LHC**

2103.01251 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Julia Gehrlein and Seyda Ipek.

We examine the detection prospects for a long-lived bi$\nu$o, a pseudo-Dirac bino which is responsible for neutrino masses, at the LHC and at dedicated long-lived particle detectors. The bi$\nu$o arises in $U(1)_R$-symmetric supersymmetric models where the neutrino masses are generated through higher dimensional operators in an inverse seesaw mechanism. At the LHC the bi$\nu$o is produced through squark decays and it subsequently decays to quarks, charged leptons and missing energy via its mixing with the Standard Model neutrinos. We consider long-lived bi$\nu$os which escape the ATLAS or CMS detectors as missing energy and decay to charged leptons inside the proposed long-lived particle detectors FASER, CODEX-b, and MATHUSLA. We find the currently allowed region in the squark-bi$\nu$o mass parameter space by recasting most recent LHC searches for jets+MET. We also determine the reach of MATHUSLA, CODEX-b and FASER. We find that a large region of parameter space involving squark masses, bi$\nu$o mass and the messenger scale can be probed with MATHUSLA, ranging from bi$\nu$o masses of 10 GeV-2 TeV and messenger scales $10^{2-11}$ TeV for a range of squark masses.**Robust Limits from Upcoming Neutrino Telescopes and Implications on Minimal Dark Matter Models**

2103.01237 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Basegmez du Pree, [and 5 more]C. Arina, A. Cheek, A. Dekker, M. Chianese, and S. Ando [hide authors].

Experimental developments in neutrino telescopes are drastically improving their ability to constrain the annihilation cross-section of dark matter. In this paper, we employ an angular power spectrum analysis method to probe the galactic and extra-galactic dark matter signals with neutrino telescopes. We first derive projections for a next generation of neutrino telescope that is inspired by KM3NeT. We emphasise that such analysis is much less sensitive to the choice of dark matter density profile. Remarkably, the projected sensitivity is improved by more than an order of magnitude with respect to the existing limits obtained by assuming the Burkert dark matter density profile describing the galactic halo. Second, we analyse minimal extensions to the Standard Model that will be maximally probed by the next generation of neutrino telescopes. As benchmark scenarios, we consider Dirac dark matter in $s$- and $t$-channel models with vector and scalar mediators. We follow a global approach by examining all relevant complementary experimental constraints. We find that neutrino telescopes will be able to competitively probe significant portions of parameter space. Interestingly, the anomaly-free $L_{\mu}-L_{\tau}$ model can potentially be explored in regions where the relic abundance is achieved through freeze-out mechanism.**Annual modulation results from three-year exposure of ANAIS-112**

2103.01175 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. Amare, [and 12 more]S. Cebrian, D. Cintas, I. Coarasa, E. Garcia, M. Martinez, M. A. Olivan, Y. Ortigoza, A. Ortiz de Solorzano, J. Puimedon, A. Salinas, M. L. Sarsa, and P. Villar [hide authors].

ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) is a dark matter direct detection experiment consisting of 112.5 kg of NaI(Tl) detectors in operation at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), in Spain, since August 2017. ANAIS' goal is to confirm or refute in a model independent way the DAMA/LIBRA positive result: an annual modulation in the low-energy detection rate having all the features expected for the signal induced by dark matter particles in a standard galactic halo. This modulation, observed for about 20 years, is in strong tension with the negative results of other very sensitive experiments, but a model-independent comparison is still lacking. By using the same target material, NaI(Tl), such comparison is more direct and almost independent on dark matter particle and halo models. Here, we present the annual modulation analysis corresponding to three years of ANAIS data (for an effective exposure of 313.95 kg$\times$y), applying a blind procedure which updates that developed for the 1.5 years analysis, and later applied to 2 years. The analysis also improves the background modelling in the fitting of the region of interest rates. We obtain for the best fit in the [1-6] keV ([2-6] keV) energy region a modulation amplitude of -0.0034$\pm$0.0042 cpd/kg/keV (0.0003$\pm$0.0037 cpd/kg/keV), supporting the absence of modulation in our data, and incompatible with DAMA/LIBRA result at 3.3 (2.6) $\sigma$, for a sensitivity of 2.5 (2.7) $\sigma$. Moreover, we include two complementary analyses: a phase-free annual modulation search and the exploration of the possible presence of a periodic signal at other frequencies. Finally, we carry out several consistency checks of our result, and we update the ANAIS-112 projected sensitivity for the scheduled 5 years of operation.**High Energy Neutrinos from Choked Gamma-Ray Bursts in AGN Accretion Disks**

2103.00789 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jin-Ping Zhu, [and 5 more]Kai Wang, Bing Zhang, Yuan-Pei Yang, Yun-Wei Yu, and He Gao [hide authors].

Both long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) from core collapse of massive stars and short-duration GRBs (SGRBs) from mergers of binary neutron star (BNS) or neutron star--black hole (NSBH) are expected to occur in the accretion disk of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We show that GRB jets embedded in the migration traps of AGN disks are promised to be choked by the dense disk material. Efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays at the reverse shock is expected, and high-energy neutrinos would be produced. We find that these sources can effectively produce detectable TeV--PeV neutrinos through $p\gamma$ interactions. From a choked LGRB jet with isotropic equivalent energy of $10^{53}\,{\rm erg}$ at $100\,{\rm Mpc}$, one expects $\sim2\,(7)$ neutrino events detectable by IceCube (IceCube-Gen2). The contribution from choked LGRBs to the observed diffuse neutrino background depends on the unknown local event rate density of these GRBs in AGN disks. For example, if the local event rate density of choked LGRBs in AGN disk is $\sim5\%$ that of low-luminosity GRBs $(\sim10\,{\rm Gpc}^{-3}\,{\rm yr}^{-1})$, the neutrinos from these events would contribute to $\sim10\%$ of the observed diffuse neutrino background. Choked SGRBs in AGN disks are potential sources for future joint electromagnetic, neutrino, and gravitational wave multi-messenger observations.**LEvEL: Low-Energy Neutrino Experiment at the LHC**

2103.00009 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kevin J. Kelly, [and 3 more]Pedro A. N. Machado, Alberto Marchionni, and Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez [hide authors].

We propose the operation of \textbf{LEvEL}, the Low-Energy Neutrino Experiment at the LHC, a neutrino detector near the Large Hadron Collider Beam Dump. Such a detector is capable of exploring an intense, low-energy neutrino flux and can measure neutrino cross sections that have previously never been observed. These cross sections can inform other future neutrino experiments, such as those aiming to observe neutrinos from supernovae, allowing such measurements to accomplish their fundamental physics goals. We perform detailed simulations to determine neutrino production at the LHC beam dump, as well as neutron and muon backgrounds. Measurements at a few to ten percent precision of neutrino-argon charged current and neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering cross sections are attainable with 100~ton-year and 1~ton-year exposures at LEvEL, respectively, concurrent with the operation of the High Luminosity LHC. We also estimate signal and backgrounds for an experiment exploiting the forward direction of the LHC beam dump, which could measure neutrinos above 100 GeV.**Reconstruction of the neutrino mass as a function of redshift**

2102.13618 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Christiane S. Lorenz, [and 3 more]Lena Funcke, Matthias Löffler, and Erminia Calabrese [hide authors].

We reconstruct the neutrino mass as a function of redshift, z, from current cosmological data using both standard binned priors and linear spline priors with variable knots. Using cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization and lensing data, in combination with distance measurements from baryonic acoustic oscillations and supernovae, we find that the neutrino mass is consistent with $\sum m_\nu(z)$ = const. We obtain a larger bound on the neutrino mass at low redshifts coinciding with the onset of dark energy domination, $\sum m_\nu(z = 0)$ < 1.46 eV (95% CL). This result can be explained either by the well-known degeneracy between $\sum m_\nu$ and $\Omega_\Lambda$ at low redshifts, or by models in which neutrino masses are generated very late in the Universe. We finally convert our results into cosmological limits for models with non-relativistic neutrino decay and find $\sum m_\nu$ < 0.21 eV (95% CL), which would be out of reach for the KATRIN experiment.**High-Energy Neutrinos from NGC 1068**

2102.12409 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Luis A. Anchordoqui, John F. Krizmanic, and Floyd W. Stecker.

IceCube has observed an excess of neutrino events over expectations from the isotropic background from the direction of NGC 1068. The excess is inconsistent with background expectations at the level of $2.9\sigma$ after accounting for statistical trials. Even though the excess is not statistical significant yet, it is interesting to entertain the possibility that it corresponds to a real signal. Assuming a single power-law spectrum, the IceCube Collaboration has reported a best-fit flux $\phi_\nu\sim 3 \times 10^{-8} (E_\nu/{\rm TeV})^{-3.2}~({\rm GeV \, cm^2 \, s})^{-1}$, where $E_\nu$ is the neutrino energy. Taking account of new physics and astronomy developments we give a revised high-energy neutrino flux for the Stecker-Done-Salamon-Sommers AGN core model and show that it can accommodate IceCube observations.**Resolving the LMA-dark NSI degeneracy with coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering**

2102.11981 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mariano Esteves Chaves and Thomas Schwetz.

In the presence of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI), a degeneracy exists in neutrino oscillation data, which involves the flipping of the octant of the mixing angle ${\theta_{12}}$ and the type of the neutrino mass ordering. In this article, we revisit the status of this degeneracy in the light of recent data on coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE${\nu}$NS) from the COHERENT experiment. For general relative couplings to up and down quarks, the degeneracy is disfavoured at the $2{\sigma}$ level by the latest data but remains at a higher confidence level. We investigate the requirements of future CE${\nu}$NS measurements to resolve the degeneracy with high significance. We find that a measurement involving both, electron and muon neutrino flavours and a target with a neutron-to-proton ratio close to 1 is required. For example, an experiment with a silicon target at the European Spallation Source can resolve the degeneracy at more than $4{\sigma}$ for arbitrary relative couplings to up and down quarks.**Searching for Physics Beyond the Standard Model in an Off-Axis DUNE Near Detector**

2102.03383 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Moritz Breitbach, [and 4 more]Luca Buonocore, Claudia Frugiuele, Joachim Kopp, and Lukas Mittnacht [hide authors].

Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments like DUNE and T2HK are multi-purpose observatories, with a rich physics program beyond oscillation measurements. A special role is played by their near detector facilities, which are particularly well-suited to search for weakly coupled dark sector particles produced in the primary target. In this paper, we demonstrate this by estimating the sensitivity of the DUNE near detectors to the scattering of sub-GeV DM particles and to the decay of sub-GeV sterile neutrinos ("heavy neutral leptons"). We discuss in particular the importance of the DUNE-PRISM design, which allows some of the near detectors to be moved away from the beam axis. At such off-axis locations, the signal-to-background ratio improves for many new physics searches. We find that this leads to a dramatic boost in the sensitivity to boosted DM particles interacting mainly with hadrons, while for boosted DM interacting with leptons, data taken on-axis leads to marginally stronger exclusion limits. Searches for heavy neutral leptons perform equally well in both configurations.**Measuring solar neutrinos over Gigayear timescales with Paleo Detectors**

2102.01755 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Natalia Tapia Arellano and Shunsaku Horiuchi.

Measuring the solar neutrino flux over gigayear timescales could provide a new window to inform the Solar Standard Model as well as studies of the Earth's long-term climate. We demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the time-evolution of the $^8$B solar neutrino flux over gigayear timescales using paleo detectors, naturally occurring minerals which record neutrino-induced recoil tracks over geological times. We explore suitable minerals and identify track lengths of 15--30 nm to be a practical window to detect the $^8$B solar neutrino flux. A collection of ultra-radiopure minerals of different ages, each some 0.1 kg by mass, can be used to probe the rise of the $^8$B solar neutrino flux over the recent gigayear of the Sun's evolution. We also show that models of the solar abundance problem can be distinguished based on the time-integrated tracks induced by the $^8$B solar neutrino flux.**Exploring the Origin of Supermassive Black Holes with Coherent Neutrino Scattering**

2102.00885 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Victor Munoz, [and 3 more]Volodymyr Takhistov, Samuel J. Witte, and George M. Fuller [hide authors].

Collapsing supermassive stars ($M \gtrsim 3 \times 10^4 M_{\odot}$) at high redshifts can naturally provide seeds and explain the origin of the supermassive black holes observed in the centers of nearly all galaxies. During the collapse of supermassive stars, a burst of non-thermal neutrinos is generated with a luminosity that could greatly exceed that of a conventional core collapse supernova explosion. In this work, we investigate the extent to which the neutrinos produced in these explosions can be observed via coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS). Large scale direct dark matter detection experiments provide particularly favorable targets. We find that upcoming $\mathcal{O}(100)$ tonne-scale experiments will be sensitive to the collapse of individual supermassive stars at distances as large as $\mathcal{O}(10)$ Mpc.**Cosmic-Neutrino-Boosted Dark Matter ($ν$BDM)**

2101.11262 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yongsoo Jho, [and 3 more]Jong-Chul Park, Seong Chan Park, and Po-Yan Tseng [hide authors].

A novel mechanism of boosting dark matter by cosmic neutrinos is proposed. The new mechanism is so significant that the arriving flux of dark matter in the mass window $1~{\rm keV} \lesssim m_{\rm DM} \lesssim 1~{\rm MeV}$ on Earth can be enhanced by two to four orders of magnitude compared to one only by cosmic electrons. Thereby we firstly derive conservative but still stringent bounds and future sensitivity limits for such cosmic-neutrino-boosted dark matter ($\nu$BDM) from advanced underground experiments such as Borexino, PandaX, XENON1T, and JUNO.**Neutrino non-standard interactions meet precision measurements of $N_{\rm eff}$**

2101.10475 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yong Du and Jiang-Hao Yu.

The number of relativistic species, $N_{\rm eff}$, has been precisely calculated in the standard model, and would be measured to the percent level by CMB-S4 in future. Neutral-current non-standard interactions would affect neutrino decoupling in the early Universe, thus modifying $N_{\rm eff}$. We parameterize those operators up to dimension-7 in the effective field theory framework, and then provide a complete, generic and analytical dictionary for the collision term integrals. From precision measurements of $N_{\rm eff}$, the most stringent constraint is obtained for the dimension-6 vector-type neutrino-electron operator, whose scale is constrained to be above about 195 (331) GeV from Planck (CMB-S4). We find our results complementary to other experiments like neutrino coherent scattering, neutrino oscillation, collider, and neutrino deep inelastic scattering experiments.**IceCube Data for Neutrino Point-Source Searches Years 2008-2018**

2101.09836 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 373 more]R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Gündüz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krückl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, J. Lünemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momenté, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, G. Neer, L. V. Nguyên, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, J. Vandenbroucke, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and M. Zöcklein [hide authors].

IceCube has performed several all-sky searches for point-like neutrino sources using track-like events, including a recent time-integrated analysis using 10 years of IceCube data. This paper accompanies the public data release of these neutrino candidates detected by IceCube between April 6, 2008 and July 8, 2018. The selection includes through-going tracks, primarily due to muon neutrino candidates, that reach the detector from all directions, as well as neutrino track events that start within the instrumented volume. An updated selection and reconstruction for data taken after April 2012 slightly improves the sensitivity of the sample. While more than 80% of the sample overlaps between the old and new versions, differing events can lead to changes relative to the previous 7 year event selection. An a posteriori estimate of the significance of the 2014-2015 TXS flare is reported with an explanation of observed discrepancies with previous results. This public data release, which includes 10 years of data and binned detector response functions for muon neutrino signal events, shows improved sensitivity in generic time-integrated point source analyses and should be preferred over previous releases.**Oscillations of sterile neutrinos from dark matter decay eliminates the IceCube-Fermi tension**

2101.09559 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Luis A. Anchordoqui, [and 4 more]Vernon Barger, Danny Marfatia, Mary Hall Reno, and Thomas J. Weiler [hide authors].

IceCube has observed a flux of cosmic neutrinos, with a "bump" in the energy range $10 \lesssim E/{\rm TeV} \lesssim 100$ that creates a $3\sigma$ tension with gamma-ray data from the Fermi satellite. This has been interpreted as evidence for a population of hidden cosmic-ray accelerators. We propose an alternative explanation of this conundrum on the basis of cold dark matter which decays into sterile neutrinos that after oscillations produce the bump in the cosmic neutrino spectrum.**Physics reach of a low threshold scintillating argon bubble chamber in coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering reactor experiments**

2101.08785 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by L. J. Flores, [and 33 more]Eduardo Peinado, E. Alfonso-Pita, K. Allen, M. Baker, E. Behnke, M. Bressler, K. Clark, R. Coppejans, C. Cripe, M. Crisler, C. E. Dahl, A. de St. Croix, D. Durnford, P. Giampa, O. Harris, P. Hatch, H. Hawley, C. M. Jackson, Y. Ko, C. Krauss, N. Lamb, M. Laurin, I. Levine, W. H. Lippincott, R. Neilson, S. Pal, M. -C. Piro, Z. Sheng, E. Vázquez-Jáuregui, T. J. Whitis, S. Windle, R. Zhang, and A. Zuñiga-Reyes [hide authors].

The physics reach of a low threshold (100 eV) scintillating argon bubble chamber sensitive to Coherent Elastic neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CE$\nu$NS) from reactor neutrinos is studied. The sensitivity to the weak mixing angle, neutrino magnetic moment, and a light $Z'$ gauge boson mediator are analyzed. A Monte Carlo simulation of the backgrounds is performed to assess their contribution to the signal. The analysis shows that world-leading sensitivities are achieved with a one-year exposure for a 10 kg chamber at 3 m from a 1 MW$_{th}$ research reactor or a 100 kg chamber at 30 m from a 2000 MW$_{th}$ power reactor. Such a detector has the potential to become the leading technology to study CE$\nu$NS using nuclear reactors.**Ultra-high energy cosmic rays deflection by the Intergalactic Magnetic Field**

2101.07207 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Andres Aramburo Garcia, [and 5 more]Kyrylo Bondarenko, Alexey Boyarsky, Dylan Nelson, Annalisa Pillepich, and Anastasia Sokolenko [hide authors].

The origin and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remain a mystery. The common lore is that UHECRs are deflected from their primary directions by the Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. Here we describe an extragalactic contribution to the deflection of UHECRs that does not depend on the strength and orientation of the initial seed field. Using the IllustrisTNG simulations, we show that outflow-driven magnetic bubbles created by feedback processes during galaxy formation deflect approximately half of all $10^{20}$ eV protons by $1^{\circ}$ or more, and up to $20$-$30^{\circ}$. This implies that the deflection in the intergalactic medium must be taken into account in order to identify the sources of UHECRs.**Long Range Interactions in Cosmology: Implications for Neutrinos**

2101.05804 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Esteban and Jordi Salvado.

Cosmology is well suited to study the effects of long range interactions due to the large densities in the early Universe. In this article, we explore how the energy density and equation of state of a fermion system diverge from the commonly assumed ideal gas form under the presence of scalar long range interactions with a range much smaller than cosmological scales. In this scenario, "small"-scale physics can impact our largest-scale observations. As a benchmark, we apply the formalism to self-interacting neutrinos, performing an analysis to present and future cosmological data. Our results show that the current cosmological neutrino mass bound is fully avoided in the presence of a long range interaction, opening the possibility for a laboratory neutrino mass detection in the near future. We also demonstrate an interesting complementarity between neutrino laboratory experiments and the future EUCLID survey.**Supernova Model Discrimination with Hyper-Kamiokande**

2101.05269 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hyper-Kamiokande Collaboration, [and 502 more]:, K. Abe, P. Adrich, H. Aihara, R. Akutsu, I. Alekseev, A. Ali, F. Ameli, I. Anghel, L. H. V. Anthony, M. Antonova, A. Araya, Y. Asaoka, Y. Ashida, V. Aushev, F. Ballester, I. Bandac, M. Barbi, G. J. Barker, G. Barr, M. Batkiewicz-Kwasniak, M. Bellato, V. Berardi, M. Bergevin, L. Bernard, E. Bernardini, L. Berns, S. Bhadra, J. Bian, A. Blanchet, F. d. M. Blaszczyk, A. Blondel, A. Boiano, S. Bolognesi, L. Bonavera, N. Booth, S. Borjabad, T. Boschi, D. Bose, S . B. Boyd, C. Bozza, A. Bravar, D. Bravo-Berguño, C. Bronner, L. Brown, A. Bubak, A. Buchowicz, M. Buizza Avanzini, F. S. Cafagna, N. F. Calabria, J. M. Calvo-Mozota, S. Cao, S. L. Cartwright, A. Carroll, M. G. Catanesi, S. Cebriàn, M. Chabera, S. Chakraborty, C. Checchia, J. H. Choi, S. Choubey, M. Cicerchia, J. Coleman, G. Collazuol, L. Cook, G. Cowan, S. Cuen-Rochin, M. Danilov, G. Daz Lopez, E. De la Fuente, P. de Perio, G. De Rosa, T. Dealtry, C. J. Densham, A. Dergacheva, N. Deshmukh, M. M. Devi, F. Di Lodovico, P. Di Meo, I. Di Palma, T. A. Doyle, E. Drakopoulou, O. Drapier, J. Dumarchez, P. Dunne, M. Dziewiecki, L. Eklund, S. El Hedri, J. Ellis, S. Emery, A. Esmaili, R. Esteve, A. Evangelisti, M. Feely, S. Fedotov, J. Feng, P. Fernandez, E. Fernández-Martinez, P. Ferrario, B. Ferrazzi, T. Feusels, A. Finch, C. Finley, A. Fiorentini, G. Fiorillo, M. Fitton, K. Frankiewicz, M. Friend, Y. Fujii, Y. Fukuda, G. Galinski, J. Gao, C. Garde, A. Garfagnini, S. Garode, L. Gialanella, C. Giganti, J. J. Gomez-Cadenas, M. Gonin, J. González-Nuevo, A. Gorin, R. Gornea, V. Gousy-Leblanc, F. Gramegna, M. Grassi, G. Grella, M. Guigue, P. Gumplinger, D. R. Hadley, M. Harada, B. Hartfiel, M. Hartz, S. Hassani, N. C. Hastings, Y. Hayato, J. A. Hernando-Morata, V. Herrero, J. Hill, K. Hiraide, S. Hirota, A. Holin, S. Horiuchi, K. Hoshina, K. Hultqvist, F. Iacob, A. K. Ichikawa, W. Idrissi Ibnsalih, T. Iijima, M. Ikeda, M. Inomoto, K. Inoue, J. Insler, A. Ioannisian, T. Ishida, K. Ishidoshiro, H. Ishino, M. Ishitsuka, H. Ito, S. Ito, Y. Itow, K. Iwamoto, A. Izmaylov, N. Izumi, S. Izumiyama, M. Jakkapu, B. Jamieson, H. I. Jang, J. S. Jang, S. J. Jenkins, S. H. Jeon, M. Jiang, H. S. Jo, P. Jonsson, K. K. Joo, T. Kajita, H. Kakuno, J. Kameda, Y. Kano, P. Kalaczynski, D. Karlen, J. Kasperek, Y. Kataoka, A. Kato, T. Katori, N. Kazarian, E. Kearns, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, T. Kikawa, M. Kikec, J. H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, S. B. Kim, S. Y. Kim, S. King, T. Kinoshita, J. Kisiel, A. Klekotko, T. Kobayashi, L. Koch, M. Koga, L. Koerich, N. Kolev, A. Konaka, L. L. Kormos, Y. Koshio, A. Korzenev, Y. Kotsar, K. A. Kouzakov, K. L. Kowalik, L. Kravchuk, A. P. Kryukov, Y. Kudenko, T. Kumita, R. Kurjata, T. Kutter, M. Kuze, K. Kwak, M. La Commara, L. Labarga, J. Lagoda, M. Lamers James, M. Lamoureux, M. Laveder, L. Lavitola, M. Lawe, J. G. Learned, J. Lee, R. Leitner, V. Lezaun, I. T. Lim, T. Lindner, R. P. Litchfield, K. R. Long, A. Longhin, P. Loverre, X. Lu, L. Ludovici, Y. Maekawa, L. Magaletti, K. Magar, K. Mahn, Y. Makida, M. Malek, M. Malinský, T. Marchi, L. Maret, C. Mariani, A. Marinelli, K. Martens, Ll. Marti, J. F. Martin, D. Martin, J. Marzec, T. Matsubara, R. Matsumoto, S. Matsuno, M. Matusiak, E. Mazzucato, M. McCarthy, N. McCauley, J. McElwee, C. McGrew, A. Mefodiev, A. Medhi, P. Mehta, L. Mellet, H. Menjo, P. Mermod, C. Metelko, M. Mezzetto, J. Migenda, P. Migliozzi, P. Mijakowski, S. Miki, E. W. Miller, H. Minakata, A. Minamino, S. Mine, O. Mineev, A. Mitra, M. Miura, R. Moharana, C. M. Mollo, T. Mondal, M. Mongelli, F. Monrabal, D. H. Moon, C. S. Moon, F. J. Mora, S. Moriyama, Th. A. Mueller, L. Munteanu, K. Murase, Y. Nagao, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakagiri, M. Nakahata, S. Nakai, Y. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, KI. Nakamura, H. Nakamura, Y. Nakano, T. Nakaya, S. Nakayama, K. Nakayoshi, L. Nascimento Machado, C. E. R. Naseby, B. Navarro-Garcia, M. Needham, T. Nicholls, K. Niewczas, Y. Nishimura, E. Noah, F. Nova, J. C. Nugent, H. Nunokawa, W. Obrebski, J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux, E. O'Connor, N. Ogawa, T. Ogitsu, K. Ohta, K. Okamoto, H. M. O'Keeffe, K. Okumura, Y. Onishchuk, F. Orozco-Luna, A. Oshlianskyi, N. Ospina, M. Ostrowski, E. O'Sullivan, L. O'Sullivan, T. Ovsiannikova, Y. Oyama, H. Ozaki, M. Y. Pac, P. Paganini, V. Palladino, V. Paolone, M. Pari, S. Parsa, J. Pasternak, C. Pastore, G. Pastuszak, D. A. Patel, M. Pavin, D. Payne, C. Peña-Garay, C. Pidcott, E. Pinzon Guerra, S. Playfer, B. W. Pointon, A. Popov, B. Popov, K. Porwit, M. Posiadala-Zezula, J. -M. Poutissou, J. Pozimski, G. Pronost, N. W. Prouse, P. Przewlocki, B. Quilain, A. A. Quiroga, E. Radicioni, B. Radics, P. J. Rajda, J. Renner, M. Rescigno, F. Retiere, G. Ricciardi, C. Riccio, B. Richards, E. Rondio, H. J. Rose, B. Roskovec, S. Roth, C. Rott, S. D. Rountree, A. Rubbia, A. C. Ruggeri, C. Ruggles, S. Russo, A. Rychter, D. Ryu, K. Sakashita, S. Samani, F. Sánchez, M. L. Sánchez, M. C. Sanchez, S. Sano, J. D. Santos, G. Santucci, P. Sarmah, I. Sashima, K. Sato, M. Scott, Y. Seiya, T. Sekiguchi, H. Sekiya, J. W. Seo, S. H. Seo, D. Sgalaberna, A. Shaikhiev, Z. Shan, A. Shaykina, I. Shimizu, C. D. Shin, M. Shinoki, M. Shiozawa, G. Sinnis, N. Skrobova, K. Skwarczynski, M. B. Smy, J. Sobczyk, H. W. Sobel, F. J. P. Soler, Y. Sonoda, R. Spina, B. Spisso, P. Spradlin, K. L. Stankevich, L. Stawarz, S. M. Stellacci, K. Stopa, A. I. Studenikin, S. L. Suárez Gómez, T. Suganuma, S. Suvorov, Y. Suwa, A. T. Suzuki, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, D. Svirida, R. Svoboda, M. Taani, M. Tada, A. Takeda, Y. Takemoto, A. Takenaka, A. Taketa, Y. Takeuchi, V. Takhistov, H. Tanaka, H. A. Tanaka, H. I. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, T. Tashiro, M. Thiesse, L. F. Thompson, J. Toledo, A. K. Tomatani-Sánchez, G. Tortone, K. M. Tsui, T. Tsukamoto, M. Tzanov, Y. Uchida, M. R. Vagins, S. Valder, V. Valentino, G. Vasseur, A. Vijayvargi, C. Vilela, W. G. S. Vinning, D. Vivolo, T. Vladisavljevic, R. B. Vogelaar, M. M. Vyalkov, T. Wachala, J. Walker, D. Wark, M. O. Wascko, R. A. Wendell, R. J. Wilkes, M. J. Wilking, J. R. Wilson, S. Wronka, J. Xia, Z. Xie, T. Xin, Y. Yamaguchi, K. Yamamoto, C. Yanagisawa, T. Yano, S. Yen, N. Yershov, D. N. Yeum, M. Yokoyama, M. Yonenaga, J. Yoo, I. Yu, M. Yu, T. Zakrzewski, B. Zaldivar, J. Zalipska, K. Zaremba, G. Zarnecki, M. Ziembicki, K. Zietara, M. Zito, and S. Zsoldos [hide authors].

Core-collapse supernovae are among the most magnificent events in the observable universe. They produce many of the chemical elements necessary for life to exist and their remnants -- neutron stars and black holes -- are interesting astrophysical objects in their own right. However, despite millennia of observations and almost a century of astrophysical study, the explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae is not yet well understood. Hyper-Kamiokande is a next-generation neutrino detector that will be able to observe the neutrino flux from the next galactic core-collapse supernova in unprecedented detail. We focus on the first 500 ms of the neutrino burst, corresponding to the accretion phase, and use a newly-developed, high-precision supernova event generator to simulate Hyper-Kamiokande's response to five different supernova models. We show that Hyper-Kamiokande will be able to distinguish between these models with high accuracy for a supernova at a distance of up to 100 kpc. Once the next galactic supernova happens, this ability will be a powerful tool for guiding simulations towards a precise reproduction of the explosion mechanism observed in nature.**The Imprint of Large Scale Structure on the Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Ray Sky**

2101.04564 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Chen Ding, Noemie Globus, and Glennys R. Farrar.

Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are atomic nuclei from space with vastly higher energies than any other particles ever observed. Their origin and chemical composition remain a mystery. As we show here, the large- and intermediate-angular-scale anisotropies observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory are a powerful tool for understanding the origin of UHECRs. Without specifying any particular production mechanism, but only postulating that the source distribution follows the matter distribution of the local Universe, a good accounting of the magnitude, direction and energy dependence of the dipole anisotropy at energies above $8 \times 10^{18}$ eV is obtained, after taking into account the impact of energy losses during propagation (the "GZK horizon"), diffusion in extragalactic magnetic field and deflections in the Galactic magnetic field (GMF). This is a major step toward the long-standing hope of using UHECR anisotropies to constrain UHECR composition and magnetic fields. The observed dipole anisotropy is incompatible with a pure proton composition in this scenario. With a more accurate treatment of energy losses, it should be possible to further constrain the cosmic-ray composition and properties of the extragalactic magnetic field, self-consistently improve the GMF model, and potentially expose individual UHECR sources.**New CP Phase and Exact Oscillation Probabilities of Dirac Neutrino derived from Relativistic Equation**

2101.03555 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Keiichi Kimura and Akira Takamura.

We present a new formulation deriving the neutrino oscillation probabilities relativistically based on not the Schr$\ddot{\rm o}$dinger equation but the Dirac equation. In two generations, we calculate the oscillation probabilities exactly in the case that there exists only the Dirac mass term. We find that two kinds of new terms appear in the oscillation probabilities derived from the Dirac equation. One is the term dependent on the absolute value of neutrino mass. Although it has been considered that the oscillation probabilities depend only on the mass squared differences until now, we could observe the absolute value of mass through neutrino oscillations in principle. The other is the term including a new CP phase. If there are some interactions to distinguish the flavors of right-handed neutrinos beyond the Standard Model, we could also observe this new CP phase in principle even in the framework of two generations. We discuss the possibility to observe the contribution of these terms by the neutrino oscillations of atomic size. On the other hand, it is negligible in the usual short and long-baseline experiments, and there is no contradiction with previous experiments.**A New Approach to Probe Non-Standard Interactions in Atmospheric Neutrino Experiments**

2101.02607 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anil Kumar, [and 3 more]Amina Khatun, Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, and Amol Dighe [hide authors].

We propose a new approach to explore the neutral-current non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) in atmospheric neutrino experiments using oscillation dips and valleys in reconstructed muon observables, at a detector like ICAL that can identify the muon charge. We focus on the flavor-changing NSI parameter $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$, which has the maximum impact on the muon survival probability in these experiments. We show that non-zero $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$ shifts the oscillation dip locations in $L/E$ distributions of the up/down event ratios of reconstructed $\mu^-$ and $\mu^+$ in opposite directions. We introduce a new variable $\Delta d$ representing the difference of dip locations in $\mu^-$ and $\mu^+$, which is sensitive to the magnitude as well as the sign of $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$, and is independent of the value of $\Delta m^2_{32}$. We further note that the oscillation valley in the ($E$, $\cos \theta$) plane of the reconstructed muon observables bends in the presence of NSI, its curvature having opposite signs for $\mu^-$ and $\mu^+$. We demonstrate the identification of NSI with this curvature, which is feasible for detectors like ICAL having excellent muon energy and direction resolutions. We illustrate how the measurement of contrast in the curvatures of valleys in $\mu^-$ and $\mu^+$ can be used to estimate $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$. Using these proposed oscillation dip and valley measurements, the achievable precision on $|\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}|$ at 90% C.L. is about 2% with 500 kt$\cdot$yr exposure. The effects of statistical fluctuations, systematic errors, and uncertainties in oscillation parameters have been incorporated using multiple sets of simulated data. Our method would provide a direct and robust measurement of $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$ in the multi-GeV energy range.**Estimating the carbon footprint of the GRAND Project, a multi-decade astrophysics experiment**

2101.02049 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Clarisse Aujoux, Kumiko Kotera, and Odile Blanchard.

We present a pioneering estimate of the global yearly greenhouse gas emissions of a large-scale Astrophysics experiment over several decades: the Giant Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND). The project aims at detecting ultra-high energy neutrinos with a 200,000 radio antenna array over 200,000\,km$^2$ as of the 2030s. With a fully transparent methodology based on open source data, we calculate the emissions related to three unavoidable sources: travel, digital technologies and hardware equipment. We find that these emission sources have a different impact depending on the stages of the experiment. Digital technologies and travel prevail for the small-scale prototyping phase (GRANDProto300), whereas hardware equipment (material production and transportation) and data transfer/storage largely outweigh the other emission sources in the large-scale phase (GRAND200k). In the mid-scale phase (GRAND10k), the three sources contribute equally. This study highlights the considerable carbon footprint of a large-scale astrophysics experiment, but also shows that there is room for improvement. We discuss various lines of actions that could be implemented. The GRAND project being still in its prototyping stage, our results provide guidance to the future collaborative practices and instrumental design in order to reduce its carbon footprint.**What if a specific neutrinoless double beta decay is absent**

2012.13186 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Takehiko Asaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, and Kazuki Tanaka.

We consider the seesaw model with two right-handed neutrinos $N_1$ and $N_2$ which masses are hierarchical, and investigate their contribution to the neutrinoless double beta ($0 \nu \beta \beta$) decay. Although the lepton number is broken by the Majorana masses of right-handed neutrinos, such decay processes can be absent in some cases. We present a possibility where the lighter $N_1$ gives a destructive contribution to that of active neutrinos by choosing the specific mixing elements of $N_1$, while $N_2$ is sufficiently heavy not to contribute to the $0 \nu \beta \beta$ decay. In this case the mixing elements of $N_1$ in the charged current interaction are determined by its mass and the Majorana phase of active neutrinos. We then study the impacts of such a possibility on the direct search for $N_1$. In addition, we discuss the consequence of the case when the $0 \nu \beta \beta$ decay in one specific nucleus is absent.**Lunar neutrinos**

2012.12870 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Demidov and D. Gorbunov.

Cosmic rays bombard the lunar surface producing mesons, which attenuate inside the regolith. They get slower and decay weakly into mostly sub-GeV neutrinos leaving the surface. Thus the Moon shines in neutrinos. Here we calculate spectra of low energy neutrinos, which exhibit bright features potentially recognisable above isotropic neutrino background in the direction towards the Moon. Their observation, though a very challenging task for future neutrino large volume experiments, would make the Moon the nearest astrophysical source for which the concept of multimessenger astronomy works truly. Remarkably, some features of the lunar neutrino flux are sensitive to the surface mass density of the Moon.**Compact Dark Objects in Neutron Star Mergers**

2012.11908 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Andreas Bauswein, [and 4 more]Gang Guo, Jr-Hua Lien, Yen-Hsun Lin, and Meng-Ru Wu [hide authors].

We estimate the long-lasting gravitational wave (GW) emission of compact dark objects following a binary neutron-star (NS) merger. We consider compact dark objects, which initially reside in the centers of NSs and which may consist of self-interacting dark matter (DM). By approximating the compact dark objects as test particles, we model the merging of NS binaries hosting DM components with three-dimensional relativistic simulations. Our simulation results suggest that the DM components remain gravitationally bound and orbit inside the merger remnant with orbital separations of typically a few km. The subsequent orbital motion of the DM components generates a GW signal with frequencies in the range of a few kHz. When considering a range of different binary masses and high-density equations of state (EoS), we find that the GW frequency of the orbiting DM components scales with the compactness of NSs. Similarly, we find relations between the DM GW frequency and the dominant postmerger GW frequency of the stellar fluid or the tidal deformability, which quantifies EoS effects during the binary inspiral. Hence, a measurement of these quantities can be used to specify the frequency range of the GW emission by DM. Under the assumption that GW back reaction is the only relevant dissipative process, the GW signal may last between seconds and years depending on the mass of the DM component. We estimate the detectability of the GW signals and find that DM components in NS mergers may only be detectable with existing and projected GW instruments if the dark objects are as massive as about 0.01 to 0.1 M_sun. We emphasize that the GW emission is limited by the lifetime of the remnant. A forming black hole will immediately swallow the DM objects because their orbits are smaller than the innermost stable circular orbit of the black hole.**A closer look at the $pp$-chain reaction in the Sun: Constraining the coupling of light mediators to protons**

2012.11620 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anna M. Suliga, Shashank Shalgar, and George M. Fuller.

The $pp$-chain of nuclear reactions is the primary route for energy production in the Sun. The first step in that reaction sequence converts two protons to a deuterium nucleus with the emission of a positron and electron neutrino. This reaction is extremely slow because it is a weak interaction, and significantly, it involves quantum tunneling through the Coulomb barrier. Though the reaction rate can be calculated with high confidence in the Standard Model, it has not been measured at solar energies. If there exist interactions that are engendered by non-standard mediators then the rate of this reaction in the Sun could be altered. We probe such non-standard interactions by comparing calculations of solar evolution to the current solar system age in the presence and absence of the non-standard mediators. These reveal ranges of non-standard mediator mass and couplings that are inconsistent with measured properties of the Sun, including solar neutrino results. Our constraints on these non-standard parameters, in many cases overlapping those derived via other considerations, could be extended further with better confidence in the value of the metalicity of the Sun and the solar neutrino CNO flux. Intriguingly, our work reveals a degeneracy between the solar metalicity and the presence of the invoked non-standard mediators.**Physics prospects with the second oscillation maximum at Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment**

2012.08269 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jogesh Rout, [and 3 more]Sheeba Shafaq, Mary Bishai, and Poonam Mehta [hide authors].

Current long-baseline neutrino-oscillation experiments such as NO$\nu$A and T2K are mainly sensitive to physics in the neighbourhood of the first oscillation maximum of the $\nu_\mu \to \nu_e$ oscillation probability. The future Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) utilizes a wide-band beam tune optimized for CP violation sensitivity that fully covers the region of the first maxima and part of the second. In the present study, we elucidate the role of second oscillation maximum in addressing issues pertaining to unknowns in the standard three flavour paradigm. We consider a new DUNE beam tune optimized for coverage of the region of the second oscillation maxima which could be realized using proposed accelerator upgrades that provide multi-MW of power at proton energies of 8 GeV. We find that addition of the multi-MW 8 GeV beam to DUNE wide-band running leads to modest improvement in sensitivity to CP violation, mass hierarchy, the octant of $\theta_{23}$ as well as the resolution of $\delta$ and the Jarlskog invariant. Significant improvements to the DUNE neutrino energy resolution yield a much larger improvement in performance. We conclude that the standard DUNE wide-band beam when coupled with excellent detector resolution capabilities is sufficient to resolve $\delta$ to better than $\sim 12^\circ$ for all values of $\delta$ in a decade of running. For second maxima (8 GeV 3MW) beam running concurrently with the standard wide-band (80 GeV 2.2 MW) beam for 5 of the 10 years, it is found that $\delta$ can be further resolved better than $\sim 10^\circ$ for all values of $\delta$.**Evolution of perturbation and power spectrum in a two-component ultralight axionic universe**

2012.07602 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yi-Hsiung Hsu and Tzihong Chiueh.

The evolution of cosmic perturbations in a two-component ultralight axionic universe is investigated. We present the first spectral computation of perturbations in multi-component universes. A particular case composed of light extreme axions and free massive particles offers a possibility for the formation of very high-redshift massive galaxies, which are typically required to host massive early quasars. Our computation retains the information of perturbed velocities for individual axion components, opening a new avenue for setting up initial conditions for future axion dark matter simulations.**Interplay between the factorization of the Jarlskog Invariant and location of the Solar and Atmospheric Resonances for Neutrino Oscillations in Matter**

2012.07186 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stephen J. Parke.

The Jarlskog invariant which controls the size of intrinsic CP violation in neutrino oscillation appearance experiments is modified by Wolfenstein matter effects for neutrinos propagating in matter. In this paper we give the exact factorization of Jarlskog invariant in matter into the vacuum Jarlskog invariant times two, two-flavor matter resonance factors that control the matter effects for the solar and atmospheric resonances independently. We compare the location of the minima of the factorizing resonance factors with the location of the solar and atmospheric resonances, precisely defined. They are not identical but the fractional differences are both found to be less than 0.1\%. In addition, we explain why symmetry polynomials of the square of the mass of the neutrino eigenvalues in matter, such as inverse of the square of the Jarlskog invariant in matter, can be given as polynomials in the matter potential.**Review of Atmospheric Neutrino Results from Super-Kamiokande**

2012.06864 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Volodymyr Takhistov.

While neutrino physics enters precision era, several important unknowns remain. Atmospheric neutrinos allow to simultaneously test key oscillation parameters, with Super-Kamiokande experiment playing a central role. We discuss results from atmospheric neutrino oscillation analysis of the full dataset from Super-Kamiokande I-IV phases. Further, we discuss tests of non-standard neutrino interactions with atmospheric neutrinos in Super-Kamiokande.**The spectra and composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays and the measurement of the proton-air cross section**

2012.06861 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Paolo Lipari.

The shape of the longitudinal development of the showers generated in the atmosphere by very high energy cosmic ray particles encodes information about the mass composition of the flux, and about the properties of hadronic interactions that control the shower development. Studies of the energy dependence of the average and width of the depth of maximum distribution of showers with $E \gtrsim 10^{17.3}$ eV measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory, suggest, on the basis of a comparison with current models, that the composition of the cosmic ray flux undergoes a very important evolution, first becoming lighter and then rapidly heavier. These conclusions, if confirmed, would have profound and very surprising implications for our understanding of the high energy astrophysical sources. Studies of the shape of the depth of maximum distribution in the same energy range have been used by Auger and by the Telescope Array Collaboration to measure the interaction length of protons in air, a quantity that allows to estimate the $pp$ cross sections for values of $\sqrt{s}$ well above the LHC range. In this paper we argue that it is desirable to combine the studies of the cosmic ray composition with those aimed at the measurement of the $p$--air cross section. The latter allow to obtain estimates for the fraction of protons in the flux that can be of great help in decoding the composition and its energy dependence. Studies that consider multiple parameters to characterize the depth of maximum distributions also offer the possibility to perform more sensitive tests of the validity of the models used to describe high energy showers.**Interference and Oscillation in Nambu Quantum Mechanics**

2012.06583 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Djordje Minic, Tatsu Takeuchi, and Chia Hsiung Tze.

Nambu Quantum Mechanics, proposed in Phys. Lett. B536, 305 (2002), is a deformation of canonical Quantum Mechanics in which only the time-evolution of the "phases" of energy eigenstates is modified. We discuss the effect this theory will have on oscillation phenomena, and place a bound on the deformation parameters utilizing the data on the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle $\theta_{23}$.**Contribution of Secondary Neutrinos from Line-of-sight Cosmic Ray Interactions to the IceCube Diffuse Astrophysical Flux**

2012.05955 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alina Kochocki, [and 3 more]Volodymyr Takhistov, Alexander Kusenko, and Nathan Whitehorn [hide authors].

In ten years of observations, the IceCube neutrino observatory has revealed a neutrino sky in tension with previous expectations for neutrino point source emissions. Astrophysical objects associated with hadronic processes might act as production sites for neutrinos, observed as point sources at Earth. Instead, a nearly isotropic flux of astrophysical neutrinos is observed up to PeV energies, prompting a reassessment of the assumed transport and production physics. This work applies a new physical explanation for neutrino production from populations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and starburst galaxies to three years of public IceCube point source data. Specifically, cosmic rays (CRs) produced at such sources might interact with extragalactic background light and gas along the line of sight, generating a secondary neutrino flux. This model is tested alongside a number of typical flux weighting schemes, in all cases the all-sky flux contribution being constrained to percent levels of the reported IceCube diffuse astrophysical flux.**Invisible neutrino decay : First vs second oscillation maximum**

2012.04958 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kaustav Chakraborty, [and 3 more]Debajyoti Dutta, Srubabati Goswami, and Dipyaman Pramanik [hide authors].

We study the physics potential of the long-baseline experiments T2HK, T2HKK and ESS$\nu$SB in the context of invisible neutrino decay. We consider normal mass ordering and assume that the state $\nu_{3}$ as unstable, decaying into sterile states during the flight and obtain constraints on the neutrino decay lifetime ($\tau_3$). We find that T2HK, T2HKK and ESS$\nu$SB are sensitive to the decay-rate of $\nu_{3}$ for $\tau_{3}/m_{3} \leq 2.72\times10^{-11}$s/eV, $\tau_{3}/m_{3} \leq 4.36\times10^{-11}$s/eV and $\tau_{3}/m_{3} \leq 2.43\times10^{-11}$s/eV respectively at 3$\sigma$ C.L. We compare and contrast the sensitivities of the three experiments and specially investigate the role played by the mixing angle $\theta_{23}$. It is seen that for experiments with flux peak near the second oscillation maxima, the poorer sensitivity to $\theta_{23}$ results in weaker constraints on the decay lifetime. Although, T2HKK has one detector close to the second oscillation maxima, having another detector at the first oscillation maxima results in superior sensitivity to decay. In addition, we find a synergy between the two baselines of the T2HKK experiment which helps in giving a better sensitivity for $\theta_{23}$ in the higher octant. We discuss the octant sensitivity in presence of decay and show that there is an enhancement in sensitivity which occurs due to the contribution from the survival probability $P_{\mu\mu}$ which is more pronounced for the experiments at the second oscillation maxima. We also obtain the combined sensitivity of T2HK+ESS$\nu$SB and T2HKK+ESS$\nu$SB as $\tau_{3}/m_{3} \leq 4.36\times10^{-11}$s/eV and $\tau_{3}/m_{3} \leq 5.53\times10^{-11}$s/eV respectively at 3$\sigma$ C.L.**Diophantine equations with sum of cubes and cube of sum**

2012.04139 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Bogdan A. Dobrescu and Patrick J. Fox.

We solve Diophantine equations of the type $ \, a \, (x^3 + y^3 + z^3 ) = (x + y + z)^3$, where $x,y,z$ are integer variables, and the coefficient $a \neq 0$ is rational. We show that there are infinite families of such equations, including those where $a$ is any ratio of cubes or certain rational fractions, that have nontrivial solutions. There are also infinite families of equations that do not have any nontrivial solution, including those where $1/a = 1 - 24/m$ with certain restrictions on the integer $m$. The equations can be represented by elliptic curves unless $a = 9$ or 1. If $a$ is an integer and two variables are equal and nonzero, there exist nontrivial solutions only for $a=4$ or 9; there are no solutions for $a = 4$ when $xyz \neq 0$. Without imposing constraints on the variables, we find the general solution for $a = 9$, which depends on two integer parameters. These cubic equations are important in particle physics, because they determine the fermion charges under the $U(1)$ gauge group.**Leptonic Sum Rules from Flavour Models with Modular Symmetries**

2012.04131 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Julia Gehrlein and Martin Spinrath.

Sum rules in the lepton sector provide an extremely valuable tool to classify flavour models in terms of relations between neutrino masses and mixing parameters testable in a plethora of experiments. In this manuscript we identify new leptonic sum rules arising in models with modular symmetries with residual symmetries. These models simultaneously present neutrino mass sum rules, involving masses and Majorana phases, and mixing sum rules, connecting the mixing angles and the Dirac CP-violating phase. The simultaneous appearance of both types of sum rules leads to some non-trivial interplay, for instance, the allowed absolute neutrino mass scale exhibits a dependence on the Dirac CP-violating phase. We derive analytical expressions for these novel sum rules and present their allowed parameter ranges as well as their predictions at upcoming neutrino experiments.**Search for solar electron anti-neutrinos due to spin-flavor precession in the Sun with Super-Kamiokande-IV**

2012.03807 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, [and 201 more]:, K. Abe, C. Bronner, Y. Hayato, M. Ikeda, S. Imaizumi, H. Ito, J. Kameda, Y. Kataoka, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, Y. Nagao, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakajima, S. Nakayama, T. Okada, K. Okamoto, A. Orii, G. Pronost, H. Sekiya, M. Shiozawa, Y. Sonoda, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeda, Y. Takemoto, A. Takenaka, H. Tanaka, T. Yano, R. Akutsu, S. Han, T. Kajita, K. Okumura, T. Tashiro, R. Wang, J. Xia, D. Bravo-Berguño, L. Labarga, Ll. Marti, B. Zaldivar, F. d. M. Blaszczyk, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. Wan, T. Wester, B. W. Pointin, J. Bian, N. J. Griskevich, W. R. Kropp, S. Locke, S. Mine, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, V. Takhistov, P. Weatherly, J. Hill, J. Y. Kim, I. T. Lim, R. G. Park, B. Bodur, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, L. Bernard, A. Coffani, O. Drapier, S. El Hedri, A. Giampaolo, M. Gonin, Th. A. Mueller, P. Paganini, B. Quilain, T. Ishizuka, T. Nakamura, J. S. Jang, J. G. Learned, L. H. V. Anthony, A. A. Sztuc, Y. Uchida, V. Berardi, M. G. Catanesi, E. Radicioni, N. F. Calabria, L. N. Machado, G. De Rosa, G. Collazuol, F. Iacob, M. Lamoureux, N. Ospina, L. Ludovici, Y. Nishimura, S. Cao, M. Friend, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, M. Jakkapu, T. Kobayashi, T. Matsubara, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, Y. Nakano, T. Shiozawa, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, A. Ali, Y. Ashida, J. Feng, S. Hirota, A. K. Ichikawa, T. Kikawa, M. Mori, T. Nakaya, R. A. Wendell, Y. Yasutome, P. Fernandez, N. McCauley, P. Mehta, A. Pritchard, K. M. Tsui, Y. Fukuda, Y. Itow, H. Menjo, T. Niwa, K. Sato, M. Tsukada, P. Mijakowski, C. K. Jung, C. Vilela, M. J. Wilking, C. Yanagisawa, M. Harada, K. Hagiwara, T. Horai, H. Ishino, S. Ito, Y. Koshio, W. Ma, N. Piplani, S. Sakai, Y. Kuno, G. Barr, D. Barrow, L. Cook, A. Goldsack, S. Samani, C. Simpson, D. Wark, F. Nova, T. Boschi, F. Di Lodovico, M. Taani, J. Migenda, S. Molina Sedgwick, S. Zsoldos, J. Y. Yang, S. J. Jenkins, M. Malek, J. M. McElwee, O. Stone, M. D. Thiesse, L. F. Thompson, H. Okazawa, S. B. Kim, I. Yu, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, K. Iwamoto, N. Ogawa, M. Yokoyama, K. Martens, M. R. Vagins, S. Izumiyama, M. Kuze, M. Tanaka, T. Yoshida, M. Inomoto, M. Ishitsuka, R. Matsumoto, K. Ohta, M. Shinoki, J. F. Martin, H. A. Tanaka, T. Towstego, M. Hartz, A. Konaka, P. de Perio, N. W. Prouse, S. Chen, B. D. Xu, B. Richards, B. Jamieson, J. Walker, A. Minamino, K. Okamoto, G. Pintaudi, R. Sasaki, and M. Posiadala-Zezula [hide authors].

Due to a very low production rate of electron anti-neutrinos ($\bar{\nu}_e$) via nuclear fusion in the Sun, a flux of solar $\bar{\nu}_e$ is unexpected. An appearance of $\bar{\nu}_e$ in solar neutrino flux opens a new window for the new physics beyond the standard model. In particular, a spin-flavor precession process is expected to convert an electron neutrino into an electron anti-neutrino (${\nu_e\to\bar{\nu}_e}$) when neutrino has a finite magnetic moment. In this work, we have searched for solar $\bar{\nu}_e$ in the Super-Kamiokande experiment, using neutron tagging to identify their inverse beta decay signature. We identified 78 $\bar{\nu}_e$ candidates for neutrino energies of 9.3 to 17.3 MeV in 2970.1 live days with a fiducial volume of 22.5 kiloton water (183.0 kton$\cdot$year exposure). The energy spectrum has been consistent with background predictions and we thus derived a 90% confidence level upper limit of ${4.7\times10^{-4}}$ on the $\nu_e\to\bar{\nu}_e$ conversion probability in the Sun. We used this result to evaluate the sensitivity of future experiments, notably the Super-Kamiokande Gadolinium (SK-Gd) upgrade.**Significance of Composition-Dependent Effects in Fifth-Force Searches**

2012.02862 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ephraim Fischbach, [and 5 more]John T. Gruenwald, Dennis E. Krause, Megan H. McDuffie, Michael J. Mueterthies, and Carol Y. Scarlett [hide authors].

Indications of a possible composition-dependent fifth force, based on a reanalysis of the E\"{o}tv\"{o}s experiment, have not been supported by a number of modern experiments. Here, we argue that searching for a composition-dependent fifth force necessarily requires data from experiments in which the acceleration differences of three or more independent pairs of test samples of varying composition are determined. We suggest that a new round of fifth-force experiments is called for, in each of which three or more different pairs of samples are compared.**Search for Coherent Elastic Scattering of Solar $^8$B Neutrinos in the XENON1T Dark Matter Experiment**

2012.02846 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by E. Aprile, [and 137 more]J. Aalbers, F. Agostini, S. Ahmed Maouloud, M. Alfonsi, L. Althueser, F. D. Amaro, S. Andaloro, V. C. Antochi, E. Angelino, J. R. Angevaare, F. Arneodo, L. Baudis, B. Bauermeister, L. Bellagamba, M. L. Benabderrahmane, A. Brown, E. Brown, S. Bruenner, G. Bruno, R. Budnik, C. Capelli, J. M. R. Cardoso, D. Cichon, B. Cimmino, M. Clark, D. Coderre, A. P. Colijn, J. Conrad, J. Cuenca, J. P. Cussonneau, M. P. Decowski, A. Depoian, P. Di Gangi, A. Di Giovanni, R. Di Stefano, S. Diglio, A. Elykov, A. D. Ferella, W. Fulgione, P. Gaemers, R. Gaior, M. Galloway, F. Gao, L. Grandi, C. Hils, K. Hiraide, L. Hoetzsch, J. Howlett, M. Iacovacci, Y. Itow, F. Joerg, N. Kato, S. Kazama, M. Kobayashi, G. Koltman, A. Kopec, H. Landsman, R. F. Lang, L. Levinson, S. Liang, S. Lindemann, M. Lindner, F. Lombardi, J. Long, J. A. M. Lopes, Y. Ma, C. Macolino, J. Mahlstedt, A. Mancuso, L. Manenti, A. Manfredini, F. Marignetti, T. Marrodán Undagoitia, K. Martens, J. Masbou, D. Masson, S. Mastroianni, M. Messina, K. Miuchi, K. Mizukoshi, A. Molinario, K. Morå, S. Moriyama, Y. Mosbacher, M. Murra, J. Naganoma, K. Ni, U. Oberlack, K. Odgers, J. Palacio, B. Pelssers, R. Peres, M. Pierre, J. Pienaar, V. Pizzella, G. Plante, J. Qi, J. Qin, D. Ramírez García, S. Reichard, A. Rocchetti, N. Rupp, J. M. F. dos Santos, G. Sartorelli, J. Schreiner, D. Schulte, H. Schulze Eißing, M. Schumann, L. Scotto Lavina, M. Selvi, F. Semeria, P. Shagin, E. Shockley, M. Silva, H. Simgen, A. Takeda, C. Therreau, D. Thers, F. Toschi, G. Trinchero, C. Tunnell, K. Valerius, M. Vargas, G. Volta, Y. Wei, C. Weinheimer, M. Weiss, D. Wenz, C. Wittweg, T. Wolf, Z. Xu, M. Yamashita, J. Ye, G. Zavattini, Y. Zhang, T. Zhu, and J. P. Zopounidis [hide authors].

We report on a search for nuclear recoil signals from solar $^8$B neutrinos elastically scattering off xenon nuclei in XENON1T data, lowering the energy threshold from 2.6 keV to 1.6 keV. We develop a variety of novel techniques to limit the resulting increase in backgrounds near the threshold. No significant $^8$B neutrino-like excess is found in an exposure of 0.6 t $\times$ y. For the first time, we use the non-detection of solar neutrinos to constrain the light yield from 1-2 keV nuclear recoils in liquid xenon, as well as non-standard neutrino-quark interactions. Finally, we improve upon world-leading constraints on dark matter-nucleus interactions for dark matter masses between 3 GeV/c$^2$ and 11 GeV/c$^2$ by as much as an order of magnitude.**Prospects of detecting the reactor $\bar{ν_e}$-Ar coherent elastic scattering with a low threshold dual-phase argon time projection chamber at Taishan**

2012.00966 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yu-Ting Wei, [and 9 more]Meng-Yun Guan, Jin-Chang Liu, Ze-Yuan Yu, Chang-Gen Yang, Cong Guo, Wei-Xing Xiong, You-Yu Gan, Qin Zhao, and Jia-Jun Li [hide authors].

We propose to measure the coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) using a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (TPC) with 200kg fiducial mass. The detector is expected to be adjacent to the JUNO-TAO experiment and to be about 35m from a reactor core with 4.6GW thermal power at Taishan. The antineutrino flux is approximately 6$\times10^{12}$cm$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$ at this location, leading to more than 11,000 coherent scattering events per day in the fiducial mass. However, the nuclear recoil energies concentrate in the sub-keV region, corresponding to less than ten ionisation electrons in the liquid argon. The detection of several ionisation electrons can be achieved in the dual-phase TPC due to the large amplification in the gas region. With a feasible detection threshold of four ionisation electrons, the signal rate is 955 per day. The detector is designed to be shielded well from cosmogenic backgrounds and ambient radioactivities to reach a 16% background-to-signal ratio in the energy region of interest. With the large CE$\nu$NS sample, the expected sensitivity of measuring the weak mixing angle $\sin^{2}\theta_{W}$, and of limiting the neutrino magnetic moment are discussed. In addition, a synergy between the reactor antineutrino CE$\nu$NS experiment and the dark matter experiment is foreseen.**Non-standard interactions in SMEFT confronted with terrestrial neutrino experiments**

2011.14292 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yong Du, [and 4 more]Hao-Lin Li, Jian Tang, Sampsa Vihonen, and Jiang-Hao Yu [hide authors].

The Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) provides a systematic and model-independent framework to study neutrino non-standard interactions (NSIs). We study the constraining power of the on-going neutrino oscillation experiments T2K, NO$\nu$A, Daya Bay, Double Chooz and RENO in the SMEFT framework. A full consideration of matching is provided between different effective field theories and the renormalization group running at different scales, filling the gap between the low-energy neutrino oscillation experiments and SMEFT at the UV scale. We first illustrate our method with a top-down approach in a simplified scalar leptoquark model, showing more stringent constraints from the neutrino oscillation experiments compared to collider studies. We then provide a bottom-up study on individual dimension-6 SMEFT operators and find NSIs in neutrino experiments already sensitive to new physics at $\sim$20 TeV when the Wilson coefficients are fixed at unity. We also investigate the correlation among multiple operators at the UV scale and find it could change the constraints on SMEFT operators by several orders of magnitude compared with when only one operator is considered. Furthermore, we find that accelerator and reactor neutrino experiments are sensitive to different SMEFT operators, which highlights the complementarity of the two experiment types.**Probing UHECR production in Centaurus A using secondary neutrinos and gamma-rays**

2011.13984 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Cainã de Oliveira and Vitor de Souza.

In this paper, the production of neutrinos and photons by ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) interacting with the extragalactic background radiation is studied. Centaurus A is assumed as the prime source of UHECR and the possibility to identify this source by detecting the secondary neutrinos and photons produced in the propagation of UHECR is investigated. Fifteen astrophysical models regarding three extragalactic magnetic fields (EGMF) and five composition abundances are simulated. The flux and arrival direction of neutrinos and photons are investigated. It is shown that the detection of a signal from Cen A with statistical significance is achievable by current observatories in a few years and by proposed experiments in the near future. The dependence of the results on the models is also presented.**Flavour specific neutrino self-interaction: $H_0$ tension and IceCube**

2011.13685 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Arindam Mazumdar, Subhendra Mohanty, and Priyank Parashari.

Self-interaction in the active neutrinos is studied in the literature to alleviate the $H_0$ tension. Similar self-interaction can also explain the observed dips in the flux of the neutrinos coming from the distant astro-physical sources in IceCube detectors. In contrast to the flavour universal neutrino interaction considered for solving the $H_0$ tension, which is ruled out from particle physics experiments, we consider flavour specific neutrino interactions. We show that the values of self-interaction coupling constant and mediator mass required for explaining the IceCube dips are inconsistent with the strong neutrino self-interactions preferred by the combination of BAO, HST and Planck data. However, the required amount of self-interaction between tau neutrinos ($\nu_\tau$) in inverted hierarchy for explaining IceCube dips is consistent with the moderate self-interaction region of cosmological bounds at 1-$\sigma$ level. For the case of other interactions and hierarchies, the IceCube preferred amount of self-interaction is consistent with moderate self-interaction region of cosmological bounds at 2-$\sigma$ level only.**UHECR mass composition at highest energies from anisotropy of their arrival directions**

2011.11590 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Yu. Kuznetsov and P. G. Tinyakov.

We propose a new method for the estimation of ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) mass composition from a distribution of their arrival directions. The method employs a test statistic (TS) based on a characteristic deflection of UHECR events with respect to the distribution of luminous matter in the local Universe. Making realistic simulations of the mock UHECR sets, we show that this TS is robust to the presence of galactic and non-extreme extra-galactic magnetic fields and sensitive to the mass composition of events in a set. This allows one to constrain the UHECR mass composition by comparing the TS distribution of a composition model in question with the data TS, and to discriminate between different composition models. While the statistical power of the method depends somewhat on the MF parameters, this dependence decreases with the growth of statistics. The method shows good performance even at GZK energies where the estimation of UHCER mass composition with traditional methods is complicated by a low statistics.**Flavor Triangle of the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background**

2011.10933 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Zahra Tabrizi and Shunsaku Horiuchi.

Although Galactic core-collapse supernovae (SNe) only happen a few times per century, every hour a vast number of explosions happen in the whole universe, emitting energy in the form of neutrinos, resulting in the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB). The DSNB has not yet been detected, but Super-Kamiokande doped with gadolinium is expected to yield the first statistically significant observation within the next several years. Since the neutrinos produced at the core collapse undergo mixing during their propagation to Earth, the flavor content at detection is a test of oscillation physics. In this paper, we estimate the expected DSNB data at the DUNE, Hyper-K and JUNO experiments which when combined are sensitive to all different neutrino flavors. We determine how well the flavor content of the DSNB will be reconstructed in the future, for a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) scenario as well as a neutrino decay scenario. A large fraction of the flavor space will be excluded, but the heavy-lepton neutrino flux remains a challenge.**Novel approach for the study of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering**

2011.10230 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Galindo-Uribarri, O. G. Miranda, and G. Sanchez Garcia.

We propose the use of isotopically highly enriched detectors for the precise study of coherent-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS). CEvNS has been measured for the first time in CsI and recently confirmed with a liquid argon detector. It is expected that several new experimental setups will measure this process with increasing accuracy. Taking Ge detectors as a working example, we demonstrate that a combination of different isotopes is an excellent option to do precision neutrino physics with CEvNS, test Standard Model predictions, and probe new physics scenarios. Experiments based on this new idea can make simultaneous differential CEvNS measurements with detectors of different isotopic composition. Particular combination of observables could be used to cancel systematic errors. While many applications are possible, we illustrate the idea with three examples: testing the dominant quadratic dependence on the number of neutrons, $N$, that is predicted by the theoretical models; constraining the average neutron root mean square (rms) radius; and testing the weak mixing angle and the sensitivity to new physics. In all three cases we find that the extra sensitivity provided by this method will potentially allow high-precision robust measurements with CEvNS and particularly, will resolve the characteristic degeneracies appearing in new physics scenarios.**Superradiance Exclusions in the Landscape of Type IIB String Theory**

2011.08693 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Viraf M. Mehta, [and 5 more]Mehmet Demirtas, Cody Long, David J. E. Marsh, Liam McAllister, and Matthew J. Stott [hide authors].

We obtain constraints from black hole superradiance in an ensemble of compactifications of type IIB string theory. The constraints require knowing only the axion masses and self-interactions, and are insensitive to the cosmological model. We study more than $2 \cdot 10^5$ Calabi-Yau manifolds with Hodge numbers $1\leq h^{1,1}\leq 491$ and compute the axion spectrum at two reference points in moduli space for each geometry. Our computation of the classical theory is explicit, while for the instanton-generated axion potential we use a conservative model. The measured properties of astrophysical black holes exclude parts of our dataset. At the point in moduli space corresponding to the tip of the stretched K\"{a}hler cone, we exclude $\approx 50\%$ of manifolds in our sample at 95% C.L., while further inside the K\"{a}hler cone, at an extremal point for realising the Standard Model, we exclude a maximum of $\approx 7\%$ of manifolds at $h^{1,1}=11$, falling to nearly zero by $h^{1,1}=100$.**Neutrino amplitude decomposition in matter**

2011.08415 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

Observation of the interference between the atmospheric-scale and solar-scale oscillations is one of the challenging and tantalizing goals of the ongoing and upcoming neutrino experiments. An inevitable first step required for such analyses is to establish the way of how the oscillation $S$ matrix can be decomposed into the atmospheric and solar waves, the procedure dubbed as the amplitude decomposition. In this paper, with use of the perturbative framework proposed by Denton et al. (DMP), we establish the prescription for amplitude decomposition which covers the whole kinematical region of the terrestrial neutrino experiments. We analyze the limits to the atmospheric- and solar-resonance regions to argue that the dynamical two modes of the DMP decomposition can be interpreted as the matter-dressed atmospheric and solar oscillations. The expressions of the oscillation probability, which are decomposed into the non-interference and interference terms, are derived for all the relevant flavor oscillation channels. Through construction of the DMP decomposition, we reveal the nature of $\psi$ ($\theta_{12}$ in matter) symmetry as due to the $S$ matrix rephasing invariance. A new picture of the DMP perturbation theory emerged, a unified perturbative framework for neutrino oscillation in earth matter.**Summary of the NuSTEC Workshop on Neutrino-Nucleus Pion Production in the Resonance Region**

2011.07166 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by L. Aliaga, [and 22 more]A. Ashkenazi, C. Bronner, J. Calcutt, D. Cherdack, K. Duffy, S. Dytman, N. Jachowicz, M. Kabirnezhad, K. Kuzmin, G. A. Miller, T. Le, J. G. Morfin, U. Mosel, J. Nieves, K. Niewczas, A. Nikolakopoulos, J. Nowak, J. Paley, G. Pawloski, T. Sato, L. Weinstein, and C. Wret [hide authors].

The NuSTEC workshop held at the University of Pittsburgh in October 2019 brought theorists and experimentalists together to discuss the state of modeling and measurements related to pion production in neutrino-nucleus scattering in the kinematic region where pions are produced through both resonant and non-resonant mechanisms. Modeling of this region is of critical importance to the current and future accelerator- and atmospheric-based neutrino oscillation experiments. For the benefit of the community, links to the presentations are accompanied by annotations from the speakers highlighting significant points made during the presentations and resulting discussions.**Constraints on ultralight scalar bosons within black hole spin measurements from LIGO-Virgo's GWTC-2**

2011.06010 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ken K. Y. Ng, [and 3 more]Salvatore Vitale, Otto A. Hannuksela, and Tjonnie G. F. Li [hide authors].

Clouds of ultralight bosons - such as axions - can form around a rapidly spinning black hole, if the black hole radius is comparable to the bosons' wavelength. The cloud rapidly extracts angular momentum from the black hole, and reduces it to a characteristic value that depends on the boson's mass as well as on the black hole mass and spin. Therefore, a measurement of a black hole mass and spin can be used to reveal or exclude the existence of such bosons. Using the black holes released by LIGO and Virgo in their GWTC-2, we perform a simultaneous measurement of the black hole spin distribution at formation and the mass of the scalar boson. We find that the data strongly disfavors the existence of scalar bosons in the mass range between $1.3\times10^{-13}~\mathrm{eV}$ and $2.7\times10^{-13}~\mathrm{eV}$ for a decay constant $f_a\gtrsim 10^{14}~\mathrm{GeV}$. The statistical evidence is mostly driven by the two {binary black holes} systems GW190412 and GW190517, which host rapidly spinning black holes. The region where bosons are excluded narrows down if these two systems merged shortly ($\sim 10^5$ years) after the black holes formed.**Flavor-dependent radiative corrections in coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering**

2011.05960 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Oleksandr Tomalak, [and 3 more]Pedro Machado, Vishvas Pandey, and Ryan Plestid [hide authors].

We calculate coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections on spin-0 nuclei (e.g. $^{40}$Ar and $^{28}$Si) at energies below 100 MeV within the Standard Model and account for all effects of permille size. We provide a complete error budget including uncertainties at nuclear, nucleon, hadronic, and quark levels separately as well as perturbative error. Our calculation starts from the four-fermion effective field theory to explicitly separate heavy-particle mediated corrections (which are absorbed by Wilson coefficients) from light-particle contributions. Electrons and muons running in loops introduce a nontrivial dependence on the momentum transfer due to their relatively light masses. These same loops, and those mediated by tau leptons, break the flavor universality because of mass-dependent electromagnetic radiative corrections. Nuclear physics uncertainties significantly cancel in flavor asymmetries resulting in subpercent relative errors. We find that for low neutrino energies, the cross section can be predicted with a relative precision that is competitive with neutrino-electron scattering. We highlight potentially useful applications of such a precise cross section prediction ranging from precision tests of the Standard Model, to searches for new physics and to the monitoring of nuclear reactors.**First all-flavor search for transient neutrino emission using 3-years of IceCube DeepCore data**

2011.05096 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 362 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, C. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Gündüz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krückl, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momenté, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, G. Neer, L. V. Nguyên, M. L. Nielsen, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, J. Vandenbroucke, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, and Z. Zhang [hide authors].

Since the discovery of a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, searches for their origins have focused primarily at TeV-PeV energies. Compared to sub-TeV searches, high-energy searches benefit from an increase in the neutrino cross section, improved angular resolution on the neutrino direction, and a reduced background from atmospheric neutrinos and muons. However, the focus on high energy does not preclude the existence of sub-TeV neutrino emission where IceCube retains sensitivity. Here we present the first all-flavor search from IceCube for transient emission of low-energy neutrinos, focusing on the energy region of 5.6-100 GeV using three years of data obtained with the IceCube-DeepCore detector. We find no evidence of transient neutrino emission in the data, thus leading to a constraint on the volumetric rate of astrophysical transient sources in the range of $\sim 705-2301\, \text{Gpc}^{-3}\, \text{yr}^{-1}$ for sources following a subphotospheric energy spectrum with a mean energy of 100 GeV and a bolometric energy of $10^{52}$ erg.**Measurement of the high-energy all-flavor neutrino-nucleon cross section with IceCube**

2011.03560 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 364 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, C. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Gündüz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krückl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, F. McNally, K. Meagher, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momenté, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, G. Neer, L. V. Nguyen, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, N. Wandkowsky, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, and Z. Zhang [hide authors].

The flux of high-energy neutrinos passing through the Earth is attenuated due to their interactions with matter. The interaction rate is modulated by the neutrino interaction cross section and affects the flux arriving at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a cubic-kilometer neutrino detector embedded in the Antarctic ice sheet. We present a measurement of the neutrino cross section between 60 TeV and 10 PeV using the high-energy starting events (HESE) sample from IceCube with 7.5 years of data. The result is binned in neutrino energy and obtained using both Bayesian and frequentist statistics. We find it compatible with predictions from the Standard Model. Flavor information is explicitly included through updated morphology classifiers, proxies for the the three neutrino flavors. This is the first such measurement to use the three morphologies as observables and the first to account for neutrinos from tau decay.**The IceCube high-energy starting event sample: Description and flux characterization with 7.5 years of data**

2011.03545 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 365 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, C. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Gündüz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, T. Katori, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krückl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, S. Mancina, S. Mandalia, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, F. McNally, K. Meagher, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momenté, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, G. Neer, L. V. Nguyen, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, J. Vandenbroucke, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, N. Wandkowsky, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, and Z. Zhang [hide authors].

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has established the existence of a high-energy all-sky neutrino flux of astrophysical origin. This discovery was made using events interacting within a fiducial region of the detector surrounded by an active veto and with reconstructed energy above 60 TeV, commonly known as the high-energy starting event sample, or HESE. We revisit the analysis of the HESE sample with an additional 4.5 years of data, newer glacial ice models, and improved systematics treatment. This paper describes the sample in detail, reports on the latest astrophysical neutrino flux measurements, and presents a source search for astrophysical neutrinos. We give the compatibility of these observations with specific isotropic flux models proposed in the literature as well as generic power-law-like scenarios. Assuming $\nu_e:\nu_\mu:\nu_\tau=1:1:1$, and an equal flux of neutrinos and antineutrinos, we find that the astrophysical neutrino spectrum is compatible with an unbroken power law, with a preferred spectral index of ${2.87}^{+0.20}_{-0.19}$ for the $68.3\%$ confidence interval.**Intimate Relationship Between Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter and $Δ N_{\rm eff}$**

2011.02487 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kevin J. Kelly, Manibrata Sen, and Yue Zhang.

The self-interacting neutrino hypothesis is well motivated for addressing the tension between the origin of sterile neutrino dark matter and indirect detection constraints. It can also result in a number of testable signals from the laboratories to the cosmos. We explore a model of neutrino self-interaction mediated by a Majoron-like scalar with sub-MeV mass, and show that explaining the relic density of sterile neutrino dark matter implies a lower bound on the amount of extra radiation in early universe, in particular $\Delta N_{\rm eff}>0.12$ at the CMB epoch. This lower bound will be further strengthened with an improved $X$-ray search at the Athena observatory. Such an intimate relationship will be unambiguously tested by the upcoming CMB-S4 project.**Neutrino experiments probe hadrophilic light dark matter**

2011.01939 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yohei Ema, Filippo Sala, and Ryosuke Sato.

We use Super-K data to place new strong limits on interactions of sub-GeV Dark Matter (DM) with nuclei, that rely on the DM flux inevitably induced by cosmic-ray upscatterings. We derive analogous sensitivities at Hyper-K and DUNE and compare them with others, e.g. at JUNO. Using simplified models, we find that our proposal tests genuinely new parameter space, allowed both by theoretical consistency and by other direct detection experiments, cosmology, meson decays and our recast of monojet. Our results thus motivate and shape a new physics case for any large volume detector sensitive to nuclear recoils.**Invisible neutrino decay in precision cosmology**

2011.01502 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gabriela Barenboim, [and 5 more]Joe Zhiyu Chen, Steen Hannestad, Isabel M. Oldengott, Thomas Tram, and Yvonne Y. Y. Wong [hide authors].

We revisit the topic of invisible neutrino decay in the precision cosmological context, via a first-principles approach to understanding the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure phenomenology of such a non-standard physics scenario. Assuming an effective Lagrangian in which a heavier standard-model neutrino $\nu_H$ couples to a lighter one $\nu_l$ and a massless scalar particle $\phi$ via a Yukawa interaction, we derive from first principles the complete set of Boltzmann equations, at both the spatially homogeneous and the first-order inhomogeneous levels, for the phase space densities of $\nu_H$, $\nu_l$, and $\phi$ in the presence of the relevant decay and inverse decay processes. With this set of equations in hand, we perform a critical survey of recent works on cosmological invisible neutrino decay in both limits of decay while $\nu_H$ is ultra-relativistic and non-relativistic. Our two main findings are: (i) in the non-relativistic limit, the effective equations of motion used to describe perturbations in the neutrino--scalar system in the existing literature formally violate momentum conservation and gauge invariance, and (ii) in the ultra-relativistic limit, exponential damping of the anisotropic stress does not occur at the commonly-used rate $\Gamma_{\rm T} =(1/\tau_0) (m_{\nu H}/E_{\nu H})^3$, but at a rate $\sim (1/\tau_0) (m_{\nu H}/E_{\nu H})^5$. Both results are model-independent. The impact of the former finding on the cosmology of invisible neutrino decay is likely small. The latter, however, implies a significant revision of the cosmological limit on the neutrino lifetime $\tau_0$ from $\tau_0^{\rm old} \gtrsim 1.2 \times 10^9\, {\rm s}\, (m_{\nu H}/50\, {\rm meV})^3$ to $\tau_0 \gtrsim (4 \times 10^5 \to 4 \times 10^6)\, {\rm s}\, (m_{\nu H}/50 \, {\rm meV})^5$.**Neutrino 2020: Theory Outlook**

2011.01264 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Goran Senjanovic.

I present a personal vision of what is essential in the field of neutrino mass, both from the point of view of what has been achieved and what could lie ahead. In the process, I offer a logical, theoretical and phenomenological rationale behind my opinions. It is however neither a summary of what was discussed in the conference nor a party-line viewpoint, rather an attempt to dig through the enormous body of material in our field in order to uncover a common unifying thread. The main focus is on the search for a predictive and self-contained theory of the origin and nature of neutrino mass, with the conclusion that the Left-Right Symmetric Model plays a special role in this aspect.**Uncovering Majorana nature through a precision measurement of $CP$ phase**

2011.01254 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. C. Carrasco-Martínez, F. N. Díaz, and A. M. Gago.

We show the possibility to discover the neutrino nature by measuring the Majorana CP phase at the DUNE experiment. This phase is turned on by a decoherence environment, possibly originated by physics at the Planck scale. A sizable distortion in the measurement of the Dirac CP violation phase $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ is observed at DUNE when compared with T2HK measurement due to decoherence and non-null Majorana phase. Being that, when the measurement of the Majorana phase is performed at DUNE, it reaches a precision of 23 (21) $\%$ for a decoherence parameter $\Gamma=4.5(5.5)\times 10^{-24} \mathrm{GeV}$ and a Majorana phase equal to $1.5 \pi$. The latter precision is similar to the one obtained at the T2K experiment at its current Dirac CP violation phase measurement.**A Non-Degenerate Neutrino Mass Signature in the Galaxy Bispectrum**

2011.00899 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Farshad Kamalinejad and Zachary Slepian.

In the Standard Model, neutrinos are massless, yet oscillation experiments show in fact they do have a small mass. Currently only the differences of the masses' squares are known, and an upper bound on the sum. However, upcoming surveys of the Universe's large-scale structure (LSS) can probe the neutrino mass by exposing how neutrinos modulate galaxy clustering. But these measurements are challenging: in looking at the clustering of galaxy pairs, the effect of neutrinos is degenerate with galaxy formation, the details of which are unknown. Marginalizing over them degrades the constraints. Here we show that using correlations of galaxy triplets---the 3-Point Correlation Function or its Fourier-space analog the bispectrum---can break the degeneracy between galaxy formation physics (known as biasing) and the neutrino mass. Specifically, we find a signature of neutrinos in the bispectrum's dipole moment (with respect to triangle opening angle) that is roughly orthogonal to the contribution of galaxy biases. This signature was missed in previous works by failing to account for how neutrinos alter mode-coupling between perturbations on different scales. Our proposed signature will contribute to upcoming LSS surveys' such as DESI making a robust detection of the neutrino mass. We estimate that it can offer several-$\sigma$ evidence for non-zero $m_{\nu}$ with DESI from the bispectrum alone, and that this is independent from information in the galaxy power spectrum.**Constraints on elastic neutrino nucleus scattering in the fully coherent regime from the CONUS experiment**

2011.00210 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by H. Bonet, [and 11 more]A. Bonhomme, C. Buck, K. Fülber, J. Hakenmüller, G. Heusser, T. Hugle, M. Lindner, W. Maneschg, T. Rink, H. Strecker, and R. Wink [hide authors].

We report the best limit on coherent elastic scattering of electron antineutrinos emitted from a nuclear reactor off germanium nuclei. The measurement was performed with the CONUS detectors positioned at 17.1m from the 3.9GWth reactor core of the nuclear power plant in Brokdorf, Germany. The antineutrino energies of less than 10 MeV assure interactions in the fully coherent regime. The analyzed dataset includes 248.7 kgd with the reactor turned on and background data of 58.8 kgd with the reactor off. With a quenching parameter of k = 0.18 for germanium, we determined an upper limit on the number of neutrino events of 85 in the region of interest at 90% confidence level. This new CONUS dataset disfavors quenching parameters above k = 0.27, under the assumption of standard-model-like coherent scattering of the reactor antineutrinos.**Tentative sensitivity of future $0νββ$-decay experiments to neutrino masses and Majorana CP phases**

2010.16281 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guo-yuan Huang and Shun Zhou.

In the near future, the neutrinoless double-beta ($0\nu\beta\beta$) decay experiments will hopefully reach the sensitivity of a few ${\rm meV}$ to the effective neutrino mass $|m^{}_{\beta\beta}|$. In this paper, we tentatively examine the sensitivity of future $0\nu\beta\beta$-decay experiments to neutrino masses and Majorana CP phases by following the Bayesian statistical approach. Provided experimental setups corresponding to the sensitivity of $|m^{}_{\beta\beta}| \simeq 1~{\rm meV}$, the null observation of $0\nu\beta\beta$ decays in the case of normal neutrino mass ordering leads to a very competitive bound on the lightest neutrino mass $m^{}_1$. Namely, the $95\%$ credible interval turns out to be $1.6~{\rm meV} \lesssim m^{}_1 \lesssim 7.3~{\rm meV}$ or $0.3~{\rm meV} \lesssim m^{}_1 \lesssim 5.6~{\rm meV}$ when the uniform prior on $m^{}_1/{\rm eV}$ or on $\log^{}_{10}(m^{}_1/{\rm eV})$ is adopted. Moreover, one of two Majorana CP phases is strictly constrained, i.e., $140^\circ \lesssim \rho \lesssim 220^\circ$ for both priors of $m^{}_1$. In contrast, if a relatively worse sensitivity of $|m^{}_{\beta\beta}| \simeq 10~{\rm meV}$ is assumed, the constraint becomes accordingly $0.6~{\rm meV} \lesssim m^{}_1 \lesssim 26~{\rm meV}$ or $0 \lesssim m^{}_1 \lesssim 6.1~{\rm meV}$, while two Majorana CP phases will be essentially unconstrained. In the same statistical framework, the prospects for the determination of neutrino mass ordering and the discrimination between Majorana and Dirac nature of massive neutrinos in the $0\nu\beta\beta$-decay experiments are also discussed. Given the experimental sensitivity of $|m^{}_{\beta\beta}| \simeq 10~{\rm meV}$ (or $1~{\rm meV}$), the strength of evidence to exclude the Majorana nature under the null observation of $0\nu\beta\beta$ decays is found to be inconclusive (or strong), no matter which of two priors on $m^{}_1$ is taken.**Constraining primordial black holes as dark matter at JUNO**

2010.16053 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sai Wang, [and 4 more]Dong-Mei Xia, Xukun Zhang, Shun Zhou, and Zhe Chang [hide authors].

As an attractive candidate for dark matter, the primordial black holes (PBHs) in the mass range ($10^{15} \sim 10^{16}$)$\mathrm{g}$ could be detected via their Hawking radiation, including neutrinos and antineutrinos of three flavors. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to constrain the PBH as dark matter by measuring (anti)neutrino signals at the large liquid-scintillator detector of Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO). Among six available detection channels, the inverse beta decay $\overline{\nu}^{}_e + p \to e^+ + n$ is shown to be most sensitive to the fraction $f^{}_{\rm PBH}$ of PBHs contributing to the dark matter abundance. Given the PBH mass $M^{}_{\rm PBH} = 10^{15}~{\rm g}$, we find that JUNO will be able to place an upper bound $f^{}_{\rm PBH} \lesssim 3\times 10^{-5}$, which is 20 times better than the current best limit $f^{}_{\rm PBH} \lesssim 6\times 10^{-4}$ from Super-Kamiokande. For heavier PBHs with a lower Hawking temperature, the (anti)neutrinos become less energetic, leading to a relatively weaker bound.**No-go limitations on UV completions of the Neutrino Option**

2010.15428 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ilaria Brivio, Jim Talbert, and Michael Trott.

We discuss the possible origin of the Majorana mass scale(s) required for the "Neutrino Option" where the electroweak scale is generated simultaneously with light neutrino masses in a type-I seesaw model, by common dimension four interactions. We establish no-go constraints on the perturbative generation of the Majorana masses required due to global symmetries of the seesaw Lagrangian.**Astrophysical constraints on non-standard coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering**

2010.14545 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anna M. Suliga and Irene Tamborra.

The exciting possibility of detecting supernova, solar, and atmospheric neutrinos with coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering detectors is within reach, opening up new avenues to probe New Physics. We explore the possibility of constraining non-standard coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering through astrophysical neutrinos. Sensitivity bounds on the mass and coupling of the new mediator are obtained by inspecting the modifications induced by the new interaction on the recoil rate observable in the upcoming RES-NOVA and DARWIN facilities. Under the assumption of optimal background tagging, the detection of neutrinos from a galactic supernova burst, or one-year exposure to solar and atmospheric neutrinos, will place the most stringent bounds for mediator couplings $g \gtrsim 10^{-5}$ and mediator masses between 1 and 100 MeV. A similar, but slightly improved, potential to COHERENT will be provided for larger mediator masses. In particular, RES-NOVA and DARWIN may potentially provide one order of magnitude tighter constraints than XENON1T on the mediator coupling. Non-standard coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering may also force neutrinos to be trapped in the supernova core; this argument allows to probe the region of the parameter space with $g \gtrsim 10^{-4}$, which is currently excluded by other coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering facilities or other astrophysical and terrestrial constraints.**Sensitivities of future reactor and long-baseline neutrino experiments to NSI**

2010.12849 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pouya Bakhti and Meshkat Rajaee.

We investigate the potential of the next generation long-baseline neutrino experiments DUNE and T2HK as well as the upcoming reactor experiment JUNO to constrain Non-Standard Interaction (NSI) parameters. JUNO is going to provide the most precise measurements of solar neutrino oscillation parameters as well as determining the neutrino mass ordering. We study how the results of JUNO combined with those of long-baseline neutrino experiments such as DUNE and T2HK can help to determine oscillation parameters and to constrain NSI parameters. We present excluded regions in NSI parameter space, $\epsilon_{\alpha \beta}$ assuming Standard Model (SM) as the null hypothesis. We further explore the correlations between the NSI parameters and CP-violation phase.**New Solutions for Rotating Boson Stars**

2010.09880 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Felix Kling, Arvind Rajaraman, and Freida Liz Rivera.

It has been shown that scalar fields can form gravitationally bound compact objects called boson stars. In this study, we analyze boson star configurations where the scalar fields contain a small amount of angular momentum and find two new classes of solutions. In the first case all particles are in the same slowly rotating state and in the second case the majority of particles are in the non-rotating ground state and a small number of particles are in an excited rotating state. In both cases, we solve the underlying Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations that describe the profile of these compact objects both numerically as well as analytically through series expansions.**Rotations of the polarization of a gravitational wave propagating in Universe**

2010.09224 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jia-Xi Feng, Fu-Wen Shu, and Anzhong Wang.

In this paper, we study the polarization of a gravitational wave (GW) emitted by an astrophysical source at a cosmic distance propagating through the Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walk universe. By considering the null geodesic deviations, we first provide a definition of the polarization of the GW in terms of the Weyl scalars with respect to a parallelly-transported frame along the null geodesics, and then show explicitly that, due to different effects of the expansion of the universe on the two polarization modes, the so-called "+" and "$\times$" modes, the polarization angle of the GW changes generically, when it is propagating through the curved background. By direct computations of the polarization angle, we show that different epochs, radiation-, matter- and $\Lambda$-dominated, have different effects on the polarization. In particular, for a GW emitted by a binary system, we find explicitly the relation between the change of the polarization angle $|\Delta \varphi|$ and the redshift $z_s$ of the source in different epochs. In the $\Lambda$CDM model, we find that the order of $|\Delta \varphi|{\eta_0 F}$ is typically $O(10^{-3})$ to $O(10^3)$, depending on the values of $z_s$, where $\eta_0$ is the (comoving) time of the current universe, and $F\equiv\Big(\frac{5}{256}\frac{1}{\tau_{obs}}\Big)^{3/8}\left(G_NM_c\right)^{-5/8}$ with $\tau_{obs}$ and $M_c$ being, respectively, the time to coalescence in the observer's frame and the chirp mass of the binary system.**Neutrino oscillations in matter: from microscopic to macroscopic description**

2010.07847 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Evgeny Akhmedov.

Neutrino flavour transmutations in nonuniform matter are described by a Schr\"{o}dinger-like evolution equation with coordinate-dependent potential. In all the derivations of this equation it is assumed that the potential, which is due to coherent forward scattering of neutrinos on matter constituents, is a continuous function of coordinate that changes slowly over the distances of the order of the neutrino de Broglie wavelength. This tacitly assumes that some averaging of the microscopic potential (which takes into account the discrete nature of the scatterers) has been performed.The averaging, however, must be applied to the microscopic evolution equation as a whole and not just to the potential. Such an averaging has never been explicitly carried out. We fill this gap by considering the transition from the microscopic to macroscopic neutrino evolution equation through a proper averaging procedure. We discuss some subtleties related to this procedure and establish the applicability domain of the standard macroscopic evolution equation. This, in particular, allows us to answer the question of when neutrino propagation in rarefied media (such as e.g.\ low-density gases or interstellar or intergalactic media) can be considered within the standard theory of neutrino flavour evolution in matter.**Astronomy with energy dependent flavour ratios of extragalactic neutrinos**

2010.07336 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Siddhartha Karmakar, Sujata Pandey, and Subhendu Rakshit.

High energy astrophysical neutrinos interacting with ultralight dark matter (DM) can undergo flavour oscillations that induce an energy dependence in the flavour ratios. Such a dependence on the neutrino energy will reflect in the track to shower ratio in neutrino telescopes like IceCube or KM3NeT. This opens up a possibility to study DM density profiles of astrophysical objects like AGN, GRB etc., which are the suspected sources of such neutrinos.**Charged Higgs effects in IceCube: PeV events and NSIs**

2010.05797 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ujjal Kumar Dey, Newton Nath, and Soumya Sadhukhan.

Extensions of the Standard Model with charged Higgs, having a non-negligible coupling with neutrinos, can have interesting implications vis-\`{a}-vis neutrino experiments. Such models can leave their footprints in the ultra-high energy neutrino detectors like IceCube in the form of neutrino non-standard interactions (NSIs) which can also be probed in lower energy neutrino experiments. We consider a model based on the neutrinophilic two-Higgs doublets and study its imprints in the recently reported excess neutrino events in the PeV energy bins at the IceCube. An additional signature of the model is that it also leads to sizeable NSIs. We perform a combined study of the latest IceCube data along with various other constraints arising from neutrino experiments e.g., Borexino, TEXONO, COHERENT, DUNE, and T2HK, together with the limits set by the LEP experiment, and explore the parameter space which can lead to a sizeable NSI.**Stellar Collapse Diversity and the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background**

2010.04728 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Daniel Kresse, Thomas Ertl, and Hans-Thomas Janka.

The diffuse cosmic supernova neutrino background (DSNB) is observational target of the gadolinium-loaded Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector and the forthcoming JUNO and Hyper-Kamiokande detectors. Current predictions are hampered by our still incomplete understanding of the supernova (SN) explosion mechanism and of the neutron star (NS) equation of state and maximum mass. In our comprehensive study we revisit this problem on grounds of the landscapes of successful and failed SN explosions obtained by Sukhbold et al. and Ertl et al. with parametrized one-dimensional neutrino engines for large sets of single-star and helium-star progenitors, with the latter serving as proxy of binary evolution effects. Besides considering engines of different strengths, leading to different fractions of failed SNe with black-hole (BH) formation, we also vary the NS mass limit, the spectral shape of the neutrino emission, and include contributions from poorly understood alternative NS-formation channels such as accretion-induced or merger-induced collapse events. Since the neutrino signals of our large model sets are approximate, we calibrate the associated degrees of freedom by using state-of-the-art simulations of proto-neutron star cooling. Our predictions are higher than other recent ones because of a large fraction of failed SNe with long delay to BH formation. Our best-guess model predicts a DSNB electron-antineutrino-flux of 28.8^{+24.6}_{-10.9} cm^{-2}s^{-1} with 6.0^{+5.1}_{-2.1} cm^{-2}s^{-1} in the favorable measurement interval of [10,30] MeV, and 1.3^{+1.1}_{-0.4} cm^{-2}s^{-1} with electron-antineutrino energies > 17.3 MeV, which is roughly a factor of two below the current SK limit. The uncertainty range is dominated by the still insufficiently constrained cosmic rate of stellar core-collapse events.**Assessing the tension between a black hole dominated early universe and leptogenesis**

2010.03565 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez and Jessica Turner.

We perform the first numerical calculation of the interplay between thermal and black hole induced leptogenesis, demonstrating that the right-handed neutrino surplus produced during the evaporation only partially mitigates the entropy dilution suffered by the thermal component. As such, the intermediate-mass regime of the right-handed neutrinos, $10^6{\rm~GeV} \lesssim M_{N} \lesssim 10^{9}{\rm~GeV}$, could not explain the observed baryon asymmetry even for fine-tuned scenarios if there existed a primordial black hole dominated era, consistent with initial black hole masses of $M_i \gtrsim \mathcal{O}\left(1\right)$ kg. Detection of the gravitational waves emitted from the same primordial black holes would place intermediate-scale thermal leptogenesis under tension.**Exoplanets as Sub-GeV Dark Matter Detectors**

2010.00015 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rebecca K. Leane and Juri Smirnov.

We present exoplanets as new targets to discover Dark Matter (DM). Throughout the Milky Way, DM can scatter, become captured, deposit annihilation energy, and increase the heat flow within exoplanets. We estimate upcoming infrared telescope sensitivity to this scenario, finding actionable discovery or exclusion searches. We find that DM with masses above about an MeV can be probed with exoplanets at DM-proton and DM-electron scattering cross sections down to about $10^{-37}$cm$^2$, stronger than existing limits by up to six orders of magnitude. Supporting evidence of a DM origin can be identified through DM-induced exoplanet heating correlated with Galactic position, and hence DM density. This provides new motivation to measure the temperature of the billions of brown dwarfs, rogue planets, and gas giants peppered throughout our Galaxy.**Neutrino oscillation in dark matter with $L_μ-L_τ$**

2009.14703 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Wei Chao, [and 3 more]Yanyan Hu, Siyu Jiang, and Mingjie Jin [hide authors].

In this paper, we study the phenomenology of a Dirac dark matter in the $L_\mu-L_\tau$ model and investigate the neutrino oscillation in the dark halo. Since dark matter couples to the muon neutrino and the tau neutrino with opposite sign couplings, it contributes effective potentials, $\pm A_\chi$, to the evolution equation of the neutrino flavor transition amplitude, which can be significant for high energy neutrino oscillations in a dense dark matter environment. We discuss neutrino masses, lepton mixing angles, Dirac CP phase, and neutrino oscillation probabilities in the dark halo using full numerical calculations. Results show that neutrinos can endure very different matter effects. When the potential $A_\chi$ becomes ultra-large, three neutrino flavors decouple from each other.**Neutrino Oscillation Constraints on U(1)' Models: from Non-Standard Interactions to Long-Range Forces**

2009.14220 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Coloma, M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, and Michele Maltoni.

We quantify the effect of gauge bosons from a weakly coupled lepton flavor dependent $U(1)'$ interaction on the matter background in the evolution of solar, atmospheric, reactor and long-baseline accelerator neutrinos in the global analysis of oscillation data. The analysis is performed for interaction lengths ranging from the Sun-Earth distance to effective contact neutrino interactions. We survey $\sim 10000$ set of models characterized by the six relevant fermion $U(1)'$ charges and find that in all cases, constraints on the coupling and mass of the $Z'$ can be derived. We also find that about 5% of the $U(1)'$ model charges lead to a viable LMA-D solution but this is only possible in the contact interaction limit. We explicitly quantify the constraints for a variety of models including $U(1)_{B-3L_e}$, $U(1)_{B-3L_\mu}$, $U(1)_{B-3L_\tau}$, $U(1)_{B-\frac{3}{2}(L_\mu+L_\tau)}$, $U(1)_{L_e-L_\mu}$, $U(1)_{L_e-L_\tau}$, $U(1)_{L_e-\frac{1}{2}(L_\mu+L_\tau)}$. We compare the constraints imposed by our oscillation analysis with the strongest bounds from fifth force searches, violation of equivalence principle as well as bounds from scattering experiments and white dwarf cooling. Our results show that generically, the oscillation analysis improves over the existing bounds from gravity tests for $Z'$ lighter than $\sim 10^{-8} \to 10^{-11}$ eV depending on the specific couplings. In the contact interaction limit, we find that for most models listed above there are values of $g'$ and $M_{Z'}$ for which the oscillation analysis provides constraints beyond those imposed by laboratory experiments. Finally we illustrate the range of $Z'$ and couplings leading to a viable LMA-D solution for two sets of models.**Experimental tests of sub-surface reflectors as an explanation for the ANITA anomalous events**

2009.13010 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Smith, [and 33 more]D. Z. Besson, C. Deaconu, S. Prohira, P. Allison, L. Batten, J. J. Beatty, W. R. Binns, V. Bugaev, P. Cao, C. Chen, P. Chen, J. M. Clem, A. Connolly, L. Cremonesi, P. Dasgupta, P. W. Gorham, M. H. Israel, T. C. Liu, A. Ludwig, S. Matsuno, C. Miki, J. Nam, A. Novikov, R. J. Nichol, E. Oberla, R. Prechelt, B. F. Rauch, J. Russell, D. Saltzberg, D. Seckel, G. S. Varner, A. G. Vieregg, and S. A. Wissel [hide authors].

The balloon-borne ANITA experiment is designed to detect ultra-high energy neutrinos via radio emissions produced by an in-ice shower. Although initially purposed for interactions within the Antarctic ice sheet, ANITA also demonstrated the ability to self-trigger on radio emissions from ultra-high energy charged cosmic rays interacting in the Earth's atmosphere. For showers produced above the Antarctic ice sheet, reflection of the down-coming radio signals at the Antarctic surface should result in a polarity inversion prior to subsequent observation at the $\sim$35-40 km altitude ANITA gondola. ANITA has published two anomalous instances of upcoming cosmic-rays with measured polarity opposite the remaining sample of $\sim$50 UHECR signals. The steep observed upwards incidence angles (25--30 degrees relative to the horizontal) require non-Standard Model physics if these events are due to in-ice neutrino interactions, as the Standard Model cross-section would otherwise prohibit neutrinos from penetrating the long required chord of Earth. Shoemaker et al. posit that glaciological effects may explain the steep observed anomalous events. We herein consider the scenarios offered by Shoemaker et al. and find them to be disfavored by extant ANITA and HiCal experimental data. We note that the recent report of four additional near-horizon anomalous ANITA-4 events, at $>3\sigma$ significance, are incompatible with their model, which requires significant signal transmission into the ice.**Squeezing the Parameter Space for Lorentz Violation in the Neutrino Sector by Additional Decay Channels**

2009.11947 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ulrich D. Jentschura.

The hypothesis of Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector has intrigued scientists for the last two to three decades. A number of theoretical arguments support the emergence of such violations first and foremost for neutrinos, which constitute the "most elusive" and "least interacting" particles known to mankind. It is of obvious interest to place stringent bounds on the Lorentz-violating parameters in the neutrino sector. In the past, the most stringent bounds have been placed by calculating the probability of neutrino decay into a lepton pair, a process made kinematically feasible by Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector, above a certain threshold. However, even more stringent bounds can be placed on the Lorentz-violating parameters if one takes into account, additionally, the possibility of neutrino splitting, i.e., of neutrino decay into a neutrino of lower energy, accompanied by "neutrino-pair Cerenkov radiation". This process has negligible threshold and can be used to improve the bounds on Lorentz-violating parameters in the neutrino sector. Finally, we take the opportunity to discuss the relation of Lorentz and gauge symmetry breaking, with a special emphasis on the theoretical models employed in our calculations.**Ejection of supermassive black holes and implications for merger rates in fuzzy dark matter haloes**

2009.10167 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Amr El-Zant, Zacharias Roupas, and Joseph Silk.

Fuzzy dark matter (FDM) consisting of ultra-light axions has been invoked to alleviate galactic-scale problems in the cold dark matter scenario. FDM fluctuations, created via the superposition of waves, can impact the motion of a central supermassive black hole (SMBH) immersed in an FDM halo. The SMBH will undergo a random walk, induced by FDM fluctuations, that can result in its ejection from the central region. This effect is strongest in dwarf galaxies, accounting for wandering SMBHs and the low detection rate of AGN in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In addition, a lower bound on the allowed axion masses is inferred both for Sagittarius $A^*$ and heavier SMBH; to avoid ejection from the galactic centres, axion masses of the order of $10^{-22}{\rm eV}$ or lighter are excluded. Stronger limits are inferred for merging galaxies. We find that the event rate of SMBH mergers in FDM haloes and the associated SMBH growth rates can be reduced by at least an order of magnitude.**Imprints of Axion Superradiance in the CMB**

2009.10074 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Diego Blas and Samuel J. Witte.

Light axions ($m_a \lesssim 10^{-10}$ eV) can form dense clouds around rapidly rotating astrophysical black holes via a mechanism known as rotational superradiance. The coupling between axions and photons induces a parametric resonance, arising from the stimulated decay of the axion cloud, which can rapidly convert regions of large axion number densities into an enormous flux of low-energy photons. In this work we consider the phenomenological implications of a superradiant axion cloud undergoing resonant decay. We show that the low energy photons produced from such events will be absorbed over cosmologically short distances, potentially inducing massive shockwaves that heat and ionize the IGM over Mpc scales. These shockwaves may leave observable imprints in the form of anisotropic spectral distortions or inhomogeneous features in the optical depth.**Ultralight Bosonic Field Mass Bounds from Astrophysical Black Hole Spin**

2009.07206 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Matthew J. Stott.

Black Hole measurements have grown significantly in the new age of gravitation wave astronomy from LIGO observations of binary black hole mergers. As yet unobserved massive ultralight bosonic fields represent one of the most exciting features of Standard Model extensions, capable of providing solutions to numerous paradigmatic issues in particle physics and cosmology. In this work we explore bounds from spinning astrophysical black holes and their angular momentum energy transfer to bosonic condensates which can form surrounding the black hole via superradiant instabilities. Using recent analytical results we perform a simplified analysis with a generous ensemble of black hole parameter measurements where we find superradiance very generally excludes bosonic fields in the mass ranges; spin-0: ${\scriptsize \{ 3.8\times10^{-14}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_0 \leq 3.4\times10^{-11}\ {\rm eV}, 5.5\times10^{-20}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_0 \leq 1.3\times10^{-16}\ {\rm eV}, 2.5\times10^{-21}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_0 \leq 1.2\times10^{-20}\ {\rm eV}\}}$, spin-1: ${\scriptsize \{ 6.2\times10^{-15}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_1 \leq 3.9\times10^{-11}\ {\rm eV}, 2.8\times10^{-22}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_1 \leq 1.9\times10^{-16}\ {\rm eV} \}}$ and spin-2: ${\scriptsize \{ 2.2\times10^{-14}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_2 \leq 2.8\times10^{-11}\ {\rm eV}, 1.8\times10^{-20}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_2 \leq 1.8\times10^{-16}\ {\rm eV}, 6.4\times10^{-22}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_2 \leq 7.7\times10^{-21}\ {\rm eV} \}}$ respectively. We also explore these bounds in the context of specific phenomenological models, specifically the QCD axion, M-theory models and fuzzy dark matter sitting at the edges of current limits. In particular we include recent measurements of event GW190521 and M87* used to constrain both the masses and decay constants of axion like fields. Finally we comment a simple example of a spectrum of fields for the spin-0 and spin-1 cases.**Constraints on neutrino non-standard interactions from LHC data with large missing transverse momentum**

2009.06668 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by DianYu Liu, ChuanLe Sun, and Jun Gao.

The possible non-standard interactions (NSIs) of neutrinos with matter plays important role in the global determination of neutrino properties. In our study we select various data sets from LHC measurements at 13 TeV with integrated luminosities of $35 \sim 139$ fb$^{-1}$, including production of a single jet, photon, $W/Z$ boson, or charged lepton accompanied with large missing transverse momentum. We derive constraints on neutral-current NSIs with quarks imposed by different data sets in a framework of either effective operators or simplified $Z'$ models. We use theoretical predictions of productions induced by NSIs at next-to-leading order in QCD matched with parton showering which stabilize the theory predictions and result in more robust constraints. In a simplified $Z'$ model we obtain a 95% CLs upper limit on the conventional NSI strength $\epsilon$ of 0.042 and 0.0028 for a $Z'$ mass of 0.2 and 2 TeV respectively. We also discuss possible improvements from future runs of LHC with higher luminosities.**Cosmic String Interpretation of NANOGrav Pulsar Timing Data**

2009.06555 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by John Ellis and Marek Lewicki.

Pulsar timing data used to provide upper limits on a possible stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB). However, the NANOGrav Collaboration has recently reported strong evidence for a stochastic common-spectrum process, which we interpret as a SGWB in the framework of cosmic strings. The possible NANOGrav signal would correspond to a string tension $G\mu \in (4 \times 10^{-11}, 10^{-10}) $ at the 68% confidence level, with a different frequency dependence from supermassive black hole mergers. The SGWB produced by cosmic strings with such values of $G\mu$ would be beyond the reach of LIGO, but could be measured by other planned and proposed detectors such as SKA, LISA, TianQin, AION-1km, AEDGE, Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer.**GW190521 as a merger of Proca stars: a potential new vector boson of $8.7 \times 10^{-13}$ eV**

2009.05376 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Juan Calderón Bustillo, [and 8 more]Nicolas Sanchis-Gual, Alejandro Torres-Forné, José A. Font, Avi Vajpeyi, Rory Smith, Carlos Herdeiro, Eugen Radu, and Samson H. W. Leong [hide authors].

Advanced LIGO-Virgo reported a short gravitational-wave signal (GW190521) interpreted as a quasi-circular merger of black holes, one populating the pair-instability supernova gap, forming a remnant black hole of $M_f\sim 142 M_\odot$ at a luminosity distance of $d_L \sim 5.3$ Gpc. With barely visible pre-merger emission, however, GW190521 merits further investigation of the pre-merger dynamics and even of the very nature of the colliding objects. We show that GW190521 is consistent with numerically simulated signals from head-on collisions of two (equal mass and spin) horizonless vector boson stars (aka Proca stars), forming a final black hole with $M_f = 231^{+13}_{-17}\,M_\odot$, located at a distance of $d_L = 571^{+348}_{-181}$ Mpc. The favoured mass for the ultra-light vector boson constituent of the Proca stars is $\mu_{\rm V}= 8.72^{+0.73}_{-0.82}\times10^{-13}$ eV. This provides the first demonstration of close degeneracy between these two theoretical models, for a real gravitational-wave event. Confirmation of the Proca star interpretation, which we find statistically slightly preferred, would provide the first evidence for a long sought dark matter particle.**Impact of high energy beam tunes on the sensitivities to the standard unknowns at DUNE**

2009.05061 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jogesh Rout, [and 4 more]Samiran Roy, Mehedi Masud, Mary Bishai, and Poonam Mehta [hide authors].

Even though neutrino oscillations have been conclusively established, there are a few unanswered questions pertaining to leptonic Charge Parity violation (CPV), mass hierarchy (MH) and $\theta_{23}$ octant degeneracy. Addressing these questions is of paramount importance at the current and future neutrino experiments including the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) which has a baseline of 1300 km. In the standard mode, DUNE is expected to run with a {\textit{low energy}} (LE) tuned beam which peaks around the first oscillation maximum ($2-3$ GeV) (and then sharply falls off as we go to higher energies). However, the wide band nature of the beam available at long baseline neutrino facility (LBNF) allows for the flexibility in utilizing beam tunes that are well-suited at higher energies as well. In this work, we utilize a beam that provides high statistics at higher energies which is referred to as the {\textit{medium energy}} (ME) beam. This opens up the possibility of exploring not only the usual oscillation channels but also the $\nu_{\mu} \to \nu_{\tau}$ oscillation channel which was otherwise not accessible. Our goal is to find an optimal combination of beam tune and runtime (with the total runtime held fixed) distributed in neutrino and antineutrino mode that leads to an improvement in the sensitivities of these parameters at DUNE. In our analysis, we incorporate all the three channels ($\nu_{\mu} \to \nu_{e}, \nu_{\mu} \to \nu_{\mu}, \nu_{\mu} \to \nu_{\tau}$) and develop an understanding of their relative contributions in sensitivities at the level of $\Delta \chi^2$. Finally, we obtain the preferred combination of runtime using both the beam tunes as well as neutrino and antineutrino mode that lead to enhanced sensitivity to the current unknowns in neutrino oscillation physics i.e., CPV, MH and $\theta_{23}$ octant.**On the rate of core collapse supernovae in the Milky Way**

2009.03438 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Karolina Rozwadowska, Francesco Vissani, and Enrico Cappellaro.

Several large neutrino telescopes, operating at various sites around the world, have as their main objective the first detection of neutrinos emitted by a gravitational collapse in the Milky Way. The success of these observation programs depends on the rate of supernova core collapse in the Milky Way, $R$. In this work, standard statistical techniques are used to combine several independent results. Their consistency is discussed and the most critical input data are identified. The inference on $R$ is further tested and refined by including direct information on the occurrence rate of gravitational collapse events in the Milky Way and in the Local Group, obtained from neutrino telescopes and electromagnetic surveys. A conservative treatment of the errors yields a combined rate $R=1.63 \pm 0.46$ (100 yr)$^{-1}$; the corresponding time between core collapse supernova events turns out to be $T=61_{-14}^{+24}$~yr. The importance to update the analysis of the stellar birthrate method is emphasized.**Astrophysical hints for magnetic black holes**

2009.03363 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Diptimoy Ghosh, Arun Thalapillil, and Farman Ullah.

We discuss a cornucopia of potential astrophysical signatures and constraints on magnetically charged black holes of various masses. As recently highlighted, being potentially viable astrophysical candidates with immense electromagnetic fields, they may be ideal windows to fundamental physics, electroweak symmetry restoration and non-perturbative quantum field theoretic phenomena. We investigate various potential astrophysical pointers and bounds -- including limits on charges, location of stable orbits and horizons in asymptotically flat and asymptotically de Sitter backgrounds, bounds from galactic magnetic fields and dark matter measurements, characteristic electromagnetic fluxes and tell-tale gravitational wave emissions during binary inspirals. Stable orbits around these objects hold an imprint of their nature and in the asymptotically de Sitter case, there is also a qualitatively new feature with the emergence of a stable outer orbit. We consider binary inspirals of both magnetic and neutral, and magnetic and magnetic, black hole pairs. The electromagnetic emissions and the gravitational waveform evolution, along with inter-black hole separation, display distinct features. Many of the astrophysical signatures may be observationally glaring -- for instance, even in regions of parameter space where no electroweak corona forms, owing to magnetic fields that are still many orders of magnitude larger than even Magnetars, their consequent electromagnetic emissions will be spectacular during binary inspirals. While adding new results, our discussions also complement works in similar contexts, that have appeared recently in the literature.**Strengthening the bound on the mass of the lightest neutrino with terrestrial and cosmological experiments**

2009.03287 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by The GAMBIT Cosmology Workgroup, [and 14 more]:, Patrick Stöcker, Csaba Balázs, Sanjay Bloor, Torsten Bringmann, Tomás E. Gonzalo, Will Handley, Selim Hotinli, Cullan Howlett, Felix Kahlhoefer, Janina J. Renk, Pat Scott, Aaron C. Vincent, and Martin White [hide authors].

We determine the upper limit on the mass of the lightest neutrino from the most robust recent cosmological and terrestrial data. Marginalizing over possible effective relativistic degrees of freedom at early times ($N_\mathrm{eff}$) and assuming normal mass ordering, the mass of the lightest neutrino is less than 0.037 eV at 95% confidence; with inverted ordering, the bound is 0.042 eV. These results improve upon the strength and robustness of other recent limits and constrain the mass of the lightest neutrino to be barely larger than the largest mass splitting. We show the impacts of realistic mass models, and different sources of $N_\mathrm{eff}$.**Neutrino telescopes and high-energy cosmic neutrinos**

2009.01919 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Andrea Palladino, Maurizio Spurio, and Francesco Vissani.

In this review paper, we present the main aspects of high-energy cosmic neutrino astrophysics. We begin by describing the generic expectations for cosmic neutrinos, including the effects of propagation from their sources to the detectors. Then we introduce the operating principles of current neutrino telescopes, and examine the main features (topologies) of the observable events. After a discussion of the main background processes, due to the concomitant presence of secondary particles produced in the terrestrial atmosphere by cosmic rays, we summarize the current status of the observations with astrophysical relevance that have been greatly contributed by IceCube detector. Then, we examine various interpretations of these findings, trying to assess the best candidate sources of cosmic neutrinos. We conclude with a brief perspective on how the field could evolve within a few years.**Search for sterile neutrino with light gauge interactions: recasting collider, beam-dump, and neutrino telescope searches**

2008.12598 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yongsoo Jho, [and 3 more]Jongkuk Kim, Pyungwon Ko, and Seong Chan Park [hide authors].

We investigate features of the sterile neutrinos in the presence of a light gauge boson $X^\mu$ that couples to the neutrino sector. The novel bounds on the active-sterile neutrino mixings $| U_{\ell 4} |^2$, especially for tau flavor ($l = \tau$), from various collider and fixed target experiments are explored. Also, taking into account the additional decay channel of the sterile neutrino into a light gauge boson ($\nu_4 \to \nu_\ell e^+ e^-$), we explore and constrain a parameter space for low energy excess in neutrino oscillation experiments.**Constraints on Decaying Sterile Neutrinos from Solar Antineutrinos**

2008.11851 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Matheus Hostert and Maxim Pospelov.

Solar neutrino experiments are highly sensitive to sources of $\nu\to\overline{\nu}$ conversions in the $^8$B neutrino flux. In this work we adapt these searches to non-minimal sterile neutrino models recently proposed to explain the LSND, MiniBooNE, and reactor anomalies. The production of such sterile neutrinos in the Sun, followed the decay chain $\nu_4 \to \nu \phi \to \nu \nu \overline{\nu}$ with a new scalar $\phi$ results in upper limits for the neutrino mixing $|U_{e4}|^2$ at the per mille level. We conclude that a simultaneous explanations of all anomalies is in tension with KamLAND, Super-Kamiokande, and Borexino constraints on the flux of solar antineutrinos. We then present other minimal models that violate parity or lepton number, and discuss the applicability of our constraints in each case. Future improvements can be expected from existing Borexino data as well as from future searches at Super-Kamiokande with added Gd.**Synergies and Prospects for Early Resolution of the Neutrino Mass Ordering**

2008.11280 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anatael Cabrera, [and 25 more]Yang Han, Michel Obolensky, Fabien Cavalier, João Coelho, Diana Navas Nicolás, Hiroshi Nunokawa, Laurent Simard, Jianming Bian, Nitish Nayak, Juan Pedro Ochoa-Ricoux, Bedřich Roskovec, Pietro Chimenti, Stefano Dusini, Mathieu Bongrand, Rebin Karaparambil, Victor Lebrin, Benoit Viaud, Frederic Yermia, Lily Asquith, Thiago J. C. Bezerra, Jeff Hartnell, Pierre Lasorak, Jiajie Ling, Jiajun Liao, and Hongzhao Yu [hide authors].

The measurement of neutrino Mass Ordering (MO) is a fundamental element for the understanding of leptonic flavour sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Its determination relies on the precise measurement of $\Delta m^2_{31}$ and $\Delta m^2_{32}$ using either neutrino vacuum oscillations, such as the ones studied by medium baseline reactor experiments, or matter effect modified oscillations such as those manifesting in long-baseline neutrino beams (LB$\nu$B) or atmospheric neutrino experiments. Despite existing MO indication today, a fully resolved MO measurement ($\geq$5$\sigma$) is most likely to await for the next generation of neutrino experiments: JUNO, whose stand-alone sensitivity is $\sim$3$\sigma$, or LB$\nu$B experiments (DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande). Upcoming atmospheric neutrino experiments are also expected to provide precious information. In this work, we study the possible context for the earliest full MO resolution. A firm resolution is possible even before 2028, exploiting mainly vacuum oscillation, upon the combination of JUNO and the current generation of LB$\nu$B experiments (NOvA and T2K). This opportunity is possible thanks to a powerful synergy boosting the overall sensitivity where the sub-percent precision of $\Delta m^2_{32}$ by LB$\nu$B experiments is found to be the leading order term for the MO earliest discovery. We also found that the comparison between matter and vacuum driven oscillation results enables unique discovery potential for physics beyond the Standard Model.**Multimessenger Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Coincidence Alerts using HAWC and IceCube sub-threshold Data**

2008.10616 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by H. A. Ayala Solares, [and 449 more]S. Coutu, J. J. DeLaunay, D. B. Fox, T. Grégoire, A. Keivani, F. Krauß, M. Mostafá, K. Murase, C. F. Turley, A. Albert, R. Alfaro, C. Alvarez, J. R. Angeles Camacho, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, K. P. Arunbabu, D. Avila Rojas, E. Belmont-Moreno, C. Brisbois, K. S. Caballero-Mora, A. Carramiñana, S. Casanova, U. Cotti, E. De la Fuente, R. Diaz Hernandez, B. L. Dingus, M. A. DuVernois, M. Durocher, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, C. Espinoza, K. L. Fan, H. Fleischhack, N. Fraija, A. Galván-Gámez, D. Garcia, J. A. García-González, F. Garfias, M. M. González, J. A. Goodman, J. P. Harding, B. Hona, D. Huang, F. Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, P. Huntemeyer, A. Iriarte, A. Jardin-Blicq, V. Joshi, H. León Vargas, J. T. Linnemann, A. L. Longinotti, G. Luis-Raya, J. Lundeen, K. Malone, O. Martinez, I. Martinez-Castellanos, J. Martínez-Castro, J. A. Matthews, P. Miranda-Romagnoli, E. Moreno, L. Nellen, M. Newbold, M. U. Nisa, R. Noriega-Papaqui, A. Peisker, E. G. Pérez-Pérez, C. D. Rho, D. Rosa-González, H. Salazar, F. Salesa Greus, A. Sandoval, A. J. Smith, R. W. Springer, K. Tollefson, I. Torres, R. Torres-Escobedo, F. Ureña-Mena, L. Villaseñor, T. Weisgarber, E. Willox, A. Zepeda, H. Zhou, C. de León, M. G. Aartsen, R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, A. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Günder, M. Gündüz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krückl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, J. Lünemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, T. Meures, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momenté, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, G. Neer, L. V. Nguyen, H. Niederhausen, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, A. O'Murchadha, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, W. Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and M. Zöcklein [hide authors].

The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) and IceCube observatories, through the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) framework, have developed a multimessenger joint search for extragalactic astrophysical sources. This analysis looks for sources that emit both cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays that are produced in photo-hadronic or hadronic interactions. The AMON system is running continuously, receiving sub-threshold data (i.e. data that is not suited on its own to do astrophysical searches) from HAWC and IceCube, and combining them in real-time. We present here the analysis algorithm, as well as results from archival data collected between June 2015 and August 2018, with a total live-time of 3.0 years. During this period we found two coincident events that have a false alarm rate (FAR) of $<1$ coincidence per year, consistent with the background expectations. The real-time implementation of the analysis in the AMON system began on November 20th, 2019, and issues alerts to the community through the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network with a FAR threshold of $<4$ coincidences per year.**Retrieval of energy spectra for all flavor of neutrinos from core-collapse supernova with multiple detectors**

2008.10082 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hiroki Nagakura.

We present a new method by which to retrieve energy spectrum for all flavor of neutrinos from core-collapse supernova (CCSN). In the retrieval process, we do not assume any analytic formulae to express the energy spectrum of neutrinos but rather take a direct way of spectrum reconstruction from the observed data; the Singular Value Decomposition algorithm with a newly developed adaptive energy-gridding technique is adopted. We employ three independent reaction channels having different flavor sensitivity to neutrinos. Two reaction channels, inverse beta decay on proton and elastic scattering on electrons, from a water Cherenkov detector such as Super-Kamiokande (SK) and Hyper-Kamiokande (HK), and a charged current reaction channel with Argon from the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) are adopted. Given neutrino oscillation models, we iteratively search the neutrino energy spectra at the CCSN source until they provide the consistent event counts in the three reaction channels. We test the capability of our method by demonstrating the spectrum retrieval to a theoretical neutrino data compute