**Neutrino Oscillations as a Gravitational Wave Detector?**

2405.05000 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dominik Hellmann, [and 3 more]Sara Krieg, Heinrich Päs, and Mustafa Tabet [hide authors].

Gravitational Waves (GWs) can alter the neutrino propagation distance and thus affect neutrino oscillations. This can result in a complete disappearance of the oscillatory behavior that competes with other sources of neutrino decoherence. We develop a set of criteria that determines under which conditions neutrino oscillations are sensitive to this effect, and discuss three concrete scenarios for neutrinos from astrophysical sources. We find that neutrino oscillations may probe so far unexplored regions of the GW parameter space.**Fast and Accurate Algorithm for Calculating Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Probabilities with Matter Effects: NuFast**

2405.02400 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Stephen J. Parke.

Neutrino oscillation experiments will be entering the precision era in the next decade with the advent of high statistics experiments like DUNE, HK, and JUNO. Correctly estimating the confidence intervals from data for the oscillation parameters requires very large Monte Carlo data sets involving calculating the oscillation probabilities in matter many, many times. In this paper, we leverage past work to present a new, fast, precise technique for calculating neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter optimized for long-baseline neutrino oscillations in the Earth's crust including both accelerator and reactor experiments. For ease of use by theorists and experimentalists, we provide fast c++ and fortran codes.**No $ν$s is Good News**

2405.00836 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nathaniel Craig, [and 3 more]Daniel Green, Joel Meyers, and Surjeet Rajendran [hide authors].

The baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) analysis from the first year of data from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), when combined with data from the cosmic microwave background (CMB), has placed an upper-limit on the sum of neutrino masses, $\sum m_\nu < 70$ meV (95%). In addition to excluding the minimum sum associated with the inverted hierarchy, the posterior is peaked at $\sum m_\nu = 0$ and is close to excluding even the minumum sum, 58 meV at 2$\sigma$. In this paper, we explore the implications of this data for cosmology and particle physics. The sum of neutrino mass is determined in cosmology from the suppression of clustering in the late universe. Allowing the clustering to be enhanced, we extended the DESI analysis to $\sum m_\nu < 0$ and find $\sum m_\nu = - 160 \pm 90$ meV (68%), and that the suppression of power from the minimum sum of neutrino masses is excluded at 99% confidence. We show this preference for negative masses makes it challenging to explain the result by a shift of cosmic parameters, such as the optical depth or matter density. We then show how a result of $\sum m_\nu =0$ could arise from new physics in the neutrino sector, including decay, cooling, and/or time-dependent masses. These models are consistent with current observations but imply new physics that is accessible in a wide range of experiments. In addition, we discuss how an apparent signal with $\sum m_\nu < 0$ can arise from new long range forces in the dark sector or from a primordial trispectrum that resembles the signal of CMB lensing.**Recent Neutrino Parameters Impact on the Effective Majorana Neutrino Mass in 0$νββ$ Decay**

2404.19624 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dongming Mei, [and 3 more]Kunming Dong, Austin Warren, and Sanjay Bhattarai [hide authors].

We investigate how recent updates to neutrino oscillation parameters and the sum of neutrino masses influence the sensitivity of neutrinoless double-beta (0$\nu\beta\beta$) decay experiments. Incorporating the latest cosmological constraints on the sum of neutrino masses and laboratory measurements on oscillations, we determine the sum of neutrino masses for both the normal hierarchy (NH) and the inverted hierarchy (IH). Our analysis reveals a narrow range for the sum of neutrino masses, approximately 0.06 eV/c$^2$ for NH and 0.102 eV/c$^2$ for IH. Utilizing these constraints, we calculate the effective Majorana masses for both NH and IH scenarios, establishing the corresponding allowed regions. Importantly, we find that the minimum neutrino mass is non-zero, as constrained by the current oscillation parameters. Additionally, we estimate the half-life of 0$\nu\beta\beta$ decay using these effective Majorana masses for both NH and IH. Our results suggest that upcoming ton-scale experiments will comprehensively explore the IH scenario, while 100-ton-scale experiments will effectively probe the parameter space for the NH scenario, provided the background index can achieve 1 event/kton-year in the region of interest.**Testing the Origins of Neutrino Mass with Supernova Neutrino Time Delay**

2404.17352 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shao-Feng Ge, Chui-Fan Kong, and Alexei Y. Smirnov.

The origin of neutrino masses remains unknown. Both the vacuum mass and the dark mass generated by the neutrino interactions with DM particles or fields can fit the current oscillation data. The dark mass squared is proportional to the DM number density and therefore varies on the galactic scale with much larger values around the Galactic Center. This affects the group velocity and the arrival time delay of core-collapse supernovae neutrinos. This time delay, especially for the $\nu_e$ neutronization peak with a sharp time structure, can be used to distinguish the vacuum and dark neutrino masses. For illustration, we explore the potential of DUNE which is sensitive to $\nu_e$. Our simulations show that DUNE can distinguish the two neutrino mass origins at more than $5\sigma\,$C.L., depending on the observed local value of neutrino mass, the neutrino mass ordering, the DM density profile, and the SN location.**A Mass Ordering Sum Rule for the Neutrino Disappearance Channels in T2K, NOvA and JUNO**

2404.08733 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stephen J. Parke and Renata Zukanovich Funchal.

We revisit a method for determining the neutrino mass ordering by using precision measurements of the atmospheric $\Delta m^2$'s in both electron neutrino and muon neutrino disappearance channels, proposed by the authors in 2005 (hep-ph/0503283). The mass ordering is a very important outstanding question for our understanding of the elusive neutrino and determination of the mass ordering has consequences for other neutrino experiments. The JUNO reactor experiment will start data taking this year, and the precision of the atmospheric $\Delta m^2$'s from electron anti-neutrino measurements will improve by a factor of three from Daya Bay's 2.4 % to 0.8 % within a year. This measurement, when combined with the atmospheric $\Delta m^2$'s measurements from T2K and NOvA for muon neutrino disappearance, will contribute substantially to the $\Delta \chi^2$ between the two remaining neutrino mass orderings. In this paper we derive a mass ordering sum rule that can be used to address the possibility that JUNO's atmospheric $\Delta m^2$'s measurement, when combined with other experiments in particular T2K and NOvA, can determine the neutrino mass ordering at the 3 $\sigma$ confidence level within one year of operation. For a confidence level of 5 $\sigma$ in a single experiment we will have to wait until the middle of the next decade when the DUNE experiment is operating.**Constraining electron number density in the Sun via Earth-based neutrino flavor data**

2404.06468 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Caroline Laber-Smith, [and 8 more]Eve Armstrong, A. Baha Balantekin, Elizabeth K. Jones, Lily Newkirk, Amol V. Patwardhan, Sarah Ranginwala, M. Margarette Sanchez, and Hansen Torres [hide authors].

Neutrino flavor transformation offers a window into the physics of various astrophysical environments, including our Sun and the more exotic environs of core-collapse supernovae and binary neutron-star mergers. Here, we apply an inference framework - specifically: statistical data assimilation (SDA) - to neutrino flavor evolution in the Sun. We take a model for solar neutrino flavor evolution, together with Earth-based neutrino measurements, to infer solar properties. Specifically, we ask what signature of the radially-varying solar electron number density $n_e(r)$ is contained within these Earth-based measurements. Currently, the best estimates of $n_e(r)$ come from the standard solar model. We seek to ascertain, through novel application of the SDA method, whether estimates of the same from neutrino data can serve as independent constraints.**A plethora of long-range neutrino interactions probed by DUNE and T2HK**

2404.02775 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, [and 3 more]Mauricio Bustamante, Masoom Singh, and Pragyanprasu Swain [hide authors].

Upcoming neutrino experiments will soon search for new neutrino interactions more thoroughly than ever before, boosting the prospects of extending the Standard Model. In anticipation of this, we forecast the capability of two of the leading long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, DUNE and T2HK, to look for new flavor-dependent neutrino interactions with electrons, protons, and neutrons that could affect the transitions between different flavors. We interpret their sensitivity in the context of long-range neutrino interactions, mediated by a new neutral boson lighter than $10^{-10}$ eV, and sourced by the vast amount of nearby and distant matter in the Earth, Moon, Sun, Milky Way, and beyond. For the first time, we explore the sensitivity of DUNE and T2HK to a wide variety of $U(1)^\prime$ symmetries, built from combinations of lepton and baryon numbers, each of which induces new interactions that affect oscillations differently. We find ample sensitivity: in all cases, DUNE and T2HK may constrain the existence of the new interaction even if it is supremely feeble, may discover it, and, in some cases, may identify the symmetry responsible for it.**Constraints on the Cosmic Neutrino Background from NGC 1068**

2404.02202 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jack Franklin, [and 3 more]Ivan Martinez-Soler, Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez, and Jessica Turner [hide authors].

We use recent evidence of TeV neutrino events from NGC 1068, detected by the IceCube experiment, to constrain the overdensity of relic neutrinos locally and globally. Since these high-energy neutrinos have travelled long distances through a sea of relic neutrinos, they could have undergone scattering, altering their observed flux on Earth. Considering only Standard Model interactions, we constrain the relic overdensity to be $\eta\leq 3.85 \times 10^8 (5.39 \times 10^{11})$ at the 95$\%$ confidence level for overdensities with a radius of 14 Mpc (10 kpc), assuming the sum of neutrino masses saturates the cosmological bound, $\sum_i m_i = 0.13$ eV. We demonstrate that this limit improves with larger neutrino masses and how it depends on the scale of the overdensity region.**High-energy neutrinos flavour composition as a probe of neutrino magnetic moments**

2404.02027 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Artem Popov and Alexander Studenikin.

Neutrino propagation in the Galactic magnetic field is considered. To describe neutrino flavour and spin oscillations on the galactic scale baselines an approach using wave packets is developed. Evolution equations for the neutrino wave packets in a uniform and non-uniform magnetic field are derived. Analytical expressions for neutrino flavour and spin oscillations probabilities accounting for damping due to wave packet separation are obtained for the case of uniform magnetic field. It is shown that for oscillations on magnetic frequencies $\omega_i^B = \mu_i B_\perp$ the coherence lengths that characterizes the damping scale is proportional to the cube of neutrino average momentum $p_0^3$. Probabilities of flavour and spin oscillations are calculated numerically for neutrino interacting with the non-uniform Galactic magnetic field. Flavour compositions of high-energy neutrino flux coming from the Galactic centre are calculated accounting for neutrino interaction with the magnetic field. It is shown that for neutrino magnetic moments $\sim 10^{-13} \mu_B$ and larger these flavour compositions significantly differ from ones predicted by the vacuum neutrino oscillations scenario.**A Semi-blind Reconstruction of the History of Effective Number of Neutrinos Using CMB Data**

2404.01457 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sarah Safi, [and 3 more]Marzieh Farhang, Olga Mena, and Eleonora Di Valentino [hide authors].

We explore the possibility of redshift-dependent deviations in the contribution of relativistic degrees of freedom to the radiation budget of the cosmos, conventionally parameterized by the effective number of neutrinos $N_{\rm eff}$, from the predictions of the standard model. We expand the deviations $\Delta N_{\rm eff}(z)$ in terms of top-hat functions and treat their amplitudes as the free parameters of the theory to be measured alongside the standard cosmological parameters by the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations, as well as performing forecasts for futuristic CMB surveys such as PICO and CMB-S4. We reconstruct the history of $\Delta N_{\rm eff}$ and find that with the current data the history is consistent with the standard scenario. Inclusion of the new degrees of freedom in the analysis increases $H_0$ to $68.71\pm 0.44$, slightly reducing the Hubble tension. With the smaller forecasted errors on the $\Delta N_{\rm eff}(z)$ parametrization modes from future CMB surveys, very accurate bounds are expected within the possible range of dark radiation models.**The role of the Look Elsewhere Effect in determining the significance of an oscillation disappearance search for a light sterile neutrino**

2403.17228 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gioacchino Ranucci.

In the ongoing vibrant experimental quest to assess whether the numerous indications for a light sterile neutrino are only experimental fluctuations or the manifestations of a profound and real underlying effect, one aspect which has recently attracted a specific interest is the statistical treatment of the data. Especially in cases of supposed positive hints, the correct statistical assessment of their significance is of paramount importance, to avoid that potential overstatements lead to a wrong understanding of the real status of the experimental investigation in the field. In this work I show how latest crucial advancements in the statistical data processing for the interpretation of the output of a sterile search can be effectively put and understood in the context of the Look Elsewhere Effect phenomenon, developed and now of routine usage for results interpretation in other areas of HEP research.**Supernovae Time Profiles as a Probe of New Physics at Neutrino Telescopes**

2403.09781 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jeff Lazar, [and 3 more]Ying-Ying Li, Carlos A. Arguelles, and Vedran Brdar [hide authors].

Neutrino telescopes, including IceCube, can detect galactic supernova events by observing the collective rise in photomultiplier count rates with a sub-second time resolution. Leveraging precise timing, we demonstrate the ability of neutrino telescopes to explore new weakly coupled states emitted from supernovae and subsequently decaying to neutrinos. Our approach utilizes publicly available packages, \texttt{ASTERIA} and \texttt{SNEWPY}, for simulating detector responses and parametrizing neutrino fluxes originating from Standard Model and new physics. We present results for two beyond the Standard Model scenarios and introduce the tool developed for testing a diverse range of new physics models.**Observation of Seven Astrophysical Tau Neutrino Candidates with IceCube**

2403.02516 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 404 more]R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, S. K. Agarwalla, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, C. Benning, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, D. Butterfield, M. A. Campana, K. Carloni, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, S. Chattopadhyay, N. Chau, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado, S. Deng, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, A. Domi, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, E. Ellinger, S. El Mentawi, D. Elsässer, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, K. Fang, K. Farrag, A. R. Fazely, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, O. Gries, S. Griffin, S. Griswold, K. M. Groth, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, L. Heuermann, N. Heyer, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, S. Hori, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, A. Ishihara, M. Jacquart, O. Janik, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Khatee Zathul, A. Kheirandish, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, J. Krishnamoorthi, K. Kruiswijk, E. Krupczak, A. Kumar, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. Lamoureux, M. J. Larson, S. Latseva, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard DeHolton, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, F. Lucarelli, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, E. Manao, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, F. Mayhew, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, Y. Merckx, L. Merten, J. Micallef, J. Mitchell, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, Y. Morii, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, M. Nakos, U. Naumann, J. Necker, A. Negi, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, A. Novikov, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, V. O'Dell, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, A. Pontén, Y. Popovych, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, B. Riedel, A. Rifaie, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, P. Savina, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, L. Schlickmann, B. Schlüter, F. Schlüter, N. Schmeisser, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, M. Seikh, S. Seunarine, R. Shah, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, P. Soldin, G. Sommani, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, M. Thiesmeyer, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, C. F. Tung, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, A. K. Upadhyay, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, M. Venugopal, M. Vereecken, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, A. Vijai, C. Walck, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, A. Y. Wen, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, L. Witthaus, A. Wolf, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, R. Young, F. Yu, S. Yu, Z. Zhang, P. Zhelnin, P. Zilberman, and M. Zimmerman [hide authors].

We report on a measurement of astrophysical tau neutrinos with 9.7 years of IceCube data. Using convolutional neural networks trained on images derived from simulated events, seven candidate $\nu_\tau$ events were found with visible energies ranging from roughly 20 TeV to 1 PeV and a median expected parent $\nu_\tau$ energy of about 200 TeV. Considering backgrounds from astrophysical and atmospheric neutrinos, and muons from $\pi^\pm/K^\pm$ decays in atmospheric air showers, we obtain a total estimated background of about 0.5 events, dominated by non-$\nu_\tau$ astrophysical neutrinos. Thus, we rule out the absence of astrophysical $\nu_\tau$ at the $5\sigma$ level. The measured astrophysical $\nu_\tau$ flux is consistent with expectations based on previously published IceCube astrophysical neutrino flux measurements and neutrino oscillations.**A new Wolfenstein-like expansion of lepton flavor mixing towards understanding its fine structure**

2403.00559 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Zhi-zhong Xing.

Taking the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern as a particular basis, we propose a new way to expand the $3\times 3$ unitary Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) lepton flavor mixing matrix $U$ in powers of the magnitude of its smallest element $\xi \equiv \left|U^{}_{e 3}\right| \simeq 0.149$. Such a Wolfenstein-like parametrization of $U$ allows us to easily describe the salient features and fine structures of flavor mixing and CP violation, both in vacuum and in matter.**Prospects for measuring time variation of astrophysical neutrino sources at dark matter detectors**

2402.18454 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yi Zhuang, [and 3 more]Louis E. Strigari, Lei Jin, and Samiran Sinha [hide authors].

We study the prospects for measuring the time variation of solar and atmospheric neutrino fluxes at future large-scale Xenon and Argon dark matter detectors. For solar neutrinos, a yearly time variation arises from the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit, and, for charged current interactions, from a smaller energy-dependent day-night variation to due flavor regeneration as neutrinos travel through the Earth. For a 100-ton Xenon detector running for 10 years with a Xenon-136 fraction of $\lesssim 0.1\%$, in the electron recoil channel a time-variation amplitude of about 0.8\% is detectable with a power of 90\% and the level of significance of 10\%. This is sufficient to detect time variation due to eccentricity, which has amplitude of $\sim 3\%$. In the nuclear recoil channel, the detectable amplitude is about 10\% under current detector resolution and efficiency conditions, and this generally reduces to about 1\% for improved detector resolution and efficiency, the latter of which is sufficient to detect time variation due to eccentricity. Our analysis assumes both known and unknown periods. We provide scalings to determine the sensitivity to an arbitrary time-varying amplitude as a function of detector parameters. Identifying the time variation of the neutrino fluxes will be important for distinguishing neutrinos from dark matter signals and other detector-related backgrounds, and extracting properties of neutrinos that can be uniquely studied in dark matter experiments.**Characterization of the Astrophysical Diffuse Neutrino Flux using Starting Track Events in IceCube**

2402.18026 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 418 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, S. K. Agarwalla, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, L. Ausborm, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, S. Bash, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, C. Benning, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, L. Brusa, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, D. Butterfield, M. A. Campana, I. Caracas, K. Carloni, J. Carpio, S. Chattopadhyay, N. Chau, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, R. Corley, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado, S. Deng, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, A. Domi, L. Draper, H. Dujmovic, K. Dutta, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, L. Eidenschink, A. Eimer, P. Eller, E. Ellinger, S. El Mentawi, D. Elsässer, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, K. Fang, K. Farrag, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, P. Fürst, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, E. Genton, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Girard-Carillo, C. Glaser, T. Glüsenkamp, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, A. Granados, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, O. Gries, S. Griffin, S. Griswold, K. M. Groth, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Ha, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, M. Handt, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, J. Häußler, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, J. Hermannsgabner, L. Heuermann, N. Heyer, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, S. Hori, K. Hoshina, M. Hostert, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, A. Ishihara, W. Iwakiri, M. Jacquart, O. Janik, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, N. Kamp, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, A. Katil, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, M. Khanal, A. Khatee Zathul, A. Kheirandish, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, J. Krishnamoorthi, K. Kruiswijk, E. Krupczak, A. Kumar, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. Lamoureux, M. J. Larson, S. Latseva, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard DeHolton, A. Leszczyńska, J. Liao, M. Lincetto, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, J. Madsen, E. Magnus, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, E. Manao, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, F. Mayhew, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, Y. Merckx, L. Merten, J. Micallef, J. Mitchell, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, Y. Morii, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, M. Nakos, U. Naumann, J. Necker, A. Negi, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, A. Novikov, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, V. O'Dell, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, T. Pernice, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, A. Pontén, Y. Popovych, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, B. Riedel, A. Rifaie, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, A. Rosted, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, P. Savina, P. Schaile, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, B. Schlüter, F. Schlüter, N. Schmeisser, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, M. Seikh, M. Seo, S. Seunarine, P. Sevle Myhr, R. Shah, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, P. Soldin, G. Sommani, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, M. Thiesmeyer, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, A. K. Upadhyay, K. Upshaw, A. Vaidyanathan, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, M. Venugopal, M. Vereecken, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, A. Vijai, C. Walck, A. Wang, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, A. Y. Wen, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, L. Witthaus, A. Wolf, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, R. Young, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, P. Zhelnin, P. Zilberman, and M. Zimmerman [hide authors].

A measurement of the diffuse astrophysical neutrino spectrum is presented using IceCube data collected from 2011-2022 (10.3 years). We developed novel detection techniques to search for events with a contained vertex and exiting track induced by muon neutrinos undergoing a charged-current interaction. Searching for these starting track events allows us to not only more effectively reject atmospheric muons but also atmospheric neutrino backgrounds in the southern sky, opening a new window to the sub-100 TeV astrophysical neutrino sky. The event selection is constructed using a dynamic starting track veto and machine learning algorithms. We use this data to measure the astrophysical diffuse flux as a single power law flux (SPL) with a best-fit spectral index of $\gamma = 2.58 ^{+0.10}_{-0.09}$ and per-flavor normalization of $\phi^{\mathrm{Astro}}_{\mathrm{per-flavor}} = 1.68 ^{+0.19}_{-0.22} \times 10^{-18} \times \mathrm{GeV}^{-1} \mathrm{cm}^{-2} \mathrm{s}^{-1} \mathrm{sr}^{-1}$ (at 100 TeV). The sensitive energy range for this dataset is 3 - 550 TeV under the SPL assumption. This data was also used to measure the flux under a broken power law, however we did not find any evidence of a low energy cutoff.**Quantum Decoherence effects on precision measurements at DUNE and T2HK**

2402.16395 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by G. Barenboim, [and 3 more]A. Calatayud-Cadenillas, A. M. Gago, and C. A. Ternes [hide authors].

We investigate the potential impact of neutrino quantum decoherence on the precision measurements of standard neutrino oscillation parameters in the DUNE and T2HK experiments. We show that the measurement of $\delta_\text{CP}$, $\sin^2\theta_{13}$ and $\sin^2\theta_{23}$ is stronger effected in DUNE than in T2HK. On the other hand, DUNE would have a better sensitivity than T2HK to observe decoherence effects. By performing a combined analysis of DUNE and T2HK we show that a robust measurement of standard parameters would be possible, which is not guaranteed with DUNE data alone.**Constraints on new physics with (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering data**

2402.14115 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Oleksandr Tomalak, [and 4 more]Minerba Betancourt, Kaushik Borah, Richard J. Hill, and Thomas Junk [hide authors].

New physics contributions to the (anti)neutrino-nucleon elastic scattering process can be constrained by precision measurements, with controlled Standard Model uncertainties. In a large class of new physics models, interactions involving charged leptons of different flavor can be related, and the large muon flavor component of accelerator neutrino beams can mitigate the lepton mass suppression that occurs in other low-energy measurements. We employ the recent high-statistics measurement of the cross section for $\bar{\nu}_\mu p \to \mu^+ n$ scattering on the hydrogen atom by MINERvA to place new confidence intervals on tensor and scalar neutrino-nucleon interactions: $\mathfrak{Re} C_T = -1^{+14}_{-13} \times 10^{-4}$, $|\mathfrak{Im} C_T| \le 1.3 \times 10^{-3}$, and $|\mathfrak{Im} C_S| = 45^{+13}_{-19} \times 10^{-3}$. These results represent a reduction in uncertainty by a factor of $2.1$, $3.1$, and $1.2$, respectively, compared to existing constraints from precision beta decay.**Neutrino Rate Predictions for FASER**

2402.13318 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by FASER Collaboration.

The Forward Search Experiment (FASER) at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has recently directly detected the first collider neutrinos. Neutrinos play an important role in all FASER analyses, either as signal or background, and it is therefore essential to understand the neutrino event rates. In this study, we update previous simulations and present prescriptions for theoretical predictions of neutrino fluxes and cross sections, together with their associated uncertainties. With these results, we discuss the potential for possible measurements that could be carried out in the coming years with the FASER neutrino data to be collected in LHC Run 3 and Run 4.**Boosting Neutrino Mass Ordering Sensitivity with Inelasticity for Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillation Measurement**

2402.13308 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Santiago Giner Olavarrieta, [and 4 more]Miaochen Jin, Carlos A. Argüelles, Pablo Fernández, and Ivan Martínez-Soler [hide authors].

In this letter, we study the potential of boosting the atmospheric neutrino experiments sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering (NMO) sensitivity by incorporating inelasticity measurements. We show how this observable improves the sensitivity to the NMO and the precision of other neutrino oscillation parameters relevant to atmospheric neutrinos, specifically in the IceCube-Upgrade and KM3NeT-ORCA detectors. Our results indicate that an oscillation analysis of atmospheric neutrinos including inelasticity information has the potential to enhance the ordering discrimination by several units of $\chi^2$ in the assumed scenario of 5 and 3 years of running of IceCube-Upgrade and KM3NeT-ORCA detectors, respectively.**Synergy between DUNE and T2HKK to probe Invisible Neutrino Decay**

2402.13235 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Zannatun Firdowzy Dey and Debajyoti Dutta.

We address the consequence of invisible neutrino decay in the context of two long base-line neutrino experiments; T2HKK (Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande-to-Korea) and DUNE (Deep Underground Neutrino experiment). The main purpose of this work is to bring out the aspects of CC (charged current) and NC (neutral current) measurement at DUNE in the context of invisible neutrino decay. We find that the inclusion of NC measurements (NC) at DUNE with the charged current measurements (CC) enhances its ability to constrain invisible neutrino decay. This enhancement further increases if the total run-time changes from 7 years to 10 years at DUNE. The synergy between DUNE and T2HKK improves the constraints on invisible neutrino decay. The derived constraints are $\tau_{3}/m_{3}\leq5.51\times10^{-11}$ s/eV at $3\sigma$ CL. This constraint on the decay parameter increases further if we assume that all the oscillation parameters are measured precisely. In that case, the 3$\sigma$ constraint obtained by using the synergy between DUNE and T2HKK is $\tau_{3}/m_{3}\leq5.69\times10^{-11}$ s/eV. Again if nature prefers $\nu_{3}$ to be unstable and the decay width is $\tau_{3}/m_{3}= 2.2\times10^{-11}$ s/eV then this combination can exclude the no decay scenario at more than $5\sigma$ C. L. . Although the CP sensitivity is not much hindered in the presence of invisible neutrino decay, the measurements of $\theta_{23}$, as well as the octant sensitivity, are very much affected. Octant sensitivity improves in the lower octant in the presence of the invisible neutrino decay. However, the synergy between DUNE and T2HKK improves the overall octant sensitivity in the presence of invisible neutrino decay.**Constraining neutrino-DM interactions with Milky Way dwarf spheroidals and supernova neutrinos**

2402.08718 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sean Heston, Shunsaku Horiuchi, and Satoshi Shirai.

We constrain the neutrino-dark matter cross section using properties of the dark matter density profiles of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The constraint arises from core-collapse supernova neutrinos scattering on dark matter as a form of energy injection, allowing the transformation of the dark matter density profile from a cusped profile to a flatter profile. We assume $\mathrm{\Lambda}$CDM, collisionless and non-self-interacting dark matter, and by requiring that the dark matter cores do not overshoot constraints from stellar kinematics, we place an upper limit on the cross section of $\sigma_{\nu-\mathrm{DM}}(E_\nu{=}15 \, \mathrm{MeV}, m_\chi{=}1\;\mathrm{GeV}) \approx 3.2 \times 10^{-27} \, \mathrm{cm^2}$, which is stronger than existing ones by several orders of magnitude. Consideration of baryonic feedback or host galaxy effects on the dark matter profile can strengthen this constraint.**Characterization and Optimization of Cryogenic Pure CsI Detector for CLOVERS Experiment**

2402.05026 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Chenguang Su, Qian Liu, and Yangheng Zheng.

In this study, we conducted a comprehensive characterization and optimization of a cryogenic pure CsI (pCsI) detector. Achieving a notable light yield of \SI{35.2}{PE/\keV_{ee}} and a world-leading energy resolution of \SI{6.9}{\%} at \SI{60}{\keV}, we utilized a \SI{2}{\centi\metre} cubic crystal coupled with a HAMAMATSU R11065 photomultiplier tube (PMT). Additionally, we measured the scintillation decay time of pCsI, which proved to be significantly faster than that of CsI(Na) at room temperature. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of temperature, surface treatment, and crystal shape on the light yield. Notably, the light yield peaked at approximately \SI{20}{\K} and remained stable within the range of \SI{70}-\SI{100}{\K}. We observed that the light yield of polished crystals was approximately 1.5 times greater than that of ground crystals, while the crystal shape exhibited minimal influence on the light yield. These results are crucial for the design of the \SI{12}{\kg} pCsI detector for the future CLOVERS (Coherent eLastic neutrinO(V)-nucleus scattERing at China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS)) experiment.**Quantum Decoherence Effects: a complete treatment**

2402.03438 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gabriela Barenboim and Alberto M. Gago.

Physical systems in real life are inextricably linked to their surroundings and never completely separated from them. Truly closed systems do not exist. The phenomenon of decoherence, which is brought about by the interaction with the environment, removes the relative phase of quantum states in superposition and makes them incoherent. In neutrino physics, decoherence, although extensively studied has only been analyzed thus far, exclusively in terms of its dissipative characteristics. While it is true that dissipation, or the exponential suppression, eventually is the main observable effect, the exchange of energy between the medium and the system, is an important factor that has been overlooked up until now. In this work, we introduce this term and analyze its consequences.**Probing the Sterile Neutrino Dipole Portal with SN1987A and Low-Energy Supernovae**

2402.01624 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Garv Chauhan, [and 3 more]Shunsaku Horiuchi, Patrick Huber, and Ian M. Shoemaker [hide authors].

BSM electromagnetic properties of neutrinos may lead to copious production of sterile neutrinos in the hot and dense core of a core-collapse supernova. In this work, we focus on the active-sterile transition magnetic moment portal for heavy sterile neutrinos. Firstly, we revisit the SN1987A cooling bounds for dipole portal using the integrated luminosity method, which yields more reliable results (especially in the trapping regime) compared to the previously explored via emissivity loss, aka the Raffelt criterion. Secondly, we obtain strong bounds on the dipole coupling strength reaching as low as $10^{-11} \text{ GeV}^{-1}$ from energy deposition, i.e., constrained from the observation of explosion energies of underluminous Type IIP supernovae. In addition, we find that sterile neutrino production from Primakoff upscattering off of proton dominates over scattering off of electron for low sterile neutrino masses.**Upper Limits on the Cosmic Neutrino Background from Cosmic Rays**

2402.00985 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mar Císcar-Monsalvatje, Gonzalo Herrera, and Ian M. Shoemaker.

Extragalactic and galactic cosmic rays scatter with the cosmic neutrino background during propagation to Earth, yielding a flux of relic neutrinos boosted to larger energies. If an overdensity of relic neutrinos is present in galaxies, and neutrinos are massive enough, this flux might be detectable by high-energy neutrino experiments. For a lightest neutrino of mass $m_{\nu} \sim 0.1$ eV, we find an upper limit on the local relic neutrino overdensity of $\sim 10^{13}$ and an upper limit on the relic neutrino overdensity at TXS 0506+056 of $\sim 10^{10}$. Future experiments like GRAND or IceCube-Gen2 could improve these bounds by orders of magnitude.**Testing the Number of Neutrino Species with a Global Fit of Neutrino Data**

2402.00490 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Manuel Ettengruber, Alan Zander, and Philipp Eller.

We present the first experimental constraints on models with many additional neutrino species in an analysis of current neutrino data. These types of models are motivated as a solution to the hierarchy problem by lowering the species scale of gravity to TeV. Additionally, they offer a natural mechanism to generate small neutrino masses and provide interesting dark matter candidates. This study analyzes data from DayaBay, KamLAND, MINOS, NOvA and KATRIN. We do not find evidence for the presence of any additional neutrino species, therefore we report lower bounds on the allowed number of neutrino species realized in nature. For the normal/inverted neutrino mass ordering, we can give a lower bound on the number of neutrino species of O(30) and O(100), respectively, over a large range of the parameter space.**The Sun and core-collapse supernovae are leading probes of the neutrino lifetime**

2402.00116 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pablo Martínez-Miravé, Irene Tamborra, and Mariam Tórtola.

The large distances travelled by neutrinos emitted from the Sun and core-collapse supernovae together with the characteristic energy of such neutrinos provide ideal conditions to probe their lifetime, when the decay products evade detection. We investigate the prospects of probing invisible neutrino decay capitalising on the detection of solar and supernova neutrinos as well as the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) in the next-generation neutrino observatories Hyper-Kamiokande, DUNE, JUNO, DARWIN, and RES-NOVA. We find that future solar neutrino data will be sensitive to values of the lifetime-to-mass ratio $\tau_1/m_1$ and $\tau_2/m_2$ of $\mathcal{O}(10^{-1} - 10^{-2})$ s/eV. From a core-collapse supernova explosion at $10$ kpc, lifetime-to-mass ratios of the three mass eigenstates of $\mathcal{O}(10^5)$ s/eV could be tested. After $20$ years of data taking, the DSNB would extend the sensitivity reach of $\tau_1/m_1$ to $10^{8}$ s/eV. These results promise an improvement of about $6 -15$ orders of magnitude on the values of the decay parameters with respect to existing limits.**Leptonic neutral-current probes in a short-distance DUNE-like setup**

2402.00114 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Salvador Centelles Chuliá, Omar Miranda, and Jose W. F. Valle.

Precision measurements of neutrino-electron scattering may provide a viable way to test the non-minimal form of the charged and neutral current weak interactions within a hypothetical near-detector setup for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). Although low-statistics, these processes are clean and provide information complementing the results derived from oscillation studies. They could shed light on the scale of neutrino mass generation in low-scale seesaw schemes.**Invisible neutrino decay at long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments**

2401.14316 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Christoph A. Ternes and Giulia Pagliaroli.

We perform an updated analysis of long-baseline accelerator data in the framework of neutrino oscillations in presence of invisible neutrino decay. We analyze data from T2K, NOvA and MINOS/MINOS+ and show that the combined analysis of all experiments improves the previous bound from long-baseline data by approximately one order of magnitude.**$νe\toνe$ scattering with massive Dirac or Majorana neutrinos and general interactions**

2401.14305 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Juan Manuel Márquez, Pablo Roig, and Mónica Salinas.

We calculate the neutrino-electron elastic scattering cross section, extending the results previously obtained in arXiv:1702.05721v2, in the presence of generic new interactions that take into account all the effects caused by finite neutrino masses. We address the potential significance of a heavy neutrino sector during precision measurements, particularly for tau neutrinos scattering with masses in the MeV range, for which the existing upper bounds on $|U_{\tau 4}|^2$ would result in conceivably measurable contributions. Finally, we comment on the possibility to distinguish between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, including the analysis of the new emerging parameters and its application to illustrative model-dependent scenarios.**Jovian Signal at BOREXINO**

2401.13043 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Saeed Ansarifard and Yasaman Farzan.

The BOREXINO experiment has been collecting solar neutrino data since 2007, providing the opportunity to study the variation of the event rate over a decade. We find that at 96 \% C.L., the rate of low energy events shows a time modulation favoring a correlation with a flux from Jupiter. We present a new physics model based on dark matter of mass 1-4 GeV captured by Jupiter that can account for such modulation. We discuss how this scenario can be tested.**Light vector bosons and the weak mixing angle in the light of new reactor-based CE$ν$NS experiments**

2401.13025 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Manfred Lindner, Thomas Rink, and Manibrata Sen.

In this work, the sensitivity of future germanium-based reactor neutrino experiments to the weak mixing angle $\sin^{2}\theta_{W}$, and to the presence of new light vector bosons is investigated. By taking into account key experimental features with their uncertainties and the application of a data-driven and state-of-the-art reactor antineutrino spectrum, the impact of detection threshold and experimental exposure is assessed in detail for an experiment relying on germanium semiconductor detectors. With the established analysis framework, the precision on the Weinberg angle, and capability of probing the parameter space of a universally coupled mediator model, as well as a U(1)$_{\rm B-L}$-symmetric model are quantified. Our investigation finds the next-generation of germanium-based reactor neutrino experiments in good shape to determine the Weinberg angle $\sin^{2}\theta_{W}$ with $<10$\% precision using the low-energetic neutrino channel of CE$\nu$NS. In addition, the current limits on new light vector bosons determined by reactor experiments can be lowered by about an order of magnitude via the combination of both CE$\nu$NS and E$\nu$eS. Consequently, our findings provide strong phenomenological support for future experimental endeavours close to a reactor site.**A non-unitary solar constraint for long-baseline neutrino experiments**

2401.12829 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Andres Lopez Moreno.

Long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments require external constraints on $\sin^2\theta_{12}$ and $\Delta m_{21}^2$ to make precision measurements of the leptonic mixing matrix. These constraints come from measurements of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mixing in solar neutrinos. Here we develop an MSW large mixing angle approximation in the presence of heavy neutral leptons which adds a single new parameter ($\alpha_{11}$) representing the magnitude of the mixing between the $\nu_e$ state and the heavy sector. We use data from the Borexino, SNO and KamLAND collaborations to find a solar constraint appropriate for heavy neutral lepton searches in long-baseline oscillation experiments. Solar data limits the magnitude of the non-unitary parameter to $(1-\alpha_{11}) < 0.046$ at the $99\%$ credible interval and yields a strongly correlated constraint on the solar mass splitting and the magnitude of $\nu_e$ non-unitary mixing.**The Smallness of Matter Effects in Long-Baseline Muon Neutrino Disappearance**

2401.10326 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Stephen J. Parke.

Current long-baseline accelerator experiments, NOvA and T2K, are making excellent measurements of neutrino oscillations and the next generation of experiments, DUNE and HK, will make measurements at the $\mathcal O(1\%)$ level of precision. These measurements are a combination of the appearance channel which is more challenging experimentally but depends on many oscillation parameters, and the disappearance channel which is somewhat easier and allows for precision measurements of the atmospheric mass splitting and the atmospheric mixing angle. It is widely recognized that the matter effect plays a key role in the appearance probability, yet the effect on the disappearance probability is surprisingly small for these experiments. Here we investigate both exactly how small the effect is and show that it just begins to become relevant in the high statistics regime of DUNE.**Final CONUS results on coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering at the Brokdorf reactor**

2401.07684 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by N. Ackermann, [and 15 more]H. Bonet, A. Bonhomme, C. Buck, K. Fülber, J. Hakenmüller, J. Hempfling, J. Henrichs, G. Heusser, M. Lindner, W. Maneschg, T. Rink, E. Sanchez Garcia, J. Stauber, H. Strecker, and R. Wink [hide authors].

The CONUS experiment studies coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering in four 1 kg germanium spectrometers. Low ionization energy thresholds of 210 eV were achieved. The detectors were operated inside an optimized shield at the Brokdorf nuclear power plant which provided a reactor antineutrino flux of up to $2.3\cdot10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. In the final phase of data collection at this site, the constraints on the neutrino interaction rate were improved by an order of magnitude as compared to the previous CONUS analysis. The new limit of less than 0.34 signal events kg$^{-1}$d$^{-1}$ is within a factor 2 of the rate predicted by the Standard Model.**Neutrino-antineutrino Asymmetry of C$ν$B on the Surface of the Round Earth**

2401.07347 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guo-yuan Huang.

It has been claimed that the coherent scattering of relic neutrinos with the Earth will result in a neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry of $\mathcal{O}(10^{-4})$ on the Earth surface, which is five orders of magnitude larger than the naive model expectation. In this work we show that this overdensity was overestimated for the perfectly round Earth by solving the exact solution with partial waves. The maximal asymmetry after summing over all the angular modes is only around $10^{-8}$ above the ground. To achieve the proposed asymmetry of $\mathcal{O}(10^{-4})$, a special geography may be needed as the experimental site.**A Measurement of Solar $pp$ Neutrino Flux using PandaX-4T Electron Recoil Data**

2401.07045 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Xiaoying Lu, [and 95 more]Abdusalam Abdukerim, Zihao Bo, Wei Chen, Xun Chen, Chen Cheng, Zhaokan Cheng, Xiangyi Cui, Yingjie Fan, Deqing Fang, Changbo Fu, Mengting Fu, Lisheng Geng, Karl Giboni, Linhui Gu, Xuyuan Guo, Chencheng Han, Ke Han, Changda He, Jinrong He, Di Huang, Yanlin Huang, Junting Huang, Zhou Huang, Ruquan Hou, Yu Hou, Xiangdong Ji, Yonglin Ju, Chenxiang Li, Jiafu Li, Mingchuan Li, Shuaijie Li, Tao Li, Qing Lin, Jianglai Liu, Congcong Lu, Lingyin Luo, Yunyang Luo, Wenbo Ma, Yugang Ma, Yajun Mao, Yue Meng, Xuyang Ning, Binyu Pang, Ningchun Qi, Zhicheng Qian, Xiangxiang Ren, Nasir Shaheed, Xiaofeng Shang, Xiyuan Shao, Guofang Shen, Lin Si, Wenliang Sun, Andi Tan, Yi Tao, Anqing Wang, Meng Wang, Qiuhong Wang, Shaobo Wang, Siguang Wang, Wei Wang, Xiuli Wang, Zhou Wang, Yuehuan Wei, Mengmeng Wu, Weihao Wu, Jingkai Xia, Mengjiao Xiao, Xiang Xiao, Pengwei Xie, Binbin Yan, Xiyu Yan, Jijun Yang, Yong Yang, Yukun Yao, Chunxu Yu, Ying Yuan, Zhe Yuan, Xinning Zeng, Dan Zhang, Minzhen Zhang, Peng Zhang, Shibo Zhang, Shu Zhang, Tao Zhang, Wei Zhang, Yang Zhang, Yingxin Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Li Zhao, Qibin Zheng, Jifang Zhou, Ning Zhou, Xiaopeng Zhou, Yong Zhou, and Yubo Zhou [hide authors].

The proton-proton ($pp$) fusion chain dominates the neutrino production from the Sun. The uncertainty of the predicted $pp$ neutrino flux is at the sub-percent level, whereas that of the best measurement is $\mathcal{O}(10\%)$. Furthermore, no direct measurement has been made via electron scattering below 165~keV recoil energy. Using the PandaX-4T commissioning data with 0.63 tonne$\times$year of exposure, we perform the first measurement of solar $pp$ neutrinos in the recoil energy range from 24 to 144 keV. The $pp$ neutrino flux is measured to be $(10.3 \pm 3.7 \,{\rm{(stat.)}} \pm 9.6 \,{\rm{(syst.)}} )\times 10^{10}\, $$\rm{s}^{-1} \rm{cm}^{-2}$, consistent with Standard Solar Model and existing measurements.**Charged-current non-standard neutrino interactions at Daya Bay**

2401.02901 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Daya Bay collaboration, [and 201 more]F. P. An, W. D. Bai, A. B. Balantekin, M. Bishai, S. Blyth, G. F. Cao, J. Cao, J. F. Chang, Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, H. Y. Chen, S. M. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. X. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, J. Cheng, Y. C. Cheng, Z. K. Cheng, J. J. Cherwinka, M. C. Chu, J. P. Cummings, O. Dalager, F. S. Deng, X. Y. Ding, Y. Y. Ding, M. V. Diwan, T. Dohnal, D. Dolzhikov, J. Dove, K. V. Dugas, H. Y. Duyang, D. A. Dwyer, J. P. Gallo, M. Gonchar, G. H. Gong, H. Gong, W. Q. Gu, J. Y. Guo, L. Guo, X. H. Guo, Y. H. Guo, Z. Guo, R. W. Hackenburg, Y. Han, S. Hans, M. He, K. M. Heeger, Y. K. Heng, Y. K. Hor, Y. B. Hsiung, B. Z. Hu, J. R. Hu, T. Hu, Z. J. Hu, H. X. Huang, J. H. Huang, X. T. Huang, Y. B. Huang, P. Huber, D. E. Jaffe, K. L. Jen, X. L. Ji, X. P. Ji, R. A. Johnson, D. Jones, L. Kang, S. H. Kettell, S. Kohn, M. Kramer, T. J. Langford, J. Lee, J. H. C. Lee, R. T. Lei, R. Leitner, J. K. C. Leung, F. Li, H. L. Li, J. J. Li, Q. J. Li, R. H. Li, S. Li, S. Li, S. C. Li, W. D. Li, X. N. Li, X. Q. Li, Y. F. Li, Z. B. Li, H. Liang, C. J. Lin, G. L. Lin, S. Lin, J. J. Ling, J. M. Link, L. Littenberg, B. R. Littlejohn, J. C. Liu, J. L. Liu, J. X. Liu, C. Lu, H. Q. Lu, K. B. Luk, B. Z. Ma, X. B. Ma, X. Y. Ma, Y. Q. Ma, R. C. Mandujano, C. Marshall, K. T. McDonald, R. D. McKeown, Y. Meng, J. Napolitano, D. Naumov, E. Naumova, T. M. T. Nguyen, J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux, A. Olshevskiy, J. Park, S. Patton, J. C. Peng, C. S. J. Pun, F. Z. Qi, M. Qi, X. Qian, N. Raper, J. Ren, C. Morales Reveco, R. Rosero, B. Roskovec, X. C. Ruan, B. Russell, H. Steiner, J. L. Sun, T. Tmej, W. -H. Tse, C. E. Tull, Y. C. Tung, B. Viren, V. Vorobel, C. H. Wang, J. Wang, M. Wang, N. Y. Wang, R. G. Wang, W. Wang, X. Wang, Y. F. Wang, Z. Wang, Z. Wang, Z. M. Wang, H. Y. Wei, L. H. Wei, W. Wei, L. J. Wen, K. Whisnant, C. G. White, H. L. H. Wong, E. Worcester, D. R. Wu, Q. Wu, W. J. Wu, D. M. Xia, Z. Q. Xie, Z. Z. Xing, H. K. Xu, J. L. Xu, T. Xu, T. Xue, C. G. Yang, L. Yang, Y. Z. Yang, H. F. Yao, M. Ye, M. Yeh, B. L. Young, H. Z. Yu, Z. Y. Yu, B. B. Yue, V. Zavadskyi, S. Zeng, Y. Zeng, L. Zhan, C. Zhang, F. Y. Zhang, H. H. Zhang, J. L. Zhang, J. W. Zhang, Q. M. Zhang, S. Q. Zhang, X. T. Zhang, Y. M. Zhang, Y. X. Zhang, Y. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Zhang, Z. P. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhang, J. Zhao, R. Z. Zhao, L. Zhou, H. L. Zhuang, and J. H. Zou [hide authors].

The full data set of the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is used to probe the effect of the charged current non-standard interactions (CC-NSI) on neutrino oscillation experiments. Two different approaches are applied and constraints on the corresponding CC-NSI parameters are obtained with the neutrino flux taken from the Huber-Mueller model with a $5\%$ uncertainty. For the quantum mechanics-based approach (QM-NSI), the constraints on the CC-NSI parameters $\epsilon_{e\alpha}$ and $\epsilon_{e\alpha}^{s}$ are extracted with and without the assumption that the effects of the new physics are the same in the production and detection processes, respectively. The approach based on the weak effective field theory (WEFT-NSI) deals with four types of CC-NSI represented by the parameters $[\varepsilon_{X}]_{e\alpha}$. For both approaches, the results for the CC-NSI parameters are shown for cases with various fixed values of the CC-NSI and the Dirac CP-violating phases, and when they are allowed to vary freely. We find that constraints on the QM-NSI parameters $\epsilon_{e\alpha}$ and $\epsilon_{e\alpha}^{s}$ from the Daya Bay experiment alone can reach the order $\mathcal{O}(0.01)$ for the former and $\mathcal{O}(0.1)$ for the latter, while for WEFT-NSI parameters $[\varepsilon_{X}]_{e\alpha}$, we obtain $\mathcal{O}(0.1)$ for both cases.**Correlations and Distinguishability Challenges in Supernova Models: Insights from Future Neutrino Detectors**

2401.02531 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Maria Manuela Saez, [and 4 more]Ermal Rrapaj, Akira Harada, Shigehiro Nagataki, and Yong-Zhong Qian [hide authors].

This paper explores core-collapse supernovae as crucial targets for neutrino telescopes, addressing uncertainties in their simulation results. We comprehensively analyze eighteen modern simulations and discriminate among supernova models using realistic detectors and interactions. A significant correlation between the total neutrino energy and cumulative counts, driven by massive lepton neutrinos and oscillations, is identified, particularly noticeable with the DUNE detector. Bayesian techniques indicate strong potential for model differentiation during a Galactic supernova event, with HK excelling in distinguishing models based on equation of state, progenitor mass, and mixing scheme.**Non-standard neutrino interactions mediated by a light scalar at DUNE**

2401.02107 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Bhaskar Dutta, [and 5 more]Sumit Ghosh, Kevin J. Kelly, Tianjun Li, Adrian Thompson, and Ankur Verma [hide authors].

We investigate the effect on neutrino oscillations generated by beyond-the-standard-model interactions between neutrinos and matter. Specifically, we focus on scalar-mediated non-standard interactions (NSI) whose impact fundamentally differs from that of vector-mediated NSI. Scalar NSI contribute as corrections to the neutrino mass matrix rather than the matter potential and thereby predict distinct phenomenology from the vector-mediated ones. Similar to vector-type NSI, the presence of scalar-mediated neutrino NSI can influence measurements of oscillation parameters in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, with a notable impact on CP measurement in the case of DUNE. Our study focuses on the effect of scalar NSI on neutrino oscillations, using DUNE as an example. We introduce a model-independent parameterization procedure that enables the examination of the impact of all non-zero scalar NSI parameters simultaneously. Subsequently, we convert DUNE's sensitivity to the NSI parameters into projected sensitivity concerning the parameters of a light scalar model. We compare these results with existing non-oscillation probes. Our findings reveal that the region of the light scalar parameter space sensitive to DUNE is predominantly excluded by non-oscillation probes, except for scenarios with very light mediator mass.**Solar neutrino constraints on light mediators through coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering**

2312.17502 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mehmet Demirci and M. Fauzi Mustamin.

We investigate new physics with light-neutral mediators through coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) at low energies. These mediators, with a mass of less than $1$ GeV, are common properties for extensions of the Standard Model (SM). We consider general scalar, vector, and tensor interactions allowed by Lorentz invariance and involve universal light mediators accordingly. In addition, we study an additional vector gauge boson with an associated $U(1)'$ gauge group for a variety of models including $U(1)_{B-L}$, $U(1)_{B-3L_e}$, $U(1)_{B-3L_\mu}$, and $U(1)_{B-3L_\tau}$. These models differ in the fermion charges, which determine their contributions within the CE$\nu$NS process. The effects of each model are investigated by embedding them in the SM process using solar neutrino flux. We derive new limits on the coupling-mass plane of these models from the latest CDEX-10 data. We also present projected sensitivities involving the future experimental developments for each model. Our results provide more stringent constraints in some regions, compared to previous works. Furthermore, the projected sensitivities yield an improvement of up to one order of magnitude.**Flavor Matters, but Matter Flavors: Matter Effects on Flavor Composition of Astrophysical Neutrinos**

2312.17315 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. S. Bhupal Dev, Sudip Jana, and Yago Porto.

We show that high-energy astrophysical neutrinos produced in the cores of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can undergo strong matter effects, thus significantly influencing their source flavor ratios. In particular, matter effects can completely modify the standard interpretation of the flavor ratio measurements in terms of the physical processes occurring in the sources (e.g., $pp$ versus $p\gamma$, full pion-decay chain versus muon-damped pion decay). We contrast our results with the existing flavor ratio measurements at IceCube, as well as with projections for next-generation neutrino telescopes like IceCube-Gen2. Signatures of these matter effects in neutrino flavor composition would not only bring more evidence for neutrino production in central AGN regions, but would also be a powerful probe of heavily Compton-thick AGNs, which escape conventional observation in $X$-rays and other electromagnetic wavelengths.**Neutrino Mass Measurement with Cosmic Gravitational Focusing**

2312.16972 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shao-Feng Ge, Pedro Pasquini, and Liang Tan.

We thoroughly explore the cosmic gravitational focusing of cosmic neutrino fluid (C$\nu$F) by dark matter (DM) halo using both general relativity for a point source of gravitational potential and Boltzmann equations for continuous overdensities. Derived in the most general way for both relativistic and non-relativistic neutrinos, our results show that the effect has fourth power dependence on the neutrino mass and temperature. With nonlinear mass dependence which is different from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large scale structure (LSS) observations, the cosmic gravitational focusing can provide an independent cosmological way of measuring the neutrino mass and ordering. We take DESI as an example to illustrate that the projected sensitivity as well as its synergy with existing terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments and other cosmological observations can significantly improve the neutrino mass measurement.**Neutrino Lorentz Invariance Violation from Cosmic Fields**

2312.16320 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rubén Cordero and Luis A. Delgadillo.

From a cosmological perspective, scalar fields are well-motivated dark matter and dark energy candidates. Several possibilities of neutrino couplings with a time-varying cosmic field have been investigated in the literature. In this work, we present a framework in which violations of Lorentz invariance (LIV) and $CPT$ symmetry in the neutrino sector could arise from an interaction among neutrinos with a time-varying scalar field. Furthermore, some cosmological and phenomenological aspects and constraints concerning this type of interaction are discussed. Potential violations of Lorentz and $CPT$ symmetries at present and future neutrino oscillation experiments such as IceCube and KM3NeT can probe this scenario.**Constraints on sterile neutrinos and the cosmological tensions**

2312.15435 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Supriya Pan, [and 3 more]Osamu Seto, Tomo Takahashi, and Yo Toda [hide authors].

We investigate cosmological bounds on sterile neutrino masses in the light of the Hubble and $S_8$ tensions. We argue that non-zero masses for sterile neutrinos are inferred at 2$\sigma$ level in some extended models such as varying dark energy equation of state, when a direct measurement of the Hubble constant $H_0$ and weak lensing measurement of dark energy survey (DES) are taken into account. Furthermore, the Hubble and $S_8$ tensions are also reduced in such a framework. We also consider the case where a non-flat Universe is allowed and show that a slightly open Universe may be favored in models with sterile neutrinos in the context of the cosmological tensions.**Connecting Tribimaximal and Bitrimaximal Mixings**

2312.15391 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos Alvarado, Janelly Bautista, and Alexander J. Stuart.

In this paper, we study the connection between the tribimaximal and bitrimaximal mixing patterns. In doing so, we are forced to work in a non-diagonal charged lepton basis. This leads to several relations that must hold between the lepton mixing angles. After a short discussion, we analyze the underlying flavor symmetry responsible for this prediction. Finally, we add CP violation to bitrimaximal mixing and study its effect on the flavor symmetry group.**Neutrino masses from new seesaw models: Low-scale variants and phenomenological implications**

2312.14119 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alessio Giarnetti, [and 4 more]Juan Herrero-Garcia, Simone Marciano, Davide Meloni, and Drona Vatsyayan [hide authors].

With just the Standard Model Higgs doublet, there are only three types of seesaw models that generate light Majorana neutrino masses at tree level after electroweak spontaneous symmetry breaking. However, if there exist additional TeV scalars acquiring vacuum expectation values, coupled with heavier fermionic multiplets, several new seesaw models become possible. These new seesaws are the primary focus of this study and correspond to the tree-level ultraviolet completions of the effective operators studied in a companion publication. We are interested in the genuine cases, in which the standard seesaw contributions are absent. In addition to the tree-level generation of neutrino masses, we also consider the one-loop contributions. Furthermore, we construct low-energy versions that exhibit a very rich phenomenology. Specifically, we scrutinise the generation of dimension-6 operators and explore their implications, including non-unitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix, non-universal $Z-$boson interactions, and lepton flavor violation. Finally, we provide (Generalised) Scotogenic-like variants that incorporate viable dark matter candidates.**Limits on heavy neutral leptons, $Z'$ bosons and majorons from high-energy supernova neutrinos**

2312.13627 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kensuke Akita, [and 3 more]Sang Hui Im, Mehedi Masud, and Seokhoon Yun [hide authors].

Light hypothetical particles with masses up to $\mathcal{O}(100)\ {\rm MeV}$ can be produced in the core of supernovae. Their subsequent decays to neutrinos can produce a flux component with higher energies than the standard flux. We study the impact of heavy neutral leptons, $Z'$ bosons, in particular ${\rm U(1)}_{L_\mu-L_\tau}$ and ${\rm U(1)}_{B-L}$ gauge bosons, and majorons coupled to neutrinos flavor-dependently. We obtain new strong limits on these particles from no events of high-energy SN 1987A neutrinos and their future sensitivities from observations of galactic supernova neutrinos.**Photons from neutrinos: the gamma ray echo of a supernova neutrino burst**

2312.13197 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Cecilia Lunardini, [and 5 more]Joshua Loeffler, Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Matthew J. Hurley, Ebraheem Farag, and F. X. Timmes [hide authors].

When a star undergoes core collapse, a vast amount of energy is released in a ~10 s long burst of neutrinos of all species. Inverse beta decay in the star's hydrogen envelope causes an electromagnetic cascade which ultimately results in a flare of gamma rays - an "echo" of the neutrino burst - at the characteristic energy of 0.511 MeV. We study the phenomenology and detectability of this flare. Its luminosity curve is characterized by a fast, seconds-long, rise and an equally fast decline, with a minute- or hour-long plateau in between. For a near-Earth star (distance D<1 kpc) the echo will be observable at near future gamma ray telescopes with an effective area of 10^3 cm^2 or larger. Its observation will inform us on the envelope size and composition. In conjunction with the direct detection of the neutrino burst, it will also give information on the neutrino emission away from the line of sight and will enable tests of neutrino propagation effects between the stellar surface and Earth.**Solar neutrino measurements using the full data period of Super-Kamiokande-IV**

2312.12907 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, [and 329 more]:, K. Abe, C. Bronner, Y. Hayato, K. Hiraide, K. Hosokawa, K. Ieki, M. Ikeda, S. Imaizumi, K. Iyogi, J. Kameda, Y. Kanemura, R. Kaneshima, Y. Kashiwagi, Y. Kataoka, Y. Kato, Y. Kishimoto, S. Miki, S. Mine, M. Miura, T. Mochizuki, S. Moriyama, Y. Nagao, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, Y. Noguchi, T. Okada, K. Okamoto, A. Orii, K. Sato, H. Sekiya, H. Shiba, K. Shimizu, M. Shiozawa, Y. Sonoda, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeda, Y. Takemoto, A. Takenaka, H. Tanaka, S. Watanabe, T. Yano, S. Han, T. Kajita, K. Okumura, T. Tashiro, T. Tomiya, R. Wang, X. Wang, S. Yoshida, D. Bravo-Berguno, P. Fernandez, L. Labarga, N. Ospina, B. Zaldivar, B. W. Pointon, F. d. M. Blaszczyk, C. Kachulis, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. Wan, T. Wester, J. Bian, N. J. Griskevich, W. R. Kropp, S. Locke, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, V. Takhistov, P. Weatherly, A. Yankelevich, K. S. Ganezer, J. Hill, M. C. Jang, J. Y. Kim, S. Lee, I. T. Lim, D. H. Moon, R. G. Park, B. Bodur, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, A. Beauchene, L. Bernard, A. Coffani, O. Drapier, S. El Hedri, A. Giampaolo, J. Imber, Th. A. Mueller, P. Paganini, R. Rogly, B. Quilain, A. Santos, T. Nakamura, J. S. Jang, L. N. Machado, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, N. Iovine, K. Choi, S. Cao, L. H. V. Anthony, R. P. Litchfield, N. Prouse, D. Marin, M. Scott, A. A. Sztuc, Y. Uchida, V. Berardi, M. G. Catanesi, R. A. Intonti, E. Radicioni, N. F. Calabria, G. De Rosa, A. Langella, G. Collazuol, F. Iacob, M. Lamoureux, M. Mattiazzi, L. Ludovici, M. Gonin, L. Perisse, G. Pronost, C. Fujisawa, Y. Maekawa, Y. Nishimura, R. Okazaki, M. Friend, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, M. Jakkapu, T. Kobayashi, T. Matsubara, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, T. Boschi, N. Bhuiyan, G. T. Burton, J. Gao, A. Goldsack, T. Katori, F. Di Lodovico, J. Migenda, S. Molina Sedgwick, R. M. Ramsden, M. Taani, Z. Xie, S. Zsoldos, KE. Abe, M. Hasegawa, Y. Isobe, Y. Kotsar, H. Miyabe, H. Ozaki, T. Shiozawa, T. Sugimoto, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takagi, Y. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, H. Zhong, Y. Ashida, J. Feng, L. Feng, T. Hayashino, S. Hirota, J. R. Hu, Z. Hu, M. Jiang, M. Kawaue, T. Kikawa, M. Mori, KE. Nakamura, T. Nakaya, R. A. Wendell, K. Yasutome, S. J. Jenkins, N. McCauley, P. Mehta, A. Pritchard, A. Tarrant, M. J. Wilking, Y. Fukuda, Y. Itow, H. Menjo, M. Murase, K. Ninomiya, T. Niwa, M. Tsukada, Y. Yoshioka, K. Frankiewicz, J. Lagoda, M. Mandal, P. Mijakowski, Y. S. Prabhu, J. Zalipska, J. Jiang, M. Jia, C. K. Jung, J. L. Palomino, G. Santucci, W. Shi, C. Vilela, C. Yanagisawa, D. Fukuda, K. Hagiwara, M. Harada, Y. Hino, T. Horai, H. Ishino, S. Ito, H. Kitagawa, Y. Koshio, W. Ma, F. Nakanishi, N. Piplani, S. Sakai, M. Sakuda, T. Tada, T. Tano, C. Xu, R. Yamaguchi, T. Ishizuka, Y. Kuno, G. Barr, D. Barrow, L. Cook, S. Samani, C. Simpson, D. Wark, A. M. Holin, F. Nova, S. Jung, B. Yang, J. Y. Yang, J. Yoo, J. E. P. Fannon, L. Kneale, M. Malek, J. M. McElwee, O. Stone, M. D. Thiesse, L. F. Thompson, S. T. Wilson, H. Okazawa, S. M. Lakshmi, Y. Choi, S. B. Kim, E. Kwon, J. W. Seo, I. Yu, A. K. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, S. Tairahune, K. Nishijima, A. Eguchi, K. Iwamoto, K. Nakagiri, Y. Nakajima, N. Ogawa, S. Shima, E. Watanabe, M. Yokoyama, R. G. Calland, S. Fujita, C. Jesus-Valls, X. Junjie, T. K. Ming, P. de Perio, K. Martens, M. Murdoch, M. R. Vagins, S. Izumiyama, M. Kuze, R. Matsumoto, Y. Okajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yoshida, M. Inomoto, M. Ishitsuka, H. Ito, T. Kinoshita, R. Matsumoto, K. Ohta, Y. Ommura, M. Shinoki, N. Shigeta, T. Suganuma, K. Yamaguchi, T. Yoshida, J. F. Martin, C. M. Nantais, H. A. Tanaka, T. Towstego, R. Gaur, V. Gousy-Leblanc, M. Hartz, A. Konaka, X. Li, S. Chen, B. D. Xu, B. Zhang, S. Berkman, M. Posiadala-Zezula, S. B. Boyd, R. Edwards, D. Hadley, M. Nicholson, M. O'Flaherty, B. Richards, A. Ali, B. Jamieson, J. Walker, S. Amanai, Ll. Marti, A. Minamino, K. Okamoto, G. Pintaudi, S. Sano, R. Sasaki, S. Suzuki, and K. Wada [hide authors].

An analysis of solar neutrino data from the fourth phase of Super-Kamiokande~(SK-IV) from October 2008 to May 2018 is performed and the results are presented. The observation time of the data set of SK-IV corresponds to $2970$~days and the total live time for all four phases is $5805$~days. For more precise solar neutrino measurements, several improvements are applied in this analysis: lowering the data acquisition threshold in May 2015, further reduction of the spallation background using neutron clustering events, precise energy reconstruction considering the time variation of the PMT gain. The observed number of solar neutrino events in $3.49$--$19.49$ MeV electron kinetic energy region during SK-IV is $65,443^{+390}_{-388}\,(\mathrm{stat.})\pm 925\,(\mathrm{syst.})$ events. Corresponding $\mathrm{^{8}B}$ solar neutrino flux is $(2.314 \pm 0.014\, \rm{(stat.)} \pm 0.040 \, \rm{(syst.)}) \times 10^{6}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}\,s^{-1}}$, assuming a pure electron-neutrino flavor component without neutrino oscillations. The flux combined with all SK phases up to SK-IV is $(2.336 \pm 0.011\, \rm{(stat.)} \pm 0.043 \, \rm{(syst.)}) \times 10^{6}~\mathrm{cm^{-2}\,s^{-1}}$. Based on the neutrino oscillation analysis from all solar experiments, including the SK $5805$~days data set, the best-fit neutrino oscillation parameters are $\rm{sin^{2} \theta_{12,\,solar}} = 0.306 \pm 0.013 $ and $\Delta m^{2}_{21,\,\mathrm{solar}} = (6.10^{+ 0.95}_{-0.81}) \times 10^{-5}~\rm{eV}^{2}$, with a deviation of about 1.5$\sigma$ from the $\Delta m^{2}_{21}$ parameter obtained by KamLAND. The best-fit neutrino oscillation parameters obtained from all solar experiments and KamLAND are $\sin^{2} \theta_{12,\,\mathrm{global}} = 0.307 \pm 0.012 $ and $\Delta m^{2}_{21,\,\mathrm{global}} = (7.50^{+ 0.19}_{-0.18}) \times 10^{-5}~\rm{eV}^{2}$.**Searching for Axial Neutral Current Non-Standard Interactions of neutrinos by DUNE-like experiments**

2312.12420 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Saeed Abbaslu, [and 3 more]Mehran Dehpour, Yasaman Farzan, and Sahar Safari [hide authors].

The increasingly precise neutrino experiments raise the hope for searching for new physics through studying the impact of Neutral Current (NC) Non-Standard Interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter fields. Neutrino oscillation experiments along with the Elastic Coherent $\nu$ Nucleus Scattering (CE$\nu$NS) experiments already set strong bounds on all the flavor elements of the "vector" NC NSI. However, "axial" NC NSI can hide from these experiments. We show how a DUNE-like experiment can probe these couplings by studying NC Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events. We find that strong bounds can be set on the axial NC NSI of neutrinos with the $u$, $d$, and $s$ quarks. We show that using both the near and far detectors, a DUNE-like experiment can significantly improve the present bounds on all the flavor elements.**Primordial Black Hole Sterile Neutrinogenesis: Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter Production Independent of Couplings**

2312.12136 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Muping Chen, [and 3 more]Graciela B. Gelmini, Philip Lu, and Volodymyr Takhistov [hide authors].

Sterile neutrinos ($\nu_s$s) are well-motivated and actively searched for hypothetical neutral particles that would mix with the Standard Model active neutrinos. They are considered prime warm dark matter (DM) candidates, typically when their mass is in the keV range, although they can also be hot or cold DM components. We discuss in detail the characteristics and phenomenology of $\nu_s$s that minimally couple only to active neutrinos and are produced in the evaporation of early Universe primordial black holes (PBHs), a process we called ``PBH sterile neutrinogenesis". Contrary to the previously studied $\nu_s$ production mechanisms, this novel mechanism does not depend on the active-sterile mixing. The resulting $\nu_s$s have a distinctive spectrum and are produced with larger energies than in typical scenarios. This characteristic enables $\nu_s$s to be WDM in the unusual $0.3$ MeV to $0.3$ TeV mass range, if PBHs do not matter-dominate the Universe before evaporating. When PBHs matter-dominate before evaporating, the possible coincidence of induced gravitational waves associated with PBH evaporation and astrophysical X-ray observations from $\nu_s$ decays constitutes a distinct signature of our scenario. constitutes a distinct signature of our scenario.**Ultralight dark matter in neutrino oscillations to accommodate T2K and NO$ν$A tension**

2312.11704 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hai-Xing Lin, Jian Tang, and Sampsa Vihonen.

Ultralight dark matter with neutrino couplings is investigated in light of the long-baseline neutrino oscillation data in T2K and NO$\nu$A experiments. The observed tension between T2K and NO$\nu$A is shown to be ameliorated when ultralight dark matter of either scalar or vector form is taken into consideration. The best result is achieved with scalar dark matter which can alleviate the tension by 2.0$\sigma$ CL with flavour-universal couplings. We also consider scalar dark matter with flavour-general couplings and vector dark matter in $L_e - L_\mu$ and $L_\mu - L_\tau$ cases. It is shown in all cases that the tension is relaxed by approximately 1.5$\sigma$-2.0$\sigma$ CL while the current experimental constraints can be evaded.**Superradiant Leptogenesis**

2312.06768 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anish Ghoshal, Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez, and Jessica Turner.

We investigate how superradiance affects the generation of baryon asymmetry in a universe with rotating primordial black holes, considering a scenario where a scalar boson is coupled to the heavy right-handed neutrinos. We identify the regions of the parameter space where the scalar production is enhanced due to superradiance. This enhancement, coupled with the subsequent decay of the scalar into right handed neutrinos, results in the non-thermal creation of lepton asymmetry. We show that successful leptogenesis is achieved for masses of primordial black holes in the range of order $O(0.1~{\rm g}) - O(10~{\rm g})$ and the lightest of the heavy neutrino masses, $M_N \sim O(10^{12})~{\rm GeV}$. Consequently, regions of the parameter space, which in the case of Schwarzchild PBHs were incompatible with viable leptogenesis, can produce the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry.**The Sensitivity Floor for Primordial Black Holes with Neutrino Searches**

2312.06108 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Qishan Liu and Kenny C. Y. Ng.

Primordial black holes (PBHs) formed in the early Universe are well-motivated dark matter (DM) candidates over a wide range of masses. These PBHs could emit detectable signals in the form of photons, electrons, and neutrinos through Hawking radiation. We consider the null observations of astrophysical $\bar{\nu}_{e}$ flux from several neutrino detectors and set new constraints on the PBHs as the dominant DM component to be above $6.4\times10^{15}\,{\rm g}$. We also estimate the expected constraints with JUNO for the prospects in the near future. Lastly, we note that the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background (DSNB) is an unavoidable isotropic background. We thus estimate the sensitivity floor for PBH parameter space due to DSNB, and show that it is difficult for neutrino detectors to detect PBHs as 100% of DM above $9 \times 10^{15}\,{\rm g}$.**Relic neutrino decay solution to the excess radio background**

2312.03082 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. S. Bhupal Dev, [and 3 more]Pasquale Di Bari, Ivan Martínez-Soler, and Rishav Roshan [hide authors].

The excess radio background detected by ARCADE 2 represents a puzzle within the standard cosmological model. There is no clear viable astrophysical solution, and therefore, it might indicate the presence of new physics. Radiative decays of a relic neutrino $\nu_i$ (either $i=1$, or $i=2$, or $i=3$) into a sterile neutrino $\nu_{\rm s}$, assumed to be quasi-degenerate, provide a solution that currently evades all constraints posed by different cosmological observations and reproduces very well the ARCADE 2 data. We find a very good fit to the ARCADE 2 data with best fit values $\tau_i = 1.46 \times 10^{21}\,{\rm s}$ and $\Delta m_i = 4.0 \times 10^{-5}\,{\rm eV}$, where $\tau_i$ is the lifetime and $\Delta m_i$ is the mass difference between the decaying active neutrino and the sterile neutrino. On the other hand, if relic neutrino decays do not explain ARCADE 2 data, then these place a stringent constraint $\Delta m_i^{3/2} \tau_i \gtrsim 2 \times 10^{14}\,{\rm eV}^{3/2}\,{\rm s}$ in the range $1.4 \times 10^{-5} \, {\rm eV} < \Delta m_i < 2.5 \times 10^{-4}\,{\rm eV}$. The solution also predicts a stronger 21 cm absorption global signal than the predicted one from the $\Lambda$CDM model, with a contrast brightness temperature $T_{21} = -238^{+21}_{-20}\,{\rm mK}$ ($99\%$ C.L.) at redshift $z\simeq 17$. This is in mild tension with the even stronger signal found by the EDGES collaboration, $T_{21} = - 500^{+200}_{-500}\,{\rm mK} $, suggesting that this might have been overestimated, possibly receiving a contribution from some unidentified foreground source.**Constraints on UHECR sources and extragalactic magnetic fields from directional anisotropies**

2312.02645 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Teresa Bister and Glennys R. Farrar.

A dipole anisotropy in ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) arrival directions, of extragalactic origin, is now firmly established at energies E > 8 EeV. Furthermore, the UHECR angular power spectrum shows no power at smaller angular scales than the dipole, apart from hints of possible individual hot or warm spots for energy thresholds $\gtrsim$40 EeV. Here, we exploit the magnitude of the dipole and the limits on smaller-scale anisotropies to place constraints on two quantities: the extragalactic magnetic field (EGMF) and the number density of UHECR sources or the volumetric event rate if UHECR sources are transient. We also vary the bias between the extragalactic matter and the UHECR source densities, reflecting whether UHECR sources are preferentially found in over- or under-dense regions, and find that little or no bias is favored. We follow Ding et al. (2021) in using the Cosmic Flows 2 density distribution of the local universe as our baseline distribution of UHECR sources, but we improve and extend that work by employing an accurate and self-consistent treatment of interactions and energy losses during propagation. Deflections in the Galactic magnetic field are treated using both the full JF12 magnetic field model, with random as well as coherent components, or just the coherent part, to bracket the impact of the GMF on the dipole anisotropy. This Large Scale Structure (LSS) model gives good agreement with both the direction and magnitude of the measured dipole anisotropy and forms the basis for simulations of discrete sources and the inclusion of EGMF effects.**The Targets of Opportunity Source Catalog for the EUSO-SPB2 Mission**

2312.00920 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hannah Wistrand, [and 5 more]Tobias Heibges, Jonatan Posligua, Claire Guepin, Mary Hall Reno, and Tonia M. Venters [hide authors].

The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a Super Pressure Balloon 2, EUSO SPB2, mission was designed to take optical measurements of extensive air showers, EASs, from suborbital space. The EUSO SPB2 payload includes an optical Cherenkov Telescope, CT, which searches above and below the Earth's limb. Above the limb, the CT measures Cherenkov light from PeV scale EASs induced by cosmic rays. Below the limb, the CT searches for upwards going Cherenkov emission from PeV scale EASs induced by tau neutrinos, to follow up on astrophysical Targets of Opportunity, ToO. Target candidates include gamma ray bursts, tidal disruption events, and, after the start of the O4 obervation run from Ligo, Virgo, Kagra, binary neutron star mergers. Reported here is the selection and prioritization of relevant ToOs from alert networks such as the General Coordinates Network, Transient Name Server, and Astronomer Telegrams, and the translation to a viewing schedule for EUSO SPB2. EUSO SPB2 launched on a NASA super pressure balloon in May of 2023 from Wanaka, NZ.**Confronting solutions of the Gallium Anomaly with reactor rate data**

2312.00565 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlo Giunti and Christoph A. Ternes.

Recently, several models have been suggested to reduce the tension between Gallium and reactor antineutrino spectral ratio data which is found in the framework of 3+1 active-sterile neutrino mixing. Among these models, we consider the extensions of 3+1 mixing with a finite wavepacket size, or the decay of the heaviest neutrino $\nu_4$, or the possibility to have a broad $\nu_4$ mass distribution. We consider the reactor antineutrino rate data and we show that these models cannot liminate the tension between Gallium and reactor rate data that is found in the 3+1 neutrino mixing framework. Indeed, we show that the parameter goodness of fit remains small. We consider also a model which explains the Gallium Anomaly with non-standard decoherence in the framework of three-neutrino mixing. We find that it is compatible with the reactor rate data.**Search for Hidden Neutrinos at the European Spallation Source: the SHiNESS experiment**

2311.18509 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stefano Roberto Soleti, [and 3 more]Pilar Coloma, Juan Jose Gómez Cadenas, and Anatael Cabrera [hide authors].

The upcoming European Spallation Source (ESS) will soon provide the most intense neutrino source in the world. We propose the Search for Hidden Neutrinos at the ESS (SHiNESS) experiment, highlighting its unique opportunities to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos across a wide range of scales: anomalous oscillations at short baselines; non-unitarity mixing in the active neutrino sector; or an excess of events with multiple leptons in the final state, produced in the decay of heavy neutrinos. The baseline design of the detector comprises an active volume filled with 42 ton of liquid scintillator, located 25 m far from the ESS beam target. We show that SHiNESS will be able to considerably improve current global limits for the three cases outlined above. Although in this work we focus on new physics in the neutrino sector, the proposed setup may also be used to search for signals from weakly interacting particles in a broader context.**Status of Direct Determination of Solar Neutrino Fluxes after Borexino**

2311.16226 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, [and 3 more]Michele Maltoni, João Paulo Pinheiro, and Aldo M. Serenelli [hide authors].

We determine the solar neutrino fluxes from the global analysis of the most up-to-date terrestrial and solar neutrino data including the final results of the three phases of Borexino. The analysis are performed in the framework of three-neutrino mixing with and without accounting for the solar luminosity constraint. We discuss the independence of the results on the input from the Gallium experiments. The determined fluxes are then compared with the predictions provided by the latest Standard Solar Models. We quantify the dependence of the model comparison with the assumptions about the normalization of the solar neutrino fluxes produced in the CNO-cycle as well as on the particular set of fluxes employed for the model testing.**Uncovering Secret Neutrino Interactions at Tau Neutrino Experiments**

2311.14945 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pouya Bakhti, Meshkat Rajaee, and Seodong Shin.

We investigate the potential of future tau neutrino experiments for identifying the $\nu_\tau$ appearance in probing secret neutrino interactions. The reference experiments include the DUNE far detector utilizing the atmospheric data, which is for the first time in probing the secret interactions, the Forward Liquid Argon Experiment (FLArE100) detector at the Forward Physics Facility (FPF), and emulsion detector experiments such as SND@LHC, AdvSND, FASER$\nu$2, and SND@SHiP. For concreteness, we consider a reference scenario in which the hidden interactions among the neutrinos are mediated by a single light gauge boson $Z'$ with a mass at most below the sub-GeV scale and an interaction strength $g_{\alpha \beta}$ between the active neutrinos. We confirm that these experiments have the capability to significantly enhance the current sensitivities on $g_{\alpha \beta }$ for $m_{Z'} \lesssim 500$ MeV due to the production of high energy neutrinos and excellent ability to detect tau neutrinos. Our analysis highlights the crucial role of downward-going DUNE atmospheric data in the search for secret neutrino interactions because of the rejection of backgrounds dominated in the upward-going events. Specifically, 10 years of DUNE atmospheric data can provide the best sensitivities on $g_{\alpha \beta}$ which is about two orders of magnitude improvement. In addition, the beam-based experiments such as FLArE100 and FASER$\nu$2 can improve the current constraint on $g_{e\tau}$ and $g_{\mu\tau}$ by more than an order of magnitude after the full running of the high luminosity LHC with the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. For $g_{e\mu}$ and $g_{ee}$ the SHiP experiment can play the most important role in the high energy region of $E> few~100$ MeV.**Relaxing cosmological constraints on current neutrino masses**

2311.01803 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vitor da Fonseca, Tiago Barreiro, and Nelson J. Nunes.

We show that a mass-varying neutrino model driven by scalar field dark energy relaxes the existing upper bound on the current neutrino mass to ${\sum m_\nu < 0.72}$ eV. We extend the standard $\Lambda$ cold dark matter model by introducing two parameters: the rate of change of the scalar field with the number of $e$-folds and the coupling between neutrinos and the field. We investigate how they affect the matter power spectrum, the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and its lensing potential. The model is tested against Planck observations of temperature, polarization, and lensing, combined with baryon acoustic oscillation measurements that constrain the background evolution. The results indicate that small couplings favor a cosmological constant, while larger couplings favor a dynamical dark energy, weakening the upper bound on current neutrino masses.**New Signal of Atmospheric Tau Neutrino Appearance: Sub-GeV Neutral-Current Interactions in JUNO**

2311.01667 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stephan A. Meighen-Berger, [and 3 more]John F. Beacom, Nicole F. Bell, and Matthew J. Dolan [hide authors].

We propose the first practical method to detect atmospheric tau neutrino appearance at sub-GeV energies, which would be an important test of $\nu_\mu \rightarrow \nu_\tau$ oscillations and of new-physics scenarios. In the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO; starts in 2024), active-flavor neutrinos eject neutrons from carbon via neutral-current quasielastic scattering. This produces a two-part signal: the prompt part is caused by the scattering of the neutron in the scintillator, and the delayed part by its radiative capture. Such events have been observed in KamLAND, but only in small numbers and were treated as a background. With $\nu_\mu \rightarrow \nu_\tau$ oscillations, JUNO should measure a clean sample of 55 events/yr; with simple $\nu_\mu$ disappearance, this would instead be 41 events/yr, where the latter is determined from Super-Kamiokande charged-current measurements at similar neutrino energies. Implementing this method will require precise laboratory measurements of neutrino-nucleus cross sections or other developments. With those, JUNO will have $5\sigma$ sensitivity to tau-neutrino appearance in 5 years exposure, and likely sooner.**Comprehensive constraints on heavy sterile neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae**

2311.00033 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pierluca Carenza, [and 4 more]Giuseppe Lucente, Leonardo Mastrototaro, Alessandro Mirizzi, and Pasquale Dario Serpico [hide authors].

Sterile neutrinos with masses up to $\mathcal{O} (100)$ MeV can be copiously produced in a supernova (SN) core, through the mixing with active neutrinos. In this regard the SN 1987A detection of neutrino events has been used to put constraints on active-sterile neutrino mixing, exploiting the well-known SN cooling argument. We refine the calculation of this limit including neutral current interactions with nucleons, that constitute the dominant channel for sterile neutrino production. We also include, for the first time, the charged current interactions between sterile neutrinos and muons, relevant for the production of sterile neutrinos mixed with muon neutrinos in the SN core. Using the recent modified luminosity criterion, we extend the bounds to the case where sterile states are trapped in the stellar core. Additionally, we study the decays of heavy sterile neutrinos, affecting the SN explosion energy and possibly producing a gamma-ray signal. We also illustrate the complementarity of our new bounds with cosmological bounds and laboratory searches.**Exploring Neutrino Mass Orderings through Supernova Neutrino Detection**

2310.19939 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Maria Manuela Saez.

Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are one of the most powerful cosmic sources of neutrinos, with energies of several MeV. The emission of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors carries away the gravitational binding energy of the compact remnant and drives its evolution from the hot initial to the cold final states. Detecting these neutrinos from Earth and analyzing the emitted signals present a unique opportunity to explore the neutrino mass ordering problem. This research outlines the detection of neutrinos from SNe and their relevance in understanding the neutrino mass ordering. The focus is on developing a model-independent analysis strategy, achieved by comparing distinct detection channels in large underground detectors. The objective is to identify potential indicators of mass ordering within the neutrino sector. Additionally, a thorough statistical analysis is performed on the anticipated neutrino signals for both mass orderings. Despite uncertainties in supernova explosion parameters, an exploration of the parameter space reveals an extensive array of models with significant sensitivity to differentiate between mass orderings. The assessment of various observables and their combinations underscores the potential of forthcoming supernova observations in addressing the neutrino mass ordering problem.**Alleviating the present tension between T2K and NO$ν$A with neutrino New Physics at source**

2310.18401 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Adriano Cherchiglia, [and 5 more]Pedro Pasquini, O. L. G. Peres, F. F. Rodrigues, R. R. Rossi, and E. S. Souza [hide authors].

Since neutrino oscillation was observed, several experiments have been built to measure its parameters. NO$\nu$A and T2K are two long-baseline experiments dedicated to measuring mainly the mixing angle $\theta_{23}$, the charge-parity conjugation phase $\delta_{\rm CP}$, and the mass ordering. However, there is a tension in current data. The T2K allowed region is almost excluded by the NO$\nu$A result at the $90\%$ confidence level. We propose a non-standard interaction (NSI) in neutrino production to relieve this tension. The NSI is computed through quantum field theory (QFT) formalism, where we derive perturbative analytical formulae considering NSI in the pion decay. Within this new approach, we can alleviate NO$\nu$A and T2K tension for a NSI complex parameters of order $10^{-3}$. We show the new phase has a degeneracy to the Dirac CP phase of the form $\delta_{\rm CP} \pm \phi= 1.5\pi$ being a possible source of violation of charge-parity symmetry.**Linking solar bosonic dark matter halos and active neutrinos**

2310.14033 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ilídio Lopes.

Our study investigates the complex interaction between active neutrinos and the ultralight bosonic dark matter halo surrounding the Sun. This halo extends over several solar radii due to the Sun's gravitational field, and we represent it as a coherent oscillating classical field configuration of bosonic dark matter particles that vary in time. Our investigation has revealed that, based on the available solar neutrino flux data, these novel models do not surpass the performance of the conventional neutrino flavour oscillation model. Furthermore, we discuss how next-generation solar neutrino detectors have the potential to provide evidence for the existence or absence of the ultralight dark matter halo.**Short Baseline Neutrino Anomalies at Stopped Pion Experiments**

2310.13194 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Iain A. Bisset, [and 3 more]Bhaskar Dutta, Wei-Chih Huang, and Louis E. Strigari [hide authors].

Stopped-pion experiments that measure coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) are sensitive to sterile neutrinos via disappearance. Using timing and energy spectra to perform flavor decomposition, we show that the delayed electron neutrino component provides an independent test of short-baseline anomalies that hint at $\sim$ eV-mass sterile neutrinos. Dedicated experiments will be sensitive to nearly the entire sterile neutrino parameter space consistent with short-baseline data.**Study of non-standard interaction mediated by a scalar field at ESSnuSB experiment**

2310.10749 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by ESSnuSB, [and 91 more]:, J. Aguilar, M. Anastasopoulos, E. Baussan, A. K. Bhattacharyya, A. Bignami, M. Blennow, M. Bogomilov, B. Bolling, E. Bouquerel, F. Bramati, A. Branca, W. Brorsson, I. Bustinduy, C. J. Carlile, J. Cederkall, T. W. Choi, S. Choubey, P. Christiansen, M. Collins, E. Cristaldo Morales, H. Danared, D. Dancila, J. P. A. M. de André, M. Dracos, I. Efthymiopoulos, T. Ekelöf, M. Eshraqi, G. Fanourakis, A. Farricker, E. Fasoula, T. Fukuda, N. Gazis, Th. Geralis, M. Ghosh, A. Giarnetti, G. Gokbulut, C. Hagner, L. Halić, V. T. Hariharan, K. E. Iversen, M. Jenssen, R. Johansson, E. Kasimi, A. Kayis Topaksu, B. Kildetof, B. Kliček, K. Kordas, A. Leisos, M. Lindroos, A. Longhin, C. Maiano, S. Marangoni, C. Marrelli, C. Martins, D. Meloni, M. Mezzetto, N. Milas, J. Muñoz, M. Oglakci, T. Ohlsson, M. Olvegård, M. Pari, D. Patrzalek, G. Petkov, Ch. Petridou, P. Poussot, A. Psallidas, F. Pupilli, D. Raikwal, D. Saiang, D. Sampsonidis, C. Schwab, F. Sordo, A. Sosa, G. Stavropoulos, M. Stipčević, R. Tarkeshian, F. Terranova, T. Tolba, E. Trachanas, R. Tsenov, A. Tsirigotis, S. E. Tzamarias, G. Vankova-Kirilova, N. Vassilopoulos, S. Vihonen, J. Wurtz, V. Zeter, O. Zormpa, and Y. Zou [hide authors].

In this paper we study non-standard interactions mediated by a scalar field (SNSI) in the context of ESSnuSB experiment. In particular we study the capability of ESSnuSB to put bounds on the SNSI parameters and also study the impact of SNSI in the measurement of the leptonic CP phase $\delta_{\rm CP}$. Existence of SNSI modifies the neutrino mass matrix and this modification can be expressed in terms of three diagonal real parameters ($\eta_{ee}$, $\eta_{\mu\mu}$ and $\eta_{\tau\tau}$) and three off-diagonal complex parameters ($\eta_{e \mu}$, $\eta_{e\tau}$ and $\eta_{\mu\tau}$). Our study shows that the upper bounds on the parameters $\eta_{\mu\mu}$, $\eta_{\tau\tau}$ and $\eta_{\mu\tau}$ depend upon how $\Delta m^2_{31}$ is minimized in the theory. However, this is not the case when one tries to measure the impact of SNSI on $\delta_{\rm CP}$. Further, we show that the CP sensitivity of ESSnuSB can be completely lost for certain values of $\eta_{ee}$ and $\eta_{\mu\tau}$ for which the appearance channel probability becomes independent of $\delta_{\rm CP}$.**Probing self-interacting sterile neutrino dark matter with the diffuse supernova neutrino background**

2310.07145 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Baha Balantekin, [and 3 more]George M. Fuller, Anupam Ray, and Anna M. Suliga [hide authors].

The neutrinos in the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) travel over cosmological distances and this provides them with an excellent opportunity to interact with dark relics. We show that a cosmologically-significant relic population of keV-mass sterile neutrinos with strong self-interactions could imprint their presence in the DSNB. The signatures of the self-interactions would be ``dips" in the otherwise smooth DSNB spectrum. Upcoming large-scale neutrino detectors, for example Hyper-Kamiokande, have a good chance of detecting the DSNB and these dips. If no dips are detected, this method serves as an independent constraint on the sterile neutrino self-interaction strength and mixing with active neutrinos. We show that relic sterile neutrino parameters that evade X-ray and structure bounds may nevertheless be testable by future detectors like TRISTAN, but may also produce dips in the DSNB which could be detectable. Such a detection would suggest the existence of a cosmologically-significant, strongly self-interacting sterile neutrino background, likely embedded in a richer dark sector.**A tolerable candle: the low-$ν$ method with LHC neutrinos**

2310.06520 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Callum Wilkinson and Alfonso Garcia Soto.

The Forward Physics Facility (FPF) plans to use neutrinos produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to make a variety of measurements at previously unexplored TeV energies. Its primary goals include precision measurements of the neutrino cross section and using the measured neutrino flux both to uncover information about far-forward hadron production and to search for various beyond standard model scenarios. However, these goals have the potential to conflict: extracting information about the flux or cross section relies upon an assumption about the other. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that the FPF can use the low-$\nu$ method -- a technique for constraining the flux shape by isolating neutrino interactions with low energy transfer to the nucleus -- to break this degeneracy. We show that the low-$\nu$ method is effective for extracting the $\nu_{\mu}$ flux shape, in a model-independent way. We discuss its application for extracting the $\bar{\nu}_{\mu}$ flux shape, but find that this is significantly more model dependent. Finally, we explore the precision to which the $\nu_{\mu}$ flux shape could be constrained at the FPF, for a variety of proposed detector options. We find that the precision would be sufficient to discriminate between various realistic flux models.**Effects of Annihilation with Low-Energy Neutrinos on High-Energy Neutrinos from Binary Neutron Star Mergers and Rare Core-Collapse Supernovae**

2310.05137 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gang Guo, Yong-Zhong Qian, and Meng-Ru Wu.

We explore the possibility that high-energy (HE) neutrinos produced from choked jets can be annihilated with low-energy (LE) neutrinos emitted from the accretion disk around a black hole in binary neutron star mergers and rare core-collapse supernovae. For HE neutrinos produced close to the stellar center ($\lesssim 10^{9}-10^{12}$ cm), we find that the emerging all-flavor spectrum for neutrinos of $E\gtrsim 0.1-1$ PeV could be modified by a factor $E^{-n}$ with $n\gtrsim 0.4-0.5$ under realistic conditions. Flavor evolution of LE neutrinos does not affect this result but can change the emerging flavor composition of HE neutrinos. As a consequence, the above annihilation effect may need to be considered for HE neutrinos produced from choked jets at small radii. We briefly discuss the annihilation effects for different HE neutrino production models and point out that such effects could be tested through precise measurements of the diffuse neutrino spectrum and flavor composition.**Neutrino CP Measurement in the Presence of RG Running with Mismatched Momentum Transfers**

2310.04077 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shao-Feng Ge, Chui-Fan Kong, and Pedro Pasquini.

The neutrino mixing parameters are expected to have RG running effect in the presence of new physics. If the momentum transfers at production and detection mismatch with each other, the oscillation probabilities are generally modified and become dependent on not just the neutrino energy but also the momentum transfer. Even in the limit of vanishing baseline, the transition probability for the appearance channel is interestingly not zero. This would significantly affect the sensitivity of the genuine leptonic Dirac CP phase. We further explore the possibility of combing the long- and short-baseline neutrino experiments to constrain such RG running effect for the purpose of guaranteeing the CP measurement. To simulate the double dependence on the neutrino energy and momentum transfer, we extend the usual GLoBES simulation of fixed baseline experiments and use a two-dimensional $\chi^2$ analysis to obtain sensitivities.**Constraining non-unitary neutrino mixing using matter effects in atmospheric neutrinos at INO-ICAL**

2309.16942 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sadashiv Sahoo, [and 3 more]Sudipta Das, Anil Kumar, and Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla [hide authors].

The mass-induced neutrino oscillation is a well established phenomenon that is based on the unitary mixing among three light active neutrinos. Remarkable precision on neutrino mixing parameters over the last decade or so has opened up the prospects for testing the possible non-unitarity of the standard 3$\nu$ mixing matrix, which may arise in the seesaw extensions of the Standard Model due to the admixture of three light active neutrinos with heavy isosinglet neutrinos. Because of this non-unitary neutrino mixing (NUNM), the oscillation probabilities among the three active neutrinos would be altered as compared to the probabilities obtained assuming a unitary 3$\nu$ mixing matrix. In such a NUNM scenario, neutrinos can experience an additional matter effect due to the neutral current interactions with the ambient neutrons. Atmospheric neutrinos having access to a wide range of energies and baselines can experience a significant modifications in Earth's matter effect due to NUNM. In this paper, for the first time, we study in detail how the NUNM parameter $\alpha_{32}$ affects the muon neutrino and antineutrino survival probabilities in a different way. Then, we place stringent constraints on $\alpha_{32}$ in a model independent fashion using the proposed 50 kt magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector under the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) project, which can efficiently detect the atmospheric $\nu_\mu$ and $\bar\nu_\mu$ separately in the multi-GeV energy range. Further, we discuss the advantage of charge identification capability of ICAL and the impact of uncertainties in oscillation parameters while constraining $\alpha_{32}$. We also compare the $\alpha_{32}$ sensitivity of ICAL with that of future long-baseline experiments DUNE and Hyper-K in isolation and combination.**DUNE potential as a New Physics probe**

2309.15924 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Adriano Cherchiglia and Jose Santiago.

Neutrino experiments, in the next years, aim to determine with precision all the six parameters of the three-neutrino standard paradigm. The complete success of the experimental program is, nevertheless, attached to the non-existence (or at least smallness) of Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). In this work, anticipating the data taken from long-baseline neutrino experiments, we map all the weakly coupled theories that could induce sizable NSI, with the potential to be determined in these experiments, in particular DUNE. Once present constraints from other experiments are taken into account, in particular charged-lepton flavor violation, we find that only models containing leptoquarks (scalar or vector) and/or neutral isosinglet vector bosons are viable. We provide the explicit matching formulas connecting weakly coupled models and NSI, both in propagation and production. Departing from the weakly coupled completion with masses at TeV scale, we also provide a global fit on all NSI for DUNE, finding that NSI smaller than $10^{-2}$ cannot be probed even in the best-case scenario.**Impact of scalar NSI on the neutrino mass hierarchy sensitivity at DUNE, T2HK and T2HKK**

2309.12249 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Arnab Sarker, [and 4 more]Abinash Medhi, Dharitree Bezboruah, Moon Moon Devi, and Debajyoti Dutta [hide authors].

The study of neutrino non-standard interactions (NSI) is a well-motivated phenomenological scenario to explore new physics beyond the Standard Model. The possible scalar coupling of neutrinos ($\nu$) with matter is one of such new physics scenarios which appears as a sub-dominant effect that can impact the $\nu$-oscillations in matter. The presence of scalar NSI introduces an additional contribution directly to the $\nu$-mass matrix in the interaction Hamiltonian and subsequently to the $\nu$-oscillations. This indicates that scalar NSI may have a significant impact on measurements related to $\nu$-oscillations e.g. leptonic CP phase $(\delta_{CP})$, $\theta_{23}$ octant and neutrino mass hierarchy (MH). The linear scaling of the effects of scalar NSI with matter density also motivates its exploration in long-baseline (LBL) experiments. In this paper, we study the impact of a scalar-mediated NSI on the MH sensitivity of DUNE, T2HK and T2HKK, which are upcoming LBL experiments. We observe that the MH sensitivities of these experiments are affected by scalar NSI. For certain chosen values of scalar NSI elements, we note an enhancement in the standard MH sensitivities. We then combine the data from DUNE with T2HK/T2HKK to explore possible synergy among these experiments in a wider parameter space. We also observe a significant enhancement in the MH sensitivities for the combined analysis.**Neutrino Imaging of the Galactic Centre and Millisecond Pulsar Population**

2309.10493 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Paul C. W. Lai, [and 5 more]Matteo Agostini, Foteini Oikonomou, Beatrice Crudele, Ellis R. Owen, and Kinwah Wu [hide authors].

In this work, we consider the possible presence of a large population of millisecond pulsars in the Galactic Centre. Their direct detection would be challenging due to severe pulse broadening caused by scattering of radiation. We propose a new method to constrain their population with neutrino imaging of the Galactic Centre. Millisecond pulsars are proposed cosmic-ray accelerators. The high-energy protons they produce will collide with the baryonic matter in the central molecular zone to create charged and neutral pions that decay into neutrinos and $\gamma$-rays, respectively. The specific neutrino and $\gamma$-ray fluxes must be below their corresponding observed values, allowing us to put a conservative upper limit on the millisecond pulsar population of N_MSP < 10,000 within a galacto-centric radius of 20 pc. This upper limit is sensitive to the proton acceleration efficiency of the pulsars, but is less dependent on the particle injection spectral index and the choice of mass tracers. The population will be better constrained when high resolution neutrino observations of the Galactic Centre become available. The presence of these millisecond pulsars can account for the $\gamma$-ray excess in the Galactic Centre.**Neutrinos from Earth-Bound Dark Matter Annihilation**

2309.10032 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Maxim Pospelov and Anupam Ray.

A sub-component of dark matter with a short collision length compared to a planetary size leads to efficient accumulation of dark matter in astrophysical bodies. We analyze possible neutrino signals from the annihilation of such dark matter and conclude that in the optically thick regime for dark matter capture, the Earth provides the largest neutrino flux. Using the results of the existing searches, we consider two scenarios for the neutrino flux, from stopped mesons and prompt higher-energy neutrinos. In both cases we exclude some previously unexplored parts of the parameter space (dark matter mass, its abundance, and the scattering cross section on nuclei) by recasting the existing neutrino searches.**Detecting High-Energy Neutrinos from Galactic Supernovae with ATLAS**

2309.09771 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alex Y. Wen, [and 3 more]Carlos A. Argüelles, Ali Kheirandish, and Kohta Murase [hide authors].

We show that ATLAS, a collider detector, can measure the flux of high-energy supernova neutrinos, which can be produced from days to months after the explosion. Using Monte Carlo simulations for predicted fluxes, we find at most $\mathcal{O}(0.1-1)$ starting events and $\mathcal{O}(10-100)$ throughgoing events from a supernova 10 kpc away. Possible Galactic supernovae from Betelgeuse and Eta Carinae are further analyzed as demonstrative examples. We argue that even with limited statistics, ATLAS has the ability to discriminate among flavors and between neutrinos and antineutrinos, making it an unique neutrino observatory so far unmatched in this capability.**Energy-dependent flavour ratios in neutrino telescopes from charm**

2309.09139 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Atri Bhattacharya, [and 3 more]Rikard Enberg, Mary Hall Reno, and Ina Sarcevic [hide authors].

The origin of the observed diffuse neutrino flux is not yet known. Studies of the relative flavour content of the neutrino flux detected at Earth can give information on the production mechanisms at the sources and on flavour mixing, complementary to measurements of the spectral index and normalisation. Here we demonstrate the effects of neutrino fluxes with different spectral shapes and different initial flavour compositions dominating at different energies, and we study the sensitivity of future measurements with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Where one kind of flux gives way to another, this shows up as a non-trivial energy dependence in the flavour compositions. We explore this in the context of slow-jet supernovae and magnetar-driven supernovae -- two examples of astrophysical sources where charm production may be effective. Using current best-fit neutrino mixing parameters and their projected 2040 uncertainties, we use event ratios of different event morphologies at IceCube to illustrate the possibilities of distinguishing the energy dependence of neutrino flavour ratios.**HeLIOS: The Superfluid Helium Ultralight Dark Matter Detector**

2309.07995 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Hirschel, [and 6 more]V. Vadakkumbatt, N. P. Baker, F. M. Schweizer, J. C. Sankey, S. Singh, and J. P. Davis [hide authors].

The absence of a breakthrough in directly observing dark matter (DM) through prominent large-scale detectors motivates the development of novel tabletop experiments probing more exotic regions of the parameter space. If DM contains ultralight bosonic particles, they would behave as a classical wave and could manifest through an oscillating force on baryonic matter that is coherent over $\sim 10^6$ periods. Our Helium ultraLIght dark matter Optomechanical Sensor (HeLIOS) uses the high-$Q$ acoustic modes of superfluid helium-4 to resonantly amplify this signal. A superconducting re-entrant microwave cavity enables sensitive optomechanical readout ultimately limited by thermal motion at millikelvin temperatures. Pressurizing the helium allows for the unique possibility of tuning the mechanical frequency to effectively broaden the DM detection bandwidth. We demonstrate the working principle of our prototype HeLIOS detector and show that future generations of HeLIOS could explore unconstrained parameter space for both scalar and vector ultralight DM after just an hour of integration time.**Fast Exact Algorithm for Neutrino Oscillation in Constant Matter Density**

2309.06900 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by James Page.

A recently published method for solving the neutrino evolution equation with constant matter density is further refined and used to lay out an exact algorithm for computing oscillation probabilities, which is moderately faster than previous methods when looping through neutrinos of different energies. In particular, the three examples of $\overset{\scriptscriptstyle{(-)}}{\nu}_e$ survival, $\overset{\scriptscriptstyle{(-)}}{\nu}_\mu$ survival and $\overset{\scriptscriptstyle{(-)}}{\nu}_e$ appearance probabilities are written in terms of mixing angles, mass differences and matter electron density. A program based on this new method is found to be roughly twice as fast as, and in agreement with, the leading GLoBES package. Furthermore, the behaviour of all relevant effective parameters is sketched out in terms of a range of neutrino energies, or matter electron densities. For instance, the $\overset{\scriptscriptstyle{(-)}}{\nu}_e$ survival probability in constant matter density is found to have no dependence on the mixing angle $\theta_{23}$ or the CP-violating phase $\delta_{13}$.**Search for Lorentz-violation through sidereal effect at NOνA Experiment**

2309.01756 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shashank Mishra, [and 3 more]Saurabh Shukla, Lakhwinder Singh, and Venktesh Singh [hide authors].

Long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments offer a unique laboratory to test the fundamental Lorentz symmetry, which is heart of both the standard model of particle and general relativity theory. Deviations from the standard neutrino oscillation or the sidereal modulation in neutrino events will smoking-gun experimental signature of Lorentz and CPT violation. In this study, we investigate the impact of the sidereal effect on standard neutrino oscillation measurements within the context of the NO{\nu}A experiment. Additionally, we assess the sensitivity of the NO{\nu}A experiment to detect Lorentz-violating interactions, taking into account the sidereal effect. Furthermore, we highlight potential of the NO{\nu}A experiment to set the new constraints on anisotropic Lorentz-violating parameters.**When a complementarity in the neutrino mixing meets a parameter symmetry and its implications**

2309.00132 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jae Jun Kim.

We present a complementarity that complements relationships among the elements in the neutrino mixing matrix and address its physical implications. First we show how a complementarity with a phase being introduced as an extra parameter can be held in the nine independent schemes of parameterizing the matrix introducing a discrete parameter symmetry and a combination of sine functions, a part of Jarlskog invariant, within a certain size of uncertainty. Then, for the first time, we show that we can use the uncertainty associated with the complementarity as an empirical constraint complementing that among the diagonal elements in the neutrino mixing matrix. We discuss its physical implication in relation to the size of the uncertainty among the elements in the end.**Neutrino anisotropy as a probe of extreme astrophysical accelerators**

2308.16225 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Marco Stein Muzio and Noémie Globus.

We consider how the cutoff of the ultrahigh energy neutrino spectrum introduces an effective neutrino horizon, allowing for future neutrino detectors to measure an anisotropy in neutrino arrival directions driven by the local large-scale structure. We show that measurement of the level of this anisotropy along with features of the neutrino spectrum will allow for a measurement of the evolution of ultrahigh energy neutrino sources, which are expected to also be the sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays.**Shedding light on neutrino self-interactions with solar antineutrino searches**

2308.15849 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Quan-feng Wu and Xun-Jie Xu.

Solar antineutrinos are absent in the standard solar model prediction. Consequently, solar antineutrino searches emerge as a powerful tool to probe new physics capable of converting neutrinos into antineutrinos. In this study, we highlight that neutrino self-interactions, recently gaining considerable attention due to their cosmological and astrophysical implications, can lead to significant solar antineutrino production. We systematically explore various types of four-fermion effective operators and light scalar mediators for neutrino self-interactions. By estimating the energy spectra and event rates of solar antineutrinos at prospective neutrino detectors such as JUNO, Hyper-Kamiokande, and THEIA, we reveal that solar antineutrino searches can impose stringent constraints on neutrino self-interactions and probe the parameter space favored by the Hubble tension.**Examining the sensitivity of FASER to Generalized Neutrino Interactions**

2308.15630 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by F. J. Escrihuela, [and 4 more]L. J. Flores, O. G. Miranda, Javier Rendón, and R. Sánchez-Vélez [hide authors].

We investigate the sensitivity of the FASER$\nu$ detector, a novel experimental setup at the LHC, to probe and constrain generalized neutrino interactions (GNI). Employing a comprehensive theoretical framework, we model the effects of generalized neutrino interactions on neutrino-nucleon deep inelastic scattering processes within the FASER$\nu$ detector. By considering all the neutrino channels produced at the LHC, we perform a statistical analysis to determine the sensitivity of FASER$\nu$ to constrain these interactions. Our results demonstrate that FASER$\nu$ can place stringent constraints on the GNI effective couplings. Additionally, we study the relation between GNI and a minimal Leptoquark model where the SM is augmented by a singlet Leptoquark with hypercharge $1/3$. We have found that the sensitivities for various combinations of the Leptoquark Yukawa couplings are approximately $\mathcal{O}(1)$, particularly when considering a Leptoquark mass in the TeV range.**Sensitivity of IceCube-Gen2 to measure flavor composition of Astrophysical neutrinos**

2308.15220 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Neha Lad.

The observation of an astrophysical neutrino flux in IceCube and its detection capability to separate between the different neutrino flavors has led IceCube to constraint the flavor content of this flux. IceCube-Gen2 is the planned extension of the current IceCube detector, which will be about 8 times larger than the current instrumented volume. In this work, we study the sensitivity of IceCube-Gen2 to the astrophysical neutrino flavor composition and investigate its tau neutrino identification capabilities. We apply the IceCube analysis on a simulated IceCube-Gen2 dataset that mimics the High Energy Starting Event (HESE) classification. Reconstructions are performed using sensors that have 3 times higher quantum efficiency and isotropic angular acceptance compared to the current IceCube optical modules. We present the projected sensitivity for 10 years of data on constraining the flavor ratio of the astrophysical neutrino flux at Earth by IceCube-Gen2.**Octant Degeneracy and Plots of Parameter Degeneracy in Neutrino Oscillations Revisited**

2308.15071 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sho Sugama and Osamu Yasuda.

The three kinds of parameter degeneracy in neutrino oscillation, the intrinsic, sign and octant degeneracy, form an eight-fold degeneracy. The nature of this eight-fold degeneracy can be visualized on the ($\sin^22\theta_{13}$, $1/\sin^2\theta_{23}$)-plane, through quadratic curves defined by $P(\nu_\mu\to\nu_e)=$ const. and $P(\bar{\nu}_\mu\to\bar{\nu}_e)=$ const., along with a straight line $P(\nu_\mu\to\nu_\mu)=$ const. After $\theta_{13}$ was determined by reactor neutrino experiments, the intrinsic degeneracy in $\theta_{13}$ transforms into an alternative octant degeneracy in $\theta_{23}$, which can potentially be resolved by incorporating the value of $P(\nu_\mu\to\nu_\mu)$. In this paper, we analytically discuss whether this octant parameter degeneracy is resolved or persists in the future long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments, such as T2HK, DUNE, T2HKK and ESS$\nu$SB. It is found that the energy spectra near the first oscillation maximum are effective in resolving the octant degeneracy, whereas those near the second oscillation maximum are not.**Neutrino amplitude decomposition, $S$ matrix rephasing invariance, and reparametrization symmetry**

2308.14501 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

The $S$ matrix rephasing invariance is one of the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics that originates in its probabilistic interpretation. For a given $S$ matrix which describes neutrino oscillation, one can define the two different rephased amplitudes $S_{\alpha \beta}^{ \text{Reph-1} } \equiv e^{ i (\lambda_{1} / 2E) x} S_{\alpha \beta}$ and $S_{\alpha \beta}^{ \text{Reph-2} } \equiv e^{ i (\lambda_{2} / 2E) x} S_{\alpha \beta}$, which are physically equivalent to each other, where $\lambda_{k} / 2E$ denotes the energy eigenvalue of the $k$-th mass eigenstate. We point out that the transformation of the reparametrization (Rep) symmetry obtained with ``Symmetry Finder'' maps $S_{\alpha \beta}^{ \text{Reph-1} }$ to $S_{\alpha \beta}^{ \text{Reph-2} }$, and vice versa, providing a local and manifest realization of the $S$ matrix rephasing invariance by the Rep symmetry of the 1-2 state exchange type. It is strongly indicative of quantum mechanical nature of the Rep symmetry. The rephasing and Rep symmetry relation, though its all-order treatment remains incomplete, is shown to imply absence of the pure 1-3 exchange symmetry in Denton~{\it et al.}~perturbation theory. It then triggers a study of convergence of perturbation series.**Study of Scalar Non Standard Interaction at Protvino to Super-ORCA experiment**

2308.10789 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dinesh Kumar Singha, [and 4 more]Rudra Majhi, Lipsarani Panda, Monojit Ghosh, and Rukmani Mohanta [hide authors].

In this paper we have studied the phenomenon of non-standard interaction mediated by a scalar field (SNSI) in the context of P2SO experiment and compared its sensitivity with DUNE. In particular, we have studied the capability of these two experiments to put bounds on the diagonal SNSI parameters i.e., $\eta_{ee}$, $\eta_{\mu\mu}$ and $\eta_{\tau\tau}$ and studied the impact of these parameters on the determination of neutrino mass ordering, octant of $\theta_{23}$ and CP violation (CPV). In our analysis we find that, the parameter $\Delta m^2_{31}$ has a non-trivial role if one wants estimate the bounds on $\eta_{\mu\mu}$ and $\eta_{\tau\tau}$ assuming SNSI does not exist in nature. Our results show that sensitivity of P2SO and DUNE to constraint $\eta_{\mu\mu}$ and $\eta_{\tau\tau}$ are similar whereas the sensitivity of DUNE is slightly better for $\eta_{ee}$. We find that the mass ordering and CPV sensitivities are mostly affected by $\eta_{ee}$ compared to $\eta_{\mu \mu}$ and $\eta_{\tau \tau}$ if one assumes SNSI exists in nature. On the other hand, octant sensitivity is mostly affected by $\eta_{\mu \mu}$ and $\eta_{\tau \tau}$. These sensitivities can be either higher or lower than the standard three flavour scenario depending on the relative sign of the SNSI parameters. Regarding the precision of atmospheric mixing parameters, we find that the precision of $\theta_{23}$ deteriorates significantly in the presence of $\eta_{\mu\mu}$ and $\eta_{\tau\tau}$.**A Survey of Neutrino Flavor Models and the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Funnel**

2308.09737 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Julia Gehrlein.

The neutrinoless double beta decay experimental effort continues to make tremendous progress with hopes of covering the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy in coming years and pushing from the quasi-degenerate hierarchy into the normal hierarchy. As neutrino oscillation data is starting to suggest that the mass ordering may be normal, we may well be faced with staring down the funnel of death: a region of parameter space in the normal ordering where -- for a particular cancellation among the absolute neutrino mass scale, the Majorana phases, and the oscillation parameters -- the neutrinoless double beta decay rate may be vanishingly small. To answer the question of whether this region of parameter space is theoretically preferred, we survey five broad categories of flavor model structures which make various different predictions for parameters relevant for neutrinoless double beta decay to determine how likely it is that the rate may be in this funnel region. We find that a non-negligible fraction of predictions surveyed are at least partially in the funnel region. Our results can guide model builders and experimentalists alike in focusing their efforts on theoretically motivated regions of parameter space.**Joint measurement of the ultra-high-energy neutrino spectrum and cross section**

2308.07709 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Victor B. Valera, Mauricio Bustamante, and Olga Mena.

Soon, a new generation of neutrino telescopes, presently under planning, will target the discovery of ultra-high-energy (UHE) neutrinos of cosmic origin, with energies higher than 100 PeV, that promise unique insight into astrophysics and particle physics. Yet, predictions of the UHE neutrino flux and interaction cross section -- whose measurement is co-dependent -- are laden with significant uncertainty that, if unaddressed, could misrepresent the capabilities to measure one or the other. To address this, we advocate for the joint measurement of the UHE neutrino spectrum and neutrino-nucleon cross section, including of their energy dependence, without assuming prior knowledge of either. We illustrate our methods by adopting empirical parametrizations of the neutrino spectrum, in forecasts geared to the planned radio array of the IceCube-Gen2 neutrino telescope. We warn against using simple parametrizations -- a simple power law or one augmented with an exponential cut-off -- that might fail to capture features of the spectrum that are commonplace in the predictions. We argue instead for the use of flexible parametrizations -- a piecewise power law or an interpolating polynomial -- that ensure accuracy. We report loose design targets for the detector energy and angular resolution that are compatible with those under present consideration.**Benefits of Looking for Coincident Events, Taus, and Muons with the Askaryan Radio Array**

2308.07401 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Abby Bishop, [and 3 more]Austin Cummings, Ryan Krebs, and William Luszczak [hide authors].

Ultra-High Energy (UHE) neutrinos over $10^{16}$ eV have yet to be observed but the Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is one in-ice neutrino observatory attempting to make this discovery. In anticipation of a thorough full-observatory and full-livetime neutrino search, we estimate how many neutrino events can be detected accounting for secondary interactions, which are typically ignored in UHE neutrino simulations. Using the NuLeptonSim and PyREx simulation frameworks, we calculate the abundance and usefulness of cascades viewed by multiple ARA stations and observations made of taus, muons, and neutrinos generated during and after initial neutrino cascades. Analyses that include these scenarios benefit from a considerable increase in effective area at key ARA neutrino energies, one example being a 30% increase in ARA's effective area when simulating taus and muons produced in $10^{19}$ eV neutrino interactions. These analysis techniques could be utilized by other in-ice radio neutrino observatories, as has been explored by NuRadioMC developers. Our contribution showcases full simulation results of neutrinos with energies $3\times10^{17}$ - $10^{21}$ eV and visualizations of interesting triggered event topologies.**From Dirac to Majorana: the Cosmic Neutrino Background capture rate in the minimally extended Standard Model**

2308.05147 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez and Manibrata Sen.

We investigate the capture rate of the cosmic neutrino background on tritium within the Standard Model, extended to incorporate three right-handed singlet neutrinos with explicit lepton-number violation. We consider a scenario where the $6 \times 6$ neutrino mixing matrix factorizes into three independent $2 \times 2$ pairs and analyze the states produced from weak interactions just before neutrino decoupling. Taking into account the unrestricted Majorana mass scale associated with lepton number violation, spanning from the Grand Unification scale to Planck-suppressed values, we observe a gradual transition in the capture rate from a purely Majorana neutrino to a purely (pseudo) Dirac neutrino. We demonstrate that the capture rate is modified if the lightest active neutrino is relativistic, and this can be used to constrain the tiniest value of mass-squared difference $\sim 10^{-35}\,{\rm eV}^2$, between the active-sterile pair, probed so far. Consequently, the cosmic neutrino capture rate could become a promising probe for discerning the underlying mechanism responsible for generating neutrino masses.**Probing Earth's Missing Potassium using the Unique Antimatter Signature of Geoneutrinos**

2308.04154 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by LiquidO Consortium, [and 79 more]:, A. Cabrera, M. Chen, F. Mantovani, A. Serafini, V. Strati, J. Apilluelo, L. Asquith, J. L. Beney, T. J. C. Bezerra, M. Bongrand, C. Bourgeois, D. Breton, M. Briere, J. Busto, A. Cadiou, E. Calvo, V. Chaumat, E. Chauveau, B. J. Cattermole, P. Chimenti, C. Delafosse, H. de Kerret, S. Dusini, A. Earle, C. Frigerio-Martins, J. Galán, J. A. García, R. Gazzini, A. Gibson-Foster, A. Gallas, C. Girard-Carillo, W. C. Griffith, F. Haddad, J. Hartnell, A. Hourlier, G. Hull, I. G. Irastorza, L. Koch, P. Laniéce, J. F. Le Du, C. Lefebvre, F. Lefevre, F. Legrand, P. Loaiza, J. A. Lock, G. Luzón, J. Maalmi, C. Marquet, M. Martínez, B. Mathon, L. Ménard, D. Navas-Nicolás, H. Nunokawa, J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux, M. Obolensky, C. Palomares, P. Pillot, J. C. C. Porter, M. S. Pravikoff, H. Ramarijaona, M. Roche, P. Rosier, B. Roskovec, M. L. Sarsa, S. Schoppmann, W. Shorrock, L. Simard, H. Th. J. Steiger, D. Stocco, J. S. Stutzmann, F. Suekane, A. Tunc, M. -A. Verdier, A. Verdugo, B. Viaud, S. M. Wakely, A. Weber, and F. Yermia [hide authors].

The formation of the Earth remains an epoch with mysterious puzzles extending to our still incomplete understanding of the planet's potential origin and bulk composition. Direct confirmation of the Earth's internal heat engine was accomplished by the successful observation of geoneutrinos originating from uranium (U) and thorium (Th) progenies, manifestations of the planet's natural radioactivity dominated by potassium (40K) and the decay chains of uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th). This radiogenic energy output is critical to planetary dynamics and must be accurately measured for a complete understanding of the overall heat budget and thermal history of the Earth. Detecting geoneutrinos remains the only direct probe to do so and constitutes a challenging objective in modern neutrino physics. In particular, the intriguing potassium geoneutrinos have never been observed and thus far have been considered impractical to measure. We propose here a novel approach for potassium geoneutrino detection using the unique antimatter signature of antineutrinos to reduce the otherwise overwhelming backgrounds to observing this rarest signal. The proposed detection framework relies on the innovative LiquidO detection technique to enable positron (e+) identification and antineutrino interactions with ideal isotope targets identified here for the first time. We also provide the complete experimental methodology to yield the first potassium geoneutrino discovery.**Solar neutrinos and $ν_2$ visible decays to $ν_1$**

2308.03838 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, Jean Weill, and Manibrata Sen.

Experimental bounds on the neutrino lifetime depend on the nature of the neutrinos and the details of the potentially new physics responsible for neutrino decay. In the case where the decays involve active neutrinos in the final state, the neutrino masses also qualitatively impact how these manifest themselves experimentally. In order to further understand the impact of nonzero neutrino masses, we explore how observations of solar neutrinos constrain a very simple toy model. We assume that neutrinos are Dirac fermions and there is a new massless scalar that couples to neutrinos such that a heavy neutrino - $\nu_2$ with mass $m_2$ - can decay into a lighter neutrino - $\nu_1$ with mass $m_1$ - and a massless scalar. We find that the constraints on the new physics coupling depend, sometimes significantly, on the ratio of the daughter-to-parent neutrino masses, and that, for large enough values of the new physics coupling, the "dark side" of the solar neutrino parameter space - $\sin^2\theta_{12}\sim 0.7$ - provides a reasonable fit to solar neutrino data. Our results generalize to other neutrino-decay scenarios, including those that mediate $\nu_2\to\nu_1\bar{\nu}_3\nu_3$ when the neutrino mass ordering is inverted mass and $m_2>m_1\gg m_3$, the mass of $\nu_3$.**Sensitivity of octant of $θ_{23}$, CP violation and mass hierarchy in NO$ν$A with multinucleon and detector effects**

2308.03702 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Paramita Deka and Kalpana Bora.

In this work, we investigate how multinucleon enhancement and RPA (Random Phase Approximation) suppression can affect the measurement of three unknown neutrino oscillation parameters - the CP-violating phase $\delta_{CP}$, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle $\theta_{23}$, and the determination of the mass hierarchy, in the appearance channel of the NO$\nu$A experiment. We include the presence of the detector effect as well in the analysis, which is crucial for capturing realistic experimental scenarios. We also conducted a comparison between the nuclear model Effective Spectral Function (calculated within the RFG model) with and without Transverse Enhancement in terms of sensitivity analysis. It is found that the analysis using our comprehensive model QE(+RPA)+2p2h along with Effective Spectral Function+Transverse Enhancement exhibits significantly enhanced sensitivity compared to the pure QE interaction process, in all the cases.Also, the higher octant of $\theta_{23}$, the lower half plane of $\delta_{CP}$, and the normal mass hierarchy (HO-LHP-NH) exhibit improved sensitivity, enabling a more precise determination of the corresponding parameters. Furthermore, it is also noted that improving the performance of the detector also improves the results. Thus, including multinucleon effects and improving detector efficiency have the potential to enhance the capabilities of the NO$\nu$A (and other long baseline) experiment in conducting precise parameter studies.**Supernova Simulations Confront SN 1987A Neutrinos**

2308.01403 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Damiano F. G. Fiorillo, [and 5 more]Malte Heinlein, Hans-Thomas Janka, Georg Raffelt, Edoardo Vitagliano, and Robert Bollig [hide authors].

We return to interpreting the historical SN~1987A neutrino data from a modern perspective. To this end, we construct a suite of spherically symmetric supernova models with the Prometheus-Vertex code, using four different equations of state and five choices of final baryonic neutron-star (NS) mass in the 1.36-1.93 M$_\odot$ range. Our models include muons and proto-neutron star (PNS) convection by a mixing-length approximation. The time-integrated signals of our 1.44 M$_\odot$ models agree reasonably well with the combined data of the four relevant experiments, IMB, Kam-II, BUST, and LSD, but the high-threshold IMB detector alone favors a NS mass of 1.7-1.8 M$_\odot$, whereas Kam-II alone prefers a mass around 1.4 M$_\odot$. The cumulative energy distributions in these two detectors are well matched by models for such NS masses, and the previous tension between predicted mean neutrino energies and the combined measurements is gone, with and without flavor swap. Generally, our predicted signals do not strongly depend on assumptions about flavor mixing, because the PNS flux spectra depend only weakly on antineutrino flavor. While our models show compatibility with the events detected during the first seconds, PNS convection and nucleon correlations in the neutrino opacities lead to short PNS cooling times of 5-9 s, in conflict with the late event bunches in Kam-II and BUST after 8-9 s, which are also difficult to explain by background. Speculative interpretations include the onset of fallback of transiently ejected material onto the NS, a late phase transition in the nuclear medium, e.g., from hadronic to quark matter, or other effects that add to the standard PNS cooling emission and either stretch the signal or provide a late source of energy. More research, including systematic 3D simulations, is needed to assess these open issues.**Black Holes as Neutrino Factories**

2308.00741 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yifan Chen, Xiao Xue, and Vitor Cardoso.

Ultralight bosons near rotating black holes can grow significantly via superradiant energy extraction, potentially reaching field values close to the Planck scale, thereby turning black holes into effective transducers for these fields. The interaction between a boson field and fermions can initiate a parametric production of fermions, potentially halting the exponential growth and leading to a saturated state of the boson cloud. This dynamic offers a framework for establishing limits on boson-neutrino interactions, which have traditionally been restricted by neutrino self-interaction considerations. At the saturation phase, boson clouds have the capacity to propel neutrinos to TeV-scale energies, generating fluxes that surpass atmospheric neutrino fluxes from nearby black holes. This mechanism extends to dark sector fermions, leading to the generation of boosted dark matter. These fluxes open novel avenues for observation through high-energy neutrino detectors like IceCube, as well as through dark matter direct detection, by directing observational efforts towards targeted black holes.**From ray to spray: augmenting amplitudes and taming fast oscillations in fully numerical neutrino codes**

2308.00037 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Michele Maltoni.

In this note we describe how to complement the neutrino evolution matrix calculated at a given energy and trajectory with additional information which allows to reliably extrapolate it to nearby energies or trajectories without repeating the full computation. Our method works for arbitrary matter density profiles, can be applied to any propagation model described by an Hamiltonian, and exactly guarantees the unitarity of the evolution matrix. As a straightforward application, we show how to enhance the calculation of the theoretical predictions for experimentally measured quantities, so that they remain accurate even in the presence of fast neutrino oscillations. Furthermore, the ability to "move around" a given energy and trajectory opens the door to precise interpolation of the oscillation amplitudes within a grid of tabulated values, with potential benefits for the computation speed of Monte-Carlo codes. We also provide a set of examples to illustrate the most prominent features of our approach.**Recent neutrino oscillation result with the IceCube experiment**

2307.15855 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shiqi Yu and Jessie Micallef.

The IceCube South Pole Neutrino Observatory is a Cherenkov detector instrumented in a cubic kilometer of ice at the South Pole. IceCube's primary scientific goal is the detection of TeV neutrino emissions from astrophysical sources. At the lower center of the IceCube array, there is a subdetector called DeepCore, which has a denser configuration that makes it possible to lower the energy threshold of IceCube and observe GeV-scale neutrinos, opening the window to atmospheric neutrino oscillations studies. Advances in physics sensitivity have recently been achieved by employing Convolutional Neural Networks to reconstruct neutrino interactions in the DeepCore detector. In this contribution, the recent IceCube result from the atmospheric muon neutrino disappearance analysis using the CNN-reconstructed neutrino sample is presented and compared to the existing worldwide measurements.**A relook at the GZK Neutrino-Photon Connection: Impact of Extra-galactic Radio Background & UHECR properties**

2307.15667 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sovan Chakraborty, Poonam Mehta, and Prantik Sarmah.

Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cut-off provide us with a unique opportunity to understand the universe at extreme energies. Secondary GZK photons and GZK neutrinos associated with the same interaction are indeed interconnected and render access to multi-messenger analysis of UHECRs. The GZK photon flux is heavily attenuated due to the interaction with Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Extra-galactic Radio Background (ERB). The present estimate of the ERB comprising of several model uncertainties together with the ARCADE2 radio results in large propagation uncertainties in the GZK photon flux. On the other hand, the weakly interacting GZK neutrino flux is unaffected by these propagation effects. In this work, we make an updated estimate of the GZK photon and GZK neutrino fluxes considering a wide variation of both the production and propagation properties of the UHECR like, the spectral index, the cut-off energy of the primary spectrum, the distribution of sources and the uncertainties in the ERB estimation. We explore the detection prospects of the GZK fluxes with various present and upcoming UHECR and UHE neutrino detectors such as Auger, TA, GRAND, ANITA, ARA, IceCube and IceCube-Gen2. The predicted fluxes are found to be beyond the reach of the current detectors. In future, proposed IceCube-Gen2, Auger upgrade and GRAND experiments will have the sensitivity to the predicted GZK photon and GZK neutrino fluxes. Such detection can put constraints on the UHECR source properties and the propagation effects due to the ERB. We also propose an indirect limit on the GZK photon flux using the neutrino-photon connection for any future detection of GZK neutrinos by the IceCube-Gen2 detector. We find this limit to be consistent with our GZK flux predictions.**Ab initio calculations of neutrinoless $ββ$ decay refine neutrino mass limits**

2307.15156 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Belley, [and 3 more]T. Miyagi, S. R. Stroberg, and J. D. Holt [hide authors].

Neutrinos are perhaps the most elusive known particles in the universe. We know they have some nonzero mass, but unlike all other particles, the absolute scale remains unknown. In addition, their fundamental nature is uncertain; they can either be their own antiparticles or exist as distinct neutrinos and antineutrinos. The observation of the hypothetical process of neutrinoless double-beta ($0\nu\beta\beta$) decay would at once resolve both questions, while providing a strong lead in understanding the abundance of matter over antimatter in our universe. In the scenario of light-neutrino exchange, the decay rate is governed by, and thereby linked to the effective mass of the neutrino via, the theoretical nuclear matrix element (NME). In order to extract the neutrino mass, if a discovery is made, or to assess the discovery potential of next-generation searches, it is essential to obtain accurate NMEs for all isotopes of experimental interest. However, two of the most important cases, $^{130}$Te and $^{136}$Xe, lie in the heavy region and have only been accessible to phenomenological nuclear models. In this work we utilize powerful advances in ab initio nuclear theory to compute NMEs from the underlying nuclear and weak forces driving this decay, including the recently discovered short-range component. We find that ab initio NMEs are generally smaller than those from nuclear models, challenging the expected reach of future ton-scale searches as well as claims to probe the inverted hierarchy of neutrino masses. With this step, ab initio calculations with theoretical uncertainties are now feasible for all isotopes relevant for next-generation $0\nu\beta\beta$ decay experiments.**Supernova Emission of Secretly Interacting Neutrino Fluid: Theoretical Foundations**

2307.15122 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Damiano F. G. Fiorillo, Georg Raffelt, and Edoardo Vitagliano.

Neutrino-neutrino scattering could have a large secret component that would turn neutrinos within a supernova (SN) core into a self-coupled fluid. Neutrino transport within the SN core, emission from its surface, expansion into space, and the flux spectrum and time structure at Earth might all be affected. We examine these questions from first principles. First, diffusive transport differs only by a modified spectral average of the interaction rate. We next study the fluid energy transfer between a hot and a cold blackbody surface in plane-parallel and spherical geometry. The key element is the decoupling process within the radiating bodies, which themselves are taken to be isothermal. For a zero-temperature cold plate, mimicking radiation into free space by the hot plate, the energy flux is 3--4\% smaller than the usual Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The fluid energy density just outside the hot plate is numerically 0.70 of the standard case, the outflow velocity is the speed of sound $v_s=c/\sqrt{3}$, conspiring to a nearly unchanged energy flux. Our results provide the crucial boundary condition for the expansion of the self-interacting fluid into space, assuming an isothermal neutrino sphere. We also derive a dynamical solution, assuming the emission suddenly begins at some instant. A neutrino front expands in space with luminal speed, whereas the outflow velocity at the radiating surface asymptotically approaches $v_s$ from above. Asymptotically, one thus recovers the steady-state emission found in the two-plate model. A sudden end to neutrino emission leads to a fireball with constant thickness equal to the duration of neutrino emission.**Large Neutrino Secret Interactions, Small Impact on Supernovae**

2307.15115 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Damiano F. G. Fiorillo, Georg Raffelt, and Edoardo Vitagliano.

When hypothetical neutrino secret interactions ($\nu$SI) are large, they form a fluid in a supernova (SN) core, flow out with sonic speed, and stream away as a fireball. For the first time, we tackle the complete dynamical problem and solve all steps, systematically using relativistic hydrodynamics. The impact on SN physics and the neutrino signal is remarkably small. For complete thermalization within the fireball, the observable spectrum changes in a way that is independent of the coupling strength. One potentially large effect beyond our study is quick deleptonization if $\nu$SI violate lepton number. By present evidence, however, SN physics leaves open a large region in parameter space, where laboratory searches and future high-energy neutrino telescopes will probe $\nu$SI.**Final results of Borexino on CNO solar neutrinos**

2307.14636 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Basilico, [and 74 more]G. Bellini, J. Benziger, R. Biondi, B. Caccianiga, F. Calaprice, A. Caminata, A. Chepurnov, D. D'Angelo, A. Derbin, A. Di Giacinto, V. Di Marcello, X. F. Ding, A. Di Ludovico, L. Di Noto, I. Drachnev, D. Franco, C. Galbiati, C. Ghiano, M. Giammarchi, A. Goretti, M. Gromov, D. Guffanti, Aldo Ianni, Andrea Ianni, A. Jany, V. Kobychev, G. Korga, S. Kumaran, M. Laubenstein, E. Litvinovich, P. Lombardi, I. Lomskaya, L. Ludhova, I. Machulin, J. Martyn, E. Meroni, L. Miramonti, M. Misiaszek, V. Muratova, R. Nugmanov, L. Oberauer, V. Orekhov, F. Ortica, M. Pallavicini, L. Pelicci, Ö. Penek, L. Pietrofaccia, N. Pilipenko, A. Pocar, G. Raikov, M. T. Ranalli, G. Ranucci, A. Razeto, A. Re, N. Rossi, S. Schönert, D. Semenov, G. Settanta, M. Skorokhvatov, A. Singhal, O. Smirnov, A. Sotnikov, R. Tartaglia, G. Testera, E. Unzhakov, F. L. Villante, A. Vishneva, R. B. Vogelaar, F. von Feilitzsch, M. Wojcik, M. Wurm, S. Zavatarelli, K. Zuber, and G. Zuzel [hide authors].

We report the first measurement of CNO solar neutrinos by Borexino that uses the Correlated Integrated Directionality (CID) method, exploiting the sub-dominant Cherenkov light in the liquid scintillator detector. The directional information of the solar origin of the neutrinos is preserved by the fast Cherenkov photons from the neutrino scattered electrons, and is used to discriminate between signal and background. The directional information is independent from the spectral information on which the previous CNO solar neutrino measurements by Borexino were based. While the CNO spectral analysis could only be applied on the Phase-III dataset, the directional analysis can use the complete Borexino data taking period from 2007 to 2021. The absence of CNO neutrinos has been rejected with >5{\sigma} credible level using the Bayesian statistics. The directional CNO measurement is obtained without an external constraint on the $^{210}$Bi contamination of the liquid scintillator, which was applied in the spectral analysis approach. The final and the most precise CNO measurement of Borexino is then obtained by combining the new CID-based CNO result with an improved spectral fit of the Phase-III dataset. Including the statistical and the systematic errors, the extracted CNO interaction rate is $R(\mathrm{CNO})=6.7^{+1.2}_{-0.8} \, \mathrm{cpd/100 \, tonnes}$. Taking into account the neutrino flavor conversion, the resulting CNO neutrino flux at Earth is $\Phi_\mathrm{CNO}=6.7 ^{+1.2}_{-0.8} \times 10^8 \, \mathrm{cm^{-2} s^{-1}}$, in agreement with the high metallicity Standard Solar Models. The results described in this work reinforce the role of the event directional information in large-scale liquid scintillator detectors and open up new avenues for the next-generation liquid scintillator or hybrid neutrino experiments.**Identifying Spin Properties of Evaporating Black Holes through Asymmetric Neutrino and Photon Emission**

2307.14408 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez.

Kerr black holes radiate neutrinos in an asymmetric pattern, preferentially in the lower hemisphere relative to the black hole's rotation axis, while antineutrinos are predominantly produced in the upper hemisphere. Leveraging this asymmetric emission, we explore the potential of high-energy, $E_\nu \gtrsim 1$ TeV, neutrino and antineutrino detection to reveal crucial characteristics of an evaporating primordial black hole at the time of its burst when observed near Earth. We improve upon previous calculations by carefully accounting for the non-isotropic particle emission, as Earth occupies a privileged angle relative to the black hole's rotation axis. Additionally, we investigate the angular dependence of primary and secondary photon spectra and assess the evaporating black hole's time evolution during the final explosive stages of its lifetime. Since photon events outnumber neutrinos by about three orders of magnitude, we find that a neutrino measurement can aid in identifying the initial angular momentum and the black hole hemisphere facing Earth only for evaporating black holes within our solar system, at distances $\lesssim 10^{-4}$ pc, and observed during the final 100 s of their lifetime.**Search for the Migdal effect in liquid xenon with keV-level nuclear recoils**

2307.12952 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jingke Xu, [and 13 more]Duncan Adams, Brian Lenardo, Teal Pershing, Rachel Mannino, Ethan Bernard, James Kingston, Eli Mizrachi, Junsong Lin, Rouven Essig, Vladimir Mozin, Phil Kerr, Adam Bernstein, and Mani Tripathi [hide authors].

The Migdal effect predicts that a nuclear recoil interaction can be accompanied by atomic ionization, allowing many dark matter direct detection experiments to gain sensitivity to sub-GeV masses. We report the first direct search for the Migdal effect for M- and L-shell electrons in liquid xenon using 7.0$\pm$1.6 keV nuclear recoils produced by tagged neutron scatters. Despite an observed background rate lower than that of expected signals in the region of interest, we do not observe a signal consistent with predictions. We discuss possible explanations, including inaccurate predictions for either the Migdal rate or the signal response in liquid xenon. We comment on the implications for direct dark-matter searches and future Migdal characterization efforts.**On the impact of the Migdal effect in reactor CE$ν$NS experiments**

2307.12911 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Atzori Corona, [and 4 more]M. Cadeddu, N. Cargioli, F. Dordei, and C. Giunti [hide authors].

The search for coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) using reactor antineutrinos represents a formidable experimental challenge, recently boosted by the observation of such a process at the Dresden-II reactor site using a germanium detector. This observation relies on an unexpected enhancement at low energies of the measured quenching factor with respect to the theoretical Lindhard model prediction, which implies an extra observable ionization signal produced after the nuclear recoil. A possible explanation for this additional contribution could be provided by the so-called Migdal effect, which however has never been observed. Here, we study in detail the impact of the Migdal contribution to the standard CE$\nu$NS signal calculated with the Lindhard quenching factor, finding that the former is completely negligible for observed energies below $\sim 0.3\,\mathrm{keV}$ where the signal is detectable, and thus unable to provide any contribution to CE$\nu$NS searches in this energy regime. To this purpose, we compare different formalisms used to describe the Migdal effect that intriguingly show a perfect agreement, making our findings robust.**Probing mass orderings in presence of a very light sterile neutrino in a liquid argon detector**

2307.12885 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Animesh Chatterjee, Srubabati Goswami, and Supriya Pan.

Results from experiments like LSND and MiniBooNE hint towards the possible presence of an extra eV scale sterile neutrino. The addition of such a neutrino will significantly impact the standard three flavour neutrino oscillations. In particular, it can give rise to additional degeneracies due to additional sterile parameters. For an eV scale sterile neutrino, the cosmological constraints dictate that the sterile state is heavier than the three active states. However, for lower masses of sterile neutrinos, it can be lighter than one and/or more of the three states. In such cases, the mass ordering of the sterile neutrinos also becomes unknown along with the mass ordering of the active states. In this paper, we explore the mass ordering sensitivity in the presence of a sterile neutrino assuming the mass squared difference $|\Delta_{41}|$ to be in the range $10^{-4} - 1$ eV$^2$. We study (i) how the ordering of the active states, i.e. the determination of the sign of $\Delta_{31}$ gets affected by the presence of a sterile neutrino in the above mass range, (ii) the possible determination of the sign of $\Delta_{41}$ for $\Delta_{41}$ in the range $10^{-4} - 0.1$ eV$^2$. This analysis is done in the context of a liquid argon detector using both beam neutrinos traveling a distance of 1300 km and atmospheric neutrinos which propagates through a distance ranging from 10 - 10000 km allowing resonant matter effects. Apart from presenting separate results from these sources, we also do a combined study and probe the synergy between these two in giving an enhanced sensitivity.**Exploring Solar Neutrino Oscillation Parameters with LSC at Yemilab and JUNO**

2307.11582 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pouya Bakhti, [and 3 more]Meshkat Rajaee, Seon-Hee Seo, and Seodong Shin [hide authors].

We investigate the sensitivities of the liquid scintillator counter (LSC) at Yemilab and JUNO to solar neutrino oscillation parameters, focusing on $\theta_{12}$ and $\Delta m^2_{21}$. We compare the potential of JUNO with LSC at Yemilab utilizing both reactor and solar data in determining those parameters. We find that the solar neutrino data of LSC at Yemilab is highly sensitive to $\theta_{12}$ enabling its determination with exceptional precision. Our study also reveals that if $\Delta m^2_{21}$ is larger, with a value close to the best fit value of KamLAND, JUNO reactor data will have about two times better precision than the reactor LSC at Yemilab. On the other hand, if $\Delta m^2_{21}$ is smaller and closer to the best fit value of solar neutrino experiments, the precision of the reactor LSC at Yemilab will be better than JUNO.**A $ν$ window onto leptoquarks?**

2307.11152 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Matthew Kirk, Shohei Okawa, and Keyun Wu.

Upcoming neutrino telescopes promise a new window onto the interactions of neutrinos with matter at ultrahigh energies ($E_\nu = 10^7$-$10^{10}$ GeV), and the possibility to detect deviations from the Standard Model predictions. In this paper, we update previous predictions for the enhancement of the neutrino-nucleon cross-section for motivated leptoquark models and show the latest neutrino physics bound, as well as analyse the latest LHC pair production and Drell-Yan data, and flavour constraints (some of which were previously missed). We find that, despite the next generation of neutrino experiments probing the highest energies, they will not be enough to be competitive with collider searches.**Shedding light on the $Δm^2_{21}$ tension with supernova neutrinos**

2307.09509 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rasmi Hajjar, Sergio Palomares-Ruiz, and Olga Mena.

One long-standing tension in the determination of neutrino parameters is the mismatched value of the solar mass square difference, $\Delta m_{21}^2$, measured by different experiments: the reactor antineutrino experiment KamLAND finds a best fit larger than the one obtained with solar neutrino data. Even if the current tension is mild ($\sim 1.5\sigma$), it is timely to explore if independent measurements could help in either closing or reassessing this issue. In this regard, we explore how a future supernova burst in our galaxy could be used to determine $\Delta m_{21}^2$ at the future Hyper-Kamiokande detector, and how this could contribute to the current situation. We study Earth matter effects for different models of supernova neutrino spectra and supernova orientations. We find that, if supernova neutrino data prefers the KamLAND best fit for $\Delta m_{21}^2$, an uncertainty similar to the current KamLAND one could be achieved. On the contrary, if it prefers the solar neutrino data best fit, the current tension with KamLAND results could grow to a significance larger than $5\sigma$. Furthermore, supernova neutrinos could significantly contribute to reducing the uncertainty on $\sin^2\theta_{12}$.**Neutrino Signatures of One Hundred 2D Axisymmetric Core-Collapse Supernova Simulations**

2307.08735 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by David Vartanyan and Adam Burrows.

We present in this paper a public data release of an unprecedentedly-large set of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) neutrino emission models, comprising one hundred detailed 2D-axisymmetric radiation-hydrodynamic simulations evolved out to as late as ~5 seconds post-bounce and spanning a extensive range of massive-star progenitors. The motivation for this paper is to provide a physically and numerically uniform benchmark dataset to the broader neutrino detection community to help it characterize and optimize subsurface facilities for what is likely to be a once-in-a-lifetime galactic supernova burst event. With this release we hope to 1) help the international experiment and modeling communities more efficiently optimize the retrieval of physical information about the next galactic core-collapse supernova, 2) facilitate the better understanding of core-collapse theory and modeling among interested experimentalists, and 3) help further integrate the broader supernova neutrino community.**Gauging the cosmic ray muon puzzle with the Forward Physics Facility**

2307.08634 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sergio J. Sciutto, [and 4 more]Luis A. Anchordoqui, Carlos Garcia Canal, Felix Kling, and Jorge F. Soriano [hide authors].

We investigate the observed muon deficit in air shower simulations when compared to ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) data. Gleaned from the observed enhancement of strangeness production in ALICE data, the associated $\pi \leftrightarrow K$ swap is taken as a cornerstone to resolve the muon puzzle via its corresponding impact on the shower evolution. We develop a phenomenological model in terms of the $\pi \leftrightarrow K$ swapping probability $F_s$. We provide a parametrization of $F_s (E^{\rm (proj)}, \eta)$ that can accommodate the UHECR data, where $E^{\rm (proj)}$ is the projectile energy and $\eta$ the pseudorapidity. We also explore a future game plan for model improvement using the colossal amount of data to be collected by LHC neutrino detectors at the Forward Physics Facility (FPF). We calculate the corresponding sensitivity to $F_s$ and show that the FPF experiments will be able to probe the model phase space.**New Measurements of $^{71}$Ge Decay: Impact on the Gallium Anomaly**

2307.05353 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. I. Collar and S. G. Yoon.

A dedicated high-statistics measurement of the $^{71}$Ge half-life is found to be in accurate agreement with an accepted value of 11.43$\pm$0.03 d, eliminating a recently proposed route to bypass the "gallium anomaly" affecting several neutrino experiments. Our data also severely constrain the possibility of $^{71}$Ge decay to low-energy excited levels of the $^{71}$Ga daughter nucleus as a solution to this puzzle. Additional unpublished measurements of this decay are discussed. Following the incorporation of this new information, the gallium anomaly survives with high statistical significance.**Scalar NSI: A unique tool for constraining absolute neutrino masses via $ν$-oscillations**

2307.05348 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Abinash Medhi, Arnab Sarker, and Moon Moon Devi.

In the standard interaction scenario, a direct measurement of absolute neutrino masses via neutrino oscillations is not feasible, as the oscillations depend only on the mass-squared differences. However, the presence of scalar non-standard interactions can introduce sub-dominant terms in the oscillation Hamiltonian that can directly affect the neutrino mass matrix and thereby making scalar NSI a unique tool for neutrino mass measurements. In this work, for the first time, we constrain the absolute masses of neutrinos by probing scalar NSI. We show that a bound on the lightest neutrino mass can be induced in the presence of scalar NSI at DUNE. We find that the lightest neutrino mass can be best constrained with $\eta_{\tau\tau}$ and $\eta_{\mu\mu}$ at $2\sigma$ C.L. for normal and inverted hierarchy respectively. This study suggests that scalar NSI can serve as an interesting avenue to constrain the absolute neutrino masses in long-baseline neutrino experiments via neutrino oscillations.**Pulsar kicks in ultralight dark matter background induced by neutrino oscillation**

2307.05229 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Geatano Lambiase and Tanmay Kumar Poddar.

The interaction of neutrinos with ultralight scalar and vector dark matter backgrounds induce a modification of the neutrino dispersion relation. The effects of this modification are reviewed in the framework of asymmetric emission of neutrinos from the supernova core, and, in turn, of pulsar kicks. We consider the neutrino oscillations, focusing in particular to active-sterile conversion. The ultralight dark matter induced neutrino dispersion relation contains a term of the form $\delta {\bf \Omega}\cdot \hat{{\bf{p}}}$, where $\delta {\bf \Omega}$ is related to the ultralight dark matter field and $\hat{{\bf p}}$ is the unit vector along the direction of neutrino momentum. The relative orientation of ${\bf p}$ with respect to $\delta {\bf \Omega}$ affects the mechanism for the generation of the observed pulsar velocities. We obtain the resonance condition for the active-sterile neutrino oscillation in ultralight dark matter background and calculate the star parameters in the resonance surface so that both ultralight scalar and vector dark matter backgrounds can explain the observed pulsar kicks. The asymmetric emission of neutrinos in presence of ultralight dark matter background results gravitational memory signal which can be probed from the gravitational wave detectors. We also establish a connection between the ultralight dark matter parameters and the standard model extension parameter.**The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Matter Potential at the One-loop Level in the Standard Model**

2307.04685 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jihong Huang and Shun Zhou.

When neutrinos are propagating in ordinary matter, their coherent forward scattering off background particles results in the so-called Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) matter potential, which plays an important role in neutrino flavor conversions. In this paper, we present a complete one-loop calculation of the MSW matter potential in the Standard Model (SM). First, we carry out the one-loop renormalization of the SM in the on-shell scheme, where the electromagnetic fine-structure constant $\alpha$, the weak gauge-boson masses $m^{}_W$ and $m^{}_Z$, the Higgs-boson mass $m^{}_h$ and the fermion masses $m^{}_f$ are chosen as input parameters. Then, the finite corrections to the scattering amplitudes of neutrinos with the electrons and quarks are calculated, and the one-loop MSW matter potentials are derived. Adopting the latest values of all physical parameters, we find that the relative size of one-loop correction to the charged-current matter potential of electron-type neutrinos or antineutrinos turns out to be $6\%$, whereas that to the neutral-current matter potential of all-flavor neutrinos or antineutrinos can be as large as $8\%$. The calculations are also performed in the $\overline{\rm MS}$ scheme and compared with previous results in the literature.**Where shadows lie: reconstruction of anisotropies in the neutrino sky**

2307.03191 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Willem Elbers, [and 7 more]Carlos S. Frenk, Adrian Jenkins, Baojiu Li, Silvia Pascoli, Jens Jasche, Guilhem Lavaux, and Volker Springel [hide authors].

The Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) encodes a wealth of information, but has not yet been observed directly. To determine the prospects of detection and to study its information content, we reconstruct the phase-space distribution of local relic neutrinos from the three-dimensional distribution of matter within 200 Mpc/h of the Milky Way. Our analysis relies on constrained realization simulations and forward modelling of the 2M++ galaxy catalogue. We find that the angular distribution of neutrinos is anti-correlated with the projected matter density, due to the capture and deflection of neutrinos by massive structures along the line of sight. Of relevance to tritium capture experiments, we find that the gravitational clustering effect of the large-scale structure on the local number density of neutrinos is more important than that of the Milky Way for neutrino masses less than 0.1 eV. Nevertheless, we predict that the density of relic neutrinos is close to the cosmic average, with a suppression or enhancement over the mean of (-0.3%, +7%, +27%) for masses of (0.01, 0.05, 0.1) eV. This implies no more than a marginal increase in the event rate for tritium capture experiments like PTOLEMY. We also predict that the CNB and CMB rest frames coincide for 0.01 eV neutrinos, but that neutrino velocities are significantly perturbed for masses larger than 0.05 eV. Regardless of mass, we find that the angle between the neutrino dipole and the ecliptic plane is small, implying a near-maximal annual modulation in the bulk velocity. Along with this paper, we publicly release our simulation data, comprising more than 100 simulations for six different neutrino masses.**Constraints on Neutrino Self-Interactions from IceCube Observation of NGC 1068**

2307.02361 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jeffrey M. Hyde.

The active galaxy NGC 1068 was recently identified by the IceCube neutrino observatory as the first known steady-state, extragalactic neutrino point source, associated with about 79 events over ten years. We use the IceCube data to place limits on possible neutrino self-interactions mediated by scalar particles with mass between 1 - 10 MeV. We find that constraints on flavor-specific $\nu_{\tau}$ self-interactions with low mediator masses are comparable to constraints derived from the diffuse high-energy neutrino flux at low energies, while constraints on flavor-universal self-interactions are less restrictive than current bounds.**Neutrino winds on the sky**

2307.00049 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Caio Nascimento and Marilena Loverde.

We develop a first-principles formalism to compute the distortion to the relic neutrino density field caused by the peculiar motions of large-scale structures. This distortion slows halos down due to dynamical friction, causes a local anisotropy in the neutrino-CDM cross-correlation, and reduces the global cross-correlation between neutrinos and CDM. The local anisotropy in the neutrino-CDM cross-spectrum is imprinted in the three point cross-correlations of matter and galaxies, or the bispectrum in Fourier space, producing a signal peaking at squeezed triangle configurations. This bispectrum signature of neutrino masses is not limited by cosmic variance or potential inaccuracies in the modeling of complicated nonlinear and galaxy formation physics, and it is not degenerate with the optical depth to reionization. We show that future surveys have the potential to detect the distortion bispectrum.**Galactic Diffuse Neutrino Emission from Sources beyond the Discovery Horizon**

2306.17285 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Antonio Ambrosone, [and 3 more]Kathrine Mørch Groth, Enrico Peretti, and Markus Ahlers [hide authors].

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has recently reported strong evidence for neutrino emission from the Galactic plane. The signal is consistent with model predictions of diffuse emission from cosmic ray propagation in the interstellar medium. However, due to IceCube's limited potential of identifying individual neutrino sources, it is also feasible that unresolved Galactic sources could contribute to the observation. We investigate the contribution of this quasi-diffuse emission and show that the observed Galactic diffuse flux at 100~TeV could be dominated by hard emission of unresolved sources. Particularly interesting candidate sources are young massive stellar clusters that have been considered as cosmic-ray PeVatrons. We examine whether this hypothesis can be tested by the upcoming KM3NeT detector or the planned future facility IceCube-Gen2 with about five times the sensitivity of IceCube.**Milky Way as a Neutrino Desert: Implications of the IceCube Galactic Diffuse Neutrino Emission**

2306.17275 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ke Fang, John S. Gallagher, and Francis Halzen.

The Galactic diffuse emission (GDE) is formed when cosmic rays leave the sources where they were accelerated, diffusively propagate in the Galactic magnetic field, and interact with the interstellar medium and interstellar radiation field. GDE in $\gamma$-ray (GDE-$\gamma$) has been observed up to sub-PeV energies, though its origin may be explained by either cosmic-ray nuclei or electrons. We show that the $\gamma$-rays accompanying the high-energy neutrinos recently observed by the IceCube Observatory from the Galactic plane have a flux that is consistent with the GDE-$\gamma$ observed by the Fermi-LAT and Tibet AS$\gamma$ experiments around 1 TeV and 0.5 PeV, respectively. The consistency suggests that the diffuse $\gamma$-ray emission above $\sim$1 TeV could be dominated by hadronuclear interactions, though partial leptonic contribution cannot be excluded. Moreover, by comparing the fluxes of the Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission backgrounds, we find that the neutrino luminosity of the Milky Way is one to two orders of magnitude lower than the average of distant galaxies. This implies that our Galaxy has not hosted the type of neutrino emitters that dominates the isotropic neutrino background in the past few million years.**A Pythagoras-like theorem for CP violation in neutrino oscillations**

2306.16231 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shu Luo and Zhi-zhong Xing.

The probabilities of $\nu^{}_{\mu} \to \nu^{}_{e}$ and $\overline{\nu}^{}_{\mu} \to \overline{\nu}^{}_{e}$ oscillations in vacuum are determined by the CP-conserving flavor mixing factors ${\cal R}^{}_{ij} \equiv {\rm Re} (U^{}_{\mu i} U^{}_{e j} U^{*}_{\mu j} U^{*}_{e i})$ and the universal Jarlskog invariant of CP violation ${\cal J}^{}_{\nu} \equiv (-1)^{i+j} \; {\rm Im} (U^{}_{\mu i} U^{}_{e j} U^{*}_{\mu j} U^{*}_{e i})$ (for $i, j = 1, 2, 3$ and $i < j$), where $U$ is the $3\times 3$ Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata neutrino mixing matrix. We show that ${\cal J}^{2}_{\nu} = {\cal R}^{}_{12} {\cal R}^{}_{13} + {\cal R}^{}_{12} {\cal R}^{}_{23} + {\cal R}^{}_{13} {\cal R}^{}_{23}$ holds as a natural consequence of the unitarity of $U$. This Pythagoras-like relation may provide a novel cross-check of the result of ${\cal J}^{}_{\nu}$ that will be directly measured in the next-generation long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Indirect non-unitarity effects and terrestrial matter effects on ${\cal J}^{}_{\nu}$ and ${\cal R}^{}_{ij}$ are also discussed.**Pion decay constraints on exotic 17 MeV vector bosons**

2306.15077 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Matheus Hostert and Maxim Pospelov.

We derive constraints on the couplings of light vector particles to all first-generation Standard Model fermions using leptonic decays of the charged pion, $\pi^+\to e^+ \nu_e X_\mu$. In models where the net charge to which $X_\mu$ couples is not conserved, no lepton helicity flip is required for the decay to happen, enhancing the decay rate by factors of ${O}(m_\pi^4/m_e^2m_X^2)$. A past search at the SINDRUM-I spectrometer severely constrains this possibility. In the context of the hypothesized $17$ MeV particle proposed to explain anomalous $^8$Be, $^4$He, and $^{12}$C nuclear transitions claimed by the ATOMKI experiment, this limit rules out vector-boson explanations and poses strong limits on axial-vector ones.**Neutrino oscillation bounds on quantum decoherence**

2306.14699 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Valentina De Romeri, [and 3 more]Carlo Giunti, Thomas Stuttard, and Christoph A. Ternes [hide authors].

We consider quantum-decoherence effects in neutrino oscillation data. Working in the open quantum system framework we adopt a phenomenological approach that allows to parameterize the energy dependence of the decoherence effects. We consider several phenomenological models. We analyze data from the reactor experiments RENO, Daya Bay and KamLAND and from the accelerator experiments NOvA, MINOS/MINOS+ and T2K. We obtain updated constraints on the decoherence parameters quantifying the strength of damping effects, which can be as low as $\Gamma_{ij} \lesssim 8 \times 10^{-27}$ GeV at 90% confidence level in some cases. We also present sensitivities for the future facilities DUNE and JUNO.**Distinctive nuclear signatures of low-energy atmospheric neutrinos**

2306.11090 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anna M. Suliga and John F. Beacom.

New probes of neutrino mixing are needed to advance precision studies. One promising direction is via the detection of low-energy atmospheric neutrinos (below a few hundred MeV), to which a variety of near-term experiments will have much-improved sensitivity. Here we focus on probing these neutrinos through distinctive nuclear signatures of exclusive neutrino-carbon interactions -- those that lead to detectable nuclear-decay signals with low backgrounds -- in both neutral-current and charged-current channels. The neutral-current signature is a line at 15.11 MeV and the charged-current signatures are two- or three-fold coincidences with delayed decays. We calculate the prospects for identifying such events in the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a large-scale liquid-scintillator detector. A five-year exposure would yield about 16 neutral-current events (all flavors) and about 16 charged-current events (mostly from $\nu_e + \bar{\nu}_e$, with some from $\nu_\mu + \bar{\nu}_\mu$), and thus roughly 25\% uncertainties on each of their rates. Our results show the potential of JUNO to make the first identified measurement of sub-100 MeV atmospheric neutrinos. They also are a step towards multi-detector studies of low-energy atmospheric neutrinos, with the goal of identifying additional distinctive nuclear signatures for carbon and other targets.**Probing general $U(1)'$ models with non-universal lepton charges at FASER/FASER2, COHERENT and long-baseline oscillation experiments**

2306.09569 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tobias Felkl, [and 3 more]Tong Li, Jiajun Liao, and Michael A. Schmidt [hide authors].

The general anomaly-free $U(1)'$ models allow non-universal lepton charges. We explore the sensitivities of FASER/FASER2, COHERENT and DUNE/T2HK precision experiments to the new gauge boson $Z'$ and the new CP-even scalar $\phi$. With non-universal lepton charges, distinctive reaches at FASER/FASER2 emerge in the regime of low $m_{Z'}$ and small gauge coupling $g_{BL}$ for different $U(1)'$ charge setups. The COHERENT experiment and the future long-baseline experiments DUNE/T2HK also provide complementary probes to the available parameter space. For $m_\phi < 2m_{Z'}$, the search for the scalar $\phi$ at FASER/FASER2 is sensitive to the mixing angle between the scalar singlet and the SM Higgs. In the case of $m_\phi > 2m_{Z'}$, the kinematically allowed decay $\phi\to Z' Z'$ changes the lifetime and decay rates of the scalar $\phi$. The sensitivity reach highly depends on the $Z'$ mass and the gauge coupling $g_{BL}$.**A decoherence explanation of the gallium neutrino anomaly**

2306.09422 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yasaman Farzan and Thomas Schwetz.

Gallium radioactive source experiments have reported a neutrino-induced event rate about 20\% lower than expected with a high statistical significance. We present an explanation of this observation assuming quantum decoherence of the neutrinos in the gallium detectors at a scale of 2~m. This explanation is consistent with global data on neutrino oscillations, including solar neutrinos, if decoherence effects decrease quickly with energy, for instance with a power law $E_\nu^{-r}$ with $r\simeq 12$. Our proposal does not require the presence of sterile neutrinos but implies a modification of the standard quantum mechanical evolution equations for active neutrinos.**Old Data, New Forensics: The First Second of SN 1987A Neutrino Emission**

2306.08024 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shirley Weishi Li, [and 3 more]John F. Beacom, Luke F. Roberts, and Francesco Capozzi [hide authors].

The next Milky Way supernova will be an epochal event in multi-messenger astronomy, critical to tests of supernovae, neutrinos, and new physics. Realizing this potential depends on having realistic simulations of core collapse. We investigate the neutrino predictions of nearly all modern models (1-, 2-, and 3-d) over the first $\simeq$1 s, making the first detailed comparisons of these models to each other and to the SN 1987A neutrino data. Even with different methods and inputs, the models generally agree with each other. However, even considering the low neutrino counts, the models generally disagree with data. What can cause this? We show that neither neutrino oscillations nor different progenitor masses appear to be a sufficient solution. We outline urgently needed work.**Neutrino oscillation measurements with JUNO in the presence of scalar NSI**

2306.07343 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Aman Gupta, Debasish Majumdar, and Suprabh Prakash.

Determination of neutrino mass ordering and precision measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters are the foremost goals of the JUNO experiment. Here, we explore the capability of JUNO experiment to constrain the scalar non-standard interactions (sNSI). sNSI appears as a correction to the neutrino mass term in the Hamiltonian. Our results show that JUNO can put very stringent constraints on sNSI, particularly for the case of inverted mass ordering. We also check JUNO's capability to determine mass ordering in the presence of sNSI and conclude that the possibility to confuse normal (inverted) mass ordering in the standard scenario (when there is no sNSI) with inverted (normal) ordering in the presence of sNSI exists only at the $3\sigma$ confidence level and above. Finally, we also comment on the precision measurements of $\sin^2\theta_{12}$, $\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $\Delta m^2_{31}$ in the presence of sNSI. We find that the $1\sigma$-allowed uncertainty in each of these oscillation parameters depends on the choice of mass ordering, sNSI parameters, and lightest neutrino mass $\rm m_{lightest}$, wherein a deterioration from a few percent in the case of standard interactions to $\sim13\%$ in the case of sNSI is possible.**Beyond Tree Level with Solar Neutrinos: Towards Measuring the Flavor Composition and CP Violation**

2306.03160 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar and Xun-Jie Xu.

After being produced as electron neutrinos ($\nu_e$), solar neutrinos partially change their flavor to $\nu_{\mu}$ and $\nu_{\tau}$ en route to Earth. Although the flavor ratio of the $\nu_e$ flux to the total flux has been well measured, the $\nu_{\mu}:\nu_{\tau}$ composition has not yet been experimentally probed. In this work we show that the $\nu_{\mu}:\nu_{\tau}$ flavor ratio could be measured by utilizing flavor-dependent radiative corrections in the cross sections for $\nu_{\mu}$ and $\nu_{\tau}$ scattering. Moreover, since the transition probabilities of $\nu_e$ to $\nu_\mu$ and $\nu_\tau$ depend on the leptonic CP phase, we also demonstrate that the method proposed in this work will allow next-generation neutrino experiments to probe leptonic CP violation through the observation of solar neutrinos.**CP violation in light neutrino oscillations and heavy neutrino decays: a general and explicit seesaw-bridged correlation**

2306.02362 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Zhi-zhong Xing.

With the help of a block parametrization of the canonical seesaw flavor textures in terms of the Euler-like rotation angles and CP-violaing phases, we derive a general and explicit expression for the Jarlskog invariant of CP violation in neutrino oscillations and compare it with the CP-violating asymmetries of heavy Majorana neutrino decays within the minimal seesaw framework which contains two right-handed neutrino fields. Two simplified scenarios are discussed to illustrate how direct or indirect the correlation between these two types of CP violation can be.**Bounds on lepton non-unitarity and heavy neutrino mixing**

2306.01040 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mattias Blennow, [and 5 more]Enrique Fernández-Martínez, Josu Hernández-García, Jacobo López-Pavón, Xabier Marcano, and Daniel Naredo-Tuero [hide authors].

We present an updated and improved global fit analysis of current flavor and electroweak precision observables to derive bounds on unitarity deviations of the leptonic mixing matrix and on the mixing of heavy neutrinos with the active flavours. This new analysis is motivated by new and updated experimental results on key observables such as $V_{ud}$, the invisible decay width of the $Z$ boson and the $W$ boson mass. It also improves upon previous studies by considering the full correlations among the different observables and explicitly calibrating the test statistic, which may present significant deviations from a $\chi^2$ distribution. The results are provided for three different Type-I seesaw scenarios: the minimal scenario with only two additional right-handed neutrinos, the next to minimal one with three extra neutrinos, and the most general one with an arbitrary number of heavy neutrinos that we parametrize via a generic deviation from a unitary leptonic mixing matrix. Additionally, we also analyze the case of generic deviations from unitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix, not necessarily induced by the presence of additional neutrinos. This last case relaxes some correlations among the parameters and is able to provide a better fit to the data. Nevertheless, inducing only leptonic unitarity deviations avoiding both the correlations implied by the right-handed neutrino extension as well as more strongly constrained operators is challenging and would imply significantly more complex UV completions.**Solar neutrinos with CE$ν$NS and flavor-dependent radiative corrections**

2305.17827 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nityasa Mishra and Louis E. Strigari.

We examine solar neutrinos in dark matter detectors including the effects of flavor-dependent radiative corrections to the CE$\nu$NS cross section. Working within a full three-flavor framework, and including matter effects within the Sun and Earth, detectors with thresholds $\lesssim 1$ keV and exposures of $\sim 100$ ton-year could identify contributions to the cross section beyond tree level. The differences between the cross sections for the flavors, combined with the difference in fluxes, would provide a new and unique method to study the muon and tau components of the solar neutrino flux. Flavor-dependent corrections induce a small day-night asymmetry of $< |3 \times10^{-4}|$ in the event rate, which if ultimately accessible would provide a novel probe of flavor oscillations.**Sun is a cosmic ray TeVatron**

2305.17086 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Prabir Banik, Arunava Bhadra, and Sanjay K. Ghosh.

Very recently, HAWC observatory discovered the high-energy gamma ray emission from the solar disk during the quiescent stage of the sun, extending the Fermi-LAT detection of intense, hard emission between 0.1 - 200 GeV to TeV energies. The flux of these observed gamma-rays is significantly higher than that theoretically expected from hadronic interactions of galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere. More importantly, spectral slope of Fermi and HAWC observed gamma ray energy spectra differ significantly from that of galactic cosmic rays casting doubt on the prevailing galactic cosmic ray ancestry model of solar disk gamma rays. In this letter, we argue that the quiet sun can accelerate cosmic rays to TeV energies with an appropriate flux level in the solar chromosphere, as the solar chromosphere in its quiet state probably possesses the required characteristics to accelerate cosmic rays to TeV energies. Consequently, the mystery of the origin of observed gamma rays from the solar disc can be resolved consistently through the hadronic interaction of these cosmic rays with solar matter above the photosphere in a quiet state. The upcoming IceCube-Gen2 detector should be able to validate the proposed model in future through observation of TeV muon neutrino flux from the solar disk. The proposed idea should have major implications on the origin of galactic cosmic rays.**Dirac-Majorana neutrino type oscillation induced by a wave dark matter**

2305.16900 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by YeolLin ChoeJo, Yechan Kim, and Hye-Sung Lee.

Some properties of a neutrino may differ significantly depending on whether it is Dirac or Majorana type. The type is determined by the relative size of Dirac and Majorana masses, which may vary if they arise from an oscillating scalar dark matter. We show that the change can be significant enough to convert the neutrino type between Dirac and Majorana periodically while satisfying constraints on the dark matter. This neutrino type oscillation predicts periodic modulations in the event rates in various neutrino phenomena including the neutrinoless double beta decay. As the energy density and, thus, the oscillation amplitude of the dark matter evolves in the cosmic time scale, the neutrino masses change accordingly, which provides an interesting link between the present-time neutrino physics to the early universe cosmology including the leptogenesis.**CP and T violation effects in presence of an $\mbox{eV}$ scale sterile neutrino at long baseline neutrino experiments**

2305.16824 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sabila Parveen, [and 3 more]Kiran Sharma, Sudhanwa Patra, and Poonam Mehta [hide authors].

An important goal of current and future long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments pertains to determination of the Dirac-type leptonic $CP$ phase, $\delta_{13}$. We consider the new physics scenario of an eV scale sterile neutrino along with three active neutrinos and demonstrate the impact on the $CP$ and $T$ violation measurements in neutrino oscillations. We address the question of disentangling the intrinsic effects from extrinsic effects in the standard three neutrino paradigm as well as the scenario with added light sterile neutrino. We define a metric to isolate the two kinds of effects and our approach is general in the sense that it is independent of the choice of $\delta_{13}$. We study the role of different appearance and disappearance channels which can contribute to CP and T violation measurements. We perform the analysis for different long baseline experiments which have different detection capabilities such as Water Cherenkov (WC) and Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC).**Capability of the proposed long-baseline experiments to probe large extra dimension**

2305.16234 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Samiran Roy.

Future long-baseline experiments will play an important role in exploring physics beyond the standard model. One such new physics concept is the large extra dimension (LED), which provides an elegant solution to the hierarchy problem. This model also explains the small neutrino mass in a natural way. The presence of LED modifies the standard neutrino oscillation probabilities. Hence, the long-baseline experiments are sensitive to the LED parameters. We explore the potential of the three future long-baseline neutrino experiments, namely T2HK, ESSnuSB, and DUNE, to probe the LED parameter space. We also compare the capability of the charged and neutral current measurements at DUNE to constrain the LED model. We find that T2HK will provide more stringent bounds on the largest compactification radius ($R_{\rm{ED}}$) compared to the DUNE and ESSnuSB experiments. At $90\%$ C.L., T2HK can exclude $R_{\rm{ED}}\sim 0.45~(0.425)$ $\mu$m for the normal (inverted) mass hierarchy scenario.**Probing Non-Standard Neutrino Interactions with Interference: Insights from Dark Matter and Neutrino Experiments**

2305.10836 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jong-Chul Park and Gaurav Tomar.

Neutrino-electron scattering experiments play a crucial role in investigating the non-standard interactions of neutrinos. In certain models, these interactions can include interference terms that may affect measurements. Next-generation direct detection experiments, designed primarily for dark-matter searches, are also getting sensitive to probe the neutrino properties. We utilise the data from XENONnT, a direct detection experiment, and Borexino, a low-energy solar neutrino experiment, to investigate the impact of interference on non-standard interactions. Our study considers models with an additional $U(1)$, including $U(1)_{B-L}$, $U(1)_{L_e-L_\mu}$, and $U(1)_{L_e-L_\tau}$, to investigate the impact of interference on non-standard neutrino interactions. We demonstrate that this interference can lead to a transition between the considered non-standard interaction models in the energy range relevant to both the XENONnT and Borexino experiments. This transition can be used to distinguish among the considered models if any signals are observed at direct detection or neutrino experiments. Our findings underscore the importance of accounting for the interference and incorporating both direct detection and solar neutrino experiments to gain a better understanding of neutrino interactions and properties.**Updated T2K measurements of muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance using 3.6 $\times$ 10$^{21}$ protons on target**

2305.09916 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. A. Ramírez, [and 394 more]K. Abe, N. Akhlaq, R. Akutsu, A. Ali, S. Alonso Monsalve, C. Alt, C. Andreopoulos, M. Antonova, S. Aoki, T. Arihara, Y. Asada, Y. Ashida, E. T. Atkin, M. Barbi, G. J. Barker, G. Barr, D. Barrow, M. Batkiewicz-Kwasniak, F. Bench, V. Berardi, L. Berns, S. Bhadra, A. Blanchet, A. Blondel, S. Bolognesi, T. Bonus, S. Bordoni, S. B. Boyd, A. Bravar, C. Bronner, S. Bron, A. Bubak, M. Buizza Avanzini, J. A. Caballero Carretero, N. F. Calabria, S. Cao, D. Carabadjac, A. J. Carter, S. L. Cartwright, M. G. Catanesi, A. Cervera, J. Chakrani, D. Cherdack, P. S. Chong, G. Christodoulou, A. Chvirova, M. Cicerchia, J. Coleman, G. Collazuol, L. Cook, A. Cudd, C. Dalmazzone, T. Daret, Yu. I. Davydov, A. De Roeck, G. De Rosa, T. Dealtry, C. C. Delogu, C. Densham, A. Dergacheva, F. Di Lodovico, S. Dolan, D. Douqa, T. A. Doyle, O. Drapier, J. Dumarchez, P. Dunne, K. Dygnarowicz, A. Eguchi, S. Emery-Schrenk, G. Erofeev, A. Ershova, G. Eurin, D. Fedorova, S. Fedotov, M. Feltre, A. J. Finch, G. A. Fiorentini Aguirre, G. Fiorillo, M. D. Fitton, J. M. Franco Patiño, M. Friend, Y. Fujii, Y. Fukuda, K. Fusshoeller, L. Giannessi, C. Giganti, V. Glagolev, M. Gonin, J. González Rosa, E. A. G. Goodman, A. Gorin, M. Grassi, M. Guigue, D. R. Hadley, J. T. Haigh, P. Hamacher-Baumann, D. A. Harris, M. Hartz, T. Hasegawa, S. Hassani, N. C. Hastings, Y. Hayato, D. Henaff, A. Hiramoto, M. Hogan, J. Holeczek, A. Holin, T. Holvey, N. T. Hong Van, T. Honjo, F. Iacob, A. K. Ichikawa, M. Ikeda, T. Ishida, M. Ishitsuka, H. T. Israel, K. Iwamoto, A. Izmaylov, N. Izumi, M. Jakkapu, B. Jamieson, S. J. Jenkins, C. Jesús-Valls, J. J. Jiang, P. Jonsson, S. Joshi, C. K. Jung, P. B. Jurj, M. Kabirnezhad, A. C. Kaboth, T. Kajita, H. Kakuno, J. Kameda, S. P. Kasetti, Y. Kataoka, Y. Katayama, T. Katori, M. Kawaue, E. Kearns, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, T. Kikawa, H. Kikutani, S. King, V. Kiseeva, J. Kisiel, T. Kobata, T. Kobayashi, L. Koch, S. Kodama, A. Konaka, L. L. Kormos, Y. Koshio, A. Kostin, T. Koto, K. Kowalik, Y. Kudenko, Y. Kudo, S. Kuribayashi, R. Kurjata, T. Kutter, M. Kuze, M. La Commara, L. Labarga, K. Lachner, J. Lagoda, S. M. Lakshmi, M. Lamers James, M. Lamoureux, A. Langella, J. -F. Laporte, D. Last, N. Latham, M. Laveder, L. Lavitola, M. Lawe, Y. Lee, C. Lin, S. -K. Lin, R. P. Litchfield, S. L. Liu, W. Li, A. Longhin, K. R. Long, A. Lopez Moreno, L. Ludovici, X. Lu, T. Lux, L. N. Machado, L. Magaletti, K. Mahn, M. Malek, M. Mandal, S. Manly, A. D. Marino, L. Marti-Magro, D. G. R. Martin, M. Martini, J. F. Martin, T. Maruyama, T. Matsubara, V. Matveev, C. Mauger, K. Mavrokoridis, E. Mazzucato, N. McCauley, J. McElwee, K. S. McFarland, C. McGrew, J. McKean, A. Mefodiev, G. D. Megias, P. Mehta, L. Mellet, C. Metelko, M. Mezzetto, E. Miller, A. Minamino, O. Mineev, S. Mine, M. Miura, L. Molina Bueno, S. Moriyama, S. Moriyama, P. Morrison, Th. A. Mueller, D. Munford, L. Munteanu, K. Nagai, Y. Nagai, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakagiri, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakajima, A. Nakamura, H. Nakamura, K. Nakamura, K. D. Nakamura, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, T. Nakaya, K. Nakayoshi, C. E. R. Naseby, T. V. Ngoc, V. Q. Nguyen, K. Niewczas, S. Nishimori, Y. Nishimura, K. Nishizaki, T. Nosek, F. Nova, P. Novella, J. C. Nugent, H. M. O'Keeffe, L. O'Sullivan, T. Odagawa, T. Ogawa, R. Okada, K. Okumura, T. Okusawa, N. Ospina, R. A. Owen, Y. Oyama, V. Palladino, V. Paolone, M. Pari, J. Parlone, S. Parsa, J. Pasternak, M. Pavin, D. Payne, G. C. Penn, D. Pershey, L. Pickering, C. Pidcott, G. Pintaudi, C. Pistillo, B. Popov, K. Porwit, M. Posiadala-Zezula, Y. S. Prabhu, F. Pupilli, B. Quilain, T. Radermacher, E. Radicioni, B. Radics, P. N. Ratoff, M. Reh, C. Riccio, E. Rondio, S. Roth, A. Rubbia, A. C. Ruggeri, C. A. Ruggles, A. Rychter, K. Sakashita, F. Sánchez, G. Santucci, C. M. Schloesser, K. Scholberg, M. Scott, Y. Seiya, T. Sekiguchi, H. Sekiya, D. Sgalaberna, A. Shaikhiev, F. Shaker, M. Shiozawa, W. Shorrock, A. Shvartsman, N. Skrobova, K. Skwarczynski, D. Smyczek, M. Smy, J. T. Sobczyk, H. Sobel, F. J. P. Soler, Y. Sonoda, A. J. Speers, R. Spina, I. A. Suslov, S. Suvorov, A. Suzuki, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, A. A. Sztuc, M. Tada, S. Tairafune, S. Takayasu, A. Takeda, Y. Takeuchi, K. Takifuji, H. K. Tanaka, Y. Tanihara, M. Tani, A. Teklu, V. V. Tereshchenko, N. Teshima, N. Thamm, L. F. Thompson, W. Toki, C. Touramanis, T. Towstego, K. M. Tsui, T. Tsukamoto, M. Tzanov, Y. Uchida, M. Vagins, D. Vargas, G. Vasseur, C. Vilela, E. Villa, W. G. S. Vinning, U. Virginet, T. Vladisavljevic, T. Wachala, J. G. Walsh, Y. Wang, L. Wan, D. Wark, M. O. Wascko, A. Weber, R. Wendell, M. J. Wilking, C. Wilkinson, J. R. Wilson, K. Wood, C. Wret, J. Xia, Y. -h. Xu, K. Yamamoto, T. Yamamoto, C. Yanagisawa, G. Yang, T. Yano, K. Yasutome, N. Yershov, U. Yevarouskaya, M. Yokoyama, Y. Yoshimoto, N. Yoshimura, M. Yu, R. Zaki, A. Zalewska, J. Zalipska, K. Zaremba, G. Zarnecki, X. Zhao, T. Zhu, M. Ziembicki, E. D. Zimmerman, M. Zito, and S. Zsoldos [hide authors].

Muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance probabilities are identical in the standard three-flavor neutrino oscillation framework, but CPT violation and non-standard interactions can violate this symmetry. In this work we report the measurements of $\sin^{2} \theta_{23}$ and $\Delta m_{32}^2$ independently for neutrinos and antineutrinos. The aforementioned symmetry violation would manifest as an inconsistency in the neutrino and antineutrino oscillation parameters. The analysis discussed here uses a total of 1.97$\times$10$^{21}$ and 1.63$\times$10$^{21}$ protons on target taken with a neutrino and antineutrino beam respectively, and benefits from improved flux and cross-section models, new near detector samples and more than double the data reducing the overall uncertainty of the result. No significant deviation is observed, consistent with the standard neutrino oscillation picture.**Exploring Models with Modular Symmetry in Neutrino Oscillation Experiments**

2305.08576 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Priya Mishra, [and 4 more]Mitesh Kumar Behera, Papia Panda, Monojit Ghosh, and Rukmani Mohanta [hide authors].

Our study aims to investigate the viability of neutrino mass models that arise from discrete non-Abelian modular symmetry groups, i.e., $\Gamma_N$ with ($N=1,2,3,\dots$) in the future neutrino experiments T2HK, DUNE, and JUNO. Modular symmetry reduces the usage of flavon fields compared to the conventional discrete flavor symmetry models. Theories based on modular symmetries predict the values of leptonic mixing parameters, and therefore, these models can be tested in future neutrino experiments. In this study, we consider three models based on the $A_4$ modular symmetry, i.e., Model-A, B, and C such a way that they predict different values of the oscillation parameters but still allowed with respect to the current data. In the future, it is expected that T2HK, DUNE, and JUNO will measure the neutrino oscillation parameters very precisely, and therefore, some of these models can be excluded in the future by these experiments. We have estimated the prediction of these models numerically and then used them as input to scrutinize these models in the neutrino experiments. Assuming the future best-fit values of $\theta_{23}$ and $\delta_{\rm CP}$ remain the same as the current one, our results show that at $5 \sigma$ C.L, Model-A can be excluded by T2HK whereas Model-B can be excluded by both T2HK and DUNE. Model-C cannot be excluded by T2HK and DUNE at $5 \sigma$ C.L. Further; our results show that JUNO alone can exclude Model-B at an extremely high confidence level if the future best-fit of $\theta_{12}$ remains at the current-one. We have also identified the region in the $\theta_{23}$ - $\delta_{\rm CP}$ parameter space, for which Model-A cannot be separated from Model-B in T2HK and DUNE.**Exploring Ultralight Scalar Assistance in Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter: Cold Spectrum and Unusual X/Gamma-ray Signatures**

2305.08095 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yuxuan He, [and 3 more]Jia Liu, Xiaolin Ma, and Xiao-Ping Wang [hide authors].

We present a scalar-driven sterile neutrino production model where the interaction with the ultralight scalar field modifies the oscillation production of sterile neutrinos in the early universe. The model effectively suppresses the production of sterile neutrinos at low temperatures due to the heavy scalar mass, resulting in a colder matter power spectrum that avoids constraints from small-scale structure observations. In this model, the dominant dark matter relic is from sterile neutrinos, with only a small fraction originating from the ultralight scalar. Furthermore, the model predicts a detectable X/Gamma-ray flux proportional to the cubic density of local sterile neutrinos for a light scalar mass due to the light scalar coupling tosterile neutrinos. This distinguishes our model from normal decaying dark matter, which has a linear dependence on the density. In addition, the model predicts a potential low-energy monochromatic neutrino signal that can be detectable by future neutrino telescopes.**Global constraints on non-standard neutrino interactions with quarks and electrons**

2305.07698 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Coloma, [and 4 more]M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, Michele Maltoni, João Paulo Pinheiro, and Salvador Urrea [hide authors].

We derive new constraints on effective four-fermion neutrino non-standard interactions with both quarks and electrons. This is done through the global analysis of neutrino oscillation data and measurements of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) obtained with different nuclei. In doing so, we include not only the effects of new physics on neutrino propagation but also on the detection cross section in neutrino experiments which are sensitive to the new physics. We consider both vector and axial-vector neutral-current neutrino interactions and, for each case, we include simultaneously all allowed effective operators in flavour space. To this end, we use the most general parametrization for their Wilson coefficients under the assumption that their neutrino flavour structure is independent of the charged fermion participating in the interaction. The status of the LMA-D solution is assessed for the first time in the case of new interactions taking place simultaneously with up quarks, down quarks, and electrons. One of the main results of our work are the presently allowed regions for the effective combinations of non-standard neutrino couplings, relevant for long-baseline and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments.**Identifying Extended PeVatron Sources via Neutrino Shower Detection**

2305.07043 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Takahiro Sudoh and John F. Beacom.

Identifying the Milky Way's very high energy hadronic cosmic-ray accelerators -- the PeVatrons -- is a critical problem. While gamma-ray observations reveal promising candidate sources, neutrino detection is needed for certainty, and this has not yet been successful. Why not? There are several possibilities, as we delineated in a recent paper [T. Sudoh and J. F. Beacom, Phys. Rev. D 107, 043002 (2023)]. Here we further explore the possibility that the challenges arise because PeVatrons have a large angular extent, either due to cosmic-ray propagation effects or due to clusters of sources. We show that while extended neutrino sources could be missed in the commonly used muon-track channel, they could be discovered in the all-flavor shower channel, which has a lower atmospheric-neutrino background flux per solid angle. Intrinsically, showers are quite directional and would appear so in water-based detectors like the future KM3NeT, even though they are presently badly smeared by light scattering in ice-based detectors like IceCube. Our results motivate new shower-based searches as part of the comprehensive approach to identifying the Milky Way's hadronic PeVatrons.**Probing the Local Dark Matter Halo with Neutrino Oscillations**

2305.06441 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tony Gherghetta and Andrey Shkerin.

Dark matter particles can form halos gravitationally bound to massive astrophysical objects. The Earth could have such a halo where depending on the particle mass, the halo either extends beyond the surface or is confined to the Earth's interior. We consider the possibility that if dark matter particles are coupled to neutrinos, then neutrino oscillations can be used to probe the Earth's dark matter halo. In particular, atmospheric neutrinos traversing the Earth can be sensitive to a small size, interior halo, inaccessible by other means. Depending on the halo mass and neutrino energy, constraints on the dark matter-neutrino couplings are obtained from the halo corrections to the neutrino oscillations.**Neutrino CPT violation in the solar sector**

2305.06384 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gabriela Barenboim, [and 3 more]Pablo Martínez-Miravé, Christoph A. Ternes, and Mariam Tórtola [hide authors].

In this paper we place new bounds on CPT violation in the solar neutrino sector analyzing the results from solar experiments and KamLAND. We also discuss the sensitivity of the next-generation experiments DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, which will provide accurate measurements of the solar neutrino oscillation parameters. The joint analysis of both experiments will further improve the precision due to cancellations in the systematic uncertainties regarding the solar neutrino flux. In combination with the next-generation reactor experiment JUNO, the bound on CPT violation in the solar sector could be improved by one order of magnitude in comparison with current constraints. The distinguishability among CPT-violating neutrino oscillations and neutrino non-standard interactions in the solar sector is also addressed.**Flavor-dependent long-range neutrino interactions in DUNE & T2HK: alone they constrain, together they discover**

2305.05184 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Masoom Singh, Mauricio Bustamante, and Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla.

Discovering new neutrino interactions would represent evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. We focus on new flavor-dependent long-range neutrino interactions mediated by ultra-light mediators, with masses below $10^{-10}$ eV, introduced by new lepton-number gauge symmetries $L_e-L_\mu$, $L_e-L_\tau$, and $L_\mu-L_\tau$. Because the interaction range is ultra-long, nearby and distant matter - primarily electrons and neutrons - in the Earth, Moon, Sun, Milky Way, and the local Universe, may source a large matter potential that modifies neutrino oscillation probabilities. The upcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) and the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande (T2HK) long-baseline neutrino experiments will provide an opportunity to search for these interactions, thanks to their high event rates and well-characterized neutrino beams. We forecast their probing power. Our results reveal novel perspectives. Alone, DUNE and T2HK may strongly constrain long-range interactions, setting new limits on their coupling strength for mediators lighter than $10^{-18}$ eV. However, if the new interactions are subdominant, then both DUNE and T2HK, together, will be needed to discover them, since their combination lifts parameter degeneracies that weaken their individual sensitivity. DUNE and T2HK, especially when combined, provide a valuable opportunity to explore physics beyond the Standard Model.**Constraints on dark matter-neutrino scattering from the Milky-Way satellites and subhalo modeling for dark acoustic oscillations**

2305.01913 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kensuke Akita and Shin'ichiro Ando.

The elastic scattering between dark matter (DM) and radiation can potentially explain small-scale observations that the cold dark matter faces as a challenge, as damping density fluctuations via dark acoustic oscillations in the early universe erases small-scale structure. We study a semi-analytical subhalo model for interacting dark matter with radiation, based on the extended Press-Schechter formalism and subhalos' tidal evolution prescription. We also test the elastic scattering between DM and neutrinos using observations of Milky-Way satellites from the Dark Energy Survey and PanSTARRS1. We conservatively impose strong constraints on the DM-neutrino scattering cross section of $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,n}\propto E_\nu^n$ $(n=0,2,4)$ at $95\%$ confidence level (CL), $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,0}< 10^{-32}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})$, $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,2}< 10^{-43}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})(E_\nu/E_{\nu}^0)^2$ and $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,4}< 10^{-54}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})(E_\nu/E_{\nu}^0)^4$, where $E_\nu^0$ is the average momentum of relic cosmic neutrinos today, $E_\nu^0 \simeq 3.15 T_\nu^0 \simeq 6.1\ {\rm K}$. By imposing a satellite forming condition, we obtain the strongest upper bounds on the DM-neutrino cross section at $95\%$ CL, $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,0}< 4\times 10^{-34}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})$, $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,2}< 10^{-46}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})(E_\nu/E_{\nu}^0)^2$ and $\sigma_{{\rm DM}\text{-}\nu,4}< 7\times 10^{-59}\ {\rm cm^2}\ (m_{\rm DM}/{\rm GeV})(E_\nu/E_{\nu}^0)^4$.**Precision CMB constraints on eV-scale bosons coupled to neutrinos**

2305.01692 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stefan Sandner, Miguel Escudero, and Samuel J. Witte.

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) has proven to be an invaluable tool for studying the properties and interactions of neutrinos, providing insight not only into the sum of neutrino masses but also the free streaming nature of neutrinos prior to recombination. The CMB is a particularly powerful probe of new eV-scale bosons interacting with neutrinos, as these particles can thermalize with neutrinos via the inverse decay process, $\nu\bar{\nu} \rightarrow X$, and suppress neutrino free streaming near recombination -- even for couplings as small as $\lambda_\nu \sim \mathcal{O}(10^{-13})$. Here, we revisit CMB constraints on such bosons, improving upon a number of approximations previously adopted in the literature and generalizing the constraints to a broader class of models. This includes scenarios in which the boson is either spin-$0$ or spin-$1$, the number of interacting neutrinos is either $N_{\rm int} = 1,2 $ or $3$, and the case in which a primordial abundance of the species is present. We apply these bounds to well-motivated models, such as the singlet majoron model or a light $U(1)_{L_\mu-L_\tau}$ gauge boson, and find that they represent the leading constraints for masses $m_X\sim 1\, {\rm eV}$. Finally, we revisit the extent to which neutrino-philic bosons can ameliorate the Hubble tension, and find that recent improvements in the understanding of how such bosons damp neutrino free streaming reduces the previously found success of this proposal.**Extended Analysis of Neutrino-Dark Matter Interactions with Small-Scale CMB Experiments**

2305.01383 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Philippe Brax, [and 4 more]Carsten van de Bruck, Eleonora Di Valentino, William Giarè, and Sebastian Trojanowski [hide authors].

We explore an extension of the standard $\Lambda$CDM model by including an interaction between neutrinos and dark matter, and making use of the ground based telescope data of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). An indication for a non-zero coupling between dark matter and neutrinos (both assuming a temperature independent and $T^2$ dependent cross-section) is obtained at the 1$\sigma$ level coming from the ACT CMB data alone and when combined with the Planck CMB and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) measurements. This result is confirmed by both fixing the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom in the early Universe to the Standard Model value of $N_{\rm eff}=3.044$, and allowing $N_{\rm eff}$ to be a free cosmological parameter. Furthermore, when performing a Bayesian model comparison, the interacting $\nu$DM (+$N_{\rm eff}$) scenario is mostly preferred over a baseline $\Lambda$CDM (+$N_{\rm eff}$) cosmology. The preferred value is then used as a benchmark and the potential implications of dark matter's interaction with a sterile neutrino are discussed.**Measurement of Atmospheric Neutrino Mixing with Improved IceCube DeepCore Calibration and Data Processing**

2304.12236 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 407 more]R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, S. K. Agarwalla, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, C. Benning, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, D. Butterfield, M. A. Campana, K. Carloni, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, S. Chattopadhyay, N. Chau, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, S. Countryman, D. F. Cowen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado, H. Dembinski, S. Deng, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, A. Domi, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, S. El Mentawi, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, K. Fang, K. Farrag, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, O. Gries, S. Griffin, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, L. Heuermann, N. Heyer, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, S. Hori, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, A. Ishihara, M. Jacquart, O. Janik, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Khatee Zathul, A. Kheirandish, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, J. Krishnamoorthi, K. Kruiswijk, E. Krupczak, A. Kumar, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. Lamoureux, M. J. Larson, S. Latseva, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard DeHolton, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, E. Manao, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, F. Mayhew, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, Y. Merckx, L. Merten, J. Micallef, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, Y. Morii, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, M. Nakos, U. Naumann, J. Necker, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, V. O'Dell, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, A. Pontén, Y. Popovych, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, J. Rack-Helleis, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, A. Rifaie, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, P. Savina, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, L. Schlickmann, B. Schlüter, F. Schlüter, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, M. Seikh, S. Seunarine, R. Shah, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, P. Soldin, G. Sommani, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, M. Thiesmeyer, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, C. F. Tung, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, A. K. Upadhyay, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, M. Venugopal, M. Vereecken, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, A. Wolf, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, R. Young, F. Yu, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

We describe a new data sample of IceCube DeepCore and report on the latest measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations obtained with data recorded between 2011-2019. The sample includes significant improvements in data calibration, detector simulation, and data processing, and the analysis benefits from a detailed treatment of systematic uncertainties, with significantly higher level of detail since our last study. By measuring the relative fluxes of neutrino flavors as a function of their reconstructed energies and arrival directions we constrain the atmospheric neutrino mixing parameters to be $\sin^2\theta_{23} = 0.51\pm 0.05$ and $\Delta m^2_{32} = 2.41\pm0.07\times 10^{-3}\mathrm{eV}^2$, assuming a normal mass ordering. The resulting 40\% reduction in the error of both parameters with respect to our previous result makes this the most precise measurement of oscillation parameters using atmospheric neutrinos. Our results are also compatible and complementary to those obtained using neutrino beams from accelerators, which are obtained at lower neutrino energies and are subject to different sources of uncertainties.**Neutrino Constraints and the ATOMKI X17 Anomaly**

2304.09877 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Julia Gehrlein.

Recent data from the ATOMKI group continues to confirm their claim of the existence of a new $\sim17$ MeV particle. We review and numerically analyze the data and then put into context constraints from other experiments, notably neutrino scattering experiments such as the latest reactor anti-neutrino coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering data and unitarity constraints from solar neutrino observations. We show that minimal scenarios are disfavored and discuss the model requirements to evade these constraints.**Astrophysical neutrino point sources as a probe of new physics**

2304.08533 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Döring and S. Vogl.

Recently, the IceCube collaboration observed a neutrino excess in the direction of NGC 1068 with high statistical significance. This constitutes the second detection of an astrophysical neutrino point source after the discovery of a variable emission originating from the blazar TXS~0506+056. Neutrinos emitted by these sources traverse huge, well-determined distances on their way to Earth. This makes them a promising tool to test new physics in the neutrino sector. We consider secret interactions with the cosmic neutrino background and discuss their impact on the flux of neutrino point sources. The observation of emission from NGC 1068 and TXS 0506+056 can then be used to put limits on the strength of the interaction. We find that our ignorance of the absolute neutrino masses has a strong impact and, therefore, we present limits in two benchmark scenarios with the sum of the neutrino masses around their lower and upper limits.**Future leptonic CP phase determination in the presence of NSI**

2304.05545 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Luis A. Delgadillo and O. G. Miranda.

The precise determination of the leptonic CP phase is one of the major goals for future generation Long Baseline experiments. On the other hand, if new physics beyond the Standard Model exists, a robust determination of such a CP phase may be a challenge. Moreover, it has been pointed out that, in this scenario, an apparent discrepancy in the CP phase measurement at different experiments may arise. In this work, we investigate the robustness of the determination of the Dirac CP-phase at several long-baseline configurations: ESSnuSB, T2HKK, and a DUNE-like experiment. We use the non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) formalism as a framework. We found that complementary between ESSnuSB and a DUNE-like experiment enhances the robustness in the determination of the CP-phase, even in the presence of matter NSI. Moreover, the T2HKK proposal can help to constrain the matter NSI parameters.**JUNO as a Probe of the Pseudo-Dirac Nature using Solar Neutrinos**

2304.05418 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jack Franklin, Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez, and Jessica Turner.

It remains a possibility that neutrinos are pseudo-Dirac states, such that a generation is composed of two maximally mixed Majorana neutrinos separated by a very small mass difference. We explore the physics potential of the JUNO experiment in constraining this possibility using the measurement of solar neutrinos. In particular, we investigate cases where one or three sterile states are present in addition to the active states. We consider two scenarios: one where JUNO's energy threshold allows for the measurement of $pp$ solar neutrinos, and the case where JUNO can only measure $^7$Be neutrinos and above. We find that JUNO will be able to constrain pseudo-Dirac mass splittings of $\delta m^2 \gtrsim 2.9\times 10^{-13}~{\rm eV^2}$ for the scenario including $pp$ solar neutrinos, and $\delta m^2 \gtrsim 1.9\times 10^{-12}~{\rm eV^2}$ when the measurement only considers $^7$Be monochromatic neutrinos, at the $3\sigma$ C.L. Thus, including $pp$ neutrinos will be crucial for JUNO to improve current constraints on the pseudo-Dirac scenario from solar neutrinos.**Right-Handed Neutrino Dark Matter with Forbidden Annihilation**

2304.02997 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yu Cheng, [and 3 more]Shao-Feng Ge, Jie Sheng, and Tsutomu T. Yanagida [hide authors].

The seesaw mechanism with three right-handed neutrinos has one as a well-motivated dark matter candidate if stable and the other two can explain baryon asymmetry via the thermal leptogenesis scenario. We explore the possibility of introducing additional particles to make the right-handed neutrino dark matter in thermal equilibrium and freeze out through a forbidden annihilation channel. Nowadays in the Universe, this forbidden channel can be reactivated by a strong gravitational potential such as the supermassive black hole in our galaxy center. The Fermi-LAT gamma ray data and dark matter relic density require this right-handed neutrino dark matter to have mass below $100\,$GeV and the existence of an additional boson $\phi$ that can be tested at future lepton colliders.**Testing generalized neutrino interactions with PTOLEMY**

2304.02505 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Indra Kumar Banerjee, [and 3 more]Ujjal Kumar Dey, Newton Nath, and Saadat Salman Shariff [hide authors].

There are several unanswered questions regarding neutrinos which pave the way for physics beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Generalized interactions of neutrinos provide a way to characterize these effects in a manner which is even more general than the oft-studied non-standard neutrino interactions. These interactions are described by higher dimensional operators maintaining the SM gauge symmetries. On the other hand cosmic neutrino background, although yet to be detected directly, is a robust prediction of the SM and the standard cosmology. We perform a global analysis of the relevant generalized neutrino interactions which are expressly relevant for the proposed cosmic neutrino detector PTOLEMY. The electron spectrum due to the capture of cosmic neutrinos on radioactive tritium gets modified due to the presence of these generalized interactions. We also show how the differential electron spectrum is sensitive to the finite experimental resolution, mass of the lightest neutrino eigenstate, the strength of these interactions and the ordering of neutrino mass.**Anomalous Tau Neutrino Appearance from Light Mediators in Short-Baseline Neutrino Experiments**

2304.02031 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. S. Bhupal Dev, [and 3 more]Bhaskar Dutta, Tao Han, and Doojin Kim [hide authors].

We point out a new mechanism giving rise to anomalous tau neutrino appearance at the near detectors of beam-focused neutrino experiments, without extending the neutrino sector. The charged mesons ($\pi^\pm, K^\pm$) produced and focused in the target-horn system can decay to a (neutrino-philic) light mediator via the helicity-unsuppressed three-body decays. If such a mediator carries non-vanishing hadronic couplings, it can also be produced via the bremsstrahlung of the incident proton beam. The subsequent decay of the mediator to a tau neutrino pair results in tau neutrino detection at the near detectors, which is unexpected under the standard three-flavor neutrino oscillation paradigm. We argue that the signal flux from the charged meson decays can be significant enough to discover the light mediator signal at the on-axis liquid-argon near detector of the DUNE experiment, due to the focusing of charged mesons. In addition, we show that ICARUS-NuMI, an off-axis near detector of the NuMI beam, as well as DUNE, can observe a handful of tau neutrino events induced by beam-proton bremsstrahlung.**Implications of NSI constraints from ANTARES and IceCube on a simplified $Z^\prime$ model**

2304.01388 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. M. Cabarcas, A. Parada, and Nestor Quintero.

Recently the neutrino experiments ANTARES and IceCube have released new constraints to the non-standard neutrino interaction (NSI) parameter $\epsilon^d_{\mu\tau}$ (flavor off-diagonal). These new constraints are stronger than those obtained from a combination of COHERENT and neutrino oscillation data. In the light of the recent constraints from ANTARES and IceCube data on the NSI parameter $\epsilon^d_{\mu\tau}$, in this work, we study the new physics implications on the parameter space of a simplified $Z^\prime$ model with lepton flavor violating ($\mu\tau$) couplings. For a $Z^\prime$ boson with a mass heavier than the $\tau$ lepton, our results show that ANTARES and IceCube put strong constraints to such a new physics scenario with $\mu\tau$ couplings. In addition, these neutrino experiments can exclude a similar region than ATLAS experiment, showing the potential to provide complementary information to the one obtained from direct searches at the Large Hadron Collider. The impact of the expected sensitivity reach on $\epsilon^d_{\mu\tau}$ at DUNE experiment is also studied.**IceCat-1: the IceCube Event Catalog of Alert Tracks**

2304.01174 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 393 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, S. K. Agarwalla, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, D. Butterfield, M. A. Campana, K. Carloni, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, S. Chattopadhyay, N. Chau, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, S. Countryman, D. F. Cowen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado, H. Dembinski, S. Deng, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, A. Domi, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, K. Fang, K. Farrag, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, S. Griffin, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, L. Heuermann, N. Heyer, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, A. Ishihara, M. Jacquart, O. Janik, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, K. Jayakumar, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Khatee Zathul, A. Kheirandish, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, K. Kruiswijk, E. Krupczak, A. Kumar, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. Lamoureux, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard DeHolton, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, E. Manao, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, F. Mayhew, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, Y. Merckx, L. Merten, J. Micallef, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, Y. Morii, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, M. Nakos, U. Naumann, J. Necker, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, V. O'Dell, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, A. Pontén, Y. Popovych, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, J. Rack-Helleis, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, P. Savina, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, B. Schlüter, F. Schlüter, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, R. Shah, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, G. Sommani, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, M. Thiesmeyer, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, C. F. Tung, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, A. K. Upadhyay, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, M. Venugopal, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, A. Wolf, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, F. Yu, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

We present a catalog of likely astrophysical neutrino track-like events from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. IceCube began reporting likely astrophysical neutrinos in 2016 and this system was updated in 2019. The catalog presented here includes events that were reported in real-time since 2019, as well as events identified in archival data samples starting from 2011. We report 275 neutrino events from two selection channels as the first entries in the catalog, the IceCube Event Catalog of Alert Tracks, which will see ongoing extensions with additional alerts. The gold and bronze alert channels respectively provide neutrino candidates with 50\% and 30\% probability of being astrophysical, on average assuming an astrophysical neutrino power law energy spectral index of 2.19. For each neutrino alert, we provide the reconstructed energy, direction, false alarm rate, probability of being astrophysical in origin, and likelihood contours describing the spatial uncertainty in the alert's reconstructed location. We also investigate a directional correlation of these neutrino events with gamma-ray and X-ray catalogs including 4FGL, 3HWC, TeVCat and Swift-BAT.**Hermitian Matrix Diagonalization and its Symmetry Properties**

2303.17087 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. H. Chiu and T. K. Kuo.

A hermitian matrix can be parametrized by a set consisting of its determinant and the eigenvalues of its submatrices. We established a group of equations which connect these variables with the mixing parameters of diagonalization. These equations are simple in structure and manifestly invariant in form under the symmetry operations of dilatation, translation, rephasing and permutation. When applied to the problem of neutrino oscillation in matter they produced two new ``matter invariants" which are confirmed by available data.**Remote Reactor Ranging via Antineutrino Oscillations**

2303.16661 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Steve T. Wilson, [and 6 more]Chris Cotsford, James Armitage, Tara Appleyard, Niamh Holland, Matthew Malek, and John. G. Learned [hide authors].

Antineutrinos from nuclear reactors can be used for monitoring in the mid- to far-field as part of a non-proliferation toolkit. Antineutrinos are an unshieldable signal and carry information about the reactor core and the distance they travel. Using gadolinium-doped water Cherenkov detectors for this purpose has been previously proposed alongside rate-only analyses. As antineutrinos carry information about their distance of travel in their energy spectrum, the analyses can be extended to a spectral analysis to gain more knowledge about the detected core. Two complementary analyses are used to evaluate the distance between a proposed gadolinium-doped water-based liquid scintillator detector and a detected nuclear reactor. Example cases are shown for a detector in Boulby Mine, near the Boulby Underground Laboratory in the UK, and six reactor sites in the UK and France. The analyses both show strong potential to range reactors, but are limited by the detector design.**Update on the indication of a mass-dependent anisotropy above $10^{18.7}\,$eV in the hybrid data of the Pierre Auger Observatory**

2303.16336 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eric Mayotte and Thomas Fitoussi.

We test for an anisotropy in the mass of arriving cosmic-ray primaries associated with the galactic plane. The sensitivity to primary mass is obtained through the depth of shower maximum, $X_{\rm max}$, extracted from hybrid events measured over a 14-year period at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The sky is split into distinct on- and off-plane regions using the galactic latitude of each arriving cosmic ray to form two distributions of $X_{\rm max}$, which are compared using an Anderson-Darling 2-samples test. A scan over roughly half of the data is used to select a lower threshold energy of $10^{18.7}\,$eV and a galactic latitude splitting at $|b| = 30^\circ$, which are set as a prescription for the remaining data. With these thresholds, the distribution of $X_{\rm max}$ from the on-plane region is found to have a $9.1 \pm 1.6^{+2.1}_{-2.2}\,$g$\,$cm$^-2$ shallower mean and a $5.9\pm2.1^{+3.5}_{-2.5}\,$g$\,$cm$^-2$ narrower width than that of the off-plane region and is observed in all telescope sites independently. These differences indicate that the mean mass of primary particles arriving from the on-plane region is greater than that of those from the off-plane region. Monte Carlo studies yield a $5.9\times10^{-6}$ random chance probability for the result in the independent data, lowering to a $6.0\times10^{-7}$ post-penalization random chance probability when the scanned data is included. Accounting for systematic uncertainties leads to an indication for anisotropy in mass composition above $10^{18.7}\,$eV with a $3.3\,\sigma$ significance. Furthermore, the result has been newly tested using additional FD data recovered from the selection process. This test independently disfavors the on- and off-plane regions being uniform in composition at the $2.2\,\sigma$ level, which is in good agreement with the expected sensitivity of the dataset used for this test.**Relic Neutrino Helicity Evolution in Galactic Magnetic Field and Its Implications**

2303.15562 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kuo K. Liao and Glennys R. Farrar.

We simulate the evolution of the helicity of relic neutrinos as they propagate to Earth through a realistic model of the Galactic magnetic field, improving upon the rough estimates in the pioneering work of Baym and Peng. We find that with magnetic moments consistent with experimental bounds and even several orders of magnitude smaller, the helicity of relic neutrinos rotates with a substantial directional anisotropy. Averaged over directions this would simply reduce the apparent flux; if the direction of the incident neutrino could be measured, the directional anisotropy in the interaction probability could become a powerful diagnostic. We study the effects of $\nu$ spin rotation on C$\nu$B detection through the inverse tritium decay process.**PEANUTS: a software for the automatic computation of solar neutrino flux and its propagation within Earth**

2303.15527 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tomás E. Gonzalo and Michele Lucente.

We present PEANUTS (Propagation and Evolution of Active NeUTrinoS), an open-source Python package for the automatic computation of solar neutrino spectra and active neutrino propagation through Earth. PEANUTS is designed to be fast, by employing analytic formulae for the neutrino propagation through varying matter density, and flexible, by allowing the user to input arbitrary solar models, custom Earth density profiles and general detector locations. It provides functionalities for a fully automated simulation of solar neutrino fluxes at a detector, as well as access to individual routines to perform more specialised computations. The software has been extensively tested against the results of the SNO experiment, providing excellent agreement with their results. In addition, the present text contains a pedagogical derivation of the relations needed to compute the oscillated solar neutrino spectra, neutrino propagation through Earth and nadir exposure of an experiment.**Decoherence effects in reactor and Gallium neutrino oscillation experiments -- a QFT approach**

2303.15524 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Raphael Krueger and Thomas Schwetz.

We adopt the quantum field theoretical method to calculate the amplitude and event rate for a neutrino oscillation experiment, considering neutrino production, propagation and detection as a single process. This method allows to take into account decoherence effects in the transition amplitude induced by the quantum mechanical uncertainties of all particles involved in the process. We extend the method to include coherence loss due to interactions with the environment, similar to collisional line broadening. In addition to generic decoherence induced at the amplitude level, the formalism allows to include, in a straightforward way, additional damping effects related to phase-space integrals over momenta of unobserved particles as well as other classical averaging effects. We apply this method to neutrino oscillation searches at reactor and Gallium experiments and confirm that quantum decoherence is many orders of magnitudes smaller than classical averaging effects and therefore unobservable. The method used here can be applied with minimal modifications also to other types of oscillation experiments, e.g., accelerator based beam experiments.**First Direct Observation of Collider Neutrinos with FASER at the LHC**

2303.14185 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by FASER Collaboration, [and 87 more]Henso Abreu, John Anders, Claire Antel, Akitaka Ariga, Tomoko Ariga, Jeremy Atkinson, Florian U. Bernlochner, Tobias Blesgen, Tobias Boeckh, Jamie Boyd, Lydia Brenner, Franck Cadoux, David W. Casper, Charlotte Cavanagh, Xin Chen, Andrea Coccaro, Ansh Desai, Sergey Dmitrievsky, Monica D'Onofrio, Yannick Favre, Deion Fellers, Jonathan L. Feng, Carlo Alberto Fenoglio, Didier Ferrere, Stephen Gibson, Sergio Gonzalez-Sevilla, Yuri Gornushkin, Carl Gwilliam, Daiki Hayakawa, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Zhen Hu, Giuseppe Iacobucci, Tomohiro Inada, Sune Jakobsen, Hans Joos, Enrique Kajomovitz, Hiroaki Kawahara, Alex Keyken, Felix Kling, Daniela Köck, Umut Kose, Rafaella Kotitsa, Susanne Kuehn, Helena Lefebvre, Lorne Levinson, Ke Li, Jinfeng Liu, Jack MacDonald, Chiara Magliocca, Fulvio Martinelli, Josh McFayden, Matteo Milanesio, Dimitar Mladenov, Théo Moretti, Magdalena Munker, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Toshiyuki Nakano, Marzio Nessi, Friedemann Neuhaus, Laurie Nevay, Hidetoshi Otono, Hao Pang, Lorenzo Paolozzi, Brian Petersen, Francesco Pietropaolo, Markus Prim, Michaela Queitsch-Maitland, Filippo Resnati, Hiroki Rokujo, Elisa Ruiz-Choliz, Jorge Sabater-Iglesias, Osamu Sato, Paola Scampoli, Kristof Schmieden, Matthias Schott, Anna Sfyrla, Savannah Shively, Yosuke Takubo, Noshin Tarannum, Ondrej Theiner, Eric Torrence, Serhan Tufanli, Svetlana Vasina, Benedikt Vormwald, Di Wang, Eli Welch, and Stefano Zambito [hide authors].

We report the first direct observation of neutrino interactions at a particle collider experiment. Neutrino candidate events are identified in a 13.6 TeV center-of-mass energy $pp$ collision data set of 35.4 fb${}^{-1}$ using the active electronic components of the FASER detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The candidates are required to have a track propagating through the entire length of the FASER detector and be consistent with a muon neutrino charged-current interaction. We infer $153^{+12}_{-13}$ neutrino interactions with a significance of 16 standard deviations above the background-only hypothesis. These events are consistent with the characteristics expected from neutrino interactions in terms of secondary particle production and spatial distribution, and they imply the observation of both neutrinos and anti-neutrinos with an incident neutrino energy of significantly above 200 GeV.**Inferring astrophysical neutrino sources from the Glashow resonance**

2303.13706 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guo-yuan Huang, Manfred Lindner, and Nele Volmer.

We infer the ultrahigh energy neutrino source by using the Glashow resonance candidate event recently identified by the IceCube Observatory. For the calculation of the cross section for the Glashow resonance, we incorporate both the atomic Doppler broadening effect and initial state radiation $\overline{\nu}^{}_{e} e^- \to W^- \gamma$, which correct the original cross section considerably. Using available experimental information, we have set a generic constraint on the $\overline{\nu}^{}_{e}$ fraction of astrophysical neutrinos, which excludes the $\mu$-damped ${\rm p}\gamma$ source around $2\sigma$ confidence level. While a weak preference has been found for the pp source, next-generation measurements will be able to distinguish between ideal pp and p$\gamma$ sources with a high significance assuming an optimistic single power-law neutrino spectrum.**The Gallium Neutrino Absorption Cross Section and its Uncertainty**

2303.13623 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. R. Elliott, [and 4 more]V. N. Gavrin, W. C. Haxton, T. V. Ibragimova, and E. J. Rule [hide authors].

In the recent Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST), a suppressed rate of neutrino absorption on a gallium target was observed, consistent with earlier results from neutrino source calibrations of the SAGE and GALLEX/GNO solar neutrino experiments. The BEST collaboration, utilizing a 3.4 MCi 51Cr neutrino source, found observed-to-expected counting rates at two very short baselines of R=0.791 plus/minus 0.05 and 0.766 plus/minus 0.05, respectively. Among recent neutrino experiments, BEST is notable for the simplicity of both its neutrino spectrum, line neutrinos from an electron-capture source whose intensity can be measured to a estimated precision of 0.23%, and its absorption cross section, where the precisely known rate of electron capture to the gallium ground state, 71Ge(e,nue)71Ga(g.s.), establishes a minimum value. However, the absorption cross section uncertainty is a common systematic in the BEST, SAGE, and GALLEX/GNO neutrino source experiments. Here we update that cross section, considering a variety of electroweak corrections and the role of transitions to excited states, to establish both a central value and reasonable uncertainty, thereby enabling a more accurate assessment of the statistical significance of the gallium anomalies. Results are given for 51Cr and 37Ar sources. The revised neutrino capture rates are used in a re-evaluation of the BEST and gallium anomalies.**High-energy neutrino deeply inelastic scattering cross sections from 100 GeV to 1000 EeV**

2303.13607 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Keping Xie, [and 4 more]Jun Gao, T. J. Hobbs, Daniel R. Stump, and C. -P. Yuan [hide authors].

We present a state-of-the-art prediction for cross sections of neutrino deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) from nucleon at high neutrino energies, $E_\nu$, from 100 GeV to 1000 EeV ($10^{12}$ GeV). Our calculations are based on the latest CT18 NNLO parton distribution functions (PDFs) and their associated uncertainties. In order to make predictions for the highest energies, we extrapolate the PDFs to small $x$ according to several procedures and assumptions, thus affecting the uncertainties at ultra-high $E_\nu$; we quantify the uncertainties corresponding to these choices. Similarly, we quantify the uncertainties introduced by the nuclear corrections which are required to evaluate neutrino-nuclear cross sections for neutrino telescopes. These results can be applied to currently-running astrophysical neutrino observatories, such as IceCube, as well as various future experiments which have been proposed.**Hunting for Neutral Leptons with Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays**

2303.11352 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Robert Heighton, Lucien Heurtier, and Michael Spannowsky.

Next-generation large-volume detectors, such as GRAND, POEMMA, Trinity, TAROGE-M, TAMBO, or PUEO, have been designed to search for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with unprecedented sensitivity. We propose to use these detectors to search for new physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). By considering the simple case of a right-handed neutrino that mixes exclusively with the active $\tau$ neutrino, we demonstrate that the existence of new physics can increase the probability for UHECRs to propagate through the Earth and produce extensive air showers that will be measurable soon. We compare the fluxes of such showers that would arise from various diffuse and transient sources of high-energy neutrinos, both in the Standard Model and in the presence of a right-handed neutrino. We show that detecting events with emergence angles $\gtrsim 10$ deg is promising to probe the existence of BSM physics, and we study the sensitivity of GRAND and POEMMA to do so. In particular, we show that the hypothesis of a right-handed neutrino with a mass of $\mathcal O(1-16)$ GeV may be probed in the future for mixing angles as small as $|U_{\tau N}|^2 \gtrsim 10^{-7}$, thus competing with existing and projected experimental limits.**An importance sampling method for Feldman-Cousins confidence intervals**

2303.11290 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lukas Berns.

In various high-energy physics contexts, such as neutrino-oscillation experiments, several assumptions underlying the typical asymptotic confidence interval construction are violated, such that one has to resort to computationally expensive methods like the Feldman-Cousins method for obtaining confidence intervals with proper statistical coverage. By construction, the computation of intervals at high confidence levels requires fitting millions or billions of pseudo-experiments, while wasting most of the computational cost on overly precise intervals at low confidence levels. In this work, a simple importance sampling method is introduced which reuses pseudo-experiments produced for all tested parameter values in a single mixture distribution. This results in a significant error reduction on the estimated critical values, especially at high confidence levels, and simultaneously yields a correct interpolation of these critical values between the parameter values at which the pseudo-experiments were produced. The theoretically calculated performance is demonstrated numerically using a simple example from the analysis of neutrino oscillations. The relationship to similar techniques applied in statistical mechanics and $p$-value computations is discussed.**Impact of nuclear matrix element calculations for current and future neutrinoless double beta decay searches**

2303.10562 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Federica Pompa, Thomas Schwetz, and Jing-Yu Zhu.

Nuclear matrix elements (NME) are a crucial input for the interpretation of neutrinoless double beta decay data. We consider a representative set of recent NME calculations from different methods and investigate the impact on the present bound on the effective Majorana mass $m_{\beta\beta}$ by performing a combined analysis of the available data as well as on the sensitivity reach of future projects. A crucial role is played by the recently discovered short-range contribution to the NME, induced by light Majorana neutrino masses. Depending on the NME model and the relative sign of the long- and short-range contributions, the current $3\sigma$ bound can change between $m_{\beta\beta} < 40$ meV and 600 meV. The sign-uncertainty may either boost the sensitivity of next-generation experiments beyond the region for $m_{\beta\beta}$ predicted for inverted mass ordering or prevent even advanced setups to reach this region. Furthermore, we study the possibility to distinguish between different NME calculations by assuming a positive signal and by combining measurements from different isotopes. Such a discrimination will be impossible if the relative sign of the long- and short-range contribution remains unknown, but can become feasible if $m_{\beta\beta} \gtrsim 40$ meV and if the relative sign is known to be positive. Sensitivities will be dominated by the advanced $^{76}$Ge and $^{136}$Xe setups assumed here, but NME model-discrimination improves if data from a third isotope is added, e.g., from $^{130}$Te or $^{100}$Mo.**Reconstructing Galactic magnetic fields from local measurements for backtracking ultra-high-energy cosmic rays**

2303.10099 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alexandros Tsouros, [and 4 more]Gordian Edenhofer, Torsten Enßlin, Michalis Mastorakis, and Vasiliki Pavlidou [hide authors].

(abridged) Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are highly energetic charged particles with energies exceeding $10^{18}$ eV. Identifying their sources and production mechanism can provide insight into many open questions in astrophysics and high energy physics. However, the Galactic magnetic field (GMF) deflects UHECRs, and the high uncertainties in our current understanding of the $3$-dimensional structure of the GMF does not permit us to accurately determine their true arrival direction on the plane of the sky (PoS). This difficulty arises from the fact that currently all GMF observations are integrated along the line-of-sight (LoS). Upcoming stellar optopolarimetric surveys as well as Gaia data on stellar parallaxes, are expected to provide local measurements of the GMF in the near future. In this paper, we evaluate the reconstruction of the GMF in a limited region of the Galaxy given sparse and local GMF measurements within that region, through Bayesian inference using principles of Information Field Theory. We backtrack UHECRs through GMF configurations drawn from the posterior to improve our knowledge of their true arrival directions. We show that, for a weakly turbulent GMF, it is possible to correct for its effect on the observed arrival direction of UHECRs to within $\sim 3^\circ$. For completely turbulent fields, we show that our procedure can still be used to significantly improve our knowledge on the true arrival direction of UHECRs.**Earth tomography with supernova neutrinos at future neutrino detectors**

2303.09369 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rasmi Hajjar, Olga Mena, and Sergio Palomares-Ruiz.

Earth neutrino tomography is a realistic possibility with current and future neutrino detectors, complementary to geophysics methods. The two main approaches are based on either partial absorption of the neutrino flux as it propagates through the Earth (at energies about a few TeV) or on coherent Earth matter effects affecting the neutrino oscillations pattern (at energies below a few tens of GeV). In this work, we consider the latter approach focusing on supernova neutrinos with tens of MeV. Whereas at GeV energies, Earth matter effects are driven by the atmospheric mass-squared difference, at energies below $\sim 100$~MeV, it is the solar mass-squared difference what controls them. Unlike solar neutrinos, which suffer from significant weakening of the contribution to the oscillatory effect from remote structures due to the neutrino energy reconstruction capabilities of detectors, supernova neutrinos can have higher energies and thus, can better probe the Earth's interior. We shall revisit this possibility, using the most recent neutrino oscillation parameters and up-to-date supernova neutrino spectra. The capabilities of future neutrino detectors, such as DUNE, Hyper-Kamiokande and JUNO are presented, including the impact of the energy resolution and other factors. Assuming a supernova burst at 10~kpc, we show that the average Earth's core density could be determined within $\lesssim 10\%$ at $1\sigma$ confidence level, being Hyper-Kamiokande, with its largest mass, the most promising detector to achieve this goal.**Nuclear neutron radius and weak mixing angle measurements from latest COHERENT CsI and atomic parity violation Cs data**

2303.09360 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Atzori Corona, [and 5 more]M. Cadeddu, N. Cargioli, F. Dordei, C. Giunti, and G. Masia [hide authors].

The COHERENT collaboration observed coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering using a 14.6 kg cesium-iodide (CsI) detector in 2017 and recently published the updated results before decommissioning the detector. Here, we present the legacy determination of the weak mixing angle and of the average neutron rms radius of $^{133}\mathrm{Cs}$ and $^{127}\mathrm{I}$ obtained with the full CsI dataset, also exploiting the combination with the atomic parity violation (APV) experimental result, that allows us to achieve a precision as low as $\sim$4.5% and to disentangle the contributions of the $^{133}\mathrm{Cs}$ and $^{127}\mathrm{I}$ nuclei. Interestingly, we show that the COHERENT CsI data show a 6$\sigma$ evidence of the nuclear structure suppression of the full coherence. Moreover, we derive a data-driven APV+COHERENT measurement of the low-energy weak mixing angle with a percent uncertainty, independent of the value of the average neutron rms radius of $^{133}\mathrm{Cs}$ and $^{127}\mathrm{I}$, that is allowed to vary freely in the fit. Additionally, we extensively discuss the impact of using two different determinations of the theoretical parity non-conserving amplitude in the APV fit. Our findings show that the particular choice can make a significant difference, up to 6.5% on $R_n$(Cs) and 11% on the weak mixing angle. Finally, in light of the recent announcement of a future deployment of a 10 kg and a $\sim$700 kg cryogenic CsI detectors, we provide future prospects for these measurements, comparing them with other competitive experiments that are foreseen in the near future.**Modification of the Dipole in Arrival Directions of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays due to the Galactic Magnetic Field**

2303.08766 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alena Bakalová, Jakub Vícha, and Petr Trávníček.

The direction and magnitude of the dipole anisotropy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with energies above 8 EeV observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory indicate their extragalactic origin. The observed dipole on Earth does not necessarily need to correspond to the anisotropy of the extragalactic cosmic-ray flux due to the effects of propagation in the Galactic magnetic field. We estimate the size of these effects via numerical simulations using the CRPropa 3 package. The Jansson-Farrar and Terral-Ferri\`ere models of the Galactic magnetic field are used to propagate particles from the edge of the Galaxy to an observer on Earth. We identify allowed directions and amplitudes of the dipole outside the Galaxy that are compatible with the measured features of the dipole on Earth for various mass composition scenarios at the 68% and 95% confidence level.**Tau Polarization and Correlated Decays in Neutrino Experiments**

2303.08104 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joshua Isaacson, [and 3 more]Stefan Höche, Frank Siegert, and Sherry Wang [hide authors].

We present the first fully differential predictions for tau neutrino scattering in the energy region relevant to the DUNE experiment, including all spin correlations and all tau lepton decay channels. The calculation is performed using a generic interface between the neutrino event generator Achilles and the publicly available, general-purpose collider event simulation framework Sherpa.**Towards Resolving the Gallium Anomaly**

2303.05528 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar, Julia Gehrlein, and Joachim Kopp.

A series of experiments studying neutrinos from intense radioactive sources have reported a deficit in the measured event rate which, in combination, has reached a statistical significance of $\sim 5\sigma$. In this paper, we explore avenues for explaining this anomaly, both within the Standard Model and beyond. First, we discuss possible biases in the predicted cross section for the detection reaction $\nu_e + ^{71}\text{Ga} \to e^- + ^{71}\text{Ge}$, which could arise from mismeasurement of the inverse process, $^{71}\text{Ge}$ decay, or from the presence of as yet unknown low-lying excited states of $^{71}\text{Ga}$. The latter would imply that not all $^{71}\text{Ge}$ decays go to the ground state of $^{71}\text{Ga}$, so the extraction of the ground state-to-ground state matrix element relevant for neutrino capture on gallium would be incorrect. Second, we scrutinize the measurement of the source intensity in gallium experiments, and we point out that a $\sim 2\%$ error in the branching ratios for $^{51}\text{Cr}$ decay would be enough to explain the anomaly. Third, we investigate the calibration of the radiochemical germanium extraction efficiency as a possible origin of anomaly. Finally, we outline several new explanations beyond the Standard Model, including scenarios with sterile neutrinos coupled to fuzzy dark matter or to dark energy, as well as a model with decaying sterile neutrinos. We critically assess the viability of these scenarios, and others that have been proposed, in a summary table.**Observation of Seasonal Variations of the Flux of High-Energy Atmospheric Neutrinos with IceCube**

2303.04682 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 393 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, S. K. Agarwalla, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, D. Butterfield, M. A. Campana, K. Carloni, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, S. Chattopadhyay, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, S. Countryman, D. F. Cowen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, S. Deng, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, A. Domi, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, K. Fang, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, S. Griffin, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, L. Heuermann, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jacquart, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, K. Jayakumar, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Khatee Zathul, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, K. Kruiswijk, E. Krupczak, A. Kumar, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. Lamoureux, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard DeHolton, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, F. Mayhew, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, Y. Merckx, L. Merten, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, Y. Morii, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, M. Nakos, U. Naumann, J. Necker, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, S. Athanasiadou, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, P. Savina, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, B. Schlüter, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, G. Sommani, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, C. F. Tung, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, A. K. Upadhyay, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, M. Venugopal, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, F. Yu, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

Atmospheric muon neutrinos are produced by meson decays in cosmic-ray-induced air showers. The flux depends on meteorological quantities such as the air temperature, which affects the density of air. Competition between decay and re-interaction of those mesons in the first particle production generations gives rise to a higher neutrino flux when the air density in the stratosphere is lower, corresponding to a higher temperature. A measurement of a temperature dependence of the atmospheric $\nu_{\mu}$ flux provides a novel method for constraining hadro\-nic interaction models of air showers. It is particularly sensitive to the production of kaons. Studying this temperature dependence for the first time requires a large sample of high-energy neutrinos as well as a detailed understanding of atmospheric properties. We report the significant ($> 10 \sigma$) observation of a correlation between the rate of more than 260,000 neutrinos, detected by IceCube between 2012 and 2018, and atmospheric temperatures of the stratosphere, measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument aboard NASA's AQUA satellite. For the observed 10$\%$ seasonal change of effective atmospheric temperature we measure a 3.5(3)$\%$ change in the muon neutrino flux. This observed correlation deviates by about 2-3 standard deviations from the expected correlation of 4.3$\%$ as obtained from theoretical predictions under the assumption of various hadronic interaction models**Measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters from the T2K experiment using $3.6\times10^{21}$ protons on target**

2303.03222 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by The T2K Collaboration, [and 400 more]K. Abe, N. Akhlaq, R. Akutsu, A. Ali, S. Alonso Monsalve, C. Alt, C. Andreopoulos, M. Antonova, S. Aoki, T. Arihara, Y. Asada, Y. Ashida, E. T. Atkin, M. Barbi, G. J. Barker, G. Barr, D. Barrow, M. Batkiewicz-Kwasniak, F. Bench, V. Berardi, L. Berns, S. Bhadra, A. Blanchet, A. Blondel, S. Bolognesi, T. Bonus, S. Bordoni, S. B. Boyd, A. Bravar, C. Bronner, S. Bron, A. Bubak, M. Buizza Avanzini, J. A. Caballero, N. F. Calabria, S. Cao, D. Carabadjac, A. J. Carter, S. L. Cartwright, M. G. Catanesi, A. Cervera, J. Chakrani, D. Cherdack, P. S. Chong, G. Christodoulou, A. Chvirova, M. Cicerchia, J. Coleman, G. Collazuol, L. Cook, A. Cudd, C. Dalmazzone, T. Daret, Yu. I. Davydov, A. De Roeck, G. De Rosa, T. Dealtry, C. C. Delogu, C. Densham, A. Dergacheva, F. Di Lodovico, S. Dolan, D. Douqa, T. A. Doyle, O. Drapier, J. Dumarchez, P. Dunne, K. Dygnarowicz, A. Eguchi, S. Emery-Schrenk, G. Erofeev, A. Ershova, G. Eurin, D. Fedorova, S. Fedotov, M. Feltre, A. J. Finch, G. A. Fiorentini Aguirre, G. Fiorillo, M. D. Fitton, J. M. Franco Patiño, M. Friend, Y. Fujii, Y. Fukuda, K. Fusshoeller, L. Giannessi, C. Giganti, V. Glagolev, M. Gonin, J. González Rosa, E. A. G. Goodman, A. Gorin, M. Grassi, M. Guigue, D. R. Hadley, J. T. Haigh, P. Hamacher-Baumann, D. A. Harris, M. Hartz, T. Hasegawa, S. Hassani, N. C. Hastings, Y. Hayato, D. Henaff, A. Hiramoto, M. Hogan, J. Holeczek, A. Holin, T. Holvey, N. T. Hong Van, T. Honjo, F. Iacob, A. K. Ichikawa, M. Ikeda, T. Ishida, M. Ishitsuka, H. T. Israel, K. Iwamoto, A. Izmaylov, N. Izumi, M. Jakkapu, B. Jamieson, S. J. Jenkins, C. Jesús-Valls, J. J. Jiang, P. Jonsson, S. Joshi, C. K. Jung, P. B. Jurj, M. Kabirnezhad, A. C. Kaboth, T. Kajita, H. Kakuno, J. Kameda, S. P. Kasetti, Y. Kataoka, Y. Katayama, T. Katori, M. Kawaue, E. Kearns, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, T. Kikawa, H. Kikutani, S. King, V. Kiseeva, J. Kisiel, T. Kobata, H. Kobayashi, T. Kobayashi, L. Koch, S. Kodama, A. Konaka, L. L. Kormos, Y. Koshio, A. Kostin, T. Koto, K. Kowalik, Y. Kudenko, Y. Kudo, S. Kuribayashi, R. Kurjata, T. Kutter, M. Kuze, M. La Commara, L. Labarga, K. Lachner, J. Lagoda, S. M. Lakshmi, M. Lamers James, M. Lamoureux, A. Langella, J. -F. Laporte, D. Last, N. Latham, M. Laveder, L. Lavitola, M. Lawe, Y. Lee, C. Lin, S. -K. Lin, R. P. Litchfield, S. L. Liu, W. Li, A. Longhin, K. R. Long, A. Lopez Moreno, L. Ludovici, X. Lu, T. Lux, L. N. Machado, L. Magaletti, K. Mahn, M. Malek, M. Mandal, S. Manly, A. D. Marino, L. Marti-Magro, D. G. R. Martin, M. Martini, J. F. Martin, T. Maruyama, T. Matsubara, V. Matveev, C. Mauger, K. Mavrokoridis, E. Mazzucato, N. McCauley, J. McElwee, K. S. McFarland, C. McGrew, J. McKean, A. Mefodiev, G. D. Megias, P. Mehta, L. Mellet, C. Metelko, M. Mezzetto, E. Miller, A. Minamino, O. Mineev, S. Mine, M. Miura, L. Molina Bueno, S. Moriyama, S. Moriyama, P. Morrison, Th. A. Mueller, D. Munford, L. Munteanu, K. Nagai, Y. Nagai, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakagiri, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakajima, A. Nakamura, H. Nakamura, K. Nakamura, K. D. Nakamura, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, T. Nakaya, K. Nakayoshi, C. E. R. Naseby, T. V. Ngoc, V. Q. Nguyen, K. Niewczas, S. Nishimori, Y. Nishimura, K. Nishizaki, T. Nosek, F. Nova, P. Novella, J. C. Nugent, H. M. O'Keeffe, L. O'Sullivan, T. Odagawa, T. Ogawa, R. Okada, W. Okinaga, K. Okumura, T. Okusawa, N. Ospina, R. A. Owen, Y. Oyama, V. Palladino, V. Paolone, M. Pari, J. Parlone, S. Parsa, J. Pasternak, M. Pavin, D. Payne, G. C. Penn, D. Pershey, L. Pickering, C. Pidcott, G. Pintaudi, C. Pistillo, B. Popov, K. Porwit, M. Posiadala-Zezula, Y. S. Prabhu, F. Pupilli, B. Quilain, T. Radermacher, E. Radicioni, B. Radics, M. A. Ramírez, P. N. Ratoff, M. Reh, C. Riccio, E. Rondio, S. Roth, N. Roy, A. Rubbia, A. C. Ruggeri, C. A. Ruggles, A. Rychter, K. Sakashita, F. Sánchez, G. Santucci, C. M. Schloesser, K. Scholberg, M. Scott, Y. Seiya, T. Sekiguchi, H. Sekiya, D. Sgalaberna, A. Shaikhiev, F. Shaker, A. Shaykina, M. Shiozawa, W. Shorrock, A. Shvartsman, N. Skrobova, K. Skwarczynski, D. Smyczek, M. Smy, J. T. Sobczyk, H. Sobel, F. J. P. Soler, Y. Sonoda, A. J. Speers, R. Spina, I. A. Suslov, S. Suvorov, A. Suzuki, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, A. A. Sztuc, M. Tada, S. Tairafune, S. Takayasu, A. Takeda, Y. Takeuchi, K. Takifuji, H. K. Tanaka, Y. Tanihara, M. Tani, A. Teklu, V. V. Tereshchenko, N. Teshima, N. Thamm, L. F. Thompson, W. Toki, C. Touramanis, T. Towstego, K. M. Tsui, T. Tsukamoto, M. Tzanov, Y. Uchida, M. Vagins, D. Vargas, M. Varghese, G. Vasseur, C. Vilela, E. Villa, W. G. S. Vinning, U. Virginet, T. Vladisavljevic, T. Wachala, J. G. Walsh, Y. Wang, L. Wan, D. Wark, M. O. Wascko, A. Weber, R. Wendell, M. J. Wilking, C. Wilkinson, J. R. Wilson, K. Wood, C. Wret, J. Xia, Y. -h. Xu, K. Yamamoto, T. Yamamoto, C. Yanagisawa, G. Yang, T. Yano, K. Yasutome, N. Yershov, U. Yevarouskaya, M. Yokoyama, Y. Yoshimoto, N. Yoshimura, M. Yu, R. Zaki, A. Zalewska, J. Zalipska, K. Zaremba, G. Zarnecki, X. Zhao, T. Zhu, M. Ziembicki, E. D. Zimmerman, M. Zito, and S. Zsoldos [hide authors].

The T2K experiment presents new measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters using $19.7(16.3)\times10^{20}$ protons on target (POT) in (anti-)neutrino mode at the far detector (FD). Compared to the previous analysis, an additional $4.7\times10^{20}$ POT neutrino data was collected at the FD. Significant improvements were made to the analysis methodology, with the near-detector analysis introducing new selections and using more than double the data. Additionally, this is the first T2K oscillation analysis to use NA61/SHINE data on a replica of the T2K target to tune the neutrino flux model, and the neutrino interaction model was improved to include new nuclear effects and calculations. Frequentist and Bayesian analyses are presented, including results on $\sin^2\theta_{13}$ and the impact of priors on the $\delta_\mathrm{CP}$ measurement. Both analyses prefer the normal mass ordering and upper octant of $\sin^2\theta_{23}$ with a nearly maximally CP-violating phase. Assuming the normal ordering and using the constraint on $\sin^2\theta_{13}$ from reactors, $\sin^2\theta_{23}=0.561^{+0.021}_{-0.032}$ using Feldman--Cousins corrected intervals, and $\Delta{}m^2_{32}=2.494_{-0.058}^{+0.041}\times10^{-3}~\mathrm{eV^2}$ using constant $\Delta\chi^{2}$ intervals. The CP-violating phase is constrained to $\delta_\mathrm{CP}=-1.97_{-0.70}^{+0.97}$ using Feldman--Cousins corrected intervals, and $\delta_\mathrm{CP}=0,\pi$ is excluded at more than 90% confidence level. A Jarlskog invariant of zero is excluded at more than $2\sigma$ credible level using a flat prior in $\delta_\mathrm{CP}$, and just below $2\sigma$ using a flat prior in $\sin\delta_\mathrm{CP}$. When the external constraint on $\sin^2\theta_{13}$ is removed, $\sin^2\theta_{13}=28.0^{+2.8}_{-6.5}\times10^{-3}$, in agreement with measurements from reactor experiments. These results are consistent with previous T2K analyses.**Quantifying the tension between cosmological and terrestrial constraints on neutrino masses**

2302.14159 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stefano Gariazzo, Olga Mena, and Thomas Schwetz.

The sensitivity of cosmology to the total neutrino mass scale $\Sigma m_\nu$ is approaching the minimal values required by oscillation data. We study quantitatively possible tensions between current and forecasted cosmological and terrestrial neutrino mass limits by applying suitable statistical tests such as Bayesian suspiciousness, parameter goodness-of-fit tests, or a parameter difference test. In particular, the tension will depend on whether the normal or the inverted neutrino mass ordering is assumed. We argue, that it makes sense to reject inverted ordering from the cosmology/oscillation comparison only if data are consistent with normal ordering. Our results indicate that, in order to reject inverted ordering with this argument, an accuracy on the sum of neutrino masses $\sigma ({m_\nu})$ of better than 0.02~eV would be required from future cosmological observations.**A Direct Detection View of the Neutrino NSI Landscape**

2302.12846 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dorian W. P. Amaral, [and 3 more]David Cerdeno, Andrew Cheek, and Patrick Foldenauer [hide authors].

In this article, we study the potential of direct detection experiments to explore the parameter space of general non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) via solar neutrino scattering. Due to their sensitivity to neutrino-electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct detection provides a complementary view of the NSI landscape to that of spallation sources and neutrino oscillation experiments. In particular, the large admixture of tau neutrinos in the solar flux makes direct detection experiments well-suited to probe the full flavour space of NSI. To study this, we develop a re-parametrisation of the NSI framework that explicitly includes a variable electron contribution and allows for a clear visualisation of the complementarity of the different experimental sources. Using this new parametrisation, we explore how previous bounds from spallation source and neutrino oscillation experiments are impacted. For the first time, we compute limits on NSI from the first results of the XENONnT and LUX-ZEPLIN experiments, and we obtain projections for future xenon-based experiments. These computations have been performed with our newly developed software package, SNuDD. Our results demonstrate the importance of using a more general NSI parametrisation and indicate that next generation direct detection experiments will become powerful probes of neutrino NSI.**Oscillation probabilities for a PT-symmetric non-Hermitian two-state system**

2302.11666 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jean Alexandre, [and 4 more]Madeleine Dale, John Ellis, Robert Mason, and Peter Millington [hide authors].

There is growing interest in viable quantum theories with PT-symmetric non-Hermitian Hamiltonians, but a formulation of transition matrix elements consistent with positivity and perturbative unitarity has so far proved elusive. This Letter provides such a formulation, which relies crucially on the ability to span the state space in such a way that the interaction and energy eigenstates are orthonormal with respect to the same positive-definite inner product. We mention possible applications to the oscillations of mesons and neutrinos.**The Neutrino Magnetic Moment Portal and Supernovae: New Constraints and Multimessenger Opportunities**

2302.10965 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar, [and 3 more]André de Gouvêa, Ying-Ying Li, and Pedro A. N. Machado [hide authors].

We scrutinize the hypothesis that gauge singlet fermions -- sterile neutrinos -- interact with Standard Model particles through the transition magnetic moment portal. These interactions lead to the production of sterile neutrinos in supernovae followed by their decay into photons and active neutrinos which can be detected at $\gamma$-ray telescopes and neutrino detectors, respectively. We find that the non-observation of active neutrinos and photons from sterile-neutrino decay associated to SN1987A yields the strongest constraints to date on magnetic-moment-coupled sterile neutrinos if their masses are inside a $0.1-100$ MeV window. Assuming a near-future galactic supernova explosion, we estimate the sensitivity of several present and near-future experiments, including Fermi-LAT, e-ASTROGAM, DUNE, and Hyper-Kamiokande, to magnetic-moment-coupled sterile neutrinos. We also study the diffuse photon and neutrino fluxes produced in the decay of magnetic-moment coupled sterile neutrinos produced in all past supernova explosions and find that the absence of these decay daughters yields the strongest constraints to date for sterile neutrino masses inside a $1-100$ keV window.**How to measure the reactor neutrino flux below the inverse beta decay threshold with CE$ν$NS**

2302.10460 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jiajun Liao, Hongkai Liu, and Danny Marfatia.

Most antineutrinos produced in a nuclear reactor have energies below the inverse beta decay threshold, and have not yet been detected. We show that a coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment with an ultra-low energy threshold like NUCLEUS can measure the flux of reactor neutrinos below 1.8 MeV. Using a regularized unfolding procedure, we find that a meaningful upper bound can be placed on the low energy flux, but the existence of the neutron capture component cannot be established.**Investigating the effects of Lorentz Invariance Violation on the CP-sensitivities of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment**

2302.10456 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Arnab Sarker, Abinash Medhi, and Moon Moon Devi.

The neutrino oscillations offer great potential for probing new physics effects beyond the Standard Model. Any additional effect on neutrino oscillations can help understand the nature of these non-standard effects. The violation of fundamental symmetries may appear as new physics effects in various neutrino experiments. Lorentz symmetry is one such fundamental symmetry in nature, the violation of which implies a breakdown of space-time symmetry. The Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) is intrinsic in nature and its effects exist even in a vacuum. Neutrinos can be an intriguing probe for exploring such violations of Lorentz symmetry. The effect of violation of Lorentz Invariance can be explored through the impact on the neutrino oscillation probabilities. The effect of LIV is treated as a perturbation to the standard neutrino Hamiltonian considering the Standard Model Extension (SME) framework. In this work, we have probed the effect of LIV on the neutrino oscillation measurements considering the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) as a case study. The inclusion of LIV affects various neutrino oscillation parameters as it modifies the standard neutrino oscillation probabilities. We looked into the capability of DUNE in constraining the LIV parameters and then explored the impact of CPT-violating LIV terms on the mass-induced neutrino oscillation probabilities. We have also probed the influence of LIV parameters on the CP-measurement sensitivity at DUNE.**On the Tremaine-Gunn Limit with Mass-Varying Particles**

2302.10246 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lotfi Boubekeur and Stefano Profumo.

General classical arguments on the time evolution of the phase-space density can be used to derive constraints on the mass of particle candidates for the cosmological dark matter (DM). The resulting Tremaine-Gunn limit is extremely useful in constraining particle DM models. In certain models, however, the DM particle mass varies appreciably over time. In this work, we generalize the phase-space limits on possible DM particle masses to these scenarios. We then examine the ensuing cosmological implications on the effective DM equation of state and indirect DM detection.**Discernible NSI Effects in Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments**

2302.09592 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Barnali Brahma and Anjan Giri.

Neutrino oscillation in the matter could get affected by the sub-dominant, yet unknown, non-standard interactions. The upcoming long-baseline (LBL) neutrino experiments will be sensitive to these effects and can provide information on the unknown oscillation parameter values. In this article, we study the parameter degeneracies that can occur in DUNE, T2HK experiments, and a combination of both due to nonstandard interactions (NSI), arising simultaneously, from two different off-diagonal sectors, i.e., $e-\mu$ and $e-\tau$. We derive constraints on both the NSI sectors using the combined datasets of NO$\nu$A and T2K. Our analysis reveals a significant impact that dual NSIs may have on the sensitivity of atmospheric mixing angle $\theta_{23}$ in the normal ordering (NO) case. Furthermore, when non-standard interaction from the $e-\mu$ and $e-\tau$ sectors are included, we see significant changes in the probabilities for DUNE, T2HK, and as well as a combined analysis involving both. Moreover, the CP sensitivity gets affected significantly due to the presence of dual NSIs, and, in addition, the CP asymmetry also exhibits an appreciable difference.**Here Comes the Sun: Solar Parameters in Long-Baseline Accelerator Neutrino Oscillations**

2302.08513 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Julia Gehrlein.

Long-baseline (LBL) accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments, such as NOvA and T2K in the current generation, and DUNE-LBL and HK-LBL in the coming years, will measure the remaining unknown oscillation parameters with excellent precision. These analyses assume external input on the so-called ``solar parameters,'' $\theta_{12}$ and $\Delta m^2_{21}$, from solar experiments such as SNO, SK, and Borexino, as well as reactor experiments like KamLAND. Here we investigate their role in long-baseline experiments. We show that, without external input on $\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $\theta_{12}$, the sensitivity to detecting and quantifying CP violation is significantly, but not entirely, reduced. Thus long-baseline accelerator experiments can actually determine $\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $\theta_{12}$, and thus all six oscillation parameters, without input from \emph{any} other oscillation experiment. In particular, $\Delta m^2_{21}$ can be determined; thus DUNE-LBL and HK-LBL can measure both the solar and atmospheric mass splittings in their long-baseline analyses alone. While their sensitivities are not competitive with existing constraints, they are very orthogonal probes of solar parameters and provide a key consistency check of a less probed sector of the three-flavor oscillation picture. Furthermore, we also show that the true values of $\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $\theta_{12}$ play an important role in the sensitivity of other oscillation parameters such as the CP violating phase $\delta$.**Probing Cosmic Neutrino Background Charge via Unconventional Interferometer**

2302.08246 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Chrisna Setyo Nugroho.

If neutrinos carry non-zero electric charge, they would interact directly with photons. This would induce a phase shift along the photon path in the optical experiment. We propose a novel idea to detect this phase shift induced by cosmic neutrino background (CNB) and the photon interaction using laser interferometry experiment. We show that our setup can probe the CNB neutrino charge in the order of $10^{-18} \,e- 10^{-17}\, e$. This is quite competitive with the existing upper bound on neutrino charge from both laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations.**Improved sensitivities of ESS$ν$SB from a two-detector fit**

2302.07154 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by F. Capozzi, C. Giunti, and C. A. Ternes.

We discuss the improvement of the sensitivity of ESS$\nu$SB to the discovery of CP violation and to new neutrino physics which can be obtained with a two-detector fit of the data of the near and far detectors. In particular, we consider neutrino non-standard interactions generated by very heavy vector mediators, nonunitary neutrino mixing, and neutrino oscillations due to the mixing of the ordinary active neutrinos with a light sterile neutrino.**Signals of a New Gauge Boson from IceCube and Muon $g-2$**

2302.03571 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dan Hooper, Joaquim Iguaz Juan, and Pasquale D. Serpico.

A $Z'$ boson associated with a broken $U(1)_{L_{\mu} - L_{\tau}}$ gauge symmetry offers an economical solution to the long-standing $g_\mu-2$ anomaly, confirmed and strengthened by recent measurements at Fermilab. Here, we revisit the impact of such a $Z'$ on the spectrum of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, as measured by the IceCube experiment. This spectrum has been observed to exhibit a dip-like feature at $E_{\nu} \sim 0.2-1 \, {\rm PeV}$, which could plausibly arise from the physics of the sources themselves, but could also be the consequence of high-energy neutrinos resonantly scattering with the cosmic neutrino background, mediated by a $Z'$ with a mass on the order of $m_{Z'} \sim 10 \, {\rm MeV}$. In this study, we calculate the impact of such a $Z'$ on the high-energy neutrino spectrum for a variety of model parameters and source distributions. For couplings that can resolve the $g_{\mu}-2$ anomaly, we find that this model could self-consistently produce a spectral feature that is consistent with IceCube's measurement, in particular if the neutrinos observed by IceCube predominantly originate from high-redshift sources.**Probing invisible neutrino decay with KM3NeT-ORCA**

2302.02717 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by KM3NeT Collaboration, [and 254 more]S. Aiello, A. Albert, S. Alves Garre, Z. Aly, A. Ambrosone, F. Ameli, M. Andre, M. Anghinolfi, M. Anguita, M. Ardid, S. Ardid, J. Aublin, C. Bagatelas, L. Bailly-Salins, B. Baret, S. Basegmez du Pree, Y. Becherini, M. Bendahman, F. Benfenati, E. Berbee, V. Bertin, S. Biagi, M. Boettcher, M. Bou Cabo, J. Boumaaza, M. Bouta, M. Bouwhuis, C. Bozza, H. Brânzaş, R. Bruijn, J. Brunner, R. Bruno, E. Buis, R. Buompane, J. Busto, B. Caiffi, D. Calvo, S. Campion, A. Capone, F. Carenini, V. Carretero, P. Castaldi, S. Celli, L. Cerisy, M. Chabab, N. Chau, A. Chen, R. Cherkaoui El Moursli, S. Cherubini, V. Chiarella, T. Chiarusi, M. Circella, R. Cocimano, J. A. B. Coelho, A. Coleiro, R. Coniglione, P. Coyle, A. Creusot, A. Cruz, G. Cuttone, R. Dallier, Y. Darras, A. De Benedittis, B. De Martino, V. Decoene, R. Del Burgo, I. Di Palma, A. F. Díaz, D. Diego-Tortosa, C. Distefano, A. Domi, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, M. Dörr, E. Drakopoulou, D. Drouhin, T. Eberl, A. Eddyamoui, T. van Eeden, M. Eff, D. van Eijk, I. El Bojaddaini, S. El Hedri, A. Enzenhöfer, V. Espinosa, G. Ferrara, M. D. Filipović, F. Filippini, L. A. Fusco, J. Gabriel, T. Gal, J. García Méndez, A. Garcia Soto, F. Garufi, C. Gatius Oliver, N. Geißelbrecht, L. Gialanella, E. Giorgio, A. Girardi, I. Goos, S. R. Gozzini, R. Gracia, K. Graf, D. Guderian, C. Guidi, B. Guillon, M. Gutiérrez, L. Haegel, H. van Haren, A. Heijboer, A. Hekalo, L. Hennig, J. J. Hernández-Rey, F. Huang, W. Idrissi Ibnsalih, G. Illuminati, C. W. James, D. Janezashvili, M. de Jong, P. de Jong, B. J. Jung, P. Kalaczyński, O. Kalekin, U. F. Katz, N. R. Khan Chowdhury, G. Kistauri, F. van der Knaap, P. Kooijman, A. Kouchner, V. Kulikovskiy, M. Labalme, R. Lahmann, A. Lakhal, M. Lamoureux, G. Larosa, C. Lastoria, A. Lazo, R. Le Breton, S. Le Stum, G. Lehaut, E. Leonora, N. Lessing, G. Levi, S. Liang, M. Lindsey Clark, F. Longhitano, L. Maderer, J. Majumdar, J. Mańczak, A. Margiotta, A. Marinelli, C. Markou, L. Martin, J. A. Martìnez-Mora, A. Martini, F. Marzaioli, M. Mastrodicasa, S. Mastroianni, K. W. Melis, S. Miccichè, G. Miele, P. Migliozzi, E. Migneco, P. Mijakowski, C. M. Mollo, L. Morales-Gallegos, C. Morley-Wong, A. Moussa, R. Muller, M. R. Musone, M. Musumeci, L. Nauta, S. Navas, C. A. Nicolau, B. Nkosi, B. Ó Fearraigh, A. Orlando, E. Oukacha, J. Palacios González, G. Papalashvili, R. Papaleo, E. J. Pastor Gomez, A. M. Păun, G. E. Păvălaş, C. Pellegrino, S. Peña Martínez, M. Perrin-Terrin, J. Perronnel, V. Pestel, P. Piattelli, O. Pisanti, C. Poirè, V. Popa, T. Pradier, S. Pulvirenti, G. Quéméner, U. Rahaman, N. Randazzo, S. Razzaque, I. C. Rea, D. Real, S. Reck, G. Riccobene, J. Robinson, A. Romanov, F. Salesa Greus, D. F. E. Samtleben, A. Sánchez Losa, M. Sanguineti, C. Santonastaso, D. Santonocito, P. Sapienza, A. Sathe, J. Schnabel, M. F. Schneider, J. Schumann, H. M. Schutte, J. Seneca, I. Sgura, R. Shanidze, A. Sharma, A. Simonelli, A. Sinopoulou, M. V. Smirnov, B. Spisso, M. Spurio, D. Stavropoulos, S. M. Stellacci, M. Taiuti, K. Tavzarashvili, Y. Tayalati, H. Tedjditi, T. Thakore, H. Thiersen, S. Tsagkli, V. Tsourapis, E. Tzamariudaki, V. Van Elewyck, G. Vannoye, G. Vasileiadis, F. Versari, S. Viola, D. Vivolo, H. Warnhofer, J. Wilms, E. de Wolf, H. Yepes-Ramirez, T. Yousfi, S. Zavatarelli, A. Zegarelli, D. Zito, J. D. Zornoza, J. Zúñiga, and N. Zywucka [hide authors].

In the era of precision measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters, upcoming neutrino experiments will also be sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model. KM3NeT/ORCA is a neutrino detector optimised for measuring atmospheric neutrinos from a few GeV to around 100 GeV. In this paper, the sensitivity of the KM3NeT/ORCA detector to neutrino decay has been explored. A three-flavour neutrino oscillation scenario, where the third neutrino mass state $\nu_3$ decays into an invisible state, e.g. a sterile neutrino, is considered. We find that KM3NeT/ORCA would be sensitive to invisible neutrino decays with $1/\alpha_3=\tau_3/m_3 < 180$~$\mathrm{ps/eV}$ at $90\%$ confidence level, assuming true normal ordering. Finally, the impact of neutrino decay on the precision of KM3NeT/ORCA measurements for $\theta_{23}$, $\Delta m^2_{31}$ and mass ordering have been studied. No significant effect of neutrino decay on the sensitivity to these measurements has been found.**Reconstructing the arrival direction of neutrinos in deep in-ice radio detectors**

2302.00054 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ilse Plaisier, Sjoerd Bouma, and Anna Nelles.

In-ice radio detectors are a promising tool for the discovery of EeV neutrinos. For astrophysics, the implications of such a discovery will rely on the reconstruction of the neutrino arrival direction. This paper describes a first complete neutrino arrival direction reconstruction for detectors employing deep antennas such as RNO-G or planning to employ them like IceCube-Gen2. We will didactically introduce the challenges of neutrino direction reconstruction using radio emission in ice, elaborate on the detail of the algorithm used, and describe the obtainable performance based on a simulation study and discuss its implication for astrophysics.**Time Dependent CP-even and CP-odd Signatures of Scalar Ultra-light Dark Matter in Neutrino Oscillations**

2302.00005 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Marta Losada, [and 4 more]Yosef Nir, Gilad Perez, Inbar Savoray, and Yogev Shpilman [hide authors].

Scalar ultra-light dark matter (ULDM) interacting with neutrinos can induce, under certain conditions, time-dependent modifications to neutrino oscillation probabilities. The limit in which the ULDM perturbation can be treated as constant throughout the neutrino propagation time has been addressed by several previous works. We complement these by systematically analyzing the opposite limit -- accounting for the temporal-variations of the ULDM potential by solving time-dependent Schr\"odinger equations. In particular, we study a novel two-generations-like CP violating (CPV) signature unique to rapidly oscillating ULDM. We derive the leading order, time-dependent, corrections to the oscillation probabilities, both for CP conserving (CPC) and CPV couplings, and explain how they can be measured in current and future experiments.**Extraction of neutron density distributions from high-statistics coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering data**

2301.13249 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Aristizabal Sierra.

Forthcoming fixed-target coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments aim at measurements with $\cal{O}(\text{tonne})$-scale detectors and substantially reduced systematic and statistical uncertainties. With such high quality data, the extraction of point-neutron distributions mean-square radii requires a better understanding of possible theoretical uncertainties. We quantify the impact of single-nucleon electromagnetic mean-square radii on the weak-charge form factor and compare results from weak-charge form factor parametrizations and weak-charge form factor decompositions in terms of elastic vector proton and neutron form factors, including nucleon form factors $Q$-dependent terms up to order $Q^2$. We assess as well the differences arising from results derived using weak-charge form factor decompositions in terms of elastic vector proton and neutron form factors and a model-independent approach based solely on the assumption of spherically symmetric nuclear ground state. We demonstrate the impact of the main effects by assuming pseudo-data from a one-tonne LAr detector and find that, among the effects and under the assumptions considered in this paper, weak-charge form factor parametrizations and weak-charge form factor decompositions in terms of elastic vector proton and neutron form factors enable the extraction of the $^{40}\text{Ar}$ point-neutron distribution mean-square radius with a $\sim 15\%$ accuracy. With a substantial reduction of the beam-related neutron and steady-state backgrounds a $\sim 1\%$ precision extraction seems feasible, using either of the two approaches.**Theoretical Aspect of Nonunitarity in Neutrino Oscillation**

2301.12960 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Chee Sheng Fong.

Nonunitarity can arise in neutrino oscillation when the matrix with elements $\mathbf{U}_{\alpha i}$ which relate the neutrino flavor $\alpha$ and mass $i$ eigenstates is not unitary when sum over the kinematically accessible mass eigenstates or over the three Standard Model flavors. We review how high scale nonunitarity arises after integrating out new physics which is not accessible in neutrino oscillation experiments. In particular, we stress that high scale unitarity violation is only apparent and what happens is that the neutrino flavor states become nonorthogonal due to new physics. Since the flavor space is complete, unitarity has to be preserved in time evolution and that the probabilities of a flavor state oscillates to all possible flavor states always sum up to unity. We highlight the need to modify the expression of probability to preserve unitarity when the flavor states are nonorthogonal. We will continue to call this high scale unitarity violation in reference to a nonunitary $\mathbf{U}$. We contrast this to the low scale nonunitarity scenario in which there are new states accessible in neutrino oscillation experiments but the oscillations involving these states are fast enough such that they are averaged out. We further derive analytical formula for the neutrino oscillation amplitude involving $N$ neutrino flavors without assuming a unitarity $\mathbf{U}$ which allows us to prove a theorem that if $\left(\mathbf{U}\mathbf{U}^{\dagger}\right)_{\alpha\beta}=0$ for all $\alpha\neq\beta$, then the neutrino oscillation probability in an arbitrary matter potential is indistinguishable from the unitarity scenario. Independently of matter potential, while nonunitarity effects for high scale nonunitarity scenario disappear as $\left(\mathbf{U}\mathbf{U}^{\dagger}\right)_{\alpha\beta}\to 0$ for all $\alpha\neq\beta$, low scale nonunitarity effects can remain.**Klein-Gordon Equation with Self-Interaction $λφ^4$ and Arbitrary Spherical Source Terms**

2301.11106 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton.

The Klein-Gordon equation for a scalar field sourced by a spherically symmetric background is an interesting second-order differential equation with applications in particle physics, astrophysics, and elsewhere. Here we present solutions for generic source density profiles in the case where the scalar field has no interactions or a mass term. For a $\lambda\phi^4$ self-interaction term, we provide the necessary expressions for a numerical computation, an algorithm to numerically match the initial conditions from infinity to the origin, and an accurate guess of that initial condition. We also provide code to perform the numerical calculations that can be adapted for arbitrary density profiles.**Neutrino Electromagnetic Properties and the Weak Mixing Angle at the LHC Forward Physics Facility**

2301.10254 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Roshan Mammen Abraham, [and 3 more]Saeid Foroughi-Abari, Felix Kling, and Yu-Dai Tsai [hide authors].

The LHC produces an intense beam of highly energetic neutrinos of all three flavors in the forward direction, and the Forward Physics Facility (FPF) has been proposed to house a suite of experiments taking advantage of this opportunity. In this study, we investigate the FPF's potential to probe the neutrino electromagnetic properties, including neutrino millicharge, magnetic moment, and charge radius. We find that, due to the large flux of tau neutrinos at the LHC, the FPF detectors will be able to provide the strongest laboratory-based sensitivity to the tau neutrino magnetic moment and millicharge by searching for excess in low recoil energy electron scattering events. We also find that, by precisely measuring the rate of neutral current deep inelastic scattering events, the FPF detectors have the potential to obtain the strongest experimental bounds on the neutrino charge radius for the electron neutrino, and one of the leading bounds for the muon neutrino flavor. The same signature could also be used to measure the weak mixing angle, and we estimate that $\sin^2 \theta_W$ could be measured to about $3\%$ precision at a scale $Q \sim 10$ GeV, shedding new light on the long-standing NuTeV anomaly.**Sterile Neutrino Shape-shifting Caused by Dark Matter**

2301.09651 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hooman Davoudiasl and Peter B. Denton.

Light sterile neutrinos with a mass of $\sim 1$ eV continue to be interesting due to multiple hints from terrestrial experiments. This simple hypothesis suffers from strong astrophysical constraints, in particular from the early universe as well as solar neutrinos. We develop a cosmologically viable proposal consistent with the terrestrial hints, as well as solar constraints, by sourcing the sterile neutrino's mass from ordinary matter via an ultralight scalar $\phi$ which can also be the dark matter. In this scenario, the experimentally implied $\sim 1$ eV sterile neutrino mass is a local value and changes throughout spacetime.**Synergy Between Hubble Tension Motivated Self-Interacting Neutrino and KeV-Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter**

2301.09552 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mansi Dhuria and Abinas Pradhan.

The discrepancy between the value of Hubble constant measured by CMB observations and local low-redshift based observations has proposed many solutions which require the existence of Physics beyond Standard Model (SM). One of the interesting solutions is based on considering the strong self-interaction between Standard Model (SM) neutrinos through an additional scalar/vector mediator. Interestingly, the strong self-interaction between SM neutrinos also play an important role in obtaining KeV-sterile neutrino as a viable Dark Matter (DM) candidate through the famous Dodelson-Widrow mechanism. In this work, we have tried to find the synergy between the parameter space of active-sterile neutrino mixing vs mass of sterile neutrino allowed by Hubble tension solution and the requirement of getting KeV-sterile neutrino as DM candidate. Interestingly, we get a large amount of parameter space that is consistent with both the requirements and also free from X-Ray constraints. Finally, we have embedded this scenario in a consistent supersymmetric model of particle physics. In this framework, we have shown that the value of sterile neutrino mass, SM neutrino mass and the required mixing angle can be naturally obtained by considering the supersymmetry breaking scale to be around O(10) TeV. Thus, it would give an interesting testing ground for supersymmetry as well as signatures of Warm Dark Matter (WDM).**NGC 1068 constraints on neutrino-dark matter scattering**

2301.08756 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by James M. Cline and Matteo Puel.

The IceCube collaboration has observed the first steady-state point source of high-energy neutrinos, coming from the active galaxy NGC 1068. If neutrinos interacted strongly enough with dark matter, the emitted neutrinos would have been impeded by the dense spike of dark matter surrounding the supermassive black hole at the galactic center, which powers the emission. We derive a stringent upper limit on the scattering cross section between neutrinos and dark matter based on the observed events and theoretical models of the dark matter spike. The bound can be stronger than that obtained by the single IceCube neutrino event from the blazar TXS 0506+056 for some spike models.**Can Neutrino Self-interactions Save Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter?**

2301.08299 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rui An, [and 3 more]Vera Gluscevic, Ethan O. Nadler, and Yue Zhang [hide authors].

Sterile neutrinos only interact with the Standard Model through the neutrino sector, and thus represent a simple dark matter (DM) candidate with many potential astrophysical and cosmological signatures. Recently, sterile neutrinos produced through self-interactions of active neutrinos have received attention as a particle candidate that can yield the entire observed DM relic abundance without violating the most stringent constraints from X-ray observations. We examine consistency of this production mechanism with the abundance of small-scale structure in the universe, as captured by the population of ultra-faint dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way, and derive a lower bound on the sterile-neutrino particle mass of $37.2$ keV. Combining these results with previous limits from particle physics and astrophysics excludes $100\%$ sterile neutrino DM produced by strong neutrino self-coupling, mediated by a heavy ($\gtrsim 1~\mathrm{GeV}$) scalar particle; however, data permits sterile-neutrino DM production via a light mediator.**Mineral Detection of Neutrinos and Dark Matter. A Whitepaper**

2301.07118 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sebastian Baum, [and 68 more]Patrick Stengel, Natsue Abe, Javier F. Acevedo, Gabriela R. Araujo, Yoshihiro Asahara, Frank Avignone, Levente Balogh, Laura Baudis, Yilda Boukhtouchen, Joseph Bramante, Pieter Alexander Breur, Lorenzo Caccianiga, Francesco Capozzi, Juan I. Collar, Reza Ebadi, Thomas Edwards, Klaus Eitel, Alexey Elykov, Rodney C. Ewing, Katherine Freese, Audrey Fung, Claudio Galelli, Ulrich A. Glasmacher, Arianna Gleason, Noriko Hasebe, Shigenobu Hirose, Shunsaku Horiuchi, Yasushi Hoshino, Patrick Huber, Yuki Ido, Yohei Igami, Norito Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Itow, Takashi Kamiyama, Takenori Kato, Bradley J. Kavanagh, Yoji Kawamura, Shingo Kazama, Christopher J. Kenney, Ben Kilminster, Yui Kouketsu, Yukiko Kozaka, Noah A. Kurinsky, Matthew Leybourne, Thalles Lucas, William F. McDonough, Mason C. Marshall, Jose Maria Mateos, Anubhav Mathur, Katsuyoshi Michibayashi, Sharlotte Mkhonto, Kohta Murase, Tatsuhiro Naka, Kenji Oguni, Surjeet Rajendran, Hitoshi Sakane, Paola Sala, Kate Scholberg, Ingrida Semenec, Takuya Shiraishi, Joshua Spitz, Kai Sun, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Erwin H. Tanin, Aaron Vincent, Nikita Vladimirov, Ronald L. Walsworth, and Hiroko Watanabe [hide authors].

Minerals are solid state nuclear track detectors - nuclear recoils in a mineral leave latent damage to the crystal structure. Depending on the mineral and its temperature, the damage features are retained in the material from minutes (in low-melting point materials such as salts at a few hundred degrees C) to timescales much larger than the 4.5 Gyr-age of the Solar System (in refractory materials at room temperature). The damage features from the $O(50)$ MeV fission fragments left by spontaneous fission of $^{238}$U and other heavy unstable isotopes have long been used for fission track dating of geological samples. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the readout of defects caused by nuclear recoils with energies as small as $O(1)$ keV. This whitepaper discusses a wide range of possible applications of minerals as detectors for $E_R \gtrsim O(1)$ keV nuclear recoils: Using natural minerals, one could use the damage features accumulated over $O(10)$ Myr$-O(1)$ Gyr to measure astrophysical neutrino fluxes (from the Sun, supernovae, or cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere) as well as search for Dark Matter. Using signals accumulated over months to few-years timescales in laboratory-manufactured minerals, one could measure reactor neutrinos or use them as Dark Matter detectors, potentially with directional sensitivity. Research groups in Europe, Asia, and America have started developing microscopy techniques to read out the $O(1) - O(100)$ nm damage features in crystals left by $O(0.1) - O(100)$ keV nuclear recoils. We report on the status and plans of these programs. The research program towards the realization of such detectors is highly interdisciplinary, combining geoscience, material science, applied and fundamental physics with techniques from quantum information and Artificial Intelligence.**Multifield Ultralight Dark Matter**

2301.07114 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mateja Gosenca, [and 6 more]Andrew Eberhardt, Yourong Wang, Benedikt Eggemeier, Emily Kendall, J. Luna Zagorac, and Richard Easther [hide authors].

Ultralight dark matter (ULDM) is usually taken to be a single scalar field. Here we explore the possibility that ULDM consists of $N$ light scalar fields with only gravitational interactions. This configuration is more consistent with the underlying particle physics motivations for these scenarios than a single ultralight field. ULDM halos have a characteristic granular structure that increases stellar velocity dispersion and can be used as observational constraints on ULDM models. In multifield simulations, we find that inside a halo the amplitude of the total density fluctuations decreases as $1/\sqrt{N}$ and that the fields do not become significantly correlated over cosmological timescales. Smoother halos heat stellar orbits less efficiently, reducing the velocity dispersion relative to the single field case and thus weakening the observational constraints on the field mass. Analytically, we show that for $N$ equal-mass fields with mass $m$ the ULDM contribution to the stellar velocity dispersion scales as $1/(N m^3)$. Lighter fields heat the most efficiently and if the smallest mass $m_L$ is significantly below the other field masses the dispersion scales as $1/(N^2 m_L^3)$.**EFT analysis of New Physics at COHERENT**

2301.07036 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Víctor Bresó-Pla, [and 3 more]Adam Falkowski, Martín González-Alonso, and Kevin Monsálvez-Pozo [hide authors].

Using an effective field theory approach, we study coherent neutrino scattering on nuclei, in the setup pertinent to the COHERENT experiment. We include non-standard effects both in neutrino production and detection, with an arbitrary flavor structure, with all leading Wilson coefficients simultaneously present, and without assuming factorization in flux times cross section. A concise description of the COHERENT event rate is obtained by introducing three generalized weak charges, which can be associated (in a certain sense) to the production and scattering of $\nu_e$, $\nu_\mu$ and $\bar{\nu}_\mu$ on the nuclear target. Our results are presented in a convenient form that can be trivially applied to specific New Physics scenarios. In particular, we find that existing COHERENT measurements provide percent level constraints on two combinations of Wilson coefficients. These constraints have a visible impact on the global SMEFT fit, even in the constrained flavor-blind setup. The improvement, which affects certain 4-fermion LLQQ operators, is significantly more important in a flavor-general SMEFT. Our work shows that COHERENT data should be included in electroweak precision studies from now on.**Report of the 2021 U.S. Community Study on the Future of Particle Physics (Snowmass 2021) Summary Chapter**

2301.06581 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joel N. Butler, [and 42 more]R. Sekhar Chivukula, André de Gouvêa, Tao Han, Young-Kee Kim, Priscilla Cushman, Glennys R. Farrar, Yury G. Kolomensky, Sergei Nagaitsev, Nicolás Yunes, Stephen Gourlay, Tor Raubenheimer, Vladimir Shiltsev, Kétévi A. Assamagan, Breese Quinn, V. Daniel Elvira, Steven Gottlieb, Benjamin Nachman, Aaron S. Chou, Marcelle Soares-Santos, Tim M. P. Tait, Meenakshi Narain, Laura Reina, Alessandro Tricoli, Phillip S. Barbeau, Petra Merkel, Jinlong Zhang, Patrick Huber, Kate Scholberg, Elizabeth Worcester, Marina Artuso, Robert H. Bernstein, Alexey A. Petrov, Nathaniel Craig, Csaba Csáki, Aida X. El-Khadra, Laura Baudis, Jeter Hall, Kevin T. Lesko, John L. Orrell, Julia Gonski, Fernanda Psihas, and Sara M. Simon [hide authors].

The 2021-22 High-Energy Physics Community Planning Exercise (a.k.a. ``Snowmass 2021'') was organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society. Snowmass 2021 was a scientific study that provided an opportunity for the entire U.S. particle physics community, along with its international partners, to identify the most important scientific questions in High Energy Physics for the following decade, with an eye to the decade after that, and the experiments, facilities, infrastructure, and R&D needed to pursue them. This Snowmass summary report synthesizes the lessons learned and the main conclusions of the Community Planning Exercise as a whole and presents a community-informed synopsis of U.S. particle physics at the beginning of 2023. This document, along with the Snowmass reports from the various subfields, will provide input to the 2023 Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) subpanel of the U.S. High-Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP), and will help to guide and inform the activity of the U.S. particle physics community during the next decade and beyond.**Distortion of neutrino oscillations by dark photon dark matter**

2301.04152 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gonzalo Alonso-Álvarez, Katarina Bleau, and James M. Cline.

A weakly coupled and light dark photon coupling to lepton charges $L_\mu-L_\tau$ is an intriguing dark matter candidate whose coherent oscillations alter the dispersion relations of leptons. We study how this effect modifies the dynamics of neutrino flavor conversions, focusing on long baseline and solar oscillations. We analyze data from the T2K, SNO, and Super-Kamiokande experiments in order to obtain world-leading limits on the dark photon gauge coupling for masses below $\sim 10^{-11}\,\mathrm{eV}$. Degeneracies between shifts in the neutrino mass-squared differences and mixing angles and the new physics effect significantly relax the current constrains on the neutrino vacuum oscillation parameters.**Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics Overview**

2301.02935 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Floyd W. Stecker.

This book chapter presents an overview of the historical experimental and theoretical developments in neutrino physics and astrophysics and also the physical properties of neutrinos, as well as the physical processes involving neutrinos. It also discusses the role of neutrinos in astrophysics and cosmology. Correction to tex file made.**Constraints from the duration of supernova neutrino burst on on-shell light gauge boson production by neutrinos**

2301.00661 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by David G. Cerdeño, Marina Cermeño, and Yasaman Farzan.

In this article, we study the on-shell production of low-mass vector mediators from neutrino-antineutrino coalescence in the core of proto-neutron stars. Taking into account the radial dependence of the density, energy, and temperature inside the proto-neutron star, we compute the neutrino-antineutrino interaction rate in the star interior in the well-motivated $U(1)_{L_{\mu}-L_{\tau}}$ model. First, we determine the values of the coupling above which neutrino-antineutrino interactions dominate over the Standard Model neutrino-nucleon scattering. We argue that, although in this regime a redistribution of the neutrino energies might take place, making low-energy neutrinos more trapped, this only affects a small part of the neutrino population and it cannot be constrained with the SN 1987A data. Thus, contrary to previous claims, the region of the parameter space where the $U(1)_{L_{\mu}-L_{\tau}}$ model explains the discrepancy in the muon anomalous magnetic moment is not ruled out. We then focus on small gauge couplings, where the decay length of the new gauge boson is larger than the neutrino-nucleon mean free path, but still smaller than the size of proto-neutron star. We show that in this regime, the on-shell production of a long-lived $Z'$ and its subsequent decay into neutrinos can significantly reduce the duration of the neutrino burst, probing values of the coupling below ${\cal O}(10^{-7})$ for mediator masses between 10 and 100 MeV. This disfavours new areas of the parameter space of the $U(1)_{L_{\mu}-L_{\tau}}$ model.**Impact of CP violation searches at MOMENT experiment with sterile neutrinos**

2301.00390 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kiran Sharma and Sudhanwa Patra.

We examine the scope of the MOMENT experiment in the context of CP violation searches with the presence of extra eV scale sterile neutrino. MOMENT is a proposed short baseline neutrino oscillation experiment using muon beams for neutrinos production, making it advantageous over $\pi_0$ background and other technical difficulties. We work over the first oscillation maxima which matches the peak value of flux with a run time of 5 years for both neutrino and anti-neutrino modes. We perform the bi-probability studies for both 3 and 3+1 flavor mixing schemes. The CP violation sensitivities arising from the fundamental CP phase $\delta_{13}$ and unknown CP phase $\delta_{14}$ are explored at the firm footing. The slight deteriorates are observed in CP violations induced by $\delta_{13}$ as the presence of sterile neutrino is considered. We also look at the reconstruction of CP violations phases $\delta_{13}$ and $\delta_{14}$ and the MOMENT experiment shows significant capabilities in the precise measurement of $\delta_{13}$ phase.**Bump-hunting in the diffuse flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos**

2301.00024 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Damiano F. G. Fiorillo and Mauricio Bustamante.

The origin of the bulk of the high-energy astrophysical neutrinos seen by IceCube, with TeV--PeV energies, is unknown. If they are made in photohadronic, i.e., proton-photon, interactions in astrophysical sources, this may manifest as a bump-like feature in their diffuse flux, centered around a characteristic energy. We search for evidence of this feature, allowing for variety in its shape and size, in 7.5 years of High-Energy Starting Events (HESE) collected by the IceCube neutrino telescope, and make forecasts using larger data samples from upcoming neutrino telescopes. Present-day data reveals no evidence of bump-like features, which allows us to constrain candidate populations of photohadronic neutrino sources. Near-future forecasts show promising potential for stringent constraints or decisive discovery of bump-like features. Our results provide new insight into the origins of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, complementing those from point-source searches.**Neutron capture-induced nuclear recoils as background for CE$ν$NS~measurements at reactors**

2212.14148 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. J. Biffl, [and 3 more]A. Gevorgian, K. Harris, and A. N. Villano [hide authors].

Nuclear reactors represent a promising neutrino source for CE$\nu$NS (coherent-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering) searches. However, reactor sites also come with high ambient neutron flux. Neutron capture-induced nuclear recoils can create a spectrum that strongly overlaps the CE$\nu$NS signal for recoils $\lesssim$\,100\,eV for nuclear reactor measurements in silicon or germanium detectors. This background can be particularly critical for low-power research reactors providing a moderate neutrino flux. In this work we quantify the impact of this background and show that, for a measurement 10\,m from a 1\,MW reactor, the effective thermal neutron flux should be kept below $\sim$~7$\times$~10$^{-4}$\,n/cm$^2$s so that the CE$\nu$NS events can be measured at least at a 5$\sigma$ level with germanium detectors in 100~kg\,yr exposure time. This flux corresponds to 60\% of the sea-level flux but needs to be achieved in a nominally high-flux (reactor) environment. Improved detector resolution can help the measurements, but the thermal flux is the key parameter for the sensitivity of the experiment. For silicon detectors, the constraint is even stronger and thermal neutron fluxes must be near an order of magnitude lower. This constraint highlights the need of an effective thermal neutron mitigation strategy for future low threshold CE$\nu$NS searches. In particular, the neutron capture-induced background can be efficiently reduced by active veto systems tagging the deexcitation gamma following the capture.**Neutrino Oscillations in Matter using the Adjugate of the Hamiltonian**

2212.12565 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Asli Abdullahi and Stephen J. Parke.

We revisit neutrino oscillations in constant matter density for a number of different scenarios: three flavors with the standard Wolfenstein matter potential, four flavors with standard matter potential and three flavors with non-standard matter potentials. To calculate the oscillation probabilities for these scenarios one must determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Hamiltonians. We use a method for calculating the eigenvalues that is well known, determination of the zeros of determinant of matrix $(\lambda I -H)$, where H is the Hamiltonian, I the identity matrix and $\lambda$ is a scalar. To calculate the associated eigenvectors we use a method that is little known in the particle physics community, the calculation of the adjugate (transpose of the cofactor matrix) of the same matrix, $(\lambda I -H)$. This method can be applied to any Hamiltonian, but provides a very simple way to determine the eigenvectors for neutrino oscillation in matter, independent of the complexity of the matter potential. This method can be trivially automated using the Faddeev-LeVerrier algorithm for numerical calculations. For the above scenarios we derive a number of quantities that are invariant of the matter potential, many are new such as the generalization of the Naumov-Harrison-Scott identity for four or more flavors of neutrinos. We also show how these matter potential independent quantities become matter potential dependent when off-diagonal non-standard matter effects are included.**Lepton-flavour-violating tau decays from triality**

2212.09760 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Innes Bigaran, [and 4 more]Xiao-Gang He, Michael A. Schmidt, German Valencia, and Raymond Volkas [hide authors].

Motivated by flavour symmetry models, we construct theories based on a low-energy limit featuring lepton flavour triality that have the flavour-violating decays $\tau^\pm \to \mu^\pm \mu^\pm e^\mp$ and $\tau^\pm \to e^\pm e^\pm \mu^\mp$ as the main phenomenological signatures of physics beyond the standard model. These decay modes are expected to be probed in the near future with increased sensitivity by the Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider. The simple standard model extensions featured have doubly-charged scalars as the mediators of the above decay processes. The phenomenology of these extensions is studied here in detail.**Inspection of the detection cross section dependence of the Gallium Anomaly**

2212.09722 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Giunti, [and 3 more]Y. F. Li, C. A. Ternes, and Z. Xin [hide authors].

We discuss in detail the dependence of the Gallium Anomaly on the detection cross section. We provide updated values of the size of the Gallium Anomaly and find that its significance is larger than about $5\sigma$ for all the detection cross section models. We discuss the dependence of the Gallium Anomaly on the assumed value of the half life of ${}^{71}\text{Ge}$, which determines the cross sections of the transitions from the ground state of ${}^{71}\text{Ga}$ to the ground state of ${}^{71}\text{Ge}$. We show that a value of the ${}^{71}\text{Ge}$ half life which is larger than the standard one can reduce or even solve the Gallium Anomaly. Considering the short-baseline neutrino oscillation interpretation of the Gallium Anomaly, we show that a value of the ${}^{71}\text{Ge}$ half life which is larger than the standard one can reduce the tension with the results of other experiments. Since the standard value of the ${}^{71}\text{Ge}$ half life was measured in 1985, we advocate the importance of new measurements with modern technique and apparatus for a better assessment of the Gallium Anomaly.**Adding Stroboscopic Muon Information For Reduction of Systematic Uncertainties in DUNE**

2212.09524 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Henry J. Frisch.

Muons have a similar latency/energy correlation from pion decay as do the neutrinos, and hence in each time-slice in a stroboscopic analysis measurements of their momentum spectra can reduce systematic uncertainties due to flux. There are, however, unique issues for muons: 1) during standard neutrino data-taking muon measurements in the forward direction must be in formidable high-flux high-radiation environments; 2) because of the very high incident hadron flux in the Absorber Hall, muons must be detected after a thick absorber, imposing a range cutoff at a momentum much above the minimum neutrino momentum of interest; 3) the muon velocity, unlike that of neutrinos, differs from $c$, and so the muon detected time will require correction for the muon flight path, requiring measurement of the muon momentum; 4) multiple scattering is significant for low-momentum muons, and so a `good geometry' is essential for precision muon flux measurements; and 5) developments in psec timing allow muon momenta in the momentum region of interest to be measured precisely by time-of-flight over short distances with photodetectors of a few-psec resolution. Here we advocate that a program of extensive precise low-intensity muon momentum spectrum measurements be carried out early in the LBNF program before the Absorber Hall becomes too hot. The low-momentum muon spectra taken in this experiment would be cross-normalized to the high-intensity neutrino data through the currently planned muon monitors which can operate in both the low and high intensity geometries. While beyond the scope of uniquely muon-related issues, the note includes a proposal for an long-base-line oscillation analysis strategy that exploits stroboscopic information for both neutrinos and muons to reduce systematic uncertainties on the neutrino fluxes and event selection in Far and Near detectors.**Strong Lensing of High-Energy Neutrinos**

2212.08793 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yoon Chan Taak, [and 3 more]Tommaso Treu, Yoshiyuki Inoue, and Alexander Kusenko [hide authors].

We consider the effects of strong gravitational lensing by galaxy-scale deflectors on the observations of high-energy (E$\gg$GeV) neutrinos (HEN). For HEN at cosmological distances, the optical depth for multiple imaging is $\sim 10^{-3}$, implying that while we do not expect any multiply imaged HEN with present samples, next-generation experiments should be able to detect the first such event. We then present the distribution of expected time delays to aid in the identification of such events, in combination with directional and energy information. In order to assist in the evaluation of HEN production mechanisms, we illustrate how lensing affects the observed number counts for a variety of intrinsic luminosity functions of the source population. Finally, we see that the lensing effects on the cosmic neutrino background flux calculation would be negligible by taking kpc-scale jets as an example.**Non-adiabatic Level Crossing in Resonant Neutrino Oscillations**

2212.06978 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stephen J. Parke.

Analytic results are presented for the probability of detecting an electron neutrino after passage through a resonant oscillation region. If the electron neutrino is produced far above the resonance density, this probability is simply given by $\langle \,P_{\nu_e} \, \rangle \approx \sin^2 \theta_0+ P_\text{x} \cos 2 \theta_0$, where $\theta_0$ is the vacuum mixing angle. The probability is averaged over the production as well as the detection positions of the neutrino and $P_\text{x} $ is the Landau-Zener transition probability between adiabatic states. Finally, this result is applied to resonance oscillations within the solar interior.**Invisible Neutrino Decays as Origin of TeV Gamma Rays from GRB221009A**

2212.03477 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jihong Huang, [and 3 more]Yilin Wang, Bingrong Yu, and Shun Zhou [hide authors].

Recently, the LHAASO collaboration has observed the gamma rays of energies up to ten TeV from the gamma-ray burst GRB221009A, which has stimulated the community of astronomy, particle physics and astrophysics to propose various possible interpretations. In this paper, we put forward a viable scenario that neutrinos are produced together with TeV photons in the gamma-ray burst and gradually decay into the axion-like particles, which are then converted into gamma rays in the galactic magnetic fields. In such a scenario, the tension between previous axion-like particle interpretations and the existing observational constraints on the relevant coupling constant and mass can be relaxed.**Matter effect in presence of a sterile neutrino and resolution of the octant degeneracy using a liquid argon detector**

2212.02949 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Animesh Chatterjee, Srubabati Goswami, and Supriya Pan.

Results from the experiments like LSND, and MiniBooNE hint towards the possible presence of an extra eV scale sterile neutrino. The addition of such a neutrino will significantly impact the standard three flavour neutrino oscillations; in particular, it can give rise to additional degeneracies due to new sterile parameters. In our work, we investigate how the sensitivity to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle $\theta_{23}$ is affected by introducing a sterile neutrino to the standard neutrino oscillation framework. We compute the oscillation probabilities in presence of a sterile neutrino, analytically, using the approximation that $\Delta_{21}$, the smallest mass squared difference, is zero. We use these probabilities to understand the degeneracies analytically at different baselines. We present our results of the sensitivity to octant of $\theta_{23}$ for beam neutrinos using a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC). We also obtain octant sensitivity using atmospheric neutrinos using the same LArTPC detector without any charge identification capability. In addition, we include the charge tagging capability of muon capture in argon which allows one to differentiate between muon neutrino and antineutrino events. The combined sensitivity of beam and atmospheric neutrinos in a similar experimental setup is also delineated. We observe that by combining simulated data from the beam and atmospheric neutrinos (including charge-id for muons), the sensitivity to the octant of $\theta_{23}$ for true values of $\theta_{23}=41^\circ(49^\circ)$ exceeds $4\sigma(3\sigma)$ for more than $50\%$ values of true $\delta_{13}$.**Snowmass Neutrino Frontier: NF01 Topical Group Report on Three-Flavor Neutrino Oscillations**

2212.00809 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton, [and 7 more]Megan Friend, Mark D. Messier, Hirohisa A. Tanaka, Sebastian Böser, João A. B. Coelho, Mathieu Perrin-Terrin, and Tom Stuttard [hide authors].

This is the report from the Snowmass NF01 topical group and colleagues on the current status and expected future progress to understand the three-flavor neutrino oscillation picture.**Probing Pseudo-Dirac Neutrinos with Astrophysical Sources at IceCube**

2212.00737 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kiara Carloni, [and 4 more]Ivan Martinez-Soler, Carlos A. Arguelles, K. S. Babu, and P. S. Bhupal Dev [hide authors].

The recent observation of NGC 1068 by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory has opened a new window to neutrino physics with astrophysical baselines. In this Letter, we propose a new method to probe the nature of neutrino masses using these observations. In particular, our method enables searching for signatures of pseudo-Dirac neutrinos with mass-squared differences that reach down to $\delta m^2 \gtrsim 10^{-21}~\text{eV}^2$, improving the reach of terrestrial experiments by more than a billion. Finally, we discuss how the discovery of a constellation of neutrino sources can further increase the sensitivity and cover a wider range of $\delta m^2$ values.**The Cosmic Neutrino Background on the Surface of the Earth**

2212.00036 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Asimina Arvanitaki and Savas Dimopoulos.

We argue that the reflection of relic neutrinos from the surface of the Earth results in a significant local $\nu-\bar{\nu}$ asymmetry, far exceeding the expected primordial lepton asymmetry. The net fractional electron neutrino number $\frac{n_{\nu_e}-n_{\bar{\nu}_e}}{n_{\nu_e}}$ is up to $\mathcal{O}(10^5) \sqrt{\frac{m_\nu}{0.1~\text{eV}}}$ larger than that implied by the baryon asymmetry. This enhancement is due to the weak 4-Fermi repulsion of the $\nu_e$ from ordinary matter which slows down the $\nu_e$ near the Earth's surface, and to the resulting evanescent neutrino wave that penetrates below the surface. This repulsion thus creates a net $\nu_e$ overdensity in a shell $\sim 7~\text{meters} \sqrt{\frac{0.1~\text{eV}}{m_\nu}}$ thick around the Earth's surface. Similarly the repulsion between $\bar{\nu}_\mu$ or $\bar{\nu}_\tau$ and ordinary matter creates an overdensity of $\bar{\nu}_{\mu, \tau}$ of similar size. These local enhancements increase the size of $\mathcal{O}(G_F)$ torques of the $C\nu B$ on spin-polarized matter by a factor of order $10^5$. In addition, they create a gradient of the net neutrino density which naturally provides a way out of the forty-year-old ``no-go'' theorems on the vanishing of $\mathcal{O}(G_F)$ forces. The torque resulting from such a gradient force can be $10^8$ times larger than that of earlier proposals. Although the size of these effects is still far from current reach, they may point to new directions for $C\nu B$ detection.**Multiplicity of TeV muons in air showers detected with IceTop and IceCube**

2211.16970 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stef Verpoest.

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole can provide unique tests of muon production models in extensive air showers by measuring both the low-energy (GeV) and high-energy (TeV) muon components. We present here a measurement of the TeV muon content in near-vertical air showers detected with IceTop in coincidence with IceCube. The primary cosmic-ray energy is estimated from the dominant electromagnetic component of the air shower observed at the surface. The high-energy muon content of the shower is studied based on the energy losses measured in the deep detector. Using a neural network, the primary energy and the multiplicity of TeV muons are estimated on an event-by-event basis. The baseline analysis determines the average multiplicity as a function of the primary energy between 2.5 PeV and 250 PeV using the hadronic interaction model Sibyll 2.1. Results obtained using simulations based on the post-LHC models QGSJet-II.04 and EPOS-LHC are presented for primary energies up to 100 PeV. For all three hadronic interaction models, the measurements of the TeV muon content are consistent with the predictions assuming recent composition models. Comparing the results to measurements of GeV muons in air showers reveals a tension in the obtained composition interpretation based on the post-LHC models.**Neutrino Non-standard Interactions with arbitrary couplings to u and d quarks**

2211.15686 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nicolás Bernal and Yasaman Farzan.

We introduce a model for Non-Standard neutral current Interaction (NSI) between neutrinos and the matter fields, with an arbitrary coupling to the up and down quarks. The model is based on a new $U(1)$ gauge symmetry with a light gauge boson that mixes with the photon. We show that the couplings to the $u$ and $d$ quarks can have a ratio such that the contribution from NSI to the Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CE$\nu$NS) amplitude vanishes, relaxing the bound on the NSI from the CE$\nu$NS experiments. Additionally, the deviation of the measured value of the anomalous magnetic dipole moment of the muon from the standard-model prediction can be fitted. The most limiting constraints on our model come from the search for the decay of the new gauge boson to $e^-e^+$ and invisible particles, carried out by NA48/2 and NA64, respectively. We show that these bounds can be relaxed by opening up the decay of the new gauge boson to new light scalars that eventually decay into the $e^- e^+$ pairs. We show that there are ranges that can lead to both a solution to the $(g - 2)_\mu$ anomaly and values of $\epsilon_{\mu \mu} = \epsilon_{\tau \tau}$ large enough to be probed by future solar neutrino experiments.**Diffuse Emission of Galactic High-Energy Neutrinos from a Global Fit of Cosmic Rays**

2211.15607 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Georg Schwefer, Philipp Mertsch, and Christopher Wiebusch.

In the standard picture of galactic cosmic rays, a diffuse flux of high-energy gamma-rays and neutrinos is produced from inelastic collisions of cosmic ray nuclei with the interstellar gas. The neutrino flux is a guaranteed signal for high-energy neutrino observatories such as IceCube, but has not been found yet. Experimental searches for this flux constitute an important test of the standard picture of galactic cosmic rays. Both the observation and non-observation would allow important implications for the physics of cosmic ray acceleration and transport. We present CRINGE, a new model of galactic diffuse high-energy gamma-rays and neutrinos, fitted to recent cosmic ray data from AMS-02, DAMPE, IceTop as well as KASCADE. We quantify the uncertainties for the predicted emission from the cosmic ray model, but also from the choice of source distribution, gas maps and cross-sections. We consider the possibility of a contribution from unresolved sources. Our model predictions exhibit significant deviations from older models. Our fiducial model is available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7373010 .**Physics implications of a combined analysis of COHERENT CsI and LAr data**

2211.11905 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by V. De Romeri, [and 5 more]O. G. Miranda, D. K. Papoulias, G. Sanchez Garcia, M. Tórtola, and J. W. F. Valle [hide authors].

The observation of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering has opened the window to many physics opportunities. This process has been measured by the COHERENT Collaboration using two different targets, first CsI and then argon. Recently, the COHERENT Collaboration has updated the CsI data analysis with a higher statistics and an improved understanding of systematics. Here we perform a detailed statistical analysis of the full CsI data and combine it with the previous argon result. We discuss a vast array of implications, from tests of the Standard Model to new physics probes. In our analyses we take into account experimental uncertainties associated to the efficiency as well as the timing distribution of neutrino fluxes, making our results rather robust. In particular, we update previous measurements of the weak mixing angle and the neutron root mean square charge radius for CsI and argon. We also update the constraints on new physics scenarios including neutrino nonstandard interactions and the most general case of neutrino generalized interactions, as well as the possibility of light mediators. Finally, constraints on neutrino electromagnetic properties are also examined, including the conversion to sterile neutrino states. In many cases, the inclusion of the recent CsI data leads to a dramatic improvement of bounds.**Enhancing Sensitivity to Leptonic CP Violation using Complementarity among DUNE, T2HK, and T2HKK**

2211.10620 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, [and 4 more]Sudipta Das, Alessio Giarnetti, Davide Meloni, and Masoom Singh [hide authors].

After the landmark discovery of non-zero $\theta_{13}$ by the modern reactor experiments, unprecedented precision on neutrino mass-mixing parameters has been achieved over the past decade. This has set the stage for the discovery of leptonic CP violation (LCPV) at high confidence level in the next-generation long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. In this work, we explore in detail the possible complementarity among the on-axis DUNE and off-axis T2HK experiments to enhance the sensitivity to LCPV suppressing the $\theta_{23}-\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ degeneracy. We find that none of these experiments individually can achieve the milestone of 3$\sigma$ LCPV for at least 75% choices of $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ in its entire range of $[-180^{\circ} , 180^{\circ}]$, with their nominal exposures and systematic uncertainties. However, their combination can attain the same for all values of $\theta_{23}$ with only half of their nominal exposures. We observe that the proposed T2HKK setup in combination with DUNE can further increase the CP coverage to more than 80% with only half of their nominal exposures. We study in detail how the coverage in $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ for $\ge$ 3$\sigma$ LCPV depends on the choice of $\theta_{23}$, exposure, optimal runtime in neutrino and antineutrino modes, and systematic uncertainties in these experiments in isolation and combination. We find that with an improved systematic uncertainty of 2.7% in appearance mode, the standalone T2HK setup can provide a CP coverage of around 75% for all values of $\theta_{23}$. We also discuss the pivotal role of intrinsic, extrinsic, and total CP asymmetries in the appearance channel and extrinsic CP asymmetries in the disappearance channel while analyzing our results.**Non-unitary three-neutrino mixing in the early Universe**

2211.10522 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stefano Gariazzo, [and 4 more]Pablo Martínez-Miravé, Olga Mena, Sergio Pastor, and Mariam Tórtola [hide authors].

Deviations from unitarity in the three-neutrino mixing canonical picture are expected in many physics scenarios beyond the Standard Model. The mixing of new heavy neutral leptons with the three light neutrinos would in principle modify the strength and flavour structure of charged-current and neutral-current interactions with matter. Non-unitarity effects would therefore have an impact on the neutrino decoupling processes in the early Universe and on the value of the effective number of neutrinos, $N_{\rm eff}$. We calculate the cosmological energy density in the form of radiation with a non-unitary neutrino mixing matrix, addressing the possible interplay between parameters. Highly accurate measurements of $N_{\rm eff}$ from forthcoming cosmological observations can provide independent and complementary limits on the departures from unitarity. For completeness, we relate the scenario of small deviations from unitarity to non-standard neutrino interactions and compare the forecasted constraints to other existing limits in the literature.**Strong cosmological constraints on the neutrino magnetic moment**

2211.10432 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pierluca Carenza, [and 4 more]Giuseppe Lucente, Martina Gerbino, Maurizio Giannotti, and Massimiliano Lattanzi [hide authors].

A sizable magnetic moment for neutrinos would be evidence of exotic physics. In the early Universe, left-handed neutrinos with a magnetic moment would interact with electromagnetic fields in the primordial plasma, flipping their helicity and producing a population of right-handed (RH) neutrinos. In this work, we present a new calculation of the production rate of RH neutrinos in a multi-component primordial plasma and quantify their contribution to the total energy density of relativistic species at early times, stressing the implications of the dependence on the initial time for production. Our results improve the previous cosmological limits by almost two orders of magnitudes. Prospects for upcoming cosmological experiments are also discussed.**Evidence for neutrino emission from the nearby active galaxy NGC 1068**

2211.09972 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 385 more]R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, M. Boddenberg, F. Bontempo, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, B. Brinson, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, S. Browne, A. Burgman, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, R. Nahnhauer, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyên, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, M. Pittermann, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, R. Reimann, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. Stokstad, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

We report three searches for high energy neutrino emission from astrophysical objects using data recorded with IceCube between 2011 and 2020. Improvements over previous work include new neutrino reconstruction and data calibration methods. In one search, the positions of 110 a priori selected gamma-ray sources were analyzed individually for a possible surplus of neutrinos over atmospheric and cosmic background expectations. We found an excess of $79_{-20}^{+22}$ neutrinos associated with the nearby active galaxy NGC 1068 at a significance of 4.2$\,\sigma$. The excess, which is spatially consistent with the direction of the strongest clustering of neutrinos in the Northern Sky, is interpreted as direct evidence of TeV neutrino emission from a nearby active galaxy. The inferred flux exceeds the potential TeV gamma-ray flux by at least one order of magnitude.**Revisiting leptonic non-unitarity in light of FASER$ν$**

2211.09638 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Daniel Aloni and Avital Dery.

In the presence of extra neutrino states at high scales, the low-energy effective $3\times 3$ leptonic mixing matrix (LMM) is in general non-unitary. We revisit the question of what is our current knowledge of individual LMM matrix elements without assuming unitarity. We define two minimal sets of experimental constraints -- direct $+$ inherent bounds and indirect bounds, and analyze the implications of each set on leptonic non-unitarity. In addition, we clarify the treatment of flux and cross-section predictions, taking into account NP contamination in hadronic inputs. We use the currently running FASER$\nu$ experiment as a case study in order to demonstrate the sensitivity of collider neutrino experiments to leptonic non-unitarity. We find that indirect bounds constrain LMM non-unitarity to below the $10^{-3}$ level, stronger than current CKM non-unitarity constraints. Conversely, considering only direct and inherent bounds we find that ${\cal O}(1)$ unitarity violation is viable at $2\sigma$, and will be probed by the FASER$\nu$ experiment in the current run of the LHC.**Diffuse neutrino flux measurements with the Baikal-GVD neutrino telescope**

2211.09447 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Baikal Collaboration, [and 57 more]V. A. Allakhverdyan, A. D. Avrorin, A. V. Avrorin, V. M. Aynutdinov, Z. Bardačová, I. A. Belolaptikov, I. V. Borina, N. M. Budnev, V. Y. Dik, G. V. Domogatsky, A. A. Doroshenko, R. Dvornický, A. N. Dyachok, Zh. -A. M. Dzhilkibaev, E. Eckerová, T. V. Elzhov, L. Fajt, A. R. Gafarov, K. V. Golubkov, N. S. Gorshkov, T. I. Gress, K. G. Kebkal, V. K. Kebkal, A. Khatun, E. V. Khramov, M. M. Kolbin, K. V. Konischev, A. V. Korobchenko, A. P. Koshechkin, V. A. Kozhin, M. V. Kruglov, V. F. Kulepov, Y. M. Malyshkin, M. B. Milenin, R. R. Mirgazov, D. V. Naumov, V. Nazari, D. P. Petukhov, E. N. Pliskovsky, M. I. Rozanov, V. D. Rushay, E. V. Ryabov, G. B. Safronov, B. A. Shaybonov, D. Seitova, M. D. Shelepov, F. Šimkovic, A. E. Sirenko, A. V. Skurikhin, A. G. Solovjev, M. N. Sorokovikov, I. Štekl, A. P. Stromakov, O. V. Suvorova, V. A. Tabolenko, Y. V. Yablokova, and D. N. Zaborov [hide authors].

We report on the first observation of the diffuse cosmic neutrino flux with the Baikal-GVD neutrino telescope. Using cascade-like events collected by Baikal-GVD in 2018--2021, a significant excess of events over the expected atmospheric background is observed. This excess is consistent with the high-energy diffuse cosmic neutrino flux observed by IceCube. The null cosmic flux assumption is rejected with a significance of 3.05$\sigma$. Assuming a single power law model of the astrophysical neutrino flux with identical contribution from each neutrino flavor, the following best-fit parameter values are found: the spectral index $\gamma_{astro}$ = $2.58^{+0.27}_{-0.33}$ and the flux normalization $\phi_{astro}$ = 3.04$^{+1.52}_{-1.21}$ per one flavor at 100 TeV.**Revisiting pseudo-Dirac neutrino scenario after recent solar neutrino data**

2211.09105 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Ansarifard and Y. Farzan.

It is still unknown whether the mass terms for neutrinos are of Majorana type or of Dirac type. An interesting possibility, known as pseudo-Dirac scheme combines these two with a dominant Dirac mass term and a subdominant Majorana one. As a result, the mass eigenstates come in pairs with a maximal mixing and a small splitting determined by the Majorana mass. This will affect the neutrino oscillation pattern for long baselines. We revisit this scenario employing recent solar neutrino data, including the seasonal variation of the $^7$Be flux recently reported by BOREXINO. We constrain the splitting using these data and find that both the time integrated solar neutrino data and the seasonal variation independently point towards a new pseudo-Dirac solution with nonzero splitting for $\nu_2$ of $\Delta m_2^2\simeq 1.5\times 10^{-11}$ eV$^2$. We propose alternative methods to test this new solution. In particular, we point out the importance of measuring the solar neutrino flux at the intermediate energies $1.5~{\rm MeV}**Entanglement in three-flavor collective neutrino oscillations**

2211.07678 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pooja Siwach, Anna M. Suliga, and A. Baha Balantekin.

Extreme conditions present in the interiors of the core-collapse supernovae make neutrino-neutrino interactions not only feasible but dominant in specific regions, leading to the non-linear evolution of the neutrino flavor. Results obtained when such collective neutrino oscillations are treated in the mean-field approximation deviate from the results using the many-body picture because of the ignored quantum correlations. We present the first three flavor many-body calculations of the collective neutrino oscillations. The entanglement is quantified in terms of the entanglement entropy and the components of the polarization vector. We propose a qualitative measure of entanglement in terms of flavor-lepton number conserved quantities. We find that in the cases considered in the present work, the entanglement can be underestimated in two flavor approximation. The dependence of the entanglement on mass ordering is also investigated. We also explore the mixing of mass eigenstates in different mass orderings.**Can ultralight dark matter explain the age-velocity dispersion relation of the Milky Way disc: A revised and improved treatment**

2211.07452 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Barry T. Chiang, Jeremiah P. Ostriker, and Hsi-Yu Schive.

Ultralight axion-like particles $m_a \sim 10^{-22}$ eV, or Fuzzy Dark Matter (FDM), behave comparably to cold dark matter (CDM) on cosmological scales and exhibit a kpc-size de Broglie wavelength capable of alleviating established (sub-)galactic-scale problems of CDM. Substructures inside an FDM halo incur gravitational potential perturbations, resulting in stellar heating sufficient to account for the Galactic disc thickening over a Hubble time, as first demonstrated by Church et al. We present a more sophisticated treatment that incorporates the full baryon and dark matter distributions of the Milky Way and adopts stellar disc kinematics inferred from recent Gaia, APOGEE, and LAMOST surveys. Ubiquitous density granulation and subhalo passages respectively drive inner disc thickening and flaring of the outer disc, resulting in an observationally consistent `U-shaped' disc vertical velocity dispersion profile with the global minimum located near the solar radius. The observed age-velocity dispersion relation in the solar vicinity can be explained by the FDM-substructure-induced heating and places an exclusion bound $m_a \gtrsim 0.4\times10^{-22}$ eV. We assess non-trivial uncertainties in the empirical core-halo relation, FDM subhalo mass function and tidal stripping, and stellar heating estimate. The mass range $m_a\simeq 0.5-0.7\times10^{-22}$ eV favoured by the observed thick disc kinematics is in tension with several exclusion bounds inferred from dwarf density profiles, stellar streams, and Milky Way satellite populations, which could be significantly relaxed due to the aforesaid uncertainties. Additionally, strongly anisotropic heating could help explain the formation of ultra-thin disc galaxies.**Wilks's Theorem, Global Fits, and Neutrino Oscillations**

2211.06347 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. M. Hardin.

Tests of models for new physics appearing in neutrino experiments often involve global fits to a quantum mechanical effect called neutrino oscillations. This paper introduces students to methods commonly used in these global fits starting from an understanding of more conventional fitting methods using log-likelihood and $\chi^2$ minimization. Specifically, we discuss how the $\Delta\chi^2$, which compares the $\chi^2$ of the fit with the new physics to the $\chi^2$ of the Standard Model prediction, is often interpreted using Wilks's theorem. This paper uses toy models to explore the properties of $\Delta\chi^2$ as a test statistic for oscillating functions. The statistics of such models are shown to deviate from Wilks's theorem. Tests for new physics also often examine data subsets for ``tension'' called the ``parameter goodness of fit''. In this paper, we explain this approach and use toy models to examine the validity of the probabilities from this test also. Although we have chosen a specific scenario -- neutrino oscillations -- to illustrate important points, students should keep in mind that these points are widely applicable when fitting multiple data sets to complex functions.**Studying neutrino oscillations at DUNE through dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking in four-Majorana fermion model**

2211.06192 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Susie Kim.

We study the impact of the dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking induced by the auxiliary gauge fields of neutrino on the oscillations probability at DUNE. The DLSB introduces an alternative energy-momentum relation of the neutrinos and thus results in a new oscillation probability. We extend the previously proposed four-Majorana fermion model that gives rise to DLSB after the type II seesaw mechanism by considering the electron neutrino forward scattering when passing through a medium. Moreover, we incorporate the three-flavor neutrino states, which introduce the CP-violation term inside the oscillation probability. The impact of DLSB parameters around the order of $10^{-2}-10^{-3}$, which are at a strong coupling regime, on the oscillation probability is found to be measurable at DUNE within the 20 years through $\nu_e$ and $\overline{\nu}_e$ disappearance signals. We also compare the predicted spectra of the DLSB oscillations and the oscillation with the CP-violating term equal to $\pi/2$ to conclude that the presence of DLSB would increase the systematic uncertainty for the measurement of CP-violation at DUNE.**Updated constraints on sterile neutrino mixing in the OPERA experiment using a new $ν_e$ identification method**

2211.04636 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by N. Agafonova, [and 125 more]A. Alexandrov, A. Anokhina, S. Aoki, A. Ariga, T. Ariga, A. Bertolin, C. Bozza, R. Brugnera, S. Buontempo, M. Chernyavskiy, A. Chukanov, L. Consiglio, N. D'Ambrosio, G. De Lellis, M. De Serio, P. del Amo Sanchez, A. Di Crescenzo, D. Di Ferdinando, N. Di Marco, S. Dmitrievsky, M. Dracos, D. Duchesneau, S. Dusini, T. Dzhatdoev, J. Ebert, A. Ereditato, R. A. Fini, T. Fukuda, G. Galati, A. Garfagnini, V. Gentile, J. Goldberg, S. Gorbunov, Y. Gornushkin, G. Grella, A. M. Guler, C. Gustavino, C. Hagner, T. Hara, T. Hayakawa, A. Hollnagel, K. Ishiguro, A. Iuliano, K. Jakovcic, C. Jollet, C. Kamiscioglu, M. Kamiscioglu, S. H. Kim, N. Kitagawa, B. Klicek, K. Kodama, M. Komatsu, U. Kose, I. Kreslo, F. Laudisio, A. Lauria, A. Longhin, P. Loverre, A. Malgin, G. Mandrioli, T. Matsuo, V. Matveev, N. Mauri, E. Medinaceli, A. Meregaglia, S. Mikado, M. Miyanishi, F. Mizutani, P. Monacelli, M. C. Montesi, K. Morishima, M. T. Muciaccia, N. Naganawa, T. Naka, M. Nakamura, T. Nakano, K. Niwa, S. Ogawa, N. Okateva, K. Ozaki, A. Paoloni, L. Paparella, B. D. Park, L. Pasqualini, A. Pastore, L. Patrizii, H. Pessard, D. Podgrudkov, N. Polukhina, M. Pozzato, F. Pupilli, M. Roda, T. Roganova, H. Rokujo, G. Rosa, O. Ryazhskaya, O. Sato, A. Schembri, I. Shakiryanova, T. Shchedrina, E. Shibayama, H. Shibuya, T. Shiraishi, S. Simone, C. Sirignano, G. Sirri, A. Sotnikov, M. Spinetti, L. Stanco, N. Starkov, S. M. Stellacci, M. Stipcevic, P. Strolin, S. Takahashi, M. Tenti, F. Terranova, V. Tioukov, S. Tufanli, S. Vasina, P. Vilain, E. Voevodina, L. Votano, J. L. Vuilleumier, G. Wilquet, and C. S. Yoon [hide authors].

This paper describes a new $\nu_e$ identification method specifically designed to improve the low-energy ($< 30\,\mathrm{GeV}$) $\nu_e$ identification efficiency attained by enlarging the emulsion film scanning volume with the next generation emulsion readout system. A relative increase of 25-70% in the $\nu_e$ low-energy region is expected, leading to improvements in the OPERA sensitivity to neutrino oscillations in the framework of the 3 + 1 model. The method is applied to a subset of data where the detection efficiency increase is expected to be more relevant, and one additional $\nu_e$ candidate is found. The analysis combined with the $\nu_\tau$ appearance results improves the upper limit on $\sin^2 2\theta_{\mu e}$ to 0.016 at 90% C.L. in the MiniBooNE allowed region $\Delta m^2_{41} \sim 0.3\,\mathrm{eV}^2$.**The ngEHT's Role in Measuring Supermassive Black Hole Spins**

2211.03910 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Angelo Ricarte, [and 4 more]Paul Tiede, Razieh Emami, Aditya Tamar, and Priyamvada Natarajan [hide authors].

While supermassive black hole masses have been cataloged across cosmic time, only a few dozen of them have robust spin measurements. By extending and improving the existing Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) array, the next-generation Event Horizon Telescope (ngEHT) will enable multifrequency, polarimetric movies on event horizon scales, which will place new constraints on the space-time and accretion flow. By combining this information, it is anticipated that the ngEHT may be able to measure tens of supermassive black hole masses and spins. In this white paper, we discuss existing spin measurements and many proposed techniques with which the ngEHT could potentially measure spins of target supermassive black holes. Spins measured by the ngEHT would represent a completely new sample of sources that, unlike pre-existing samples, would not be biased towards objects with high accretion rates. Such a sample would provide new insights into the accretion, feedback, and cosmic assembly of supermassive black holes.**γ-Ray and ultra-high energy neutrino background suppression due to solar radiation**

2211.03807 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shyam Balaji.

The Sun emits copious amounts of photons and neutrinos in an approximately spatially isotropic distribution. Diffuse $\gamma$-rays and ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos from extragalactic sources may subsequently interact and annihilate with the emitted solar photons and neutrinos respectively. This will in turn induce an anisotropy in the cosmic ray (CR) background due to attenuation of the $\gamma$-ray and UHE neutrino flux by the solar radiation. Measuring this reduction, therefore, presents a simple and powerful astrophysical probe of electroweak interactions. In this letter we compute such anisotropies, which at the Earth (Sun) can be at least $\simeq 5\times 10^{-3}\,(1)\%$ and $\simeq 1\times 10^{-16}\,(2\times 10^{-14})\%$ for TeV scale $\gamma$-rays and PeV scale UHE neutrinos respectively. We briefly discuss observational prospects for experiments such as the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (Fermi LAT), High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) detector, The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and IceCube. The potential for measuring $\gamma$-ray attenuation at orbital locations of other active satellites such as the Parker Solar Probe and James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is also explored.**Sterile Neutrinos: Propagation in Matter and Sensitivity to Sterile Mass Ordering**

2211.03473 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dibya S. Chattopadhyay, [and 5 more]Moon Moon Devi, Amol Dighe, Debajyoti Dutta, Dipyaman Pramanik, and Sushant K. Raut [hide authors].

We analytically calculate the neutrino conversion probability $P_{\mu e}$ in the presence of sterile neutrinos, with exact dependence on $\Delta m^2_{41}$ and with matter effects explicitly included. Using perturbative expansion in small parameters, the terms involving the small mixing angles $\theta_{24}$ and $\theta_{34}$ can be separated out, with $\theta_{34}$ dependence only arising due to matter effects. We express $P_{\mu e}$ in terms of the quantities of the form $\sin(x)/x$, which helps in elucidating its dependence on matter effects and a wide range of $\Delta m^2_{41}$ values. Our analytic expressions allow us to predict the effects of the sign of $\Delta m^2_{41}$ at a long baseline experiment like DUNE. We numerically calculate the sensitivity of DUNE to the sterile mass ordering and find that this sensitivity can be significant in the range $|\Delta m^2_{41}| \sim (10^{-4} - 10^{-2})$ eV$^2$, for either mass ordering of active neutrinos. The dependence of this sensitivity on the value of $\Delta m^2_{41}$ for all mass ordering combinations can be explained by investigating the resonance-like terms appearing due to the interplay between the sterile sector and matter effects.**Measuring Oscillations with A Million Atmospheric Neutrinos**

2211.02666 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. A. Argüelles, [and 3 more]P. Fernández, I. Martínez-Soler, and M. Jin [hide authors].

We analyze the expected sensitivity of current and near-future water(ice)-Cherenkov atmospheric neutrino experiments in the context of standard three-flavor neutrinos oscillations. In this first in-depth combined atmospheric neutrino analysis, we analyze the current shared systematic uncertainties arising from the shared flux and neutrino-water interactions. We then implement the systematic uncertainties of each experiment in detail and develop the atmospheric neutrino simulations for Super-Kamiokande (SK), with and without neutron-tagging capabilities (including SuperK-Gd), IceCube-Upgrade, and ORCA detectors. We carefully review the synergies and features of these experiments to examine the potential of a joint analysis of these atmospheric neutrino data in resolving the $\theta_{23}$ octant at 99\% C.L. and determining the neutrino mass ordering above 5$\sigma$ by 2030. Additionally, we assess the capability to constraint $\theta_{13}$ and the CP-violating phase ($\delta_{CP}$) in the leptonic sector independently from reactor and accelerator neutrino data, providing vital information for next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande.**New Clues About Light Sterile Neutrinos: Preference for Models with Damping Effects in Global Fits**

2211.02610 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. M. Hardin, [and 7 more]I. Martinez-Soler, A. Diaz, M. Jin, N. W. Kamp, C. A. Argüelles, J. M. Conrad, and M. H. Shaevitz [hide authors].

This article reports global fits of short-baseline neutrino data to oscillation models involving light sterile neutrinos. In the commonly-used 3+1 plane wave model, there is a well-known 4.9$\sigma$ tension between data sets sensitive to appearance versus disappearance of neutrinos. We find that models that damp the oscillation prediction for the reactor data sets, especially at low energy, substantially improve the fits and reduce the tension. We consider two such scenarios. The first scenario introduces the quantum mechanical wavepacket effect that accounts for the source size in reactor experiments into the 3+1 model. We find that inclusion of the wavepacket effect greatly improves the overall fit compared to a 3$\nu$ model by $\Delta \chi^2/$DOF$=61.1/4$ ($7.1\sigma$ improvement) with best-fit $\Delta m^2=1.4$ eV$^2$ and wavepacket length of 67fm. The internal tension is reduced to 3.4$\sigma$. If reactor-data only is fit, then the wavepacket preferred length is 91 fm ($>20$ fm at 99\% CL). The second model introduces oscillations involving sterile flavor and allows the decay of the heaviest, mostly sterile mass state, $\nu_4$. This model introduces a damping term similar to the wavepacket effect, but across all experiments. Compared to a three-neutrino fit, this has a $\Delta \chi^2/$DOF$=60.6/4$ ($7\sigma$ improvement) with preferred $\Delta m^2=1.4$ eV$^2$ and decay $\Gamma = 0.35$ eV$^2$. The internal tension is reduced to 3.7$\sigma$. For many years, the reactor event rates have been observed to have structure that deviates from prediction. Community discussion has focused on an excess compared to prediction observed at 5 MeV; however, other deviations are apparent. This structure has $L$ dependence that is well-fit by the damped models. Before assuming this points to new physics, we urge closer examination of systematic effects that could lead to this $L$ dependence.**Neutrino Origin of LHAASO's 18 TeV GRB221009A Photon**

2211.02028 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar and Ying-Ying Li.

LHAASO collaboration detected photons with energy above 10 TeV from the most recent gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB221009A. Given the redshift of this event, $z\sim 0.15$, photons of such energy are expected to interact with the diffuse extragalactic background light (EBL) well before reaching Earth. In this paper we provide a novel neutrino-related explanation of the most energetic 18 TeV event reported by LHAASO. We find that the minimal viable scenario involves both mixing and transition magnetic moment portal between light and sterile neutrinos. The production of sterile neutrinos occurs efficiently via mixing while the transition magnetic moment portal governs the decay rate in the parameter space where tree-level decays via mixing to non-photon final states are suppressed. Our explanation of this event, while being consistent with the terrestrial constraints, points to the non-standard cosmology.**On ALP scenarios and GRB 221009A**

2211.02010 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pierluca Carenza and M. C. David Marsh.

The extraordinarily bright gamma-ray burst GRB 221009A was observed by a large number of observatories, from radio frequencies to gamma-rays. Of particular interest are the reported observations of photon-like air showers of very high energy: an 18 TeV event in LHAASO and a 251 TeV event at Carpet-2. Gamma rays at these energies are expected to be absorbed by pair-production events on background photons when travelling intergalactic distances. Several works have sought to explain the observations of these events, assuming they originate from GRB 221009A, by invoking axion-like particles (ALPs). We reconsider this scenario and account for astrophysical uncertainties due to poorly known magnetic fields and background photon densities. We find that, robustly, the ALP scenario cannot simultaneously account for an 18 TeV and a 251 TeV photon from GRB 221009A.**Study of light sterile neutrino at the long-baseline experiment options at KM3NeT**

2211.01816 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dinesh Kumar Singha, [and 3 more]Monojit Ghosh, Rudra Majhi, and Rukmani Mohanta [hide authors].

In this paper, we study the capability of different long-baseline experiment options at the KM3NeT facility i.e., P2O, Upgraded P2O and P2SO to probe the light sterile neutrino and compare their sensitivities with DUNE. The P2O option will have neutrinos from a 90 KW beam at Protvino to be detected at the ORCA detector, the Upgraded P2O will have neutrinos from the upgraded 450 KW beam to be detected at the ORCA detector and the option P2SO will have neutrinos from a 450 KW beam to be detected at the upgraded Super-ORCA detector. All these options will have a baseline around 2595 km. Our results show that the experiments at the KM3NeT (DUNE) would be more sensitive if the value of $\Delta m^2_{41}$ is around 10 (1) eV$^2$. Our results also show that the role of near detector is very important for the study of sterile neutrinos and addition of near detector improves the sensitivity as compared to only far detector for 3+1 scenario. Among the three options at KM3NeT, the sensitivity of P2O and upgraded P2O is limited and sensitivity of P2SO is either comparable or better than DUNE.**A seesaw model for large neutrino masses in concordance with cosmology**

2211.01729 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Miguel Escudero, Thomas Schwetz, and Jorge Terol-Calvo.

Cosmological constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses can be relaxed if the number density of active neutrinos is reduced compared to the standard scenario, while at the same time keeping the effective number of neutrino species $N_{\rm eff}\approx 3$ by introducing a new component of dark radiation. We discuss a UV complete model to realise this idea, which simultaneously provides neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. It is based on a $U(1)$ symmetry in the dark sector, which can be either gauged or global. In addition to heavy seesaw neutrinos, we need to introduce $\mathcal{O}(10)$ generations of massless sterile neutrinos providing the dark radiation. Then we can accommodate active neutrino masses with $\sum m_\nu \sim 1$ eV, in the sensitivity range of the KATRIN experiment. We discuss the phenomenology of the model and identify the allowed parameter space. We argue that the gauged version of the model is preferred, and in this case the typical energy scale of the model is in the 10 MeV to few GeV range.**GRB 221009A Gamma Rays from Radiative Decay of Heavy Neutrinos?**

2211.00634 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alexei Y. Smirnov and Andreas Trautner.

We consider a mechanism which allows to decrease attenuation of high energy gamma ray flux from gamma ray burst GRB 221009A. The mechanism is based on the existence of a heavy $m_N\sim0.1\,\mathrm{MeV}$ mostly sterile neutrino $N$ which mixes with active neutrinos. $N$'s are produced in GRB in $\pi$ and $K$ decays via mixing with $\nu_\mu$. They undergo the radiative decay $N\rightarrow \nu \gamma$ on the way to the Earth. The usual exponential attenuation of gamma rays is lifted to an attenuation inverse in the optical depth. Various restrictions on this scenario are discussed. We find that the high energy $\gamma$ events at $18\,\mathrm{TeV}$ and potentially $251\,\mathrm{TeV}$ can be explained if (i) the GRB active neutrino fluence is close to the observed limit, (ii) the branching ratio of $N\rightarrow \nu \gamma$ is at least of the order 10%.**Probe the Mixing Parameter $|V_{τN}|^2$ for Heavy Neutrinos**

2211.00309 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lingxiao Bai, Ying-nan Mao, and Kechen Wang.

Because of the difficulty in detecting final state taus, the mixing parameter $|V_{\tau N}|^2$ for heavy neutrino $N$ is not well studied at current experiments, compared with other mixing parameters $|V_{e N}|^2$ and $|V_{\mu N}|^2$. In this paper, we focus on a challenging scenario where $N$ mixes with active neutrino of tau flavour only, i.e. $ |V_{\tau N}|^2 \neq 0 $ and $|V_{e N}|^2 = |V_{\mu N}|^2 = 0$. We derive current constraints on $|V_{\tau N}|^2$ from the rare $Z$-boson decay and electroweak precision data (EWPD). To forecast the future limits, we also investigate the signal $p p \to \tau^{\pm} \tau^{\pm} j j $ via a Majorana heavy neutrino at future proton-proton colliders. To suppress the background, both taus are required to decay leptonically into muons, leading to the final state containing two same sign muons, at least two jets plus moderate missing energy. The signal and relevant background processes are simulated at the HL-LHC and SppC/FCC-hh with center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV and 100 TeV. The preselection and multivariate analyses based on machine-learning are performed to reduce background. Limits on $|V_{\tau N}|^2$ are shown for heavy neutrino mass in the range 10-1000 GeV based on measurements from the rare $Z$-boson decay and EWPD, and searches at the HL-LHC and SppC/FCC-hh with integrated luminosities of 3 and 20 ab$^{-1}$.**Neutrinos from the Brightest Gamma-Ray Burst?**

2210.15625 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kohta Murase, [and 4 more]Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Ali Kheirandish, Shigeo S. Kimura, and Ke Fang [hide authors].

We discuss implications that can be obtained by searches for neutrinos from the brightest gamma-ray burst, GRB 221009A. We derive constraints on GRB model parameters such as the cosmic-ray loading factor and dissipation radius, taking into account both neutrino spectra and effective areas. The results are strong enough to constrain proton acceleration near the photosphere, and we find that the single burst limits are comparable to those from stacking analysis. Quasithermal neutrinos from subphotospheres and ultrahigh-energy neutrinos from external shocks are not yet constrained. We show that GeV-TeV neutrinos originating from neutron collisions are detectable, and urge dedicated analysis on these neutrinos with DeepCore and IceCube as well as ORCA and KM3NeT.**NaNu: Proposal for a Neutrino Experiment at the SPS Collider located at the North Area of CERN**

2210.15532 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Friedemann Neuhaus, [and 3 more]Matthias Schott, Chen Wang, and Rainer Wanke [hide authors].

Several experiments have been proposed in the recent years to study the nature of tau neutrinos, in particular aiming for a first observation of tau anti-neutrinos, more stringent upper limit on its anomalous magnetic moment as well as new constrains on the strange-quark content of the nucleon. We propose here a new low-cost neutrino experiment at the CERN North area, named NaNu (North Area NeUtrino), compatible with the realization of the future SHADOWS and HIKE experiments at the same experimental area.**A Significant Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance associated with Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 221009A**

2210.15284 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Laura A. Hayes and Peter T. Gallagher.

We report the detection of a significant ionospheric disturbance in the D-region of Earth's ionosphere which was associated with the massive gamma-ray burst GRB 221009A that occurred on October 9 2022. We identified the disturbance over northern Europe - a result of the increased ionisation by X- and gamma-ray emission from the GRB - using very low frequency (VLF) radio waves as a probe of the D-region. These observations demonstrate that an extra-galactic GRB can have a significant impact on the terrestrial ionosphere and illustrates that the Earth's ionosphere can be used as a giant X- and gamma-ray detector. Indeed, these observations may provide insights into the impacts of GRBs on the ionospheres of planets in our solar system and beyond.**Neutral-current neutrino cross section and expected supernova signals for $^{40}$Ar from a three-fold increase in the magnetic dipole strength**

2210.14316 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by W. Tornow, [and 7 more]A. P. Tonchev, S. W. Finch, Krishichayan, X. B. Wang, A. C. Hayes, H. G. D. Yeomans, and D. A. Newmark [hide authors].

In view of the great interest in liquid argon neutrino detectors, the $^{40}$Ar($\gamma,\gamma'$)$^{40}$Ar$^{*}$ reaction was revisited to guide a calculation of the neutral current neutrino cross section at supernova energies. Using the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique with a monoenergetic, 99% linearly polarized photon beam, we report a three-fold increase in magnetic dipole strength at around 10 MeV in $^{40}$Ar. Based on shell-model calculations, and using the experimentally identified transitions, the neutral current neutrino cross sections for low-energy reactions on $^{40}$Ar are calculated.**The Role of a Heavy Neutrino in the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB-221009A**

2210.14178 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kingman Cheung.

Recently, several telescopes, including Swift-BAT, GBM, and LHAASO, have observed the ever highest-energy and long-duration gamma-rays from a gamma-ray burst named as GRB221009A (located at a red-shift of $z=0.151$) on October 9, 2022. Conventional understanding tells us that very high-energy photons produced at such a far distance suffer severe attenuation before reaching the Earth. We propose the existence of a sub-MeV to $O(10)$ MeV heavy neutrino with a transitional magnetic dipole moment, via which the heavy neutrino is produced at the GRB. It then travels a long distance to our galaxy and decays into a neutrino and a photon, which is observed. In such a way, the original high-energy photon produced at the GRB can survive long-distance attenuation.**Stringent constraint on CPT violation with the synergy of T2K-II, NO$ν$A extension, and JUNO**

2210.13044 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by T. V. Ngoc, [and 3 more]S. Cao, N. T. Hong Van, and P. T. Quyen [hide authors].

Neutrino oscillation experiments have measured precisely the mass-squared differences of three neutrino mass eigenstates, and three leptonic mixing angles by utilizing both neutrino and anti-neutrino oscillations. The possible CPT violation may manifest itself in the difference of neutrino and anti-neutrino oscillation parameters, making these experiments promising tools for testing CPT invariance. We investigate empirically the sensitivity of the CPT test via the difference in mass-squared splittings ($\Delta m^2_{31} - \Delta \overline{m}^2_{31}$) and in leptonic mixing angles ($\sin^2\theta_{23} - \sin^2\overline{\theta}_{23}$) with the synergy of T2K-II, NO$\nu$A extension, and JUNO experiments. If the CPT symmetry is found to be conserved, the joint analysis of the three experiments will be able to establish limits of $|\Delta m^2_{31} - \Delta \overline{m}^2_{31}|$ < $5.3\times 10^{-3} \text{eV}^2$ and $|\sin^2\theta_{23} - \sin^2\overline{\theta}_{23}|$ < $0.10$ at 3$\sigma$ C. L. on the possible CPT violation. We find that with ($\Delta m^2_{31} - \Delta \overline{m}^2_{31}$), the dependence of the statistical significance on the relevant parameters to exclude the CPT conservation is marginal, and that, if the difference in the best-fit values of $\Delta m^2_{31}$ and $\Delta \overline{m}^2_{31}$ measured by MINOS(+) and NO$\nu$A persists as the true, the combined analysis will rule out the CPT conservation at 4$\sigma$ C. L.. With the ($\sin^2\theta_{23} - \sin^2\overline{\theta}_{23}$), the statistical significance to exclude CPT invariance depends strongly on the true value of $\theta_{23}(\overline{\theta}_{23})$. In case of maximal mixing of $\theta_{23}$, the CPT conservation will be excluded at 3$\sigma$ C. L. or more if the difference in the best-fit values of $\theta_{23}$ and $\overline{\theta}_{23}$ remains as the true.**Searching for neutrinos from solar flares across solar cycles 23 and 24 with the Super-Kamiokande detector**

2210.12948 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by K. Okamoto, [and 244 more]K. Abe, Y. Hayato, K. Hiraide, K. Hosokawa, K. Ieki, M. Ikeda, J. Kameda, Y. Kanemura, Y. Kaneshima, Y. Kataoka, Y. Kashiwagi, S. Miki, S. Mine, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, Y. Nagao, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, Y. Noguchi, K. Sato, H. Sekiya, K. Shimizu, M. Shiozawa, H. Shiba, Y. Sonoda, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeda, Y. Takemoto, A. Takenaka, H. Tanaka, S. Watanabe, T. Yano, S. Han, T. Kajita, K. Okumura, T. Tashiro, T. Tomiya, X. Wang, J. Xia, S. Yoshida, G. D. Megias, P. Fernandez, L. Labarga, N. Ospina, B. Zaldivar, B. W. Pointon, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, L. Wan, T. Wester, J. Bian, N. J. Griskevich, W. R. Kropp, S. Locke, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, V. Takhistov, A. Yankelevich, J. Hill, J. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, I. T. Lim, D. H. Moon, R. G. Park, B. Bodur, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, A. Beauchene, L. Bernard, A. Coffani, O. Drapier, S. El Hedri, A. Giampaolo, Th. A. Mueller, A. D. Santos, P. Paganini, B. Quilain, T. Ishizuka, T. Nakamura, J. S. Jang, J. G. Learned, K. Choi, S. Cao, L. H. V. Anthony, D. Martin, M. Scott, A. A. Sztuc, Y. Uchida, V. Berardi, M. G. Catanesi, E. Radicioni, N. F. Calabria, L. N. Machado, G. De Rosa, G. Collazuol, F. Iacob, M. Lamoureux, M. Mattiazzi, L. Ludovici, M. Gonin, G. Pronost, C. Fujisawa, Y. Maekawa, Y. Nishimura, M. Friend, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, M. Jakkapu, T. Matsubara, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, N. Bhuiyan, T. Boschi, G. T. Burton, F. Di Lodovico, J. Gao, A. Goldsack, T. Katori, J. Migenda, M. Taani, Z. Xie, S. Zsoldos, Y. Kotsar, H. Ozaki, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, C. Bronner, J. Feng, T. Kikawa, M. Mori, T. Nakaya, R. A. Wendell, K. Yasutome, S. J. Jenkins, N. McCauley, P. Mehta, A. Tarrant, K. M. Tsui, Y. Fukuda, Y. Itow, H. Menjo, K. Ninomiya, J. Lagoda, S. M. Lakshmi, M. Mandal, P. Mijakowski, Y. S. Prabhu, J. Zalipska, M. Jia, J. Jiang, C. K. Jung, C. Vilela, M. J. Wilking, C. Yanagisawa, M. Harada, H. Ishino, S. Ito, H. Kitagawa, Y. Koshio, W. Ma, F. Nakanishi, N. Piplani, S. Sakai, G. Barr, D. Barrow, L. Cook, S. Samani, D. Wark, A. Holin, F. Nova, J. Y. Yang, J. E. P. Fannon, M. Malek, J. M. McElwee, O. Stone, M. D. Thiesse, L. F. Thompson, H. Okazawa, S. B. Kim, E. Kwon, J. W. Seo, I. Yu, A. K. Ichikawa, K. D. Nakamura, S. Tairafune, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, K. Iwamoto, K. Nakagiri, Y. Nakajima, S. Shima, N. Taniuchi, M. Yokoyama, K. Martens, P. de Perio, M. R. Vagins, M. Kuze, S. Izumiyama, M. Inomoto, M. Ishitsuka, H. Ito, T. Kinoshita, R. Matsumoto, Y. Ommura, N. Shigeta, M. Shinoki, T. Suganuma, K. Yamauchi, J. F. Martin, H. A. Tanaka, T. Towstego, R. Akutsu, R. Gaur, V. Gousy-Leblanc, M. Hartz, A. Konaka, X. Li, N. W. Prouse, S. Chen, B. D. Xu, B. Zhang, M. Posiadala-Zezula, S. B. Boyd, D. Hadley, M. Nicholson, M. O'Flaherty, B. Richards, A. Ali, B. Jamieson, J. Walker, Ll. Marti, A. Minamino, G. Pintaudi, S. Sano, R. Sasaki, S. Suzuki, and K. Wada [hide authors].

Neutrinos associated with solar flares (solar-flare neutrinos) provide information on particle acceleration mechanisms during the impulsive phase of solar flares. We searched using the Super-Kamiokande detector for neutrinos from solar flares that occurred during solar cycles $23$ and $24$, including the largest solar flare (X28.0) on November 4th, 2003. In order to minimize the background rate we searched for neutrino interactions within narrow time windows coincident with $\gamma$-rays and soft X-rays recorded by satellites. In addition, we performed the first attempt to search for solar-flare neutrinos from solar flares on the invisible side of the Sun by using the emission time of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). By selecting twenty powerful solar flares above X5.0 on the visible side and eight CMEs whose emission speed exceeds $2000$ $\mathrm{km \, s^{-1}}$ on the invisible side from 1996 to 2018, we found two (six) neutrino events coincident with solar flares occurring on the visible (invisible) side of the Sun, with a typical background rate of $0.10$ ($0.62$) events per flare in the MeV-GeV energy range. No significant solar-flare neutrino signal above the estimated background rate was observed. As a result we set the following upper limit on neutrino fluence at the Earth $\mathit{\Phi}<1.1\times10^{6}$ $\mathrm{cm^{-2}}$ at the $90\%$ confidence level for the largest solar flare. The resulting fluence limits allow us to constrain some of the theoretical models for solar-flare neutrino emission.**Uncovering the neutrino mass ordering with the next galactic core-collapse supernova neutrino burst using water Cherenkov detectors**

2210.11676 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by César Jesús-Valls.

A major challenge of particle physics is determining the neutrino mass ordering (MO). Due to matter effects, the flavor content of the neutrino flux from a Core-Collapse Supernova (CCSN) depends on the true neutrino MO resulting in markedly different energy and angle distributions for the measured lepton in water Cherenkov neutrino detectors. In this article, those distributions are compared for eight different CCSN models and used to study how their differences affect the determination of the neutrino mass ordering. In all cases, the inferred neutrino mass ordering is found to be either correct or inconclusive, with no significant false positives. However, the substantial variation observed among model predictions emphasizes the criticality of ongoing research in CCSN modeling.**A lab scale experiment for keV sterile neutrino search**

2210.11108 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Y. C. Lee, [and 9 more]H. B. Kim, H. L. Kim, S. K. Kim, Y. H. Kim, D. H. Kwon, H. S. Lim, H. S. Park, K. R. Woo, and Y. S. Yoon [hide authors].

We developed a simple small-scale experiment to measure the beta decay spectrum of $^{3}$H. The aim of this research is to investigate the presence of sterile neutrinos in the keV region. Tritium nuclei were embedded in a 1$\times$1$\times$1 cm$^3$ LiF crystal from the $^6$Li(n,$\alpha$)$^3$H reaction. The energy of the beta electrons absorbed in the LiF crystal was measured with a magnetic microcalorimeter at 40 mK. We report a new method of sample preparation, experiments, and analysis of $^3$H beta measurements. The spectrum of a 10-hour measurement agrees well with the expected spectrum of $^3$H beta decay. The analysis results indicate that this method can be used to search for keV-scale sterile neutrinos.**First constraints on light sterile neutrino oscillations from combined appearance and disappearance searches with the MicroBooNE detector**

2210.10216 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by MicroBooNE collaboration, [and 186 more]P. Abratenko, D. Andrade Aldana, J. Anthony, L. Arellano, J. Asaadi, A. Ashkenazi, S. Balasubramanian, B. Baller, G. Barr, J. Barrow, V. Basque, L. Bathe-Peters, O. Benevides Rodrigues, S. Berkman, A. Bhanderi, M. Bhattacharya, M. Bishai, A. Blake, B. Bogart, T. Bolton, J. Y. Book, L. Camilleri, D. Caratelli, I. Caro Terrazas, F. Cavanna, G. Cerati, Y. Chen, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, L. Cooper-Troendle, J. I. Crespo-Anadon, M. Del Tutto, S. R. Dennis, P. Detje, A. Devitt, R. Diurba, R. Dorrill, K. Duffy, S. Dytman, B. Eberly, A. Ereditato, J. J. Evans, R. Fine, O. G. Finnerud, B. T. Fleming, N. Foppiani, W. Foreman, D. Franco, A. P. Furmanski, D. Garcia-Gamez, S. Gardiner, G. Ge, S. Gollapinni, O. Goodwin, E. Gramellini, P. Green, H. Greenlee, W. Gu, R. Guenette, P. Guzowski, L. Hagaman, O. Hen, R. Hicks, C. Hilgenberg, G. A. Horton-Smith, B. Irwin, R. Itay, C. James, X. Ji, L. Jiang, J. H. Jo, R. A. Johnson, Y. J. Jwa, D. Kalra, N. Kamp, G. Karagiorgi, W. Ketchum, M. Kirby, T. Kobilarcik, I. Kreslo, M. B. Leibovitch, I. Lepetic, J. -Y. Li, K. Li, Y. Li, K. Lin, B. R. Littlejohn, W. C. Louis, X. Luo, K. Manivannan, C. Mariani, D. Marsden, J. Marshall, N. Martinez, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, K. Mason, A. Mastbaum, N. McConkey, V. Meddage, K. Miller, J. Mills, K. Mistry, T. Mohayai, A. Mogan, M. Mooney, A. F. Moor, C. D. Moore, L. Mora Lepin, J. Mousseau, S. Mulleria Babu, D. Naples, A. Navrer-Agasson, N. Nayak, M. Nebot-Guinot, J. Nowak, M. Nunes, N. Oza, O. Palamara, N. Pallat, V. Paolone, A. Papadopoulou, V. Papavassiliou, H. Parkinson, S. F. Pate, N. Patel, Z. Pavlovic, E. Piasetzky, I. Ponce-Pinto, I. Pophale, S. Prince, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, V. Radeka, M. Reggiani-Guzzo, L. Ren, L. Rochester, J. Rodriguez Rondon, M. Rosenberg, M. Ross-Lonergan, C. Rudolph von Rohr, G. Scanavini, D. W. Schmitz, A. Schukraft, W. Seligman, M. H. Shaevitz, R. Sharankova, J. Shi, A. Smith, E. L. Snider, M. Soderberg, S. Soldner-Rembold, J. Spitz, M. Stancari, J. St. John, T. Strauss, S. Sword-Fehlberg, A. M. Szelc, W. Tang, N. Taniuchi, K. Terao, C. Thorpe, D. Torbunov, D. Totani, M. Toups, Y. -T. Tsai, J. Tyler, M. A. Uchida, T. Usher, B. Viren, M. Weber, H. Wei, A. J. White, Z. Williams, S. Wolbers, T. Wongjirad, M. Wospakrik, K. Wresilo, N. Wright, W. Wu, E. Yandel, T. Yang, L. E. Yates, H. W. Yu, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, and C. Zhang [hide authors].

We present a search for eV-scale sterile neutrino oscillations in the MicroBooNE liquid argon detector, simultaneously considering all possible appearance and disappearance effects within the $3+1$ active-to-sterile neutrino oscillation framework. We analyze the neutrino candidate events for the recent measurements of charged-current $\nu_e$ and $\nu_{\mu}$ interactions in the MicroBooNE detector, using data corresponding to an exposure of 6.37$\times$10$^{20}$ protons on target from the Fermilab booster neutrino beam. We observe no evidence of light sterile neutrino oscillations and derive exclusion contours at the $95\%$ confidence level in the plane of the mass-squared splitting $\Delta m^2_{41}$ and the sterile neutrino mixing angles $\theta_{\mu e}$ and $\theta_{ee}$, excluding part of the parameter space allowed by experimental anomalies. Cancellation of $\nu_e$ appearance and $\nu_e$ disappearance effects due to the full $3+1$ treatment of the analysis leads to a degeneracy when determining the oscillation parameters, which is discussed in this paper and will be addressed by future analyses.**Symmetry in neutrino oscillation in matter: New picture and the $ν$SM -- non-unitarity interplay**

2210.09453 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

We update and summarize the present status of our understanding of the reparametrization symmetry with $i \leftrightarrow j$ state exchange in neutrino oscillation in matter. We introduce a systematic method called ``Symmetry Finder'' (SF) to uncover such symmetries, demonstrate its efficient hunting capability, and examine their characteristic features. Apparently they have a local nature: The 1-2 and 1-3 state exchange symmetries exist at around the solar- and atmospheric-resonances, respectively, with the level-crossing states exchanged. However, this view is not supported, to date, in the globally valid Denton et al. (DMP) perturbation theory, which possesses the 1-2 exchange symmetry but not the 1-3. It is probably due to lack of our understanding, and we find a clue for a larger symmetry structure than that we know. In the latter part of this article, we introduce non-unitarity, or unitarity violation (UV), into the $\nu$SM neutrino paradigm, a low-energy description of beyond $\nu$SM new physics at high (or low) scale. Based on the analyses of UV extended versions of the atmospheric-resonance and the DMP perturbation theories, we argue that the reparametrization symmetry has a diagnostics capability for the theory with the $\nu$SM and UV sectors. A speculation is given on the topological nature of the identity which determines the transformation property of the UV $\alpha$ parameters.**Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO using local integrated 3-D refined crustal model**

2210.09165 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ran Han, [and 13 more]ZhiWei Li, Ruohan Gao, Yao Sun, Ya Xu, Yaping Cheng, Guangzheng Jiang, Jie Pang, Fengcheng Liu, Andong Wang, Yufei Xi, Liangjian Wen, Jun Cao, and Yu-Feng Li [hide authors].

Geoneutrinos are a unique tool that brings to the surface information about our planet, in particular, its radiogenic power, insights formation and chemical composition. To date, only the KamLAND and Borexino experiments observed geoneutrino, with the former characterized by low concentration of heat-producing elements in the Earth in contrast to the latter that sets tight upper limits on the power of a georeactor hypothesized. With respect to the results yielded therefrom, a small discrepancy has been identified. On this account, next generation experiments like JUNO are needed if it is to provide definitive results with respect to the Earth's radiogenic power, and to fully exploit geoneutrinos to better understand deep Earth. An accurate a priori prediction of the crustal contribution plays an important role in enabling the translation of a particle physics measurement into geo-scientific questions. The existing GIGJ model of JUNO only focused on constructing a geophysical model of the local crust, without local geochemical data. Another existing JULOC includes both data, but only able to be achieved for the top layer of the upper crust, not in deep vertical. This paper reports on the development of JUNO's first 3-D integrated model, JULOC-I, which combines seismic, gravity, rock sample and thermal flow data with new building method, solved the problem in vertical depth. JULOC-I results show higher than expected geoneutrino signals are mainly attributable to higher U and Th in southern China than that found elsewhere on Earth. Moreover, the high level of accuracy of the JULOC-I model, complemented by 10 years of experimental data, indicates that JUNO has an opportunity to test different mantle models. Predictions by JULOC-I can be tested after JUNO goes online and higher accuracy local crustal model continue to play an important role to improve mantle measurements precision.**Effect of Matter Density in T2HK and DUNE**

2210.09103 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Monojit Ghosh and Osamu Yasuda.

CP phase determination for the near future long baseline experiments, T2HK and DUNE, will require precise measurements of the oscillation probabilities. However, the uncertainty in the Earth's density must be considered in determining these oscillation probabilities. Therefore, in this study, we update the individual sensitivities of these experiments for determining the current unknowns in the standard three flavor scenario considering the latest configuration and also the complementarity between them while considering the uncertainty in the density. Our study showed that this uncertainty has a non-negligible impact on the precision of the CP phase determination particularly for DUNE.**Model Independent Approach of the JUNO $^8$B Solar Neutrino Program**

2210.08437 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by JUNO Collaboration, [and 603 more]Jie Zhao, Baobiao Yue, Haoqi Lu, Yufeng Li, Jiajie Ling, Zeyuan Yu, Angel Abusleme, Thomas Adam, Shakeel Ahmad, Rizwan Ahmed, Sebastiano Aiello, Muhammad Akram, Abid Aleem, Tsagkarakis Alexandros, Fengpeng An, Qi An, Giuseppe Andronico, Nikolay Anfimov, Vito Antonelli, Tatiana Antoshkina, Burin Asavapibhop, João Pedro Athayde Marcondes de André, Didier Auguste, Weidong Bai, Nikita Balashov, Wander Baldini, Andrea Barresi, Davide Basilico, Eric Baussan, Marco Bellato, Antonio Bergnoli, Thilo Birkenfeld, Sylvie Blin, David Blum, Simon Blyth, Anastasia Bolshakova, Mathieu Bongrand, Clément Bordereau, Dominique Breton, Augusto Brigatti, Riccardo Brugnera, Riccardo Bruno, Antonio Budano, Jose Busto, Ilya Butorov, Anatael Cabrera, Barbara Caccianiga, Hao Cai, Xiao Cai, Yanke Cai, Zhiyan Cai, Riccardo Callegari, Antonio Cammi, Agustin Campeny, Chuanya Cao, Guofu Cao, Jun Cao, Rossella Caruso, Cédric Cerna, Chi Chan, Jinfan Chang, Yun Chang, Guoming Chen, Pingping Chen, Po-An Chen, Shaomin Chen, Xurong Chen, Yixue Chen, Yu Chen, Zhiyuan Chen, Zikang Chen, Jie Cheng, Yaping Cheng, Alexander Chepurnov, Alexey Chetverikov, Davide Chiesa, Pietro Chimenti, Artem Chukanov, Gérard Claverie, Catia Clementi, Barbara Clerbaux, Marta Colomer Molla, Selma Conforti Di Lorenzo, Daniele Corti, Flavio Dal Corso, Olivia Dalager, Christophe De La Taille, Zhi Deng, Ziyan Deng, Wilfried Depnering, Marco Diaz, Xuefeng Ding, Yayun Ding, Bayu Dirgantara, Sergey Dmitrievsky, Tadeas Dohnal, Dmitry Dolzhikov, Georgy Donchenko, Jianmeng Dong, Evgeny Doroshkevich, Marcos Dracos, Frédéric Druillole, Ran Du, Shuxian Du, Stefano Dusini, Martin Dvorak, Timo Enqvist, Heike Enzmann, Andrea Fabbri, Donghua Fan, Lei Fan, Jian Fang, Wenxing Fang, Marco Fargetta, Dmitry Fedoseev, Zhengyong Fei, Li-Cheng Feng, Qichun Feng, Richard Ford, Amélie Fournier, Haonan Gan, Feng Gao, Alberto Garfagnini, Arsenii Gavrikov, Marco Giammarchi, Nunzio Giudice, Maxim Gonchar, Guanghua Gong, Hui Gong, Yuri Gornushkin, Alexandre Göttel, Marco Grassi, Maxim Gromov, Vasily Gromov, Minghao Gu, Xiaofei Gu, Yu Gu, Mengyun Guan, Yuduo Guan, Nunzio Guardone, Cong Guo, Jingyuan Guo, Wanlei Guo, Xinheng Guo, Yuhang Guo, Paul Hackspacher, Caren Hagner, Ran Han, Yang Han, Miao He, Wei He, Tobias Heinz, Patrick Hellmuth, Yuekun Heng, Rafael Herrera, YuenKeung Hor, Shaojing Hou, Yee Hsiung, Bei-Zhen Hu, Hang Hu, Jianrun Hu, Jun Hu, Shouyang Hu, Tao Hu, Yuxiang Hu, Zhuojun Hu, Guihong Huang, Hanxiong Huang, Kaixuan Huang, Wenhao Huang, Xin Huang, Xingtao Huang, Yongbo Huang, Jiaqi Hui, Lei Huo, Wenju Huo, Cédric Huss, Safeer Hussain, Ara Ioannisian, Roberto Isocrate, Beatrice Jelmini, Ignacio Jeria, Xiaolu Ji, Huihui Jia, Junji Jia, Siyu Jian, Di Jiang, Wei Jiang, Xiaoshan Jiang, Xiaoping Jing, Cécile Jollet, Leonidas Kalousis, Philipp Kampmann, Li Kang, Rebin Karaparambil, Narine Kazarian, Amina Khatun, Khanchai Khosonthongkee, Denis Korablev, Konstantin Kouzakov, Alexey Krasnoperov, Nikolay Kutovskiy, Pasi Kuusiniemi, Tobias Lachenmaier, Cecilia Landini, Sébastien Leblanc, Victor Lebrin, Frederic Lefevre, Ruiting Lei, Rupert Leitner, Jason Leung, Daozheng Li, Demin Li, Fei Li, Fule Li, Gaosong Li, Huiling Li, Mengzhao Li, Min Li, Nan Li, Nan Li, Qingjiang Li, Ruhui Li, Rui Li, Shanfeng Li, Tao Li, Teng Li, Weidong Li, Weiguo Li, Xiaomei Li, Xiaonan Li, Xinglong Li, Yi Li, Yichen Li, Zepeng Li, Zhaohan Li, Zhibing Li, Ziyuan Li, Zonghai Li, Hao Liang, Hao Liang, Jiajun Liao, Ayut Limphirat, Guey-Lin Lin, Shengxin Lin, Tao Lin, Ivano Lippi, Fang Liu, Haidong Liu, Haotian Liu, Hongbang Liu, Hongjuan Liu, Hongtao Liu, Hui Liu, Jianglai Liu, Jinchang Liu, Min Liu, Qian Liu, Qin Liu, Runxuan Liu, Shubin Liu, Shulin Liu, Xiaowei Liu, Xiwen Liu, Yan Liu, Yunzhe Liu, Alexey Lokhov, Paolo Lombardi, Claudio Lombardo, Kai Loo, Chuan Lu, Jingbin Lu, Junguang Lu, Shuxiang Lu, Bayarto Lubsandorzhiev, Sultim Lubsandorzhiev, Livia Ludhova, Arslan Lukanov, Daibin Luo, Fengjiao Luo, Guang Luo, Shu Luo, Wuming Luo, Xiaojie Luo, Vladimir Lyashuk, Bangzheng Ma, Bing Ma, Qiumei Ma, Si Ma, Xiaoyan Ma, Xubo Ma, Jihane Maalmi, Jingyu Mai, Yury Malyshkin, Roberto Carlos Mandujano, Fabio Mantovani, Francesco Manzali, Xin Mao, Yajun Mao, Stefano M. Mari, Filippo Marini, Cristina Martellini, Gisele Martin-Chassard, Agnese Martini, Matthias Mayer, Davit Mayilyan, Ints Mednieks, Yue Meng, Anselmo Meregaglia, Emanuela Meroni, David Meyhöfer, Mauro Mezzetto, Jonathan Miller, Lino Miramonti, Paolo Montini, Michele Montuschi, Axel Müller, Massimiliano Nastasi, Dmitry V. Naumov, Elena Naumova, Diana Navas-Nicolas, Igor Nemchenok, Minh Thuan Nguyen Thi, Alexey Nikolaev, Feipeng Ning, Zhe Ning, Hiroshi Nunokawa, Lothar Oberauer, Juan Pedro Ochoa-Ricoux, Alexander Olshevskiy, Domizia Orestano, Fausto Ortica, Rainer Othegraven, Alessandro Paoloni, Sergio Parmeggiano, Yatian Pei, Nicomede Pelliccia, Anguo Peng, Haiping Peng, Yu Peng, Zhaoyuan Peng, Frédéric Perrot, Pierre-Alexandre Petitjean, Fabrizio Petrucci, Oliver Pilarczyk, Luis Felipe Piñeres Rico, Artyom Popov, Pascal Poussot, Ezio Previtali, Fazhi Qi, Ming Qi, Sen Qian, Xiaohui Qian, Zhen Qian, Hao Qiao, Zhonghua Qin, Shoukang Qiu, Gioacchino Ranucci, Neill Raper, Alessandra Re, Henning Rebber, Abdel Rebii, Mariia Redchuk, Mariia Redchuk, Bin Ren, Jie Ren, Barbara Ricci, Mariam Rifai, Mathieu Roche, Narongkiat Rodphai, Aldo Romani, Bedřich Roskovec, Xichao Ruan, Arseniy Rybnikov, Andrey Sadovsky, Paolo Saggese, Simone Sanfilippo, Anut Sangka, Utane Sawangwit, Julia Sawatzki, Michaela Schever, Cédric Schwab, Konstantin Schweizer, Alexandr Selyunin, Andrea Serafini, Giulio Settanta, Mariangela Settimo, Zhuang Shao, Vladislav Sharov, Arina Shaydurova, Jingyan Shi, Yanan Shi, Vitaly Shutov, Andrey Sidorenkov, Fedor Šimkovic, Chiara Sirignano, Jaruchit Siripak, Monica Sisti, Maciej Slupecki, Mikhail Smirnov, Oleg Smirnov, Thiago Sogo-Bezerra, Sergey Sokolov, Julanan Songwadhana, Boonrucksar Soonthornthum, Albert Sotnikov, Ondřej Šrámek, Warintorn Sreethawong, Achim Stahl, Luca Stanco, Konstantin Stankevich, Dušan Štefánik, Hans Steiger, Jochen Steinmann, Tobias Sterr, Matthias Raphael Stock, Virginia Strati, Alexander Studenikin, Jun Su, Shifeng Sun, Xilei Sun, Yongjie Sun, Yongzhao Sun, Zhengyang Sun, Narumon Suwonjandee, Michal Szelezniak, Jian Tang, Qiang Tang, Quan Tang, Xiao Tang, Alexander Tietzsch, Igor Tkachev, Tomas Tmej, Marco Danilo Claudio Torri, Konstantin Treskov, Andrea Triossi, Giancarlo Troni, Wladyslaw Trzaska, Cristina Tuve, Nikita Ushakov, Vadim Vedin, Giuseppe Verde, Maxim Vialkov, Benoit Viaud, Cornelius Moritz Vollbrecht, Cristina Volpe, Katharina von Sturm, Vit Vorobel, Dmitriy Voronin, Lucia Votano, Pablo Walker, Caishen Wang, Chung-Hsiang Wang, En Wang, Guoli Wang, Jian Wang, Jun Wang, Lu Wang, Meifen Wang, Meng Wang, Meng Wang, Ruiguang Wang, Siguang Wang, Wei Wang, Wei Wang, Wenshuai Wang, Xi Wang, Xiangyue Wang, Yangfu Wang, Yaoguang Wang, Yi Wang, Yi Wang, Yifang Wang, Yuanqing Wang, Yuman Wang, Zhe Wang, Zheng Wang, Zhimin Wang, Zongyi Wang, Apimook Watcharangkool, Wei Wei, Wei Wei, Wenlu Wei, Yadong Wei, Kaile Wen, Liangjian Wen, Christopher Wiebusch, Steven Chan-Fai Wong, Bjoern Wonsak, Diru Wu, Qun Wu, Zhi Wu, Michael Wurm, Jacques Wurtz, Christian Wysotzki, Yufei Xi, Dongmei Xia, Xiang Xiao, Xiaochuan Xie, Yuguang Xie, Zhangquan Xie, Zhao Xin, Zhizhong Xing, Benda Xu, Cheng Xu, Donglian Xu, Fanrong Xu, Hangkun Xu, Jilei Xu, Jing Xu, Meihang Xu, Yin Xu, Yu Xu, Baojun Yan, Taylor Yan, Wenqi Yan, Xiongbo Yan, Yupeng Yan, Changgen Yang, Chengfeng Yang, Huan Yang, Jie Yang, Lei Yang, Xiaoyu Yang, Yifan Yang, Yifan Yang, Haifeng Yao, Jiaxuan Ye, Mei Ye, Ziping Ye, Frédéric Yermia, Na Yin, Zhengyun You, Boxiang Yu, Chiye Yu, Chunxu Yu, Hongzhao Yu, Miao Yu, Xianghui Yu, Zezhong Yu, Cenxi Yuan, Chengzhuo Yuan, Ying Yuan, Zhenxiong Yuan, Noman Zafar, Vitalii Zavadskyi, Shan Zeng, Tingxuan Zeng, Yuda Zeng, Liang Zhan, Aiqiang Zhang, Bin Zhang, Binting Zhang, Feiyang Zhang, Guoqing Zhang, Honghao Zhang, Jialiang Zhang, Jiawen Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jin Zhang, Jingbo Zhang, Jinnan Zhang, Mohan Zhang, Peng Zhang, Qingmin Zhang, Shiqi Zhang, Shu Zhang, Tao Zhang, Xiaomei Zhang, Xin Zhang, Xuantong Zhang, Xueyao Zhang, Yinhong Zhang, Yiyu Zhang, Yongpeng Zhang, Yu Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yumei Zhang, Zhenyu Zhang, Zhijian Zhang, Fengyi Zhao, Rong Zhao, Runze Zhao, Shujun Zhao, Dongqin Zheng, Hua Zheng, Yangheng Zheng, Weirong Zhong, Jing Zhou, Li Zhou, Nan Zhou, Shun Zhou, Tong Zhou, Xiang Zhou, Jiang Zhu, Jingsen Zhu, Kangfu Zhu, Kejun Zhu, Zhihang Zhu, Bo Zhuang, Honglin Zhuang, Liang Zong, and Jiaheng Zou [hide authors].

The physics potential of detecting $^8$B solar neutrinos is exploited at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), in a model independent manner by using three distinct channels of the charged-current (CC), neutral-current (NC) and elastic scattering (ES) interactions. Due to the largest-ever mass of $^{13}$C nuclei in the liquid-scintillator detectors and the potential low background level, $^8$B solar neutrinos would be observable in the CC and NC interactions on $^{13}$C for the first time. By virtue of optimized event selections and muon veto strategies, backgrounds from the accidental coincidence, muon-induced isotopes, and external backgrounds can be greatly suppressed. Excellent signal-to-background ratios can be achieved in the CC, NC and ES channels to guarantee the $^8$B solar neutrino observation. From the sensitivity studies performed in this work, we show that one can reach the precision levels of 5%, 8% and 20% for the $^8$B neutrino flux, $\sin^2\theta_{12}$, and $\Delta m^2_{21}$, respectively, using ten years of JUNO data. It would be unique and helpful to probe the details of both solar physics and neutrino physics. In addition, when combined with SNO, the world-best precision of 3% is expected for the $^8$B neutrino flux measurement.**Interpreting Reactor Antineutrino Anomalies with STEREO data**

2210.07664 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by H. Almazán, [and 23 more]L. Bernard, A. Blanchet, A. Bonhomme, C. Buck, A. Chalil, P. del Amo Sanchez, I. El Atmani, L. Labit, J. Lamblin A. Letourneau D. Lhuillier, M. Licciardi, M. Lindner, T. Materna, H. Pessard, J. -S. Réal, J. -S. Ricol, C. Roca, R. Rogly, T. Salagnac, V. Savu, S. Schoppmann, T. Soldner, A. Stutz, and M. Vialat [hide authors].

Anomalies in past neutrino measurements have led to the discovery that these particles have non-zero mass and oscillate between their three flavors when they propagate. In the 2010's, similar anomalies observed in the antineutrino spectra emitted by nuclear reactors have triggered the hypothesis of the existence of a supplementary neutrino state that would be sterile i.e. not interacting via the weak interaction. The STEREO experiment was designed to study this scientific case that would potentially extend the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Here we present a complete study based on our full set of data with significantly improved sensitivity. Installed at the ILL (Institut Laue Langevin) research reactor, STEREO has accurately measured the antineutrino energy spectrum associated to the fission of 235U. This measurement confirms the anomalies whereas, thanks to the segmentation of the STEREO detector and its very short mean distance to the core (10~m), the same data reject the hypothesis of a light sterile neutrino. Such a direct measurement of the antineutrino energy spectrum suggests instead that biases in the nuclear experimental data used for the predictions are at the origin of the anomalies. Our result supports the neutrino content of the Standard Model and establishes a new reference for the 235U antineutrino energy spectrum. We anticipate that this result will allow to progress towards finer tests of the fundamental properties of neutrinos but also to benchmark models and nuclear data of interest for reactor physics and for observations of astrophysical or geo-neutrinos.**Impact of the finite life-time of UHECR sources**

2210.07090 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Björn Eichmann and Michael Kachelrieß.

The observational data on ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR), in particular their mass composition, show strong indications for extremely hard spectra of individual mass groups of CR nuclei at Earth. In this work, we show that such hard spectra can be the result of the finite life-time of UHECR sources, if a few individual sources dominate the UHECR flux at the highest energies. In this case, time delays induced by deflections in the turbulent extragalactic magnetic field as well as from the diffusive or advective escape from the source environment can suppress low-energy CRs, leading to a steepening of the observed spectrum. Considering radio galaxies as the main source of UHECRs, we discuss the necessary conditions that few individual sources dominate over the total contribution from the bulk of sources that have been active in the past. We provide two proof-of-principle scenarios showing that for a turbulent extragalactic magnetic field with a strength $B$ and a coherence length $l_{\rm coh}$, the life-time of a source at a distance $d_{\rm src}$ should satisfy ${t_{\rm act} \sim \left( B/1\,\text{nG} \right)^2\,\left( d_{\rm src}/10\,\text{Mpc} \right)^2\,\left( l_{\rm coh}/1\,\text{Mpc} \right)\,\text{Myr}}$ to obtain the necessary hardening of the CR spectrum at Earth.**Evidence of a signature of planet formation processes from solar neutrino fluxes**

2210.06900 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Masanobu Kunitomo, Tristan Guillot, and Gaël Buldgen.

Solar evolutionary models are thus far unable to reproduce spectroscopic, helioseismic, and neutrino constraints consistently, resulting in the so-called solar modeling problem. In parallel, planet formation models predict that the evolving composition of the protosolar disk and, thus, of the gas accreted by the proto-Sun must have been variable. We show that solar evolutionary models that include a realistic planet formation scenario lead to an increased core metallicity of up to 5%, implying that accurate neutrino flux measurements are sensitive to the initial stages of the formation of the Solar System. Models with homogeneous accretion match neutrino constraints to no better than 2.7$\sigma$. In contrast, accretion with a variable composition due to planet formation processes, leading to metal-poor accretion of the last $\sim$4% of the young Sun's total mass, yields solar models within 1.3$\sigma$ of all neutrino constraints. We thus demonstrate that in addition to increased opacities at the base of the convective envelope, the formation history of the Solar System constitutes a key element in resolving the current crisis of solar models.**Astrophysical searches of ultralight particles**

2210.06837 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tanmay Kumar Poddar.

The Standard Model of particle physics is a $SU(3)_c\times SU(2)_L\times U(1)_Y$ gauge theory that can explain the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions between the particles. The gravitational interaction is described by Einstein's General Relativity theory which is a classical theory of gravity. These theories can explain all the four fundamental forces of nature with great level of accuracy. However, there are several theoretical and experimental motivations of studying physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics and Einstein's General Relativity theory. Probing these new physics scenarios with ultralight particles has its own importance as they can be a promising candidates for dark matter that can evade the constraints from dark matter direct detection experiments and solve the small scale structure problems of the universe. In this paper, we have considered axions and gauge bosons as light particles and their possible searches through astrophysical observations. In particular, we obtain constraints on ultralight axions from orbital period loss of compact binary systems, gravitational light bending, and Shapiro time delay. We also derive constraints on ultralight gauge bosons from indirect evidence of gravitational waves, and perihelion precession of planets. Such type of observations can also constrain several particle physics models and are discussed.**Lorentz invariance violation induced threshold anomaly versus very-high energy cosmic photon emission from GRB 221009A**

2210.06338 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hao Li and Bo-Qiang Ma.

It has been reported that the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) observed very high energy photons from GRB 221009A, with the highest energy reaching 18~TeV. We find that observation of such high energy photons is quite nontrivial since extragalactic background light could absorb these photons severely and the flux is too weak to be observed. Therefore we discuss a potential mechanism for us to observe these photons, and suggest that Lorentz invariance violation induced threshold anomaly of the process \(\gamma\gamma\to e^-e^+\) provides a candidate to explain this phenomenon.**Constraints on populations of neutrino sources from searches in the directions of IceCube neutrino alerts**

2210.04930 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 383 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, N. Aggarwal, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, J. M. Alameddine, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. N. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. Benda, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, J. Borowka, C. Boscolo Meneguolo, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Braun, B. Brinson, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, S. Countryman, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, S. J. Gray, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, L. Heuermann, S. Hickford, A. Hidvegi, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Krupczak, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. Love, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, M. Marsee, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, Y. Merckx, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, A. Nayerhoda, J. Necker, M. Neumann, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, A. Noell, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, R. Orsoe, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, R. Procter-Murphy, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, L. Ruohan, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, J. Savelberg, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, B. Schlueter, T. Schmidt, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Søgaard, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, C. F. Tung, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Vara, J. Veitch-Michaelis, S. Verpoest, D. Veske, C. Walck, W. Wang, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

Beginning in 2016, the IceCube Neutrino Observatory has sent out alerts in real time containing the information of high-energy ($E \gtrsim 100$~TeV) neutrino candidate events with moderate-to-high ($\gtrsim 30$\%) probability of astrophysical origin. In this work, we use a recent catalog of such alert events, which, in addition to events announced in real-time, includes events that were identified retroactively, and covers the time period of 2011-2020. We also search for additional, lower-energy, neutrinos from the arrival directions of these IceCube alerts. We show how performing such an analysis can constrain the contribution of rare populations of cosmic neutrino sources to the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux. After searching for neutrino emission coincident with these alert events on various timescales, we find no significant evidence of either minute-scale or day-scale transient neutrino emission or of steady neutrino emission in the direction of these alert events. This study also shows how numerous a population of neutrino sources has to be to account for the complete astrophysical neutrino flux. Assuming sources have the same luminosity, an $E^{-2.5}$ neutrino spectrum and number densities that follow star-formation rates, the population of sources has to be more numerous than $7\times 10^{-9}~\textrm{Mpc}^{-3}$. This number changes to $3\times 10^{-7}~\textrm{Mpc}^{-3}$ if number densities instead have no cosmic evolution.**Directional Neutrino Searches for Galactic Center Dark Matter at Large Underground LArTPCs**

2210.04920 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Matthew R. Buckley, Andrew Mastbaum, and Gopolang Mohlabeng.

We investigate the sensitivity of a large, underground LArTPC-based neutrino detector to dark matter in the Galactic Center annihilating into neutrinos. Such a detector could have the ability to resolve the direction of the electron in a neutrino scattering event, and thus to infer information about the source direction for individual neutrino events. We consider the improvements on the expected experimental sensitivity that this directional information would provide. Even without directional information, we find a DUNE-like LArTPC detector is capable of setting limits on dark matter annihilation to neutrinos for dark matter masses above 30 MeV that are competitive with or exceed current experimental reach. While currently-demonstrated angular resolution for low-energy electrons is insufficient to allow any significant increase in sensitivity, these techniques could benefit from improvements to algorithms and the additional spatial information provided by novel 3D charge imaging approaches. We consider the impact of such enhancements to the resolution for electron directionality, and find that where electron-scattering events can be distinguished from charged-current neutrino interactions, limits on dark matter annihilation in the mass range where solar neutrino backgrounds dominate ($\lesssim 15$ MeV) can be significantly improved using directional information, and would be competitive with existing limits using $40$ kton$\times$year of exposure.**Monoenergetic Neutrinos from WIMP Annihilation in Jupiter**

2210.04761 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by George M. French and Marc Sher.

Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) can be captured by the Sun and annihilate in the core, which may result in production of kaons that can decay at rest into monoenergetic 236 MeV neutrinos. Several studies of detection of these neutrinos at DUNE have been carried out. It has been shown that if the WIMP mass is below 4 GeV, then they will evaporate prior to annihilation, suppressing the signal. Since Jupiter has a cooler core, WIMPs with masses in the 1-4 GeV range will not evaporate and can thus annihilate into monoenergetic neutrinos. We calculate the flux of these neutrinos near the surface of Jupiter and find that it is comparable to the flux at DUNE for masses above 4 GeV and substantially greater in the 1-4 GeV range. Of course, detecting these neutrinos would require a neutrino detector near Jupiter. Obviously, it will be many decades before such a detector can be built, but should direct detection experiments find a WIMP with a mass in the 1-4 GeV range, it may be one of the few ways to learn about the annihilation process. A liquid hydrogen time projection chamber might be able to get precise directional information and energy of these neutrinos (and hydrogen is plentiful in the vicinity of Jupiter). We speculate that such a detector could be placed on the far side of one of the tidally locked Amalthean moons; the moon itself would provide substantial background shielding and the surface would allow easier deployment of solar panels for power generation.**The impact of neutrino-nucleus interaction modeling on new physics searches**

2210.03753 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nina M. Coyle, Shirley Weishi Li, and Pedro A. N. Machado.

Accurate neutrino-nucleus interaction modeling is an essential requirement for the success of the accelerator-based neutrino program. As no satisfactory description of cross sections exists, experiments tune neutrino-nucleus interactions to data to mitigate mis-modeling. In this work, we study how the interplay between near detector tuning and cross section mis-modeling affects new physics searches. We perform a realistic simulation of neutrino events and closely follow NOvA's tuning, the first published of such procedures in a neutrino experiment. We analyze two illustrative new physics scenarios, sterile neutrinos and light neutrinophilic scalars, presenting the relevant experimental signatures and the sensitivity regions with and without tuning. While the tuning does not wash out sterile neutrino oscillation patterns, cross section mis-modeling can bias the experimental sensitivity. In the case of light neutrinophilic scalars, variations in cross section models completely dominate the sensitivity regardless of any tuning. Our findings reveal the critical need to improve our theoretical understanding of neutrino-nucleus interactions, and to estimate the impact of tuning on new physics searches. We urge neutrino experiments to follow NOvA's example and publish the details of their tuning procedure, and to develop strategies to more robustly account for cross section uncertainties, which will expand the scope of their physics program.**New Constraints on Dark Matter and Cosmic Neutrino Profiles through Gravity**

2210.03749 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yu-Dai Tsai, [and 4 more]Joshua Eby, Jason Arakawa, Davide Farnocchia, and Marianna S. Safronova [hide authors].

We derive purely gravitational constraints on dark matter and cosmic neutrino profiles in the solar system using asteroid (101955) Bennu. We focus on Bennu because of its extensive tracking data and high-fidelity trajectory modeling resulting from the OSIRIS-REx mission. We find that the local density of dark matter is bound by $\rho_{\rm DM}\lesssim 3.3\times 10^{-15}\;\rm kg/m^3 \simeq 6\times10^6\,\bar{\rho}_{\rm DM}$, in the vicinity of $\sim 1.1$ au (where $\bar{\rho}_{\rm DM}\simeq 0.3\;\rm GeV/cm^3$). We show that high-precision tracking data of solar system objects can constrain cosmic neutrino overdensities relative to the Standard Model prediction $\bar{n}_{\nu}$, at the level of $\eta\equiv n_\nu/\bar{n}_{\nu}\lesssim 1.7 \times 10^{11}(0.1 \;{\rm eV}/m_\nu)$ (Saturn), comparable to the existing bounds from KATRIN and other previous laboratory experiments (with $m_\nu$ the neutrino mass). These local bounds have interesting implications for existing and future direct-detection experiments. Our constraints apply to all dark matter candidates but are particularly meaningful for scenarios including solar halos, stellar basins, and axion miniclusters, which predict or allow overdensities in the solar system. Furthermore, introducing a DM-SM long-range fifth force with a strength $\tilde{\alpha}_D$ times stronger than gravity, Bennu can set a constraint on $\rho_{\rm DM}\lesssim \bar{\rho}_{\rm DM}\left(6 \times 10^6/\tilde{\alpha}_D\right)$. These constraints can be improved in the future as the accuracy of tracking data improves, observational arcs increase, and more missions visit asteroids.**Decay of superluminal neutrinos in the collinear approximation**

2210.02222 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. M. Carmona, [and 3 more]J. L. Cortés, J. J. Relancio, and M. A. Reyes [hide authors].

The kinematics of the three body decay, with a modified energy-momentum relation of the particles due to a violation of Lorentz invariance, is presented in detail in the collinear approximation. The results are applied to the decay of superluminal neutrinos producing an electron-positron or a neutrino-antineutrino pair. Explicit expressions for the energy distributions, required for a study of the cascade of neutrinos produced in the propagation of superluminal neutrinos, are derived.**High-energy neutrino-induced cascade from the direction of the flaring radio blazar TXS 0506+056 observed by the Baikal Gigaton Volume Detector in 2021**

2210.01650 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Baikal-GVD Collaboration, [and 10 more]A. K. Erkenov, N. A. Kosogorov, Y. A. Kovalev, Y. Y. Kovalev, A. V. Plavin, A. V. Popkov, A. B. Pushkarev, D. V. Semikoz, Y. V. Sotnikova, and S. V. Troitsky [hide authors].

The existence of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has been unambiguously demonstrated, but their sources remain elusive. IceCube reported an association of a 290-TeV neutrino with a gamma-ray flare of TXS 0506+056, an active galactic nucleus with a compact radio jet pointing to us. Later, radio blazars were shown to be associated with IceCube neutrino events with high statistical significance. These associations remained unconfirmed with the data of independent experiments. Here we report on the detection of a rare neutrino event with the estimated energy of 224 +- 75 TeV from the direction of TXS 0506+056 by the new Baikal-GVD neutrino telescope in April 2021 followed by a radio flare observed by RATAN-600. This event is the highest-energy cascade detected so far by Baikal-GVD from a direction below horizon. The result supports previous suggestions that radio blazars in general, and TXS 0506+056 in particular, are the sources of high-energy neutrinos, and opens up the cascade channel for the neutrino astronomy.**Solar and supernova neutrino physics with future NaI(Tl) dark matter search detectors**

2210.01386 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Young Ju Ko and Hyun Su Lee.

We investigate the prospects for measuring the coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering of solar and supernova neutrinos in future NaI(Tl) dark matter detection experiments. Considering the reduced background and improved light yield of the recently developed NaI(Tl) crystals, more than 3$\sigma$ observation sensitivities of the supernova neutrino within the Milky Way are demonstrated. In the case of the solar neutrino, approximately 3 observations are marginal with a 1 ton NaI(Tl) experiment assuming an order of magnitude reduced background, five photoelectron thresholds, and 5-year data exposure.**Dark Matter decay to neutrinos**

2210.01303 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles, [and 6 more]Diyaselis Delgado, Avi Friedlander, Ali Kheirandish, Ibrahim Safa, Aaron C. Vincent, and Henry White [hide authors].

It is possible that the strongest interactions between dark matter and the Standard Model occur via the neutrino sector. Unlike gamma rays and charged particles, neutrinos provide a unique avenue to probe for astrophysical sources of dark matter, since they arrive unimpeded and undeflected from their sources. Previously, we reported on annihilations of dark matter to neutrinos; here, we review constraints on the decay of dark matter into neutrinos over a range of dark matter masses from MeV to ZeV, compiling previously reported limits, exploring new electroweak corrections and computing constraints where none have been computed before. We examine the expected contributions to the neutrino flux at current and upcoming neutrino experiments as well as photons from electroweak emission expected at gamma-ray telescopes, leading to constraints on the dark matter decay lifetime, which ranges from $\tau \sim 1.2\times10^{21}$ s at 10 MeV to $1.5\times10^{29}$s at 1 PeV.**How to Identify Different New Neutrino Oscillation Physics Scenarios at DUNE**

2210.00109 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton, Alessio Giarnetti, and Davide Meloni.

Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments are expected to measure the remaining oscillation parameters with very good precision. They will have unprecedented capabilities to search for new physics that modify oscillations. DUNE, with its broad band beam, good particle identification, and relatively high energies will provide an excellent environment to search for new physics. If deviations from the standard three-flavor oscillation picture are seen however, it is crucial to know which new physics scenario is found so that it can be verified elsewhere and theoretically understood. We investigate several benchmark new physics scenarios by looking at existing long-baseline accelerator neutrino data from NOvA and T2K and determine at what sensitivity DUNE can differentiate among them. We consider sterile neutrinos and both vector and scalar non-standard neutrino interactions, all with new complex phases, the latter of which could conceivably provide absolute neutrino mass scale information. We find that, in many interesting cases, DUNE will have good model discrimination. We also perform a new fit to NOvA and T2K data with scalar NSI.**Neutrino propagation in the Earth and emerging charged leptons with $\texttt{nuPyProp}$**

2209.15581 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Diksha Garg, [and 24 more]Sameer Patel, Mary Hall Reno, Alexander Reustle, Yosui Akaike, Luis A. Anchordoqui, Douglas R. Bergman, Isaac Buckland, Austin L. Cummings, Johannes Eser, Fred Garcia, Claire Guépin, Tobias Heibges, Andrew Ludwig, John F. Krizmanic, Simon Mackovjak, Eric Mayotte, Sonja Mayotte, Angela V. Olinto, Thomas C. Paul, Andrés Romero-Wolf, Frédéric Sarazin, Tonia M. Venters, Lawrence Wiencke, and Stephanie Wissel [hide authors].

Ultra-high-energy neutrinos serve as messengers of some of the highest energy astrophysical environments. Given that neutrinos are neutral and only interact via weak interactions, neutrinos can emerge from sources, traverse astronomical distances, and point back to their origins. Their weak interactions require large target volumes for neutrino detection. Using the Earth as a neutrino converter, terrestrial, sub-orbital, and satellite-based instruments are able to detect signals of neutrino-induced extensive air showers. In this paper, we describe the software code $\texttt{nuPyProp}$ that simulates tau neutrino and muon neutrino interactions in the Earth and predicts the spectrum of the $\tau$-lepton and muons that emerge. The $\texttt{nuPyProp}$ outputs are lookup tables of charged lepton exit probabilities and energies that can be used directly or as inputs to the $\texttt{nuSpaceSim}$ code designed to simulate optical and radio signals from extensive air showers induced by the emerging charged leptons. We describe the inputs to the code, demonstrate its flexibility and show selected results for $\tau$-lepton and muon exit probabilities and energy distributions. The $\texttt{nuPyProp}$ code is open source, available on Github.**Solar neutrino physics**

2209.14832 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Xun-Jie Xu, Zhe Wang, and Shaomin Chen.

As a free, intensive, rarely interactive and well directional messenger, solar neutrinos have been driving both solar physics and neutrino physics developments for more than half a century. Since more extensive and advanced neutrino experiments are under construction, being planned or proposed, we are striving toward an era of precise and comprehensive measurement of solar neutrinos in the next decades. In this article, we review recent theoretical and experimental progress achieved in solar neutrino physics. We present not only an introduction to neutrinos from the standard solar model and the standard flavor evolution, but also a compilation of a variety of new physics that could affect and hence be probed by solar neutrinos. After reviewing the latest techniques and issues involved in the measurement of solar neutrino spectra and background reduction, we provide our anticipation on the physics gains from the new generation of neutrino experiments.**The Status of the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess**

2209.14370 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dan Hooper.

The Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess has a spectrum, angular distribution, and overall intensity that agree remarkably well with that expected from annihilating dark matter particles in the form of a $m_X \sim 50 \, {\rm GeV}$ thermal relic. Previous claims that these photons are clustered on small angular scales or trace the distribution of known stellar populations once appeared to favor interpretations in which this signal originates from a large population of unresolved millisecond pulsars. More recent work, however, has overturned these conclusions, finding that the observed gamma-ray excess does {\it not} contain discernible small scale power, and is distributed with approximate spherical symmetry, not tracing any known stellar populations. In light of these results, it now appears significantly more likely that the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess is produced by annihilating dark matter.**Non-standard neutrino interactions in light mediator models at reactor experiments**

2209.13566 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Bhaskar Dutta, [and 4 more]Sumit Ghosh, Tianjun Li, Adrian Thompson, and Ankur Verma [hide authors].

Compared to other neutrino sources, the huge anti-neutrino fluxes at nuclear reactor based experiments empower us to derive stronger bounds on non-standard interactions of neutrinos with electrons mediated by light scalar/vector mediators. At neutrino energy around $200$~keV reactor anti-neutrino flux is at least an order of magnitude larger compared to the solar flux. The atomic and crystal form factors of the detector materials related to the details of the atomic structure becomes relevant at this energy scale as the momentum transfers would be small. Non-standard neutrino-electron interaction mediated by light scalar/vector mediator arises naturally in many low-scale models. We also propose one such new model with a light scalar mediator. Here, we investigate the parameter space of such low-scale models in reactor based neutrino experiments with low threshold Ge and Si detectors, and find the prospect of probing/ruling out the relevant parameter space by finding the projected sensitivity at $90 \%$ confidence level by performing a $\chi^2$-analysis. We find that a detector capable of discriminating between electron recoil and nuclear recoil signal down to a very low threshold such as $5$~eV placed in reactor based experiment would be able to probe a larger region in parameter space compared to the previously explored region. A Ge (Si) detector with $10$~kg-yr exposure and 1 MW reactor anti-neutrino flux would be able to probe the scalar and vector mediators with masses below 1 keV for coupling products $\sqrt{g_\nu g_e}$ $\sim$ $1 \times 10^{-6}~(9.5 \times 10^{-7})$ and $1\times 10^{-7} ~(8\times 10^{-8})$, respectively.**Neutrino non-radiative decay and the diffuse supernova neutrino background**

2209.12465 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Ivanez-Ballesteros and M. Cristina Volpe.

We revisit the possibility that neutrinos undergo non-radiative decay. We investigate the potential to extract information on the neutrino lifetime-to-mass ratio from the diffuse supernova neutrino background. To this aim, we explicitly consider the current uncertainties on the core-collapse supernova rate and the fraction of failed supernovae. We present predictions in a full 3 neutrino framework in the absence and presence of neutrino non-radiative decay, for the Super-Kamiokande+Gd, the JUNO, the Hyper-Kamiokande, and the DUNE experiments, that should observe the diffuse supernova neutrino background in the near future. Our results show the importance of a 3 neutrino treatment of neutrino decay and of identifying the neutrino mass ordering to break possible degeneracies between DSNB predictions in the presence of decay and standard physics.**Strong Supernova 1987A Constraints on Bosons Decaying to Neutrinos**

2209.11773 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Damiano F. G. Fiorillo, Georg G. Raffelt, and Edoardo Vitagliano.

Majoron-like bosons would emerge from a supernova (SN) core by neutrino coalescence of the form $\nu\nu\to\phi$ and $\bar\nu\bar\nu\to\phi$ with 100 MeV-range energies. Subsequent decays to (anti)neutrinos of all flavors provide a flux component with energies much larger than the usual flux from the "neutrino sphere." The absence of 100 MeV-range events in the Kamiokande-II and Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven signal of SN 1987A implies that less than 1% of the total energy was thus emitted and provides the strongest constraint on the Majoron-neutrino coupling of $g\lesssim 10^{-9}\,{\rm MeV}/m_\phi$ for $100~{\rm eV}\lesssim m_\phi\lesssim 100~{\rm MeV}$. It is straightforward to extend our new argument to other hypothetical feebly interacting particles.**Determination of the total cross section and $ρ$-parameter from elastic scattering in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector**

2209.11487 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hasko Stenzel.

A new measurement of elastic $pp$ scattering at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV with the ATLAS-ALFA detector is presented. The measurement was performed using data recorded in a special run of the LHC with $\beta^\star = 2.5$ km. The elastic cross-section was measured differentially in the Mandelstam $t$ variable and from a fit to ${\textrm{d}}\sigma/\textrm{d}t$ the total cross section, the $\rho$-parameter and parameters of the nuclear slope are determined. The results for $\sigma_{\textrm{tot}}$ and $\rho$ are \begin{equation*} \sigma_{\textrm{tot}}(pp\rightarrow X) = \mbox{104.7} \; \pm 1.1 \; \mbox{mb} , \; \; \rho = \mbox{0.098} \; \pm 0.011 . \end{equation*} The energy evolution of $\sigma_{\textrm{tot}}$ and $\rho$, connected through dispersion relations, is compared to several models. Furthermore, the total inelastic cross section is determined from the difference of the total and elastic cross section, and the ratio of the elastic to total cross section is calculated.**Probing non-unitarity of neutrino mixing in the scenario of Lorentz violation and dark nonstandard interaction**

2209.10233 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Trisha Sarkar.

Neutrino flavour oscillation is one of the primary indication of the existence of new physics beyond standard model. The presence of small neutrino mass is indispensable to explicate the oscillation among different flavours of neutrino. By the addition of a right handed neutral lepton with the standard model fermions, it is possible to generate tiny neutrino mass. Such additional fermion may induce non-unitarity to the $3\times 3$ PMNS mixing matrix which influences the propagation of neutrino in space-time. In this work the effect of non-unitary mixing matrix is analyzed in neutrino oscillation in presence of two new physics scenarios, Lorentz violation and dark non-standard interaction. Lorentz symmetry violation mainly appears at the Planck scale, which may also be manifested at a lower energy level. On the other hand, dark non standard interaction arises due to the interaction of neutrino with the environmental dark matter which contributes as a perturbative correction to the neutrino mass. In this analysis, the comparative study of unitary and non-unitary mixing matrix is carried out considering the scenario of Lorentz violation and dark NSI in the context of long baseline DUNE and short baseline Daya Bay experimental set up. The signature of dark nonstandard interaction is observable in both DUNE and Daya Bay set up in terms of large value of neutrino survival and oscillation probability respectively and is a possible explanation for the excess flux observed at $\sim5$ MeV in Daya Bay experiment. The signature of Lorentz violation is also possible to be observed in the short baseline Daya Bay experiment only.**Prospects for detection of a Galactic diffuse neutrino flux**

2209.10011 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pedro De la Torre Luque, Daniele Gaggero, and Dario Grasso.

A Galactic cosmic-ray transport model featuring non-homogeneous transport has been developed over the latest years. This setup is aimed at reproducing gamma-ray observations in different regions of the Galaxy (with particular focus on the progressive hardening of the hadronic spectrum in the inner Galaxy) and was shown to be compatible with the very-high-energy gamma-ray diffuse emission recently detected up to PeV energies. In this work, we extend the results previously presented to test the reliability of that model throughout the whole sky. To this aim, we compare our predictions with detailed longitude and latitude profiles of the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by Fermi-LAT for different energies and compute the expected Galactic neutrino diffuse emission, comparing it with current limits from the ANTARES collaboration. We emphasize that the possible detection of a Galactic neutrino component will allow us to break the degeneracy between our model and other scenarios featuring prominent contributions from unresolved sources and TeV halos.**Floating Dark Matter in Celestial Bodies**

2209.09834 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rebecca K. Leane and Juri Smirnov.

Dark matter (DM) can be captured in celestial bodies after scattering and losing sufficient energy to become gravitationally bound. We derive a general framework that describes the current DM distribution inside celestial objects, which self-consistently includes the effects of concentration diffusion, thermal diffusion, gravity, and capture accumulation. For DM with sufficient interactions, we show that a significant DM population can thermalize and sit towards the celestial-body surface. This floating distribution allows for new phenomenology for DM searches in a wide range of celestial bodies, including the Sun, Earth, Jupiter, Brown Dwarfs, and Exoplanets.**Neutrino forces in neutrino backgrounds**

2209.07082 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mitrajyoti Ghosh, [and 4 more]Yuval Grossman, Walter Tangarife, Xun-Jie Xu, and Bingrong Yu [hide authors].

The Standard Model predicts a long-range force, proportional to $G_F^2/r^5$, between fermions due to the exchange of a pair of neutrinos. This quantum force is feeble and has not been observed yet. In this paper, we compute this force in the presence of neutrino backgrounds, both for isotropic and directional background neutrinos. We find that for the case of directional background the force can have a $1/r$ dependence and it can be significantly enhanced compared to the vacuum case. In particular, background effects caused by reactor, solar, and supernova neutrinos enhance the force by many orders of magnitude. The enhancement, however, occurs only in the direction parallel to the direction of the background neutrinos. We discuss the experimental prospects of detecting the neutrino force in neutrino backgrounds and find that the effect is close to the available sensitivity of the current fifth force experiments. Yet, the angular spread of the neutrino flux and that of the test masses reduce the strength of this force. The results are encouraging and a detailed experimental study is called for to check if the effect can be probed.**New constraints on the dark matter-neutrino and dark matter-photon scattering cross sections from TXS 0506+056**

2209.06339 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Francesc Ferrer, Gonzalo Herrera, and Alejandro Ibarra.

The flux of high energy neutrinos and photons produced in a blazar could get attenuated when they propagate through the dark matter spike around the central black hole and the halo of the host galaxy. Using the observation by IceCube of a few high-energy neutrino events from TXS 0506+056, and their coincident gamma ray events, we obtain new constraints on the dark matter-neutrino and dark matter-photon scattering cross sections. Our constraints are orders of magnitude more stringent than those derived from considering the attenuation through the intergalactic medium and the Milky Way dark matter halo. When the cross-section increases with energy, our constraints are also stronger than those derived from the CMB and large-scale structure.**Probing Quantum Gravity with Elastic Interactions of Ultra-High-Energy Neutrinos**

2209.06282 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alfonso Garcia Soto, [and 3 more]Diksha Garg, Mary Hall Reno, and Carlos A. Argüelles [hide authors].

The next generation of radio telescopes will be sensitive to low-scale quantum gravity by measuring ultra-high-energy neutrinos. In this letter, we demonstrate for the first time that neutrino-nucleon soft interactions induced by TeV-scale gravity would significantly increase the number of events detected by the IceCube-Gen2 radio array in the EeV regime. However, we show that these experiments cannot measure the total cross section using only the angular and energy information of the neutrino flux, unless assumptions on the underlying inelasticity distribution of neutral interactions are made.**Imprints of scalar NSI on the CP-violation sensitivity using synergy among DUNE, T2HK and T2HKK**

2209.05287 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Abinash Medhi, Moon Moon Devi, and Debajyoti Dutta.

The Non-Standard Interactions (NSIs) are subdominant effects, often appearing in various extensions of SM, which may impact the neutrino oscillations through matter. It is important and interesting to explore the impact of NSIs in the ongoing and upcoming precise neutrino oscillations experiments. In this work, we have studied the imprints of a scalar-mediated NSI in three upcoming long-baseline (LBL) experiments (DUNE, T2HK, T2HKK). The effects of scalar NSI appears as a medium-dependent correction to the neutrino mass term. Its contribution scales linearly with matter density, making LBL experiments a suitable candidate to probe its effects. We show that the scalar NSI may significantly impact the oscillation probabilities, event rates at the detectors and the $\chi^2$-sensitivities of $\delta_{CP}$ measurements. We present the results of a combined analysis involving the LBL experiments (DUNE+T2HK, DUNE+T2HKK, DUNE+T2HK+T2HKK) which offer a better capability of constraining the scalar NSI parameters as well as an improved sensitivity towards CP-violation.**Majorana versus Dirac Constraints on the Neutrino Dipole Moments**

2209.03373 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, [and 3 more]Giancarlo Jusino Sánchez, Pedro A. N. Machado, and Zahra Tabrizi [hide authors].

Massive neutrinos are guaranteed to have nonzero electromagnetic moments and, since there are at least three neutrino species, these dipole moments define a matrix. Here, we estimate the current upper bounds on all independent neutrino electromagnetic moments, concentrating on Earth-bound experiments and measurements with solar neutrinos, including the very recent results reported by XENONnT. We make no simplifying assumptions and compare the hypotheses that neutrinos are Majorana fermions or Dirac fermions. In particular, we fully explore constraints in the Dirac-neutrino parameter space. Majorana and Dirac neutrinos are different; for example, the upper bounds on the magnitudes of the elements of the dipole moment matrix are weaker for Dirac neutrinos, relative to Majorana neutrinos. The potential physics reach of next-generation experiments also depends on the nature of the neutrino. We find that a next-generation experiment two orders of magnitude more sensitive to the neutrino electromagnetic moments via $\nu_{\mu}$ elastic scattering may discover that the neutrino electromagnetic moments are nonzero if the neutrinos are Dirac fermions. Instead, if the neutrinos are Majorana fermions, such a discovery is ruled out by existing solar neutrino data, unless there are more than three light neutrinos.**Testing the Gallium Anomaly**

2209.02885 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Patrick Huber.

We study the online detection by gallium capture of mono-energetic neutrinos produced by a $^{51}$Cr radioactive source in a scintillation experiment. We find that cerium-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (GAGG) is a suitable scintillator which contains about 21% of gallium per weight and has a high mass density and light yield. Combined with a highly efficient light detection system this allows tagging of the subsequent germanium decay and thus a clean distinction of gallium capture and elastic neutrino electron scattering events. With 1.5 tons of scintillator and 10 source runs of 3.4MCi, each, we obtain about 760 gallium capture events with a purity of 85% and 680,000 neutrino electron scattering events, where the latter provide a precise normalization independent of any nuclear physics. This configuration would allow to test the gallium anomaly at more than $5\sigma$ in an independent way.**Blazar constraints on neutrino-dark matter scattering**

2209.02713 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by James M. Cline, [and 7 more]Shan Gao, Fangyi Guo, Zhongan Lin, Shiyan Liu, Matteo Puel, Phillip Todd, and Tianzhuo Xiao [hide authors].

Neutrino emission in coincidence with gamma rays has been observed from the blazar TXS 0506+056 by the IceCube telescope. Neutrinos from the blazar had to pass through a dense spike of dark matter (DM) surrounding the central black hole. The observation of such a neutrino implies new upper bounds on the neutrino-DM scattering cross section as a function of DM mass. The constraint is stronger than existing ones for a range of DM masses, if the cross section rises linearly with energy. For constant cross sections, competitive bounds are also possible, depending on details of the DM spike.**Gallium Anomaly: Critical View from the Global Picture of $ν_{e}$ and $\barν_{e}$ Disappearance**

2209.00916 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Giunti, [and 4 more]Y. F. Li, C. A. Ternes, O. Tyagi, and Z. Xin [hide authors].

The significance of the Gallium Anomaly, from the BEST, GALLEX, and SAGE radioactive source experiments, is quantified using different theoretical calculations of the neutrino detection cross section, and its explanation due to neutrino oscillations is compared with the bounds from the analyses of reactor rate and spectral ratio data, $\beta$-decay data, and solar neutrino data. In the 3+1 active-sterile neutrino mixing scheme, the Gallium Anomaly is in strong tension with the individual and combined bounds of these data sets. In the combined scenario with all available data, the parameter goodness of fit is below 0.042%, corresponding to a severe tension of 4-5$\sigma$, or stronger. Therefore, we conclude that one should pursue other possible solutions beyond short-baseline oscillations for the Gallium Anomaly. We also present a new global fit of $\nu_e$ and $\bar\nu_e$ disappearance data, showing that there is a 2.6-3.3$\sigma$ preference in favor of short-baseline oscillations, which is driven by an updated analysis of reactor spectral ratio data.**Comment on "Damping of neutrino oscillations, decoherence and the lengths of neutrino wave packets''**

2209.00561 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by B. J. P. Jones.

We point out three apparent inconsistencies in the treatment of oscillation coherence from reactor neutrino and source neutrino experiments in recent paper "Damping of neutrino oscillations, decoherence and the lengths of neutrino wave packets''. First, that the dependence of the oscillation probability upon the subsequent interactions of entangled recoil particles implies causality violations and in some situations superluminal signaling; second, that integrating over a non-orthogonal basis for the entangled recoil leads to unphysical effects; and third, that the question of what interactions serve to measure the position of the initial state particle remains ambiguous. These points taken together appear to undermine the claim made therein that the effects of wave packet separation must be strictly unobservable in reactor and radioactive source based neutrino experiments.**Characterising Dark Matter-induced neutrino potentials**

2209.00442 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gabriel M. Salla.

In this paper we explore interactions between neutrinos and Dark Matter. In particular, we study how the propagation of astrophysical neutrinos can be modified by computing the most general potential generated by the galactic DM background. We use on-shell techniques to compute this potential in a completely model independent way and obtain an expression valid for any Dark Matter mass and spin. Afterwards, we use this expression to analyse under what circumstances such potential can be important at the phenomenological level, and we find that under some assumptions only ultra light scalar Dark Matter could be of any relevance to oscillation experiments.**Addressing the Short-Baseline Neutrino Anomalies with Energy-Dependent Mixing Parameters**

2209.00031 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by K. S. Babu, [and 3 more]Vedran Brdar, André de Gouvêa, and Pedro A. N. Machado [hide authors].

Several neutrino experiments have reported results that are potentially inconsistent with our current understanding of the lepton sector. A candidate solution to these so-called short-baseline anomalies is postulating the existence of new, eV-scale, mostly sterile neutrinos that mix with the active neutrinos. This hypothesis, however, is strongly disfavored once one considers all neutrino data, especially those that constrain the disappearance of muon and electron neutrinos at short-baselines. Here, we show that if the sterile-active mixing parameters depend on the energy-scales that characterize neutrino production and detection, the sterile-neutrino hypothesis may provide a reasonable fit to all neutrino data. The reason for the improved fit is that the stringent disappearance constraints on the different elements of the extended neutrino mixing matrix are associated to production and detection energy scales that are different from those that characterize the anomalous LSND and MiniBooNE appearance data. We show, via a concrete example, that secret interactions among the sterile neutrinos can lead to the results of interest.**Exploiting stellar explosion induced by the QCD phase transition in large-scale neutrino detectors**

2208.14469 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tetyana Pitik, [and 3 more]Daniel Heimsoth, Anna M. Suliga, and A. B. Balantekin [hide authors].

The centers of the core-collapse supernovae are one of the densest environments in the Universe. Under such conditions, it is conceivable that a first-order phase transition from ordinary nuclear matter to the quark-gluon plasma occurs. This transition releases a large amount of latent heat that can drive a supernova explosion and may imprint a sharp signature in the neutrino signal. We show how this snap feature, if observed at large-scale neutrino detectors, can set competitive limits on the neutrino masses and assist the localization of the supernova via triangulation. The 95\%C.L. limit on the neutrino mass can reach 0.16~eV in Ice-Cube, 0.22~eV in Hyper-Kamiokande, and 0.58~eV in DUNE, for a supernova at a distance of 10 kpc. For the same distance and in the most optimistic neutrino conversion case, the triangulation method can constrain the $1\sigma$ angular uncertainty of the supernova localization within $\sim 0.3^{\circ}-9.0^{\circ}$ in the considered pairs of the detectors, leading to an improvement up to an order of magnitude with respect to the often considered in the literature rise time of the neutronization burst.**Physics implications of recent Dresden-II reactor data**

2208.13262 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anirban Majumdar, [and 3 more]Dimitrios K. Papoulias, Rahul Srivastava, and José W. F. Valle [hide authors].

Prompted by the recent Dresden-II reactor data we examine its implications for the determination of the weak mixing angle, paying attention to the effect of the quenching function. We also determine the resulting constraints on the unitarity of the neutrino mixing matrix, as well as on the most general type of nonstandard neutral-current neutrino interactions.**Constraining Non-Standard Interactions with Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering at the European Spallation Source**

2208.11771 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sabya Sachi Chatterjee, [and 3 more]Stéphane Lavignac, O. G. Miranda, and G. Sanchez Garcia [hide authors].

The European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Sweden, will provide an intense pulsed neutrino flux allowing for high-statistics measurements of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE{\nu}NS) with advanced nuclear recoil detectors. In this paper, we investigate in detail the possibility of constraining non-standard neutrino interactions (NSIs) through such precision CE{\nu}NS measurements at the ESS, considering the different proposed detection technologies, either alone or in combination. We first study the sensitivity to neutral-current NSI parameters that each detector can reach in 3 years of data taking. We then show that operating two detectors simultaneously can significantly improve the expected sensitivity on flavor-diagonal NSI parameters. Combining the results of two detectors turns out to be even more useful when two NSI parameters are assumed to be nonvanishing at a time. In this case, suitably chosen detector combinations can reduce the degeneracies between some pairs of NSI parameters to a small region of the parameter space.**Quantum Gravitational Decoherence in the 3 Neutrino Flavor Scheme**

2208.11754 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dominik Hellmann, Heinrich Päs, and Erika Rani.

In many theories of quantum gravity quantum fluctuations of spacetime may serve as an environment for decoherence. Here we study quantum-gravitational decoherence of high energy astrophysical neutrinos in the presence of fermionic dark sectors and for a realistic three neutrino scenario. We show how violation of global symmetries expected to arise in quantum gravitational interactions provides a possibility to pin down the number of dark matter fermions in the universe. Furthermore, we predict the expected total neutrino flux and flavor ratios at experiments depending on the flavor composition at the source.**Probing neutrino interactions and dark radiation with gravitational waves**

2208.11714 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Marilena Loverde and Zachary J. Weiner.

After their generation, cosmological backgrounds of gravitational waves propagate nearly freely but for the expansion of the Universe and the anisotropic stress of free-streaming particles. Primordial signals -- both that from inflation and the infrared spectrum associated to subhorizon production mechanisms -- would carry clean information about the cosmological history of these effects. We study the modulation of the standard damping of gravitational waves by free-streaming radiation due to the decoupling (or recoupling) of interactions. We focus on nonstandard neutrino interactions in effect after the decoupling of weak interactions as well as more general scenarios in the early Universe involving other light relics. We develop semianalytic results in fully free-streaming scenarios to provide intuition for numerical results that incorporate interaction rates with a variety of temerpature dependencies. Finally, we compute the imprint of neutrino interactions on the $B$-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background, and we comment on other means to infer the presence of such effects at higher frequencies.**Recent results from the TOTEM collaboration and the discovery of the odderon**

2208.10782 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Royon.

We describe the most recent results from the TOTEM collaboration on elastic, inelastic and total cross sections as well as the odderon discovery by the D0 and TOTEM collaborations.**The carbon footprint of proposed $\rm e^+e^-$ Higgs factories**

2208.10466 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Patrick Janot and Alain Blondel.

The energy consumption of any of the $\rm e^+e^-$ Higgs factory projects that can credibly operate immediately after the end of LHC, namely three linear colliders (CLIC, operating at $\sqrt{s}=380$GeV; and ILC and $\rm C^3$, operating at $\sqrt{s}=250$ GeV) and two circular colliders (CEPC and FCC-ee, operating at $\sqrt{s}=240$ GeV), will be everything but negligible. Future Higgs boson studies may therefore have a significant environmental impact. This note proposes to include the carbon footprint for a given physics performance as a top-level gauge for the design optimization and, eventually, the choice of the future facility. The projected footprints per Higgs boson produced, evaluated using the 2021 carbon emission of available electricity, are found to vary by a factor 100 depending on the considered Higgs factory project.**Texture of Two Vanishing Subtraces in Neutrino Mass Matrix and Current Experimental Tests**

2208.10344 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Ismael, E. I. Lashin, and N. Chamoun.

We present a full phenomenological and analytical study for the neutrino mass matrix characterized by two vanishing $2\times2$ subtraces. We update one past result in light of the recent experimental data. Out of the fifteen possible textures, we find seven cases can accommodate the experimental data instead of eight ones in the past study. We also introduce few symmetry realizations for viable and nonviable textures based on non-abelian ($A_4$ or $S_4$) flavor symmetry within type II seesaw scenario.**Discovering neutrinoless double-beta decay in the era of precision neutrino cosmology**

2208.09954 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Manuel Ettengruber, [and 4 more]Matteo Agostini, Allen Caldwell, Philipp Eller, and Oliver Schulz [hide authors].

We evaluate the discovery probability of a combined analysis of proposed neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments in a scenario with normal ordered neutrino masses. The discovery probability strongly depends on the value of the lightest neutrino mass, ranging from zero in case of vanishing masses and up to 80-90\% for values just below the current constraints. We study the discovery probability in different scenarios, focusing on the exciting prospect in which cosmological surveys will measure the sum of neutrino masses. Uncertainties in nuclear matrix element calculations partially compensate each other when data from different isotopes are available. Although a discovery is not granted, the theoretical motivations for these searches and the presence of scenarios with high discovery probability strongly motivates the proposed international, multi-isotope experimental program.**Zoom in muon survival probability with sterile neutrino for CP and T-violation**

2208.09696 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kiran Sharma and Sudhanwa Patra.

We present the approximated analytic expressions for the muon survival probability in a $3+1$ mixing scenario in the presence of matter effect using the S-matrix formalism. We find that all the individual terms contributing to the muon survival probability can significantly reduce to just three contributions. The leading order contribution comes from the three flavor muon survival probability followed by the two sub-leading contributions arising from active-sterile mixing. Furthermore, to more simplify the results we adopt the well known series expansion relations about mass-hierarchy parameter $\alpha = \Delta m^2_{21} / \Delta m^2_{31}$ and the mixing angle $\sin \theta_{13}$ in the vanishing limit of $\alpha^2$. We discuss the relevance of muon survival probability to probe the CP and T-violation studies coming from the new physics. We also compare the analytic relation between vacuum and matter contributions to the muon survival probability at the leading order. Finally, we comment on the probability behavior at the various long baselines relevant to understand the atmospheric-neutrino sector and to resolve the existing mass-hierarchy problem.**Extra dimensions with light and heavy neutral leptons: An application to CE$ν$NS**

2208.09584 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Amir N. Khan.

We explore the possibility of relating extra dimensions with light and heavy Dirac-type neutral leptons and develop a framework for testing them in various laboratory experiments. The Kaluza-Klein modes in the large extra dimension models of the light neutral leptons could mix with the standard model neutrinos and produce observable effects in the oscillation experiments. We show that the chirality flipping up-scattering processes occurring through either neutrino magnetic dipole moment or the weakly coupled scalar interactions can also produce heavy Kaluza-Klein modes of the corresponding right-handed neutral leptons propagating in one or more extra dimensions. However, to conserve the four-dimensional energy-momentum, their masses must be below the maximum energy of the neutrinos in the initial state. The appreciable size of extra dimensions connected with these heavy neutral leptons can thus affect the cross-sections of these processes. This framework applies to any up-scattering process. Our work here focuses only on its application to the coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering process. We derive constraints on the size of extra dimensions using the COHERENT data in oscillation and up-scattering processes. For model with one large extra dimension for the light neutral leptons, we obtain the limits, $R \sim 3 \ \mu$m (NH) and $R \sim 2.5 \ \mu$m (IH), on the size of extra dimension corresponding to the absolute mass limit, $m_{0} \leq 3 \times 10^{-3}$ eV at 90$\%$ C.L. from the short-baseline oscillations. Using the up-scattering process for heavy neutral leptons, we obtain new parameter spaces between the size of extra dimensions and parameters of the dipole or scalar interactions.**$E_{\mathrm{iso}}$-$E_{\mathrm{p}}$ correlation of gamma ray bursts: calibration and cosmological applications**

2208.09272 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by X. D. Jia, [and 4 more]J. P. Hu, J. Yang, B. B. Zhang, and F. Y. Wang [hide authors].

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most explosive phenomena and can be used to study the expansion of Universe. In this paper, we compile a long GRB sample for the $E_{\mathrm{iso}}$-$E_{\mathrm{p}}$ correlation from Swift and Fermi observations. The sample contains 221 long GRBs with redshifts from 0.03 to 8.20. From the analysis of data in different redshift intervals, we find no statistically significant evidence for the redshift evolution of this correlation. Then we calibrate the correlation in six sub-samples and use the calibrated one to constrain cosmological parameters. Employing a piece-wise approach, we study the redshift evolution of dark energy equation of state (EOS), and find that the EOS tends to be oscillating at low redshift, but consistent with $-1$ at high redshift. It hints a dynamical dark energy at $2\sigma$ confidence level at low redshift.**UHE neutrinos encountering decaying and non-decaying magnetic fields of compact stars**

2208.06644 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Neetu Raj Singh Chundawat, Arindam Mandal, and Trisha Sarkar.

The phenomena of neutrino spin flavour precession in the presence of an extraneous magnetic field is a repercussion of neutrino magnetic moment which is consociated with the physics beyond the standard model of electroweak interactions. Ultra high energy neutrinos are spawned from a number of sources in the universe including the highly energetic astrophysical objects such as active galactic nuclei, blazar or supermassive black holes. When such high energy neutrinos pass through any compact stellar objects like neutron stars or white dwarfs, their flux can significantly reduce due to the exorbitant magnetic field provided by these compact objects. For Dirac neutrinos, such phenomena occur due to the conversion of neutrinos to their sterile counterparts. In this work, we consider a neutron star possessing a spatially varying magnetic field which may or may not decay with time. We find that, for the non-decaying magnetic field, the flux of high energy Dirac neutrinos becomes nearly half after passing through the neutron star. The flux is further enfeebled by $\sim 10\%$ in the presence of muons inside the neutron star. For decaying magnetic field, the flux reduction is abated by $\sim 5\%$ as compared to the temporally static magnetic field. In the case of a white dwarf, the depletion of flux is lesser as compared to the neutron stars.**Ultra-high energy neutrinos from high-redshift electromagnetic cascades**

2208.06440 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by AmirFarzan Esmaeili, [and 3 more]Antonio Capanema, Arman Esmaili, and Pasquale Dario Serpico [hide authors].

We study the impact of the muon pair production and double pair production processes induced by ultra-high energy photons on the cosmic microwave background. Although the muon pair production cross section is smaller than the electron pair production one, the associated energy loss length is comparable or shorter than the latter (followed by inverse Compton in the deep Klein-Nishina regime) at high-redshift, where the effect of the astrophysical radio background is expected to be negligible. By performing a simulation taking into account the details of $e/\gamma$ interactions at high energies, we show that a significant fraction of the electromagnetic energy injected at $E\gtrsim 10^{19}\,$eV at redshift $z\gtrsim 5$ is channeled into neutrinos. The double pair production plays a crucial role in enhancing the multiplicity of muon production in these electromagnetic cascades. The ultra-high energy neutrino spectrum, yet to be detected, can in principle harbour information on ultra-high energy sources in the young universe, either conventional or exotic ones, with weaker constraints from the diffuse gamma ray flux compared to their low redshift counterparts.**Implications of first LZ and XENONnT results: A comparative study of neutrino properties and light mediators**

2208.06415 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by ShivaSankar K. A., [and 4 more]Anirban Majumdar, Dimitrios K. Papoulias, Hemant Prajapati, and Rahul Srivastava [hide authors].

Next generation direct dark matter detection experiments are favorable facilities to probe neutrino properties and light mediators beyond the Standard Model. We explore the implications of the recent data reported by LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) and XENONnT collaborations on electromagnetic neutrino interactions and neutrino generalized interactions (NGIs). We show that XENONnT places the most stringent upper limits on the effective and transition neutrino magnetic moment (of the order of few $\times 10^{-12}~\mu_B$) as well as stringent constraints to neutrino millicharge (of the order of $\sim 10^{-13}~e$)--competitive to LZ--and improved by about one order of magnitude in comparison to existing constraints coming from Borexino and TEXONO. We furthermore explore the XENONnT and LZ sensitivities to simplified models with light NGIs and find improved constraints in comparison to those extracted from Borexino-Phase II data.**Evidence for PeV Proton Acceleration from Fermi-LAT Observations of SNR G106.3+2.7**

2208.05457 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ke Fang, [and 4 more]Matthew Kerr, Roger Blandford, Henrike Fleischhack, and Eric Charles [hide authors].

The existence of a "knee" at energy ~1 PeV in the cosmic-ray spectrum suggests the presence of Galactic PeV proton accelerators called "PeVatrons". Supernova Remnant (SNR) G106.3+2.7 is a prime candidate for one of these. The recent detection of very high energy (0.1-100 TeV) gamma rays from G106.3+2.7 may be explained either by the decay of neutral pions or inverse Compton scattering by relativistic electrons. We report an analysis of 12 years of Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data which shows that the GeV-TeV gamma-ray spectrum is much harder and requires a different total electron energy than the radio and X-ray spectra, suggesting it has a distinct, hadronic origin. The non-detection of gamma rays below 10 GeV implies additional constraints on the relativistic electron spectrum. A hadronic interpretation of the observed gamma rays is strongly supported. This observation confirms the long-sought connection between Galactic PeVatrons and SNRs. Moreover, it suggests that G106.3+2.7 could be the brightest member of a new population of SNRs whose gamma-ray energy flux peaks at TeV energies. Such a population may contribute to the cosmic-ray knee and be revealed by future very high energy gamma-ray detectors.**Implications of the QCD dynamics and a Super-Glashow astrophysical neutrino flux on the description of ultrahigh energy neutrino data**

2208.04597 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Victor P. Goncalves, Diego R. Gratieri, and Alex S. C. Quadros.

The number of events observed in neutrino telescopes depends on the neutrino fluxes in the Earth, their absorption while crossing the Earth and their interaction in the detector. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the QCD dynamics at high energies on the energy dependence of the average inelasticity and angular dependence of the absorption probability during the neutrino propagation through the Earth, as well in the determination of the properties of the incident astrophysical neutrino flux. Moreover, the number of events at the IceCube and IceCube - Gen2 are estimated considering different scenarios for the QCD dynamics and assuming the presence of a hypothetical Super - Glashow flux, which peaks for energies above the Glashow resonance.**Neutrino Decoherence and the Mass Hierarchy in the JUNO Experiment**

2208.04277 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eric Marzec and Joshua Spitz.

The finite size of a neutrino wavepacket at creation can affect its oscillation probability. Here, we consider the electron antineutrino wavepacket and decoherence in the context of the nuclear reactor based experiment JUNO. Given JUNO's high expected statistics [$\sim$100k IBD events ($\bar{\nu}_e p \rightarrow e^+ n$)], long baseline ($\sim$53\,km), and excellent energy resolution [$\sim$$0.03/\sqrt{E_{\mathrm{vis}}~\mathrm{(MeV)}}$], its sensitivity to the size of the wavepacket is expected to be quite strong. Unfortunately, this sensitivity may weaken the experiment's ability to measure the orientation of the neutrino mass hierarchy for currently allowed values of the wavepacket size. Here, we report both the JUNO experiment's ability to determine the hierarchy orientation in the presence of a finite wavepacket and its simultaneous sensitivity to size of the wavepacket and the hierarchy. We find that wavepacket effects are relevant for the hierarchy determination up to nearly two orders of magnitude above the current experimental lower limit on the size, noting that there is no theoretical consensus on the expectation of this value. We also consider the effect in the context of other aspects of JUNO's nominal three-neutrino oscillation measurement physics program and the prospect of future enhancements to sensitivity, including from precise measurements of $\Delta m^2_{3l}$ and a near detector.**Implications of Recent KATRIN Results for Lower-Limits on Neutrino Masses**

2208.03790 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ephraim Fischbach, [and 3 more]Dennis E. Krause, Quan Le Thien, and Carol Scarlett [hide authors].

Recently announced results from the KATRIN collaboration imply an upper bound on the effective electron anti-neutrino mass $m_{\nu_{e}}$, $m_{\nu_{e}}< 0.8~{\rm eV}/c^{2}$. Here we explore the implications of combining the KATRIN upper bound using a previously inferred lower bound on the smallest neutrino mass state, $m_{i,{\rm min}}\gtrsim 0.4~{\rm eV}/c^{2}$ implied by the stability of white dwarfs and neutron stars in the presence of long-range many-body neutrino-exchange forces. By combining a revised lower bound estimate with the expected final upper bound from KATRIN, we find that the available parameter space for $m_{\nu_{e}}$ may be closed completely within the next few years. We then extend the argument when a single light sterile neutrino flavor is present to set a lower mass limit on sterile neutrinos.**Damping of neutrino oscillations, decoherence and the lengths of neutrino wave packets**

2208.03736 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Evgeny Akhmedov and Alexei Y. Smirnov.

Spatial separation of the wave packets (WPs) of neutrino mass eigenstates leads to decoherence and damping of neutrino oscillations. Damping can also be caused by finite energy resolution of neutrino detectors or, in the case of experiments with radioactive neutrino sources, by finite width of the emitted neutrino line. We study in detail these two types of damping effects using reactor neutrino experiments and experiments with radioactive $^{51}$Cr source as examples. We demonstrate that the effects of decoherence by WP separation can always be incorporated into a modification of the energy resolution function of the detector and so are intimately entangled with it. We estimate for the first time the lengths $\sigma_x$ of WPs of reactor neutrinos and neutrinos from a radioactive $^{51}$Cr source. The obtained values, $\sigma_x = (2\times 10^{-5} - 1.4\times 10^{-4})$ cm, are at least six orders of magnitude larger than the currently available experimental lower bounds. We conclude that effects of decoherence by WP separation cannot be probed in reactor and radioactive source experiments.**Impact of Nuclear effects in Energy Reconstruction Methods on Sensitivity of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters at NO$ν$A experiment**

2208.03681 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Paramita Deka, Jaydip Singh, and Kalpana Bora.

Long baseline (LBL) neutrino experiments aim to measure the neutrino oscillation parameters to high precision. These experiments use nuclear targets for neutrino scattering and hence are inflicted with complexities of nuclear effects. Nuclear effects and their percolation into sensitivity measurement of neutrino oscillations parameters are not yet fully understood and therefore need to be dealt with carefully. In a recent work [1], we reported some results on this for NO$\nu$A experiment using the kinematic method of neutrino energy reconstruction, where it was observed that the nuclear effects are important in sensitivity analysis, and inclusion of realistic detector setup specifications increases uncertainty in this analysis as compared to ideal detector case. With this motivation, in this work, we use two methods of neutrino energy reconstruction - kinematic and calorimetric, including the nuclear effects, and study their impact on sensitivity analysis. We consider nuclear interactions such as RPA and 2p2h and compare two energy reconstruction methods with reference to events generation, measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters $\Delta m_{32}^2$ and $\theta_{23}$ for disappearance channel, mass hierarchy sensitivity, and CP-violation sensitivity for appearance channel of the NO$\nu$A experiment. It is observed that with an ideal detector setup, the kinematic method shows significant dependence on nuclear effects compared to the calorimetric method. We also investigate the impact of realistic detector setup for NO$\nu$A in these two methods (with nuclear effects) and find that the calorimetric method shows more bias (uncertainty increases) in sensitivity contours, as compared to the kinematic method. This is found to be true for both the mass hierarchies and for both neutrino and antineutrino incoming beams.**Bounds on ultralight bosons from the Event Horizon Telescope observation of Sgr A$^*$**

2208.03530 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Akash Kumar Saha, [and 5 more]Priyank Parashari, Tarak Nath Maity, Abhishek Dubey, Subhadip Bouri, and Ranjan Laha [hide authors].

Recent observation of Sagittarius A$^*$ (Sgr A$^*$) by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration has uncovered various unanswered questions in black hole (BH) physics. Besides, it may also probe various beyond the Standard Model (BSM) scenarios. One of the most profound possibilities is the search for ultralight bosons (ULBs) using BH superradiance (SR). EHT observations imply that Sgr A$^*$ has a non-zero spin. Using this observation, we derive bounds on the mass of ULBs with purely gravitational interactions. Considering self-interacting ultralight axions, we constrain new regions in the parameter space of decay constant, for a certain spin of Sgr A$^*$. Future observations of various spinning BHs can improve the present constraints on ULBs.**Unveiling the outer core composition with neutrino oscillation tomography**

2208.00532 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by L. Maderer, [and 4 more]E. Kaminski, J. A. B. Coelho, S. Bourret, and V. Van Elewyck [hide authors].

In the last 70 years, geophysics has established that the Earth's outer core is an FeNi alloy containing a few percent of light elements, whose nature and amount remain controversial today. Besides the classical combinations of silicon and oxygen, hydrogen has been advocated as the only light element that could account alone for both the density and velocity profiles of the outer core. Here we show how this question can be addressed from an independant viewpoint, by exploiting the tomographic information provided by atmospheric neutrinos, weakly-interacting particles produced in the atmosphere and constantly traversing the Earth. We evaluate the potential of the upcoming generation of atmospheric neutrino detectors for such a measurement, showing that they could efficiently detect the presence of 1 wt% of hydrogen in an FeNi core in 50 years of concomitant data taking. We then identify the main requirements for a next-generation detector to perform this measurement in a few years timescale, with the further capability to efficiently discriminate between FeNiH and FeNiSi(x)O(y) models in less than 15 years.**The brightest galaxies at Cosmic Dawn**

2207.14808 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Charlotte A. Mason, Michele Trenti, and Tommaso Treu.

Recent JWST observations suggest an excess of $z\gtrsim10$ galaxy candidates above most theoretical models. Here, we explore how the interplay between halo formation timescales, star formation efficiency and dust attenuation affects the properties and number densities of galaxies we can detect in the early universe. We calculate the theoretical upper limit on the UV luminosity function, assuming star formation is 100% efficient and all gas in halos is converted into stars, and that galaxies are at the peak age for UV emission (~10 Myr). This upper limit is ~4 orders of magnitude greater than current observations, implying these are fully consistent with star formation in $\Lambda$CDM cosmology. In a more realistic model, we use the distribution of halo formation timescales derived from extended Press-Schechter theory as a proxy for star formation rate (SFR). We predict that the galaxies observed so far at $z\gtrsim10$ are dominated by those with the fastest formation timescales, and thus most extreme SFRs and young ages. These galaxies can be upscattered by ~1.5 mag compared to the median UV magnitude vs halo mass relation. This likely introduces a selection effect at high redshift whereby only the youngest ($\lesssim$10 Myr), most highly star forming galaxies (specific SFR$\gtrsim$30 Gyr$^{-1}$) have been detected so far. Furthermore, our modelling suggests that redshift evolution at the bright end of the UV luminosity function is substantially affected by the build-up of dust attenuation. We predict that deeper JWST observations (reaching m~30) will reveal more typical galaxies with relatively older ages (~100 Myr) and less extreme specific SFRs (~10 Gyr$^{-1}$ for a $M_\mathrm{UV}$ ~ -20 galaxy at z~10).**Enhanced Small-Scale Structure in the Cosmic Dark Ages**

2207.14735 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Derek Inman and Kazunori Kohri.

We consider the consequences of a matter power spectrum which rises on small scales until eventually being cutoff by microphysical processes associated with the particle nature of dark matter. Evolving the perturbations of a weakly interacting massive particle from before decoupling until deep in the nonlinear regime, we show that nonlinear structure can form abundantly at very high redshifts. In such a scenario, dark matter annihilation is substantially increased after matter-radiation equality. Furthermore, since the power spectrum can be increased over a broad range of scales, the first star forming halos may form earlier than usual as well. The next challenge is determining how early Universe observations may constrain such enhanced dark matter perturbations.**The Profiled Feldman-Cousins technique for confidence interval construction in the presence of nuisance parameters**

2207.14353 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. A. Acero, [and 220 more]B. Acharya, P. Adamson, L. Aliaga, N. Anfimov, A. Antoshkin, E. Arrieta-Diaz, L. Asquith, A. Aurisano, A. Back, C. Backhouse, M. Baird, N. Balashov, P. Baldi, B. A. Bambah, S. Bashar, A. Bat, K. Bays, R. Bernstein, V. Bhatnagar, D. Bhattarai, B. Bhuyan, J. Bian, A. C. Booth, R. Bowles, B. Brahma, C. Bromberg, N. Buchanan, A. Butkevich, S. Calvez, T. J. Carroll, E. Catano-Mur, A. Chatla, R. Chirco, B. C. Choudhary, S. Choudhary, A. Christensen, T. E. Coan, M. Colo, L. Cremonesi, G. S. Davies, P. F. Derwent, P. Ding, Z. Djurcic, M. Dolce, D. Doyle, D. Dueñas Tonguino, E. C. Dukes, A. Dye, R. Ehrlich, M. Elkins, E. Ewart, G. J. Feldman, P. Filip, J. Franc, M. J. Frank, H. R. Gallagher, R. Gandrajula, F. Gao, A. Giri, R. A. Gomes, M. C. Goodman, V. Grichine, M. Groh, R. Group, B. Guo, A. Habig, F. Hakl, A. Hall, J. Hartnell, R. Hatcher, H. Hausner, M. He, K. Heller, V Hewes, A. Himmel, B. Jargowsky, J. Jarosz, F. Jediny, C. Johnson, M. Judah, I. Kakorin, D. M. Kaplan, A. Kalitkina, J. Kleykamp, O. Klimov, L. W. Koerner, L. Kolupaeva, S. Kotelnikov, R. Kralik, Ch. Kullenberg, M. Kubu, A. Kumar, C. D. Kuruppu, V. Kus, T. Lackey, K. Lang, P. Lasorak, J. Lesmeister, S. Lin, A. Lister, J. Liu, M. Lokajicek, J. M. C. Lopez, R. Mahji, S. Magill, M. Manrique Plata, W. A. Mann, M. T. Manoharan, M. L. Marshak, M. Martinez-Casales, V. Matveev, B. Mayes, B. Mehta, M. D. Messier, H. Meyer, T. Miao, V. Mikola, W. H. Miller, S. Mishra, S. R. Mishra, A. Mislivec, R. Mohanta, A. Moren, A. Morozova, W. Mu, L. Mualem, M. Muether, K. Mulder, D. Naples, A. Nath, N. Nayak, S. Nelleri, J. K. Nelson, R. Nichol, E. Niner, A. Norman, A. Norrick, T. Nosek, H. Oh, A. Olshevskiy, T. Olson, J. Ott, A. Pal, J. Paley, L. Panda, R. B. Patterson, G. Pawloski, D. Pershey, O. Petrova, R. Petti, D. D. Phan, R. K. Plunkett, A. Pobedimov, J. C. C. Porter, A. Rafique, L. R. Prais, V. Raj, M. Rajaoalisoa, B. Ramson, B. Rebel, P. Rojas, P. Roy, V. Ryabov, O. Samoylov, M. C. Sanchez, S. Sánchez Falero, P. Shanahan, P. Sharma, S. Shukla, A. Sheshukov, I. Singh, P. Singh, V. Singh, E. Smith, J. Smolik, P. Snopok, N. Solomey, A. Sousa, K. Soustruznik, M. Strait, L. Suter, A. Sutton, S. Swain, C. Sweeney, A. Sztuc, B. Tapia Oregui, P. Tas, B. N. Temizel, T. Thakore, R. B. Thayyullathil, J. Thomas, E. Tiras, J. Tripathi, J. Trokan-Tenorio, Y. Torun, J. Urheim, P. Vahle, Z. Vallari, J. Vasel, T. Vrba, M. Wallbank, T. K. Warburton, M. Wetstein, D. Whittington, D. A. Wickremasinghe, T. Wieber, J. Wolcott, M. Wrobel, W. Wu, Y. Xiao, B. Yaeggy, A. Yallappa Dombara, A. Yankelevich, K. Yonehara, S. Yu, Y. Yu, S. Zadorozhnyy, J. Zalesak, Y. Zhang, and R. Zwaska [hide authors].

Measuring observables to constrain models using maximum-likelihood estimation is fundamental to many physics experiments. The Profiled Feldman-Cousins method described here is a potential solution to common challenges faced in constructing accurate confidence intervals: small datasets, bounded parameters, and the need to properly handle nuisance parameters. This method achieves more accurate frequentist coverage than other methods in use, and is generally applicable to the problem of parameter estimation in neutrino oscillations and similar measurements. We describe an implementation of this method in the context of the NOvA experiment.**Unravelling the formation of the first supermassive black holes with the SKA pulsar timing array**

2207.14309 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hamsa Padmanabhan and Abraham Loeb.

Galaxy mergers at high redshifts trigger the activity of their central supermassive black holes, eventually also leading to their coalescence -- and a potential source of low-frequency gravitational waves detectable by the SKA Pulsar Timing Array (PTA). Two key parameters related to the fuelling of black holes are the Eddington ratio of quasar accretion $\eta_{\rm Edd}$, and the radiative efficiency of the accretion process, $\epsilon$ (which affects the so-called active lifetime of the quasar, $t_{\rm QSO}$). We forecast the regime of detectability of gravitational wave events with SKA PTA, finding the associated binaries to have orbital periods on the order of weeks to years, observable through relativistic Doppler velocity boosting and/or optical variability of their light curves. Combining the SKA regime of detectability with the latest observational constraints on high-redshift black hole mass and luminosity functions, and theoretically motivated prescriptions for the merger rates of dark matter haloes, we forecast the number of active counterparts of SKA PTA events expected as a function of primary black hole mass at $z \gtrsim 6$. We find that the quasar counterpart of the most massive black holes will be ${uniquely \ localizable}$ within the SKA PTA error ellipse at $z \gtrsim 6$. We also forecast the number of expected counterparts as a function of the quasars' Eddington ratio and active lifetime. Our results show that SKA PTA detections can place robust constraints on the seeding and growth mechanisms of the first supermassive black holes.**Jupiter missions as probes of dark matter**

2207.13709 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lingfeng Li and JiJi Fan.

Jupiter, the fascinating largest planet in the solar system, has been visited by nine spacecraft, which have collected a significant amount of data about Jovian properties. In this paper, we show that one type of the in situ measurements on the relativistic electron fluxes could be used to probe dark matter (DM) and dark mediator between the dark sector and our visible world. Jupiter, with its immense weight and cool core, could be an ideal capturer for DM with masses around the GeV scale. The captured DM particles could annihilate into long-lived dark mediators such as dark photons, which subsequently decay into electrons and positrons outside Jupiter. The charged particles, trapped by the Jovian magnetic field, have been measured in Jupiter missions such as the Galileo probe and the Juno orbiter. We use the data available to set upper bounds on the cross section of DM scattering off nucleons, $\sigma_{\chi n}$, for dark mediators with lifetime of order ${\cal O}(0.1-1)$s. The results show that data from Jupiter missions already probe regions in the parameter space un- or under-explored by existing DM searches, e.g., constrain $\sigma_{\chi n}$ of order $(10^{-40} - 10^{-38})$ cm$^2$ for 1 GeV DM dominantly annihilating into $e^+e^-$ through dark mediators. This study serves as an example and an initial step to explore the full physics potential of the large planetary datasets from Jupiter missions. We also outline several other potential directions related to secondary products of electrons, positron signals and solar axions.**Limits on the cosmic neutrino background**

2207.12413 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Martin Bauer and Jack D. Shergold.

We present the first comprehensive discussion of constraints on the cosmic neutrino background (C$\nu$B) overdensity, including theoretical, experimental and cosmological limits for a wide range of neutrino masses and temperatures. Additionally, we calculate the sensitivities of future direct and indirect relic neutrino detection experiments and compare the results with the existing constraints, extending several previous analyses by taking into account that the C$\nu$B reference frame may not be aligned with that of the Earth. The Pauli exclusion principle strongly disfavours overdensities $\eta_\nu \gg 1$ at small neutrino masses, but allows for overdensities $\eta_{\nu}\lesssim 125$ at the KATRIN mass bound $m_{\nu} \simeq 0.8\,\mathrm{eV}$. On the other hand, cosmology strongly favours $0.2 \lesssim \eta_{\nu} \lesssim 3.5$ in all scenarios. We find that direct detection proposals are capable of observing the C$\nu$B without a significant overdensity for neutrino masses $m_{\nu} \gtrsim 50\,\mathrm{meV}$, but require an overdensity $\eta_{\nu} \gtrsim 3\times 10^5$ outside of this range. We also demonstrate that relic neutrino detection proposals are sensitive to the helicity composition of the C$\nu$B, whilst some may be able to distinguish between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos.**Dark Matter Constraints from the Eccentric Supermassive Black Hole Binary OJ 287**

2207.10021 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ahmad Alachkar, John Ellis, and Malcolm Fairbairn.

OJ 287 is a blazar thought to be a binary system containing a ~ 18 billion solar mass primary black hole accompanied by a ~ 150 million solar mass secondary black hole in an eccentric orbit, which triggers electromagnetic flares twice in every ~ 12 year orbital period when it traverses the accretion disk of the primary. The times of these emissions are consistent with the predictions of general relativity calculated to the 4.5th post-Newtonian order. The orbit of the secondary black hole samples the gravitational field at distances between O(10) and O(50) Schwarzschild radii around the primary, and hence is sensitive to the possible presence of a dark matter spike around it. We find that the agreement of general-relativistic calculations with the measured timings of flares from OJ 287 constrains the mass of such a spike to < 3% of the primary mass.**Do Pulsar and Fast Radio Burst dispersion measures obey Benford's law?**

2207.09696 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pragna Mamidipaka and Shantanu Desai.

We check if the first significant digit of the dispersion measure of pulsars and Fast Radio Bursts (using the CHIME catalog) is consistent with the Benford distribution. We find a large disagreement with Benford's law with $\chi^2$ close to 80 for 8 degrees of freedom for both these aforementioned datasets. This corresponds to a discrepancy of about 7$\sigma$. Therefore, we conclude that the dispersion measures of pulsars and FRBs do not obey Benford's law.**Diffuse supernova neutrino background**

2207.09632 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anna M. Suliga.

Neutrinos are the second most ubiquitous Standard Model particles in the universe. On the other hand, they are also the ones least likely to interact. Connecting these two points suggests that when a neutrino is detected, it can divulge unique pieces of information about its source. Among the known neutrino sources, core-collapse supernovae in the universe are the most abundant for MeV-energies. On average, a single collapse happens every second in the observable universe and produces $10^{58}$ neutrinos. The flux of neutrinos reaching the Earth from all the core-collapse supernovae in the universe is known as diffuse supernova neutrino background. In this Chapter, the basic prediction for the diffuse supernova neutrino background is presented. This includes a discussion of an average neutrino signal from a core-collapse supernova, variability of that signal due to the remnant formed in the process, and uncertainties connected to the other astrophysical parameters determining the diffuse flux, such as cosmological supernova rate. In addition, the current experimental limits and detection perspectives of diffuse supernova neutrino background are reported.**Massive neutrino self-interactions and inflation**

2207.07142 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shouvik Roy Choudhury, Steen Hannestad, and Thomas Tram.

Certain inflationary models like Natural inflation (NI) and Coleman-Weinberg inflation (CWI) are disfavoured by cosmological data in the standard $\Lambda\textrm{CDM}+r$ model (where $r$ is the scalar-to-tensor ratio), as these inflationary models predict the regions in the $n_s-r$ parameter space that are excluded by the cosmological data at more than 2$\sigma$ (here $n_s$ is the scalar spectral index). The same is true for single field inflationary models with an inflection point that can account for all or majority of dark matter in the form of PBHs (primordial black holes). Cosmological models incorporating strongly self-interacting neutrinos (with a heavy mediator) are, however, known to prefer lower $n_s$ values compared to the $\Lambda\rm CDM$ model. Considering such neutrino self-interactions can, thus, open up the parameter space to accommodate the above inflationary models. In this work, we implement the massive neutrino self-interactions with a heavy mediator in two different ways: flavour-universal (among all three neutrinos), and flavour-specific (involving only one neutrino species). We implement the new interaction in both scalar and tensor perturbation equations of neutrinos. Interestingly, we find that the current cosmological data can support the aforementioned inflationary models at 2$\sigma$ in the presence of such neutrino self-interactions.**Model marginalized constraints on neutrino properties from cosmology**

2207.05167 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eleonora di Valentino, Stefano Gariazzo, and Olga Mena.

We present robust, model-marginalized limits on both the total neutrino mass ($\sum m_\nu$) and abundance ($N_{\rm eff}$) to minimize the role of parameterizations, priors and models when extracting neutrino properties from cosmology. The cosmological observations we consider are CMB temperature fluctuation and polarization measurements, Supernovae Ia luminosity distances, BAO observations and determinations of the growth rate parameter from the Data Release 16 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV. The degenerate neutrino mass spectrum (which implies $\sum m_\nu>0$) is weakly (moderately) preferred over the normal and inverted hierarchy possibilities, which imply the priors $\sum m_\nu>0.06$ and $\sum m_\nu>0.1$ eV respectively. Concerning the underlying cosmological model, the $\Lambda$CDM minimal scenario is almost always strongly preferred over the possible extensions explored here. The most constraining $95\%$ CL bound on the total neutrino mass in the $\Lambda$CDM+$\sum m_\nu$ picture is $\sum m_\nu< 0.087$ eV. The parameter $N_{\rm eff}$ is restricted to $3.08\pm 0.17$ ($68\%$ CL) in the $\Lambda$CDM+$N_{\rm eff}$ model. These limits barely change when considering the $\Lambda$CDM+$\sum m_\nu$+$N_{\rm eff}$ scenario. Given the robustness and the strong constraining power of the cosmological measurements employed here, the model-marginalized posteriors obtained considering a large spectra of non-minimal cosmologies are very close to the previous bounds, obtained within the $\Lambda$CDM framework in the degenerate neutrino mass spectrum. Future cosmological measurements may improve the current Bayesian evidence favouring the degenerate neutrino mass spectra, challenging therefore the consistency between cosmological neutrino mass bounds and oscillation neutrino measurements, and potentially suggesting a more complicated cosmological model and/or neutrino sector.**Chern-Simons Gravity and Neutrino Self-Interactions**

2207.05094 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stephon Alexander and Cyril Creque-Sarbinowski.

Dynamical Chern-Simons gravity (dCS) is a four-dimensional parity-violating extension of general relativity. Current models predict the effect of this extension to be negligible due to large decay constants $f$ close to the scale of grand unified theories. Here, we present a construction of dCS allowing for much smaller decay constants, ranging from sub-eV to Planck scales. Specifically, we show that if there exists a fermion species with strong self-interactions, the short-wavelength fermion modes form a bound state. This bound state can then undergo dynamical symmetry breaking and the resulting pseudoscalar develops Yukawa interactions with the remaining long-wavelength fermion modes. Due to this new interaction, loop corrections with gravitons then realize a linear coupling between the pseudoscalar and the gravitational Chern-Simons term. The strength of this coupling is set by the Yukawa coupling constant divided by the fermion mass. Therefore, since self-interacting fermions with small masses are ideal, we identify neutrinos as promising candidates. For example, if a neutrino has a mass $m_\nu \lesssim {\rm meV}$ and the Yukawa coupling is order unity, the dCS decay constant can be as small as $f \sim 10^3 m_\nu \lesssim {\rm eV}$. We discuss other potential choices for fermions.**Search for Astrophysical Neutrinos from 1FLE Blazars with IceCube**

2207.04946 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 382 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Athanasiadou, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., M. Baricevic, S. W. Barwick, V. Basu, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. Benda, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Y. Book, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, B. Brinson, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. A. DuVernois, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, N. Goehlke, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, H. Hamdaoui, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, P. Hatch, A. Haungs, K. Helbing, J. Hellrung, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, L. Heuermann, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, K. Hoshina, W. Hou, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, A. Kochocki, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Krupczak, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, W. Marie Sainte, I. C. Mariş, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, S. McCarthy, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, Y. Merckx, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, T. Mukherjee, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyen, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, J. Osborn, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, S. Rodan, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, D. Salazar-Gallegos, P. Sampathkumar, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, A. Sogaard, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, W. G. Thompson, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Unland Elorrieta, K. Upshaw, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Veitch-Michaelis, S. Verpoest, C. Walck, W. Wang, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, N. Willey, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

The majority of astrophysical neutrinos have undetermined origins. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has observed astrophysical neutrinos but has not yet identified their sources. Blazars are promising source candidates, but previous searches for neutrino emission from populations of blazars detected in $\gtrsim$ GeV gamma-rays have not observed any significant neutrino excess. Recent findings in multi-messenger astronomy indicate that high-energy photons, co-produced with high-energy neutrinos, are likely to be absorbed and reemitted at lower energies. Thus, lower-energy photons may be better indicators of TeV-PeV neutrino production. This paper presents the first time-integrated stacking search for astrophysical neutrino emission from MeV-detected blazars in the first Fermi-LAT low energy catalog (1FLE) using ten years of IceCube muon-neutrino data. The results of this analysis are found to be consistent with a background-only hypothesis. Assuming an E$^{-2}$ neutrino spectrum and proportionality between the blazars' MeV gamma-ray fluxes and TeV-PeV neutrino flux, the upper limit on the 1FLE blazar energy-scaled neutrino flux is determined to be $1.64 \times 10^{-12}$ TeV cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ at 90% confidence level. This upper limit is approximately 1% of IceCube's diffuse muon-neutrino flux measurement.**A First Search for Solar $^8$B Neutrino in the PandaX-4T Experiment using Neutrino-Nucleus Coherent Scattering**

2207.04883 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Wenbo Ma, [and 90 more]Abdusalam Abdukerim, Chen Cheng, Zihao Bo, Wei Chen, Xun Chen, Yunhua Chen, Zhaokan Cheng, Xiangyi Cui, Yingjie Fan, Deqing Fang, Changbo Fu, Mengting Fu, Lisheng Geng, Karl Giboni, Linhui Gu, Xuyuan Guo, Chencheng Han, Ke Han, Changda He, Jinrong He, Di Huang, Yanlin Huang, Zhou Huang, Ruquan Hou, Xiangdong Ji, Yonglin Ju, Chenxiang Li, Jiafu Li, Mingchuan Li, Shu Li, Shuaijie Li, Qing Lin, Jianglai Liu, Xiaoying Lu, Lingyin Luo, Yunyang Luo, Yugang Ma, Yajun Mao, Nasir Shaheed, Yue Meng, Xuyang Ning, Ningchun Qi, Zhicheng Qian, Xiangxiang Ren, Changsong Shang, Xiaofeng Shang, Guofang Shen, Lin Si, Wenliang Sun, Andi Tan, Yi Tao, Anqing Wang, Meng Wang, Qiuhong Wang, Shaobo Wang, Siguang Wang, Wei Wang, Xiuli Wang, Zhou Wang, Yuehuan Wei, Mengmeng Wu, Weihao Wu, Jingkai Xia, Mengjiao Xiao, Xiang Xiao, Pengwei Xie, Binbin Yan, Xiyu Yan, Jijun Yang, Yong Yang, Chunxu Yu, Jumin Yuan, Ying Yuan, Zhe Yuan, Xinning Zeng, Dan Zhang, Minzhen Zhang, Peng Zhang, Shibo Zhang, Shu Zhang, Tao Zhang, Yingxin Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Li Zhao, Qibin Zheng, Jifang Zhou, Ning Zhou, Xiaopeng Zhou, Yong Zhou, and Yubo Zhou [hide authors].

A search for interactions from solar $^8$B neutrinos elastically scattering off xenon nuclei using PandaX-4T commissioning data is reported. The energy threshold of this search is further lowered compared with the previous search for dark matter, with various techniques utilized to suppress the background that emerges from data with the lowered threshold. A blind analysis is performed on the data with an effective exposure of 0.48 tonne$\cdot$year, and no significant excess of events is observed. Among results obtained using the neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering, our results give the best constraint on the solar $^8$B neutrino flux. We further provide a more stringent limit on the cross section between dark matter and nucleon in the mass range from 3 to 9 GeV/c$^2$.**Neutrino Mass Ordering -- Circumventing the Challenges using Synergy between T2HK and JUNO**

2207.04784 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sandhya Choubey, Monojit Ghosh, and Deepak Raikwal.

One of the major open problems of neutrino physics is MO (mass ordering). We discuss the prospects of measuring MO with two under-construction experiments T2HK and JUNO. JUNO alone is expected to measure MO with greater than $3\sigma$ significance as long as certain experimental challenges are met. In particular, JUNO needs better than 3$\%$ energy resolution for MO measurement. On the other hand, T2HK has rather poor prospects at measuring the MO, especially for certain ranges of the CP violating parameter $\delta_{\rm CP}$, posing a major drawback for T2HK. In this letter we show that the synergy between JUNO and T2HK will bring two-fold advantage. Firstly, the synergy between the two experiments helps us determine the MO at a very high significance. With the baseline set-up of the two experiments, we have a greater than $9\sigma$ determination of the MO for all values of $\delta_{\rm CP}$. Secondly, the synergy also allows us to relax the constraints on the two experiments. We show that JUNO, could perform extremely well even for energy resolution of 5$\%$, while for T2HK the MO problem with "bad" values of $\delta_{\rm CP}$ goes away. The MO sensitivity for the combined analysis is expected to be greater than $6\sigma$ for all values of $\delta_{\rm CP}$ and with just 5$\%$ energy resolution for JUNO.**Solar $\barν_e$ flux: Revisiting bounds on neutrino magnetic moments and solar magnetic field**

2207.04516 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Evgeny Akhmedov and Pablo Martínez-Miravé.

The interaction of neutrino transition magnetic dipole moments with magnetic fields can give rise to the phenomenon of neutrino spin-flavour precession (SFP). For Majorana neutrinos, the combined action of SFP of solar neutrinos and flavour oscillations would manifest itself as a small, yet potentially detectable, flux of electron antineutrinos coming from the Sun. Non-observation of such a flux constrains the product of the neutrino magnetic moment $\mu$ and the strength of the solar magnetic field $B$. We derive a simple analytical expression for the expected $\bar{\nu}_e$ appearance probability in the three-flavour framework and we use it to revisit the existing experimental bounds on $\mu B$. A full numerical calculation has also been performed to check the validity of the analytical result. We also present our numerical results in energy-binned form, convenient for analyses of the data of the current and future experiments searching for the solar $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux. In addition, we give a comprehensive compilation of other existing limits on neutrino magnetic moments and of the expressions for the probed effective magnetic moments in terms of the fundamental neutrino magnetic moments and leptonic mixing parameters.**Predicting leptonic CP violation via minimization of neutrino entanglement**

2207.03303 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gonçalo M. Quinta, Alexandre Sousa, and Yasser Omar.

We show how a minimization principle of quantum entanglement between the oscillating flavors of a neutrino leads to a unique prediction for the CP-violation phase in the neutrino sector without assuming extra symmetries in the Standard Model. We find a theoretical prediction consistent with either no CP-violation or a very small presence of it.**Study of matter effects in the presence of sterile neutrino using OMSD approximation**

2207.03249 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kiran Sharma and Sudhanwa Patra.

We discuss the transition and survival probabilities in $3+1$ neutrino flavor mixing scenario in presence of matter effects. We adopt the well-known OMSD(One Mass Scale Dominance) approximation to carry out our analysis. After that we perform series expansion about $\sin \theta_{13}$ term upto second order. We find that our results are consistent with the already existing $\alpha - \sin \theta_{13}$ approximated relations in the limit of vanishing $\alpha$ and phases involving sterile neutrinos. We also figure out that survival transition probability becomes independent of the fundamental and sterile CP phases under our formalism. Hence, it provides us a new way to look at only matter effects contribution to oscillation probability. Also, the transition probability at the same time gives an independent study of CP-violation arising from the sterile phases, in the vicinity of fundamental CP violation phase. We provide the relation for the atmospheric probability in the presence of matter by performing the series expansion upto linear order about parameter $A (= 2EV)$, with V being the effective matter potential under OMSD approximation.**Imprints of flavor anomalies on neutrino oscillations through dark matter halo**

2207.02962 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ashutosh Kumar Alok, Neetu Raj Singh Chundawat, and Arindam Mandal.

In this work we study the impact of new physics, stimulated by flavor anomalies, on neutrino oscillations through dense dark matter halo. Inspired by a model where a Majorana dark matter fermion and two new scalar fields contribute to $b \to s \mu^+ \mu^-$ transition at the one loop level, we study the impact of neutrino-dark matter interaction on the oscillation patterns of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos passing through this muonphilic halo located near the center of Milky Way. We find that due to this interaction, the flavor ratios of neutrinos reaching earth would be different from that of vacuum oscillations. We also consider a $Z'$ model driven by $L_{\mu}-L_{\tau}$ symmetry and containing a vector-like fermion as a dark matter candidate. It was previously shown that for such a model, the three flavors of neutrinos decouple from each other. This will render a flavor ratio similar to that of vacuum oscillations. Therefore, the interaction of neutrinos with dense dark matter halo can serve as an important tool to discriminate between flavor models with a dark connection.**A New Probe of Relic Neutrino Clustering using Cosmogenic Neutrinos**

2207.02860 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar, [and 3 more]P. S. Bhupal Dev, Ryan Plestid, and Amarjit Soni [hide authors].

We propose a new probe of cosmic relic neutrinos (C$\nu$B) using their resonant scattering against cosmogenic neutrinos. Depending on the lightest neutrino mass and the energy spectrum of the cosmogenic neutrino flux, a Standard Model vector meson (such as a hadronic $\rho$) resonance can be produced via $\nu\bar{\nu}$ annihilation. This leads to a distinct absorption feature in the cosmogenic neutrino flux at an energy solely determined by the meson mass and the neutrino mass, apart from redshift. By numerical coincidence, the position of the $\rho$-resonance overlaps with the originally predicted peak of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) neutrino flux, which offers an enhanced absorption effect at higher redshifts. We show that this absorption feature in the GZK neutrino flux may be observable in future radio-based neutrino observatories, such as IceCube-Gen2 radio, provided there exists a large overdensity in the C$\nu$B distribution. This therefore provides a new probe of C$\nu$B clustering at large redshifts, complementary to the laboratory probes (such as KATRIN) at zero redshift.**Large Extra Dimensions and neutrino experiments**

2207.02790 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. V. Forero, [and 3 more]C. Giunti, C. A. Ternes, and O. Tyagi [hide authors].

The existence of Large Extra Dimensions can be probed in various neutrino experiments. We analyze several neutrino data sets in a model with a dominant large extra dimension. We show that the Gallium anomaly can be explained with neutrino oscillations induced by the large extra dimension, but the region of parameter space which is preferred by the Gallium anomaly is in tension with the bounds from reactor rate data, as well as the data of Daya Bay and MINOS. We also present bounds obtained from the analysis of the KATRIN data. We show, that current experiments can put strong bounds on the size $R_{\text{ED}}$ of the extra dimension: $R_{\text{ED}} < 0.20~\mu\text{m}$ and $R_{\text{ED}} < 0.10~\mu\text{m}$ at 90\% C.L. for normal and inverted ordering of the standard neutrino masses, respectively.**Baseline and other effects for a sterile neutrino at DUNE**

2207.02331 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. T. Penedo and João Pulido.

We analyze the sensitivity of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to a sterile neutrino, combining information from both near and far detectors. We quantify often-neglected effects which may impact the event rate estimation in a 3+1 oscillation scenario. In particular, we find that taking into account the information on the neutrino production point, in contrast to assuming a pointlike neutrino source, affects DUNE's sterile exclusion reach. Visible differences remain after the inclusion of energy bin-to-bin uncorrelated systematics. Instead, implementing exact oscillation formulae for near detector events, including a two slab density profile, does not result in any visible change in the sensitivity.**Double and multiple bangs at tau neutrino telescopes: A novel probe of sphalerons with cosmogenic neutrinos**

2207.02222 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guo-yuan Huang.

In light of the exciting campaign of cosmogenic neutrino detection, we investigate the double and multiple tau bangs detectable at future tau neutrino telescopes. Such events are expected from the Standard Model (SM) higher-order processes, which can be easily identified with broad techniques anticipated at future tau neutrino telescopes. We find that SM perturbative processes can already contribute observable double-bang events to telescopes with a sensitivity of collecting $\mathcal{O}(100)$ cosmogenic neutrino events. The detectable but suppressed rate in fact makes the double and multiple bangs an excellent probe of SM unknowns and possible new physics beyond. As a case study, the nonperturbative sphaleron process, which can copiously produce multiple tau bangs, is explored.**Updated neutrino mass constraints from galaxy clustering and CMB lensing-galaxy cross-correlation measurements**

2207.01913 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Isabelle Tanseri, [and 4 more]Steffen Hagstotz, Sunny Vagnozzi, Elena Giusarma, and Katherine Freese [hide authors].

We revisit cosmological constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses $\Sigma m_\nu$ from a combination of full-shape BOSS galaxy clustering [$P(k)$] data and measurements of the cross-correlation between Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) lensing convergence and BOSS galaxy overdensity maps [$C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$], using a simple but theoretically motivated model for the scale-dependent galaxy bias in auto- and cross-correlation measurements. We improve upon earlier related work in several respects, particularly through a more accurate treatment of the correlation and covariance between $P(k)$ and $C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$ measurements. When combining these measurements with Planck CMB data, we find a 95% confidence level upper limit of $\Sigma m_\nu<0.14\,{\rm eV}$, while slightly weaker limits are obtained when including small-scale ACTPol CMB data, in agreement with our expectations. We confirm earlier findings that (once combined with CMB data) the full-shape information content is comparable to the geometrical information content in the reconstructed BAO peaks given the precision of current galaxy clustering data, discuss the physical significance of our inferred bias and shot noise parameters, and perform a number of robustness tests on our underlying model. While the inclusion of $C^{\kappa \text{g}}_{\ell}$ measurements does not currently appear to lead to substantial improvements in the resulting $\Sigma m_{\nu}$ constraints, we expect the converse to be true for near-future galaxy clustering measurements, whose shape information content will eventually supersede the geometrical one.**Dark photon superradiance quenched by dark matter**

2206.12367 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Enrico Cannizzaro, [and 3 more]Laura Sberna, Andrea Caputo, and Paolo Pani [hide authors].

Black-hole superradiance has been used to place very strong bounds on a variety of models of ultralight bosons such as axions, new light scalars, and dark photons. It is common lore to believe that superradiance bounds are broadly model independent and therefore pretty robust. In this work we show however that superradiance bounds on dark photons can be challenged by simple, compelling extensions of the minimal model. In particular, if the dark photon populates a larger dark sector and couples to dark fermions playing the role of dark matter, then superradiance bounds can easily be circumvented, depending on the mass and (dark) charge of the dark matter.**Extracting the best physics sensitivity from T2HKK: A study on optimal detector volume**

2206.10320 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Papia Panda, [and 3 more]Monojit Ghosh, Priya Mishra, and Rukmani Mohanta [hide authors].

T2HK is an upcoming long-baseline experiment in Japan which will have two water Cherenkov detector tanks of 187 kt volume each at distance of 295 km from the source. An alternative project, T2HKK is also under consideration where one of the water tanks will be moved to Korea at a distance of 1100 km. The flux at 295 km will cover the first oscillation maximum and the flux at 1100 km will mainly cover the second oscillation maximum. As physics sensitivity at the dual baseline rely on variation in statistics, dependence of systematic uncertainty, effect of second oscillation maximum and matter density, 187 kt detector volume at 295 km and 187 kt detector volume at 1100 km may not be the optimal configuration of T2HKK. Therefore, we have tried to optimize the ratio of the detector volume at both the locations by studying the interplay between the above mentioned parameters. For the analysis of neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of $\theta_{23}$ and CP precision, we have considered two values of $\delta_{\rm{CP}}$ as 270$^\circ$ and $0^\circ$ and for CP violation we have considered the value of $\delta_{\rm CP}= 270^\circ$. These values are motivated by the current best-fit values of this parameter as obtained from the experiments T2K and NO$\nu$A. Interestingly we find that if the systematic uncertainty is negligible then the T2HK setup i.e., when both the detector tanks are placed at 295 km gives the best results in terms of hierarchy sensitivity at $\delta_{\rm CP}= 270^\circ$, octant sensitivity, CP violation sensitivity and CP precision sensitivity at $\delta_{\rm CP}= 0^\circ$. For current values of systematic errors, we find that neither T2HK, nor T2HKK setup is giving better results for hierarchy, CP violation and CP precision sensitivity. The optimal detector volume which is of the range between 255 kt to 345 kt at 1100 km gives better results in those above mentioned parameters.**Probing non-standard neutrino interactions with a light boson from next galactic and diffuse supernova neutrinos**

2206.06852 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kensuke Akita, Sang Hui Im, and Mehedi Masud.

Non-standard neutrino interactions with a massive boson can produce the bosons in the core of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). After the emission of the bosons from the SN core, their subsequent decays into neutrinos can modify the SN neutrino flux. We show future observations of neutrinos from a next galactic SN in Super-Kamiokande (SK) and Hyper-Kamiokande (HK) can probe flavor-universal non-standard neutrino couplings to a light boson, improving the previous limit from the SN 1987A neutrino burst by several orders of magnitude. We also discuss sensitivity of the flavor-universal non-standard neutrino interactions in future observations of diffuse neutrinos from all the past SNe, known as the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB). According to our analysis, observations of the DSNB in HK, JUNO and DUNE experiments can probe such couplings by a factor of $\sim 2$ beyond the SN 1987A constraint. However, our result is also subject to a large uncertainty concerning the precise estimation of the DSNB.**Symmetry in neutrino oscillation in matter with non-unitarity**

2206.06474 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

Recently we have developed a method called ``Symmetry Finder'' (SF) for hunting the reparametrization symmetry in the three-neutrino system in matter. Here, we apply SF to the Denton {\it et al.} (DMP) perturbation theory extended by including unitarity violation (UV), a possible low-energy manifestation of physics beyond the $\nu$SM. Implementation of UV into the SF framework yields the additional two very different constraints, which nonetheless allow remarkably consistent solutions, the eight DMP-UV symmetries. Treatment of one of the constraints, the genuine non-unitary part, leads to the key identity which entails the UV $\alpha$ parameter transformation only by rephasing, which innovates the invariance proof of the Hamiltonian. The quantum mechanical nature of the symmetry dictates the both $\nu$SM and UV variables to transform jointly, through which the response of the two sectors are related to reveal their interplay. Thus, the symmetry can serve for a tool for diagnostics, probing the interrelation between the $\nu$SM and a low-energy description of new physics. Problem of SF symmetry in vacuum is revisited to complete eight symmetries akin to DMP's.**High-Energy Astrophysical Neutrinos from Cosmic Strings**

2206.06377 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Cyril Creque-Sarbinowski, Jeffrey Hyde, and Marc Kamionkowski.

Cosmic strings that couple to neutrinos may account for a portion of the high-energy astrophysical neutrino (HEAN) flux seen by IceCube. Here, we calculate the observed spectrum of neutrinos emitted from a population of cosmic string loops that contain quasi-cusps, -kinks, or kink-kink collisions. We consider two broad neutrino emission models: one where these string features emit a neutrino directly, and one where they emit a scalar particle which then eventually decays to a neutrino. In either case, the spectrum of cosmic string neutrinos does not match that of the observed HEAN spectrum. We thus find that the maximum contribution of cosmic string neutrinos, through these two scenarios, to be at most $\sim 45$ % of the observed flux. However, we also find that the presence of cosmic string neutrinos can lead to bumps in the observed neutrino spectrum. Finally, for each of the models presented, we present the viable parameter space for neutrino emission.**Impact of late-time neutrino emission on the diffuse supernova neutrino background**

2206.05299 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nick Ekanger, [and 3 more]Shunsaku Horiuchi, Kei Kotake, and Kohsuke Sumiyoshi [hide authors].

In the absence of high-statistics supernova neutrino measurements, estimates of the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) hinge on the precision of simulations of core-collapse supernovae. Understanding the cooling phase of protoneutron star (PNS) evolution ($\gtrsim1\,{\rm s}$ after core bounce) is crucial, since approximately 50% of the energy liberated by neutrinos is emitted during the cooling phase. We model the cooling phase with a hybrid method by combining the neutrino emission predicted by 3D hydrodynamic simulations with several cooling-phase estimates, including a novel two-parameter correlation depending on the final baryonic PNS mass and the time of shock revival. We find that the predicted DSNB event rate at Super-Kamiokande can vary by a factor of $\sim2-3$ depending on the cooling-phase treatment. We also find that except for one cooling estimate, the range in predicted DSNB events is largely driven by the uncertainty in the neutrino mean energy. With a good understanding of the late-time neutrino emission, more precise DSNB estimates can be made for the next generation of DSNB searches.**Energizing gamma ray bursts via $Z^\prime$ mediated neutrino heating**

2206.03485 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tanmay Kumar Poddar, Srubabati Goswami, and Arvind Kumar Mishra.

The pair annihilation of neutrinos $(\nu\overline{\nu}\rightarrow e^+e^-)$ can energize violent stellar explosions such as gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The energy in this neutrino heating mechanism can be further enhanced by modifying the background spacetime over that of Newtonian spacetime. However, one cannot attain the maximum GRB energy $(\sim 10^{52}~\rm{erg})$ in either the Newtonian background or Schwarzschild and Hartle-Thorne background. On the other hand, using modified gravity theories or the Quintessence field as background geometries, the maximum GRB energy can be reached. In this paper, we consider extending the standard model by an extra $U(1)_{\rm{B-L}}$ gauge group and augmenting the energy deposition by neutrino pair annihilation process including contributions mediated by the $Z^\prime$ gauge boson belonging to this model. From the observed energy of GRB, we obtain constraints on $U(1)_{\rm{B-L}}$ gauge coupling in different background spacetimes. We find that the bounds on gauge coupling in modified gravity theories and quintessence background are stronger than those coming from the neutrino-electron scattering experiments in the limit of small gauge boson masses. Future GRB observations with better accuracy can further strengthen these bounds.**Evaluations of uncertainties in simulations of propagation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray nuclei derived from microscopic nuclear models**

2206.03447 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by E. Kido, [and 7 more]T. Inakura, M. Kimura, N. Kobayashi, S. Nagataki, N. Shimizu, A. Tamii, and Y. Utsuno [hide authors].

Photodisintegration is a main energy loss process for ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) nuclei in intergalactic space. Therefore, it is crucial to understand systematic uncertainty in photodisintegration when simulating the propagation of UHECR nuclei. In this work, we calculated the cross sections using the random phase approximation (RPA) of density functional theory (DFT), a microscopic nuclear model. We calculated the $E1$ strength of 29 nuclei using three different density functionals. We obtained the cross sections of photonuclear reactions, including photodisintegration, with the $E1$ strength. Then, we implemented the cross sections in the cosmic-ray propagation code CRPropa. We found that assuming certain astrophysical parameter values, the difference between UHECR energy spectrum predictions using the RPA calculation and the default photodisintegration model in CRPropa can be more than the statistical uncertainty of the spectrum. We also found that the differences between the RPA calculations and CRPropa default in certain astrophysical parameters obtained by a combined fit of UHECR energy spectrum and composition data assuming a phenomenological model of UHECR sources can be more than the uncertainty of the data.**Non-Standard Interaction of atmospheric neutrino in future experiments**

2206.02594 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pouya Bakhti, Meshkat Rajaee, and Seodong Shin.

We show the prospects of probing neutral-current non-standard interaction (NSI) in the propagation of atmospheric neutrinos in future large-volume neutrino experiments including DUNE, HK, KNO, and ORCA. For DUNE, we utilize its ability of identifying the tau neutrino event and combine the $\nu_\tau$ appearance with the $\nu_\mu$ disappearance. Based on our simulated results, the ten years of data taking of the atmospheric neutrinos can enormously improve the bounds on the NSI parameters $\varepsilon_{\mu \tau}, | \varepsilon_{\mu \mu} - \varepsilon_{\tau \tau} |$, $\varepsilon_{e \mu }$, $\varepsilon_{e \tau}$ and $| \varepsilon_{\mu \mu} - \varepsilon_{e e} |$ by a couple of orders of magnitudes. In addition, we show the expected correlations between the CP-violation phase $\delta_{CP}$ and the NSI parameters $\varepsilon_{e\mu}, \varepsilon_{e\tau}$, and $|\varepsilon_{ee} - \varepsilon_{\mu \mu}|$ and confirm the potentials of DUNE, HK, KNO (combined with HK) in excluding the "No CP violation" hypothesis at 1$\sigma$, 2$\sigma$, and 3$\sigma$, respectively.**Concept for a Space-based Near-Solar Neutrino Detector**

2206.00703 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by N. Solomey, [and 10 more]J. Folkerts, H. Meyer, C. Gimar, J. Novak, B. Doty, T. English, L. Buchele, A. Nelsen, R. McTaggart, and M. Christl [hide authors].

The concept of putting a neutrino detector in close orbit of the sun has been unexplored until very recently. The primary scientific return is to vastly enhance our understanding of the solar interior, which is a major NASA goal. Preliminary calculations show that such a spacecraft, if properly shielded, can operate in space environments while taking data from neutrino interactions. These interactions can be distinguished from random background rates of solar electromagnetic emissions, galactic charged cosmic-rays, and gamma-rays by using a double pulsed signature. Early simulations of this project have shown this veto schema to be successful in eliminating background and identifying the neutrino interaction signal in upwards of 75% of gamma ray interactions and nearly 100% of other interactions. Hence, we propose a new instrument to explore and study our sun. Due to inverse square scaling, this instrument has the potential to outperform earth-based experiments in several domains such as making measurements not accessible from the earth's orbit.**Abundances of uranium and thorium elements in Earth estimated by geoneutrino spectroscopy**

2205.14934 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Abe, [and 67 more]S. Asami, M. Eizuka, S. Futagi, A. Gando, Y. Gando, T. Gima, A. Goto, T. Hachiya, K. Hata, K. Hosokawa, K. Ichimura, S. Ieki, H. Ikeda, K. Inoue, K. Ishidoshiro, Y. Kamei, N. Kawada, Y. Kishimoto, M. Koga, M. Kurasawa, N. Maemura, T. Mitsui, H. Miyake, T. Nakahata, K. Nakamura, K. Nakamura, R. Nakamura, H. Ozaki, T. Sakai, H. Sambonsugi, I. Shimizu, Y. Shirahata, J. Shirai, K. Shiraishi, A. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Tamae, H. Watanabe, Y. Yoshida, S. Obara, A. K. Ichikawa, S. Yoshida, S. Umehara, K. Fushimi, K. Kotera, Y. Urano, B. E. Berger, B. K. Fujikawa, J. G. Learned, J. Maricic, S. N. Axani, Z. Fu, J. Smolsky, L. A. Winslow, Y. Efremenko, H. J. Karwowski, D. M. Markoff, W. Tornow, A. Li, J. A. Detwiler, S. Enomoto, M. P. Decowski, C. Grant, H. Song, T. O'Donnell, and S. Dell'Oro [hide authors].

The decay of the primordial isotopes $^{238}\mathrm{U}$, $^{235}\mathrm{U}$, $^{232}\mathrm{Th}$, and $^{40}\mathrm{K}$ have contributed to the terrestrial heat budget throughout the Earth's history. Hence the individual abundance of those isotopes are key parameters in reconstructing contemporary Earth model. The geoneutrinos produced by the radioactive decays of uranium and thorium have been observed with the Kamioka Liquid-Scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND). Those measurements have been improved with more than 18-year observation time, and improvements in detector background levels mainly by an 8-year almost rector-free period now permit spectroscopy with geoneutrinos. Our results yield the first constraint on both uranium and thorium heat contributions. Herein the KamLAND result is consistent with geochemical estimations based on elemental abundances of chondritic meteorites and mantle peridotites. The High-Q model is disfavored at 99.76% C.L. and a fully radiogenic model is excluded at 5.2$\sigma$ assuming a homogeneous heat producing element distribution in the mantle.**Dark Matter Pollution in the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background**

2205.14123 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nicole F. Bell, Matthew J. Dolan, and Sandra Robles.

The Hyper-Kamiokande (HyperK) experiment is expected to precisely measure the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background (DSNB). This requires that the backgrounds in the relevant energy range are well understood. One possible background that has not been considered thus far is the annihilation of low-mass dark matter (DM) to neutrinos. We conduct simulations of the DSNB signal and backgrounds in HyperK, and quantify the extent to which DM annihilation products can pollute the DSNB signal. We find that the presence of DM could affect the determination of the correct values of parameters of interest for DSNB physics, such as effective neutrino temperatures and star formation rates. While this opens the possibility of simultaneously characterising the DNSB and discovering dark matter via indirect detection, we argue that it would be hard to disentangle the two contributions due to the lack of angular information available at low energies.**Determination of supermassive black hole spins in local active galactic nuclei**

2205.10623 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Yu. Piotrovich, S. D. Buliga, and T. M. Natsvlishvili.

We estimated the radiative efficiency and spin value for a number of local active galactic nuclei with z < 0.34 using 3 popular models connecting the radiative efficiency with such parameters of AGNs as mass of supermassive black hole, angle between the line of sight and the axis of the accretion disk and bolometric luminosity. Analysis of the obtained data shown that the spin value decreases with cosmic time, which is in agreement with results of theoretical calculations for low redshift AGNs of other authors. Also we found that the spin value increases with the increasing mass of SMBH and bolometric luminosity. This is the expected result that corresponds to theoretical calculations. Analysis of the distribution of the spin values shown a pronounced peak in the distribution in 0.75 < a < 1.0 range. ~ 40% of objects have spin a > 0.75 and ~ 50% of objects have spin a > 0.5. This results are in a good agreement with our previous results and with the results of other authors.**Termination of Superradiance from a Binary Companion**

2205.10527 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Xi Tong, Yi Wang, and Hui-Yu Zhu.

We study the impact of a binary companion on black hole superradiance at orbital frequencies away from the gravitational-collider-physics (GCP) resonance bands. A superradiant state can couple to a strongly absorptive state via the tidal perturbation of the companion, thereby acquiring a suppressed superradiance rate. Below a critical binary separation, this superradiance rate becomes negative, and the boson cloud gets absorbed by the black hole. This critical binary separation leads to tight constraints on GCP. Especially, a companion with mass ratio $q>10^{-3}$ invalidates all GCP fine structure transitions, as well as almost all Bohr transitions except those from the $|\psi_{211}\rangle$ state. Meanwhile, the backreaction on the companion manifests itself as a torque acting on the binary, producing floating/sinking orbits that can be verified via pulsar timing. In addition, the possible termination of cloud growth may help to alleviate the current bounds on the ultralight boson mass from various null detections.**Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations induced by ultra-light dark matter and implications for KamLAND and JUNO**

2205.09769 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Marta Losada, [and 4 more]Yosef Nir, Gilad Perez, Inbar Savoray, and Yogev Shpilman [hide authors].

If ultra-light dark matter (ULDM) exists and couples to neutrinos, the neutrino oscillation probability might be significantly altered by a parametric resonance. This resonance can occur if the typical frequency of neutrino flavor-oscillations $\Delta m^2/(2E)$, where $\Delta m^2$ is the mass-squared difference of the neutrinos and $E$ is the neutrino energy, matches the oscillation frequency of the ULDM field, determined by its mass, $m_\phi$. The resonance could lead to observable effects even if the ULDM coupling is very small, and even if its typical oscillation period, given by $\tau_\phi=2\pi/m_\phi$, is much shorter than the experimental temporal resolution. Defining a small parameter $\epsilon_\phi$ to be the ratio between the contribution of the ULDM field to the neutrino mass and the vacuum value of the neutrino mass, the impact of the resonance is particularly significant if $\epsilon_\phi m_\phi L\gtrsim 4$, where $L$ is the distance between the neutrino source and the detector. Such parametric resonance can improve the fit to the KamLAND experiment measurements by about $3.5\,\sigma$ compared to standard oscillations. This scenario will be tested by the JUNO experiment.**Detector Requirements for Model-Independent Measurements of Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Cross Sections**

2205.09763 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Esteban, Steven Prohira, and John F. Beacom.

The ultrahigh energy range of neutrino physics (above $\sim 10^{7} \, \mathrm{GeV}$), as yet devoid of detections, is an open landscape with challenges to be met and discoveries to be made. Neutrino-nucleon cross sections in that range - with center-of-momentum energies $\sqrt{s} \gtrsim 4 \, \mathrm{TeV}$ - are powerful probes of unexplored phenomena. We present a simple and accurate model-independent framework to evaluate how well these cross sections can be measured for an unknown flux and generic detectors. We also demonstrate how to characterize and compare detector sensitivity. We show that cross sections can be measured to $\simeq ^{+65}_{-30}$% precision over $\sqrt{s} \simeq$ 4-140 TeV ($E_\nu = 10^7$-$10^{10}$ GeV) with modest energy and angular resolution and $\simeq 10$ events per energy decade. Many allowed novel-physics models (extra dimensions, leptoquarks, etc.) produce much larger effects. In the distant future, with $\simeq 100$ events at the highest energies, the precision would be $\simeq 15\%$, probing even QCD saturation effects.**Non-Universal Stellar Initial Mass Functions: Large Uncertainties in Star Formation Rates at $z\approx 2-4$ and Other Astrophysical Probes**

2205.07845 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joshua J. Ziegler, [and 6 more]Thomas D. P. Edwards, Anna M. Suliga, Irene Tamborra, Shunsaku Horiuchi, Shin'ichiro Ando, and Katherine Freese [hide authors].

We explore the assumption, widely used in many astrophysical calculations, that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is universal across all galaxies. By considering both a canonical Salpeter-like IMF and a non-universal IMF, we are able to compare the effect of different IMFs on multiple observables and derived quantities in astrophysics. Specifically, we consider a non-universal IMF which varies as a function of the local star formation rate, and explore the effects on the star formation rate density (SFRD), the extragalactic background light, the supernova (both core-collapse and thermonuclear) rates, and the diffuse supernova neutrino background. Our most interesting result is that our adopted varying IMF leads to much greater uncertainty on the SFRD at $z \approx 2-4$ than is usually assumed. Indeed, we find a SFRD (inferred using observed galaxy luminosity distributions) that is a factor of $\gtrsim 3$ lower than canonical results obtained using a universal Salpeter-like IMF. Secondly, the non-universal IMF we explore implies a reduction in the supernova core-collapse rate of a factor of $\sim2$, compared against a universal IMF. The other potential tracers are only slightly affected by changes to the properties of the IMF. We find that currently available data do not provide a clear preference for universal or non-universal IMF. However, improvements to measurements of the star formation rate and core-collapse supernova rate at redshifts $z \gtrsim 2$ may offer the best prospects for discernment.**Constraining super-light sterile neutrinos at Borexino and KamLAND**

2205.07574 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Zikang Chen, [and 3 more]Jiajun Liao, Jiajie Ling, and Baobiao Yue [hide authors].

The presence of a super-light sterile neutrino can lead to a dip in the survival probability of solar neutrinos, and explain the suppression of the upturn in the low energy solar neutrino data. In this work, we systematically study the survival probabilities in the 3+1 framework by taking into account of the non-adiabatic transitions and the coherence effect. We obtain an analytic equation that can predict the position of the dip. We also place constraints on the parameter space of sterile neutrinos by using the latest Borexino and KamLAND data. We find that the low and high energy neutrino data at Borexino are sensitive to different regions in the sterile neutrino parameter space. In the case with only $\theta_{01}$ being nonzero, the $\rm{{}^{8}B}$ data sets the strongest bounds at $\Delta m_{01}^{2} \approx (1.1\sim2.2)\Delta m_{21}^{2}$, while the low energy neutrino data is more sensitive to other mass-squared regions. The lowest bounds on $\Delta m_{01}^{2}$ from the $\rm{pp}$ data can reach $10^{-12} \ \rm{eV^{2}}$ because of the coherence effect. Also, due to the presence of non-adiabatic transitions, the bounds in the range of $10^{-9} \ \textrm{eV}^{2} \lesssim \Delta m_{01}^{2} \lesssim 10^{-5} \ \textrm{eV}^{2}$ become weaker as $\Delta m_{01}^{2}$ or $\sin^{2}2\theta_{01}$ decreases. We also find that in the case with only $\theta_{02}$ or $\theta_{03}$ being nonzero, the low energy solar neutrino data set similar but weaker bounds as compared to the case with only $\theta_{01}$ being nonzero. However, the bounds from the high energy solar data and the KamLAND data are largely affected by the sterile mixing angles.**Constraining Feeble Neutrino Interactions with Ultralight Dark Matter**

2205.06821 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Abhish Dev, [and 3 more]Gordan Krnjaic, Pedro Machado, and Harikrishnan Ramani [hide authors].

If ultralight $(\ll$ eV), bosonic dark matter couples to right handed neutrinos, active neutrino masses and mixing angles depend on the ambient dark matter density. When the neutrino Majorana mass, induced by the dark matter background, is small compared to the Dirac mass, neutrinos are "pseudo-Dirac" fermions that undergo oscillations between nearly degenerate active and sterile states. We present a complete cosmological history for such a scenario and find severe limits from a variety of terrestrial and cosmological observables. For scalar masses in the "fuzzy" dark matter regime ($\sim 10^{-20}$ eV), these limits exclude couplings of order $10^{-30}$, corresponding to Yukawa interactions comparable to the gravitational force between neutrinos and surpassing equivalent limits on time variation in scalar-induced electron and proton couplings.**Constraining Fundamental Constant Variations from Ultralight Dark Matter with Pulsar Timing Arrays**

2205.06817 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by David E. Kaplan, Andrea Mitridate, and Tanner Trickle.

Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) are exceptionally sensitive detectors in the frequency band $\text{nHz} \lesssim f \lesssim \mu\text{Hz}$. Ultralight dark matter (ULDM), with mass in the range $10^{-23}\,\text{eV} \lesssim m_\phi \lesssim 10^{-20}\,\text{eV}$, is one class of DM models known to generate signals in this frequency window. While purely gravitational signatures of ULDM have been studied previously, in this work we consider two signals in PTAs which arise in presence of direct couplings between ULDM and ordinary matter. These couplings induce variations in fundamental constants, i.e., particle masses and couplings. These variations can alter the moment of inertia of pulsars, inducing pulsar spin fluctuations via conservation of angular momentum, or induce apparent timing residuals due to reference clock shifts. By using mock data mimicking current PTA datasets, we show that PTA experiments outperform torsion balance and atomic clock constraints for ULDM coupled to electrons, muons, or gluons. In the case of coupling to quarks or photons, we find that PTAs and atomic clocks set similar constraints. Additionally, we discuss how future PTAs can further improve these constraints, and detail the unique properties of these signals relative to the previously studied effects of ULDM on PTAs.**Superradiant evolution of the shadow and photon ring of Sgr A$^\star$**

2205.06238 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yifan Chen, [and 3 more]Rittick Roy, Sunny Vagnozzi, and Luca Visinelli [hide authors].

Ultralight bosons can affect the dynamics of spinning black holes (BHs) via superradiant instability, which can lead to a time evolution of the supermassive BH shadow. We study prospects for witnessing the superradiance-induced BH shadow evolution, considering ultralight vector and tensor fields. We introduce two observables sensitive to the shadow time-evolution: the shadow drift, and the variation in the azimuthal angle lapse associated to the photon ring autocorrelation. The two observables are shown to be highly complementary, depending on the observer's inclination angle. Focusing on the supermassive object Sgr A$^\star$ we show that both observables can vary appreciably over human timescales of a few years in the presence of superradiant instability, leading to signatures which are well within the reach of the Event Horizon Telescope for realistic observation times (but benefiting significantly from extended observation periods), and paving the way towards probing ultralight bosons in the $\sim 10^{-17}\,{\rm eV}$ mass range.**Discriminating between Lorentz violation and non-standard interactions using core-passing atmospheric neutrinos at INO-ICAL**

2205.05134 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sadashiv Sahoo, [and 3 more]Anil Kumar, Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, and Amol Dighe [hide authors].

Precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters have provided a tremendous boost to the search for sub-leading effects due to several beyond the Standard Model scenarios in neutrino oscillation experiments. Among these, two of the well-studied scenarios are Lorentz violation (LV) and non-standard interactions (NSI), both of which can affect neutrino oscillations significantly. We point out that, at a long-baseline experiment where the neutrino oscillation probabilities can be well-approximated by using the line-averaged constant matter density, the effects of these two scenarios can mimic each other. This would allow the limits obtained at such an experiment on one of the above scenarios to be directly translated to the limits on the other scenario. However, for the same reason, it would be difficult to distinguish between LV and NSI at a long-baseline experiment. We show that the observations of atmospheric neutrinos, which travel a wide range of baselines and may encounter sharp density changes at the core-mantle boundary, can break this degeneracy. We observe that identifying neutrinos and antineutrinos separately, as can be done at INO-ICAL, can enhance the capability of atmospheric neutrino experiments to discriminate between these two new-physics scenarios.**First results of the nuGeN experiment on coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering**

2205.04305 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by I. Alekseev, [and 23 more]K. Balej, V. Belov, S. Evseev, D. Filosofov, M. Fomina, Z. Hons, D. Karaivanov, S. Kazartsev, J. Khushvaktov, A. Kuznetsov, A. Lubashevskiy, D. Medvedev, D. Ponomarev, A. Rakhimov, K. Shakhov, E. Shevchik, M. Shirchenko, K. Smolek, S. Rozov, I. Rozova, S. Vasilyev, E. Yakushev, and I. Zhitnikov [hide authors].

The nuGeN experiment is aimed to investigate neutrino properties using antineutrinos from the reactor of the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant. The experimental setup is located at about 11 meters from the center of the 3.1 GWth reactor core. Scattering of the antineutrinos from the reactor is detected with low energy threshold high purity germanium detector. Passive and active shieldings are used to suppress all kinds of backgrounds coming from surrounding materials and cosmic radiation. The description of the experimental setup together with the first results is presented. The data taken in regimes with reactor ON (94.50 days) and reactor OFF (47.09 days) have been compared. No significant difference between spectra of two data sets is observed, i.e. no positive signals for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering are detected. Under Standard Model assumptions about coherent neutrino scattering an upper limit on a quenching parameter k < 0.26 (90 \% C.L.) in germanium has been set.**Vector leptoquark $U_3$ and CP violation at T2K, NOvA experiments**

2205.04269 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rudra Majhi, [and 3 more]Dinesh Kumar Singha, K. N. Deepthi, and Rukmani Mohanta [hide authors].

In the current epoch of neutrino physics, many experiments are aiming for precision measurements of oscillation parameters. Thus, various new physics scenarios which alter the neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter deserve careful investigation. In this context, we study the effect of a vector leptoquark which induces non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) that modify the oscillation probabilities of neutrinos in matter. We show that such interactions provide a relatively large value of NSI parameter $\varepsilon_{e \mu}$. Considering this NSI parameter, we successfully explain the recent discrepancy between the observed $\delta_{CP}$ results of T2K and NOvA.**Multi-messenger High-Energy Signatures of Decaying Dark Matter and the Effect of Background Light**

2205.03416 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Barbara Skrzypek, Marco Chianese, and Carlos Argüelles Delgado.

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole has measured astrophysical neutrinos using through-going and starting events in the TeV to PeV energy range. The origin of these astrophysical neutrinos is still largely unresolved, and among their potential sources could be dark matter decay. Measurements of the astrophysical flux using muon neutrinos are in slight tension with starting event measurements. This tension is driven by an excess observed in the energy range of 40-200 TeV with respect to the through-going expectation. Previous works have considered the possibility that this excess may be due to heavy dark matter decay and have placed constraints using gamma-ray and neutrino data. However, these constraints are not without caveats since they rely on the modeling of the astrophysical neutrino flux and the sources of gamma-ray emission. In this work, we derive background-agnostic galactic and extragalactic constraints on decaying dark matter by considering Tibet AS$_\gamma$ data, Fermi-LAT diffuse data, and the IceCube high-energy starting event sample. For the gamma-ray limits, we investigate the uncertainties on secondary emission from electromagnetic cascades during propagation arising from the unknown intensity of the extragalactic background light. We find that such uncertainties amount to a variation of up to $\sim 55\%$ in the gamma-ray limits derived with extragalactic data. Our results imply that a significant fraction of the astrophysical neutrino flux could be due to dark matter and that ruling it out depends on the assumptions on the gamma-ray and neutrino background. The latter depends on the yet unidentified sources.**Matter effects on flavor transitions of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos based on different decoherence schemes**

2205.03164 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ding-Hui Xu and Shu-Jun Rong.

The progress of neutrino astronomy makes the precise measurement of the flavor ratio of high energy astronomical neutrinos (HANs) possible in the near future. Then matter effects and new physics effects on the flavor transition of HANs could be tested by the next-generation neutrino telescopes. In this paper we study matter effects in gas around the sources of HANs. The matter effects are dependent on both the decoherence schemes and the sources of neutrinos. We examine the predictions on the flavor ratio at Earth for typical sources with five decoherence schemes. For the adiabatic schemes, the matter effect is notable and may be identified in the special range of the electron density, irrespective of the production sources of HANs. Hence, the precise measurement of the flavor ratio would provide constrains on the propagation schemes and the matter parameter.**Confronting the prediction of leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase with experiments**

2205.02796 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yang Hwan Ahn, [and 3 more]Sin Kyu Kang, Raymundo Ramos, and Morimitsu Tanimoto [hide authors].

We update and improve past efforts to predict the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase with models that predict perturbatively modified tribimaximal or bimaximal mixing. Simple perturbations are applied to both mixing patterns in the form of rotations between two sectors. By translating these perturbed mixing matrices to the standard parameterization for the neutrino mixing matrix we derive relations between the Dirac CP-phase and the oscillation angles. We use these relations together with current experimental results to constrain the allowed range for the CP-phase and determine its probability density. Furthermore, we elaborate on the prospects for future experiments probing on the perturbations considered in this work. We present a model with $A_4$ modular symmetry that is consistent with one of the described perturbed scenarios and successfully predicts current oscillation parameter data.**Neutrino mass and mass ordering: No conclusive evidence for normal ordering**

2205.02195 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stefano Gariazzo, [and 10 more]Martina Gerbino, Thejs Brinckmann, Massimiliano Lattanzi, Olga Mena, Thomas Schwetz, Shouvik Roy Choudhury, Katherine Freese, Steen Hannestad, Christoph A. Ternes, and Mariam Tórtola [hide authors].

The extraction of the neutrino mass ordering is one of the major challenges in particle physics and cosmology, not only for its implications for a fundamental theory of mass generation in nature, but also for its decisive role in the scale of future neutrinoless double beta decay experimental searches. It has been recently claimed that current oscillation, beta decay and cosmological limits on the different observables describing the neutrino mass parameter space provide robust decisive Bayesian evidence in favor of the normal ordering of the neutrino mass spectrum [arXiv:2203.14247]. We further investigate these strong claims using a rich and wide phenomenology, with different sampling techniques of the neutrino parameter space. Contrary to the findings of Jimenez et al [arXiv:2203.14247], no decisive evidence for the normal mass ordering is found. Neutrino mass ordering analyses must rely on priors and parameterizations that are ordering-agnostic: robust results should be regarded as those in which the preference for the normal neutrino mass ordering is driven exclusively by the data, while we find a difference of up to a factor of 33 in the Bayes factors among the different priors and parameterizations exploited here. An ordering-agnostic prior would be represented by the case of parameterizations sampling over the two mass splittings and a mass scale, or those sampling over the individual neutrino masses via normal prior distributions only. In this regard, we show that the current significance in favor of the normal mass ordering should be taken as $2.7\sigma$ (i.e. moderate evidence), mostly driven by neutrino oscillation data.**The diffuse supernova neutrino background as a probe of late-time neutrino mass generation**

2205.01102 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, [and 3 more]Ivan Martinez-Soler, Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez, and Manibrata Sen [hide authors].

The relic neutrinos from old supernova explosions are among the most ancient neutrino fluxes within experimental reach. Thus, the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) could teach us if neutrino masses were different in the past (redshifts $z\lesssim 5$). Oscillations inside the supernova depend strongly on the neutrino mass-squared differences and the values of the mixing angles, rendering the DSNB energy spectrum sensitive to variations of these parameters. Considering a purely phenomenological parameterization of the neutrino masses as a function of redshift, we compute the expected local DSNB spectrum here on Earth. Given the current knowledge of neutrino oscillation parameters, specially the fact that $|U_{e3}|^2$ is small, we find that the $\nu_e$ spectrum could be significantly different from standard expectations if neutrinos were effectively massless at $z\gtrsim1$ as long as the neutrino mass ordering is normal. On the other hand, the $\overline{\nu}_e$ flux is not expected to be significantly impacted. Hence, a measurement of both the neutrino and antineutrino components of the DSNB should allow one to test the possibility of recent neutrino mass generation.**Compatibility of Neutrino DIS Data and Its Impact on Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions**

2204.13157 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by K. F. Muzakka, [and 11 more]P. Duwentäster, T. J. Hobbs, T. Ježo, M. Klasen, K. Kovařík, A. Kusina, J. G. Morfín, F. I. Olness, R. Ruiz, I. Schienbein, and J. Y. Yu [hide authors].

In global analyses of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), neutrino deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) data have been argued to exhibit tensions with the data from charged-lepton DIS. Using the nCTEQ framework, we investigate these possible tensions both internally and with the data sets used in our recent nPDF analysis nCTEQ15WZSIH. We take into account nuclear effects in the calculation of the deuteron structure function $F_2^D$ using the CJ15 analysis. The resulting nPDF fit, nCTEQ15WZSIHdeut, serves as the basis for our comparison with inclusive neutrino DIS and charm dimuon production data. Using $\chi^2$ hypothesis testing, we confirm evidence of tensions with these data and study the impact of the proton PDF baseline as well as the treatment of data correlation and normalization uncertainties. We identify the experimental data and kinematic regions that generate the tensions and present several possible approaches how a consistent global analysis with neutrino data can be performed. We show that the tension can be relieved using a kinematic cut at low $x$ ($x>0.1$) and also investigate a possibility of managing the tensions by using uncorrelated systematic errors. Finally, we present a different approach identifying a subset of neutrino data which leads to a consistent global analysis without any additional cuts. Understanding these tensions between the neutrino and charged-lepton DIS data is important not only for a better flavor separation in global analyses of nuclear and proton PDFs, but also for neutrino physics and for searches for physics beyond the Standard Model.**Timing and Multi-Channel: Novel Method for Determining the Neutrino Mass Ordering from Supernovae**

2204.13135 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar and Xun-Jie Xu.

One of the few remaining unknowns in the standard three-flavor neutrino oscillation paradigm is the ordering of neutrino masses. In this work we propose a novel method for determining neutrino mass ordering using the time information on early supernova neutrino events. In a core-collapse supernova, neutrinos are produced earlier than antineutrinos and, depending on the mass ordering which affects the adiabatic flavor evolution, may cause earlier observable signals in $\nu_e$ detection channels than in others. Hence, the time differences are sensitive to the mass ordering. We find that using the time information on the detection of the first galactic supernova events at future detectors like DUNE, JUNO and Hyper-Kamiokande, the mass ordering can already be determined at $\sim 2 \sigma$ CL, while $\mathcal{O}(10)$ events suffice for the discovery. Our method does not require high statistics and could be used within the supernova early warning system (SNEWS) which will have access to the time information on early supernova neutrino events recorded in a number of detectors. The method proposed in this paper also implies a crucial interplay between the mass ordering and the triangulation method for locating supernovae.**Antineutrino sensitivity at THEIA**

2204.12278 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stephane Zsoldos, [and 4 more]Zara Bagdasarian, Gabriel D. Orebi Gann, Andrew Barna, and Stephen Dye [hide authors].

We present the sensitivity of the Theia experiment to low-energy geo- and reactor antineutrinos. For this study, we consider one of the possible proposed designs, a 17.8-ktonne fiducial volume Theia-25 detector filled with water-based liquid scintillator placed at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF). We demonstrate Theia's sensitivity to measure the geo- and reactor antineutrinos via Inverse-Beta Decay interactions after one year of data taking with $11.9\times10^{32}$ free target protons. The expected number of detected geo- and reactor antineutrinos is $218\,^{+28}_{-20}$ and $170\,^{+24}_{-20}$, respectively. The precision of the fitting procedure has been evaluated to be 6.72% and 8.55% for geo- and reactor antineutrinos, respectively. We also demonstrate the sensitivity towards fitting individual Th and U contributions, with best fit values of $N_\text{Th}=39\,^{+18}_{-15}$ and $N_\text{U}=180\,^{+26}_{-22}$. We obtain $(\text{Th}/\text{U})=4.3\pm2.6$ after one year of data taking, and within ten years, the relative precision of the (Th/U) mass ratio will be reduced to 15%. Finally, from the fit results of individual Th and U contributions, we evaluate the mantle signal to be $S_\text{mantle} = 9.0\,\pm [4.2,4.5]$NIU. This was obtained assuming a full-range positive correlation ($\rho_c\in[0, 1]$) between Th and U, and the projected uncertainties on the crust contributions of 8.3% (Th) and 7.0% (U). When considering systematic uncertainties on the signal and background shape and fluxes, the mantle signal becomes $S_\text{mantle} = 9.3\,\pm [5.2,5.4]$NIU.**Microscopic and Macroscopic Effects in the Decoherence of Neutrino Oscillations**

2204.10696 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ting Cheng, Manfred Lindner, and Werner Rodejohann.

We present a generic structure (the layer structure) for decoherence effects in neutrino oscillations, which includes decoherence from quantum mechanical and classical uncertainties. The calculation is done by combining the concept of open quantum system and quantum field theory, forming a structure composed of phase spaces from microscopic to macroscopic level. Having information loss at different levels, quantum mechanical uncertainties parameterize decoherence by an intrinsic mass eigenstate separation effect, while decoherence for classical uncertainties is typically dominated by a statistical averaging effect. With the help of the layer structure, we classify the former as state decoherence (SD) and the latter as phase decoherence (PD), then further conclude that both SD and PD result from phase wash-out effects of different phase structures on different layers. Such effects admit for simple numerical calculations of decoherence for a given width and shape of uncertainties. While our structure is generic, so are the uncertainties, nonetheless, a few notable ones are: the wavepacket size of the external particles, the effective interaction volume at production and detection, the energy reconstruction model and the neutrino production profile. Furthermore, we estimate the experimental sensitivities for SD and PD parameterized by the uncertainty parameters, for reactor neutrinos and decay-at-rest neutrinos, using a traditional rate measuring method and a novel phase measuring method.**Very Light Sterile Neutrinos at NOvA and T2K**

2204.09130 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, Giancarlo Jusino Sánchez, and Kevin J. Kelly.

Over the last several years, our understanding of neutrino oscillations has developed significantly due to the long-baseline measurements of muon-neutrino disappearance and muon-to-electron-neutrino appearance at the T2K and NOvA experiments. However, when interpreted under the standard-three-massive-neutrinos paradigm, a tension has emerged between the two experiments' data. Here, we examine whether this tension can be alleviated when a fourth, very light neutrino is added to the picture. Specifically, we focus on the scenario in which this new neutrino has a mass similar to, or even lighter than, the three mostly-active neutrinos that have been identified to date. We find that, for some regions of parameter space, the four-neutrino framework is favored over the three-neutrino one with moderate (a little under two sigma) significance. Interpreting these results, we provide future outlook for near-term and long-term experiments if this four-neutrino framework is indeed true.**New reactor data improves robustness of neutrino mass ordering determination**

2204.09060 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Julia Gehrlein.

In neutrino oscillation physics numerous exact degeneracies exist under the name LMA-Dark. These degeneracies make it impossible to determine the sign of $\Delta m^2_{31}$ known as the atmospheric mass ordering with oscillation experiments alone in the presence of new neutrino interactions. The combination of different measurements including multiple oscillation channels and neutrino scattering experiments lifts some aspects of these degeneracies. In fact, previous measurements of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CEvNS) by COHERENT already ruled out the LMA-Dark solution for new physics with mediators heavier than $M_{Z'}\sim50$ MeV while cosmological considerations disfavor these scenarios for mediators lighter than $M_{Z'}\sim3$ MeV. Here we leverage new data from the Dresden-II experiment which provides the strongest bounds on CEvNS with reactor neutrinos to date. We show that this data completely removes the degeneracies in the $\nu_e$ sector for mediators down to the MeV scale at which point constraints from the early universe take over. While the LMA-Dark degeneracy is lifted in the $\nu_e$ sector, it can still be restored in the $\nu_\mu$ and $\nu_\tau$ sector or with very specific couplings to up and down quarks, and we speculate on a path forward.**Independent determination of the Earth's orbital parameters with solar neutrinos in Borexino**

2204.07029 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Appel, [and 78 more]Z. Bagdasarian, D. Basilico, G. Bellini, J. Benziger, R. Biondi, B. Caccianiga, F. Calaprice, A. Caminata, A. Chepurnov, D. D'Angelo, A. Derbin, A. Di Giacinto, V. Di Marcello, X. F. Ding, A. Di Ludovico, L. Di Noto, I. Drachnev, D. Franco, C. Galbiati, C. Ghiano, M. Giammarchi, A. Goretti, A. S. Goettel, M. Gromov, D. Guffanti, Aldo Ianni, Andrea Ianni, A. Jany, V. Kobychev, G. Korga, S. Kumaran, M. Laubenstein, E. Litvinovich, P. Lombardi, I. Lomskaya, L. Ludhova, G. Lukyanchenko, I. Machulin, J. Martyn, E. Meroni, L. Miramonti, M. Misiaszek, V. Muratova, R. Nugmanov, L. Oberauer, V. Orekhov, F. Ortica, M. Pallavicini, L. Pelicci, O. Penek, L. Pietrofaccia, N. Pilipenko, A. Pocar, G. Raikov, M. T. Ranalli, G. Ranucci, A. Razeto, A. Re, M. Redchuk, N. Rossi, S. Schoenert, D. Semenov, G. Settanta, M. Skorokhvatov, A. Singhal, O. Smirnov, A. Sotnikov, R. Tartaglia, G. Testera, E. Unzhakov, A. Vishneva, R. B. Vogelaar, F. von Feilitzsch, M. Wojcik, M. Wurm, S. Zavatarelli, K. Zuber, and G. Zuzel [hide authors].

Since the beginning of 2012, the Borexino collaboration has been reporting precision measurements of the solar neutrino fluxes, emitted in the proton-proton chain and in the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen cycle. The experimental sensitivity achieved in Phase-II and Phase-III of the Borexino data taking made it possible to detect the annual modulation of the solar neutrino interaction rate due to the eccentricity of Earth's orbit, with a statistical significance greater than 5$\sigma$. This is the first precise measurement of the Earth's orbital parameters based solely on solar neutrinos and an additional signature of the solar origin of the Borexino signal. The complete periodogram of the time series of the Borexino solar neutrino detection rate is also reported, exploring frequencies between one cycle/year and one cycle/day. No other significant modulation frequencies are found. The present results were uniquely made possible by Borexino's decade-long high-precision solar neutrino detection.**Analytic treatment of 3-flavor neutrino oscillation and decay in matter**

2204.05803 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dibya S. Chattopadhyay, [and 3 more]Kaustav Chakraborty, Amol Dighe, and Srubabati Goswami [hide authors].

We present compact analytic expressions for 3-flavor neutrino oscillation probabilities with invisible neutrino decay, where matter effects have been explicitly included. We take into account the possibility that the oscillation and decay components of the effective Hamiltonian do not commute. This is achieved by employing the techniques of inverse Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) expansion and the Cayley-Hamilton theorem applied in the 3-flavor framework. If only the vacuum mass eigenstate $\nu_3$ decays, we show that the treatment of neutrino propagation may be reduced to an effective 2-flavor analysis in the One Mass Scale Dominance (OMSD) approximation. The oscillation probabilities for $P_{\mu\mu}$, $P_{ee}$, $P_{e\mu}$ and $P_{\mu e}$ -- relevant for reactor, long baseline and atmospheric neutrino experiments -- are obtained as perturbative expansions for the case of only $\nu_3$ decay, as well as for the more general scenario where all components of the decay matrix are non-zero. The analytic results thus obtained match the exact numerical results for constant density matter to a high precision and provide physical insights into possible effects of the decay of neutrinos as they propagate through Earth matter. We find that the effects of neutrino decay are most likely to be observable in $P_{\mu\mu}$. We also point out that at any long baseline, the oscillation dips in $P_{\mu\mu}$ can show higher survival probabilities in the case with decay than without decay, and explain this feature using our analytic approximations.**Exploring the Fate of Stellar Core Collapse with Supernova Relic Neutrinos**

2204.04880 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yosuke Ashida and Ken'ichiro Nakazato.

Core collapse of massive stars leads to different fates for various physical factors, which gives different spectra of the emitted neutrinos. We focus on the supernova relic neutrinos (SRNs) as a probe to investigate the stellar collapse fate. We present the SRN fluxes and event rate spectra at a detector for three resultant states after stellar core collapse, the typical mass neutron star, the higher mass neutron star, or the failed supernova forming a black hole, based on different nuclear equations of state. Then possible SRN fluxes are formed as mixtures of the three components. We also show the expected sensitivities at the next-generation water-based Cherenkov detectors, SK-Gd and Hyper-Kamiokande, as constraining the mixture fractions. This study provides a practical example of extracting astrophysical constraints through SRN measurement.**Sterile neutrino production at small mixing in the early universe**

2204.04224 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gonzalo Alonso-Álvarez and James M. Cline.

Sterile neutrinos can be produced in the early universe via interactions with their active counterparts. For small active-sterile mixing angles, thermal equilibrium with the standard model plasma is not reached and sterile neutrinos are only produced via flavor oscillations. We study in detail this regime, taking into account matter potentials and decoherence effects caused by elastic scatterings with the plasma. We find that resonant oscillations occurring at temperatures $T\lesssim 10\,\mathrm{GeV}$ lead to a significant enhancement of the sterile neutrino production rate. Taking this into account, we improve constraints on the active-sterile mixing from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, excluding mixing angles down to $\theta_s\sim 10^{-10}-10^{-16}$ for sterile neutrino masses in the $10\,\mathrm{MeV}$ to $10\,\mathrm{GeV}$ range. We observe that if sterile neutrinos predominantly decay into metastable hidden sector particles, this process provides a novel dark matter production mechanism, consistent with the sterile neutrino origin of light neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism.**Constraining New Physics with Borexino Phase-II spectral data**

2204.03011 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Coloma, [and 4 more]M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, Michele Maltoni, João Paulo Pinheiro, and Salvador Urrea [hide authors].

We present a detailed analysis of the spectral data of Borexino Phase II, with the aim of exploiting its full potential to constrain scenarios beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we quantify the constraints imposed on neutrino magnetic moments, neutrino non-standard interactions, and several simplified models with light scalar, pseudoscalar or vector mediators. Our analysis shows perfect agreement with those performed by the collaboration on neutrino magnetic moments and neutrino non-standard interactions in the same restricted cases and expands beyond those, stressing the interplay between flavour oscillations and flavour non-diagonal interaction effects for the correct evaluation of the event rates. For simplified models with light mediators we show the power of the spectral data to obtain robust limits beyond those previously estimated in the literature.**Cored Dark Matter halos in the Cosmic Neutrino Background**

2204.01431 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Wonsub Cho, Ki-Young Choi, and Hee Jung Kim.

We study the impact of the interaction between DM and the cosmic neutrino background on the evolution of galactic dark matter halos. The energy transfer from the neutrinos to the dark matter can heat the center of the galaxy and make it cored. This effect is efficient for the small galaxies such as the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and we can put conservative constraint on the non-relativistic elastic scattering cross section as $\sigma_{\chi\nu}\lesssim 10^{-31} {\rm cm}^2$ for 0.1 keV dark matter and 0.1 eV neutrino.**Visible Neutrino Decays and the Impact of the Daughter-Neutrino Mass**

2203.14976 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, Manibrata Sen, and Jean Weill.

We compute the differential decay width of two- and three-body neutrino decays, assuming neutrinos are Dirac fermions and allowing for the possibility that the decay-daughters have nonzero masses. We examine different hypotheses for the interaction that mediates neutrino decay and concentrate on identifying circumstances where the decay-daughters can significantly impact the neutrino-decay signature at different experiments. We are especially interested in decay daughters produced by right-chiral neutrino fields, when the mass of the daughter plays a decisive role. As a concrete example, we compare the effects of visible and invisible antineutrino decays at the JUNO experimental setup.**Neutrino Masses and Mass Hierarchy: Evidence for the Normal Hierarchy**

2203.14247 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Raul Jimenez, [and 4 more]Carlos Pena-Garay, Kathleen Short, Fergus Simpson, and Licia Verde [hide authors].

The latest cosmological constraints on the sum of neutrino masses, in combination with the latest laboratory measurements on oscillations, provide ``decisive" Bayesian evidence for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy. We show that this result holds across very different prior alternatives by exploring two extremes on the range of prior choices. In fact, while the specific numerical value for the Evidence depends on the choice of prior, the Bayesian odds remain greater than 140:1 across very different prior choices. For Majorana neutrinos this has important implications for the upper limit of the neutrino-less double beta decay half life and thus for the technology and resources needed for future double beta decay experiments.**PeV Tau Neutrinos to Unveil Ultra-High-Energy Sources**

2203.13827 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles, [and 3 more]Francis Halzen, Ali Kheirandish, and Ibrahim Safa [hide authors].

The observation of ultra-high-energy EeV-energy cosmogenic neutrinos provides a direct path to identifying the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays; searches have so far resulted in only upper limits on their flux. However, with the realization of cubic-kilometer detectors such as IceCube and, in the near future, KM3NeT, GVD-Baikal, and similar instruments, we anticipate the observation of PeV-energy cosmic neutrinos with high statistics. In this context, we draw attention to the opportunity to identify EeV tau neutrinos at PeV energy using Earth-traversing tau neutrinos. We show that Cherenkov detectors can improve their sensitivity to transient point sources by more than an order of magnitude by indirectly observing EeV tau neutrinos with initial energies that are nominally beyond their reach. This new technique also improves their sensitivity to the ultra-high-energy diffuse neutrino flux by up to a factor of two. Our work exemplifies how observing tau neutrinos at PeV energies provides an unprecedented reach to EeV fluxes.**No CC-NSI explanation of the Gallium anomaly**

2203.13659 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlo Giunti and Christoph Andreas Ternes.

We show that the Gallium anomaly can not be explained by CC-NSI.**Rocks, Water and Noble Liquids: Unfolding the Flavor Contents of Supernova Neutrinos**

2203.12696 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sebastian Baum, Francesco Capozzi, and Shunsaku Horiuchi.

Measuring core-collapse supernova neutrinos, both from individual supernovae within the Milky Way and from past core collapses throughout the Universe (the diffuse supernova neutrino background, or DSNB), is one of the main goals of current and next generation neutrino experiments. Detecting the heavy-lepton flavor (muon and tau types, collectively $\nu_x$) component of the flux is particularly challenging due to small statistics and large backgrounds. While the next galactic neutrino burst will be observed in a plethora of neutrino channels, allowing to measure a small number of $\nu_x$ events, only upper limits are anticipated for the diffuse $\nu_x$ flux even after decades of data taking with conventional detectors. However, paleo-detectors could measure the time-integrated flux of neutrinos from galactic core-collapse supernovae via flavor-blind neutral current interactions. In this work, we show how combining a measurement of the average galactic core-collapse supernova flux with paleo detectors and measurements of the DSNB electron-type neutrino fluxes with the next-generation water Cherenkov detector Hyper-Kamiokande and the liquid noble gas detector DUNE will allow to determine the mean supernova $\nu_x$ flux parameters with precision of order ten percent.**Testing Non-Standard Interactions Between Solar Neutrinos and Quarks with Super-Kamiokande**

2203.11772 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, [and 272 more]:, P. Weatherly, K. Abe, C. Bronner, Y. Hayato, K. Hiraide, M. Ikeda, K. Iyogi, J. Kameda, Y. Kanemura, Y. Kataoka, Y. Kato, Y. Kishimoto, S. Miki, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, T. Mochizuki, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakano, S. Nakayama, T. Okada, K. Okamoto, A. Orii, G. Pronost, K. Sato, H. Sekiya, M. Shiozawa, Y. Sonoda, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeda, Y. Takemoto, A. Takenaka, H. Tanaka, S. Tasaka, X. Wang, S. Watanabe, T. Yano, S. Han, T. Kajita, K. Kaneyuki, K. Okumura, T. Tashiro, R. Wang, J. Xia, G. D. Megias, L. Labarga, B. Zaldivar, B. W. Pointon, F. d. M. Blaszczyk, C. Kachulis, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, S. Sussman, L. Wan, T. Wester, S. Berkman, S. Tobayama, J. Bian, M. Elnimr, N. J. Griskevich, W. R. Kropp, S. Locke, S. Mine, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, V. Takhistov, A. Yankelevich, K. S. Ganezer, J. Hill, J. Y. Kim, I. T. Lim, R. G. Park, B. Bodur, Z. Li, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, L. Bernard, A. Coffani, O. Drapier, A. Giampaolo, S. El Hedri, J. Imber, Th. A. Mueller, P. Paganini, B. Quilain, A. D. Santos, T. Ishizuka, T. Nakamura, J. S. Jang, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, S. Cao, J. Amey, L. H. V. Anthony, R. P. Litchfield, W. Y. Ma, D. Martin, M. Scott, A. A. Sztuc, Y. Uchida, M. O. Wascko, V. Berardi, M. G. Catanesi, R. A. Intonti, E. Radicioni, N. F. Calabria, L. N. Machado, G. De Rosa, G. Collazuol, F. Iacob, M. Lamoureux, M. Mattiazzi, N. Ospina, L. Ludovici, M. Gonin, Y. Maekawa, Y. Nishimura, M. Friend, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, M. Jakkapu, T. Kobayashi, T. Matsubara, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, T. Boschi, F. Di Lodovico, J. Gao, T. Katori, J. Migenda, M. Taani, S. Zsoldos, KE. Abe, M. Hasegawa, Y. Isobe, Y. Kotsar, H. Miyabe, H. Ozaki, T. Sugimoto, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Ashida, J. Feng, T. Hayashino, S. Hirota, M. Jiang, T. Kikawa, M. Mori, T. Nakaya, R. A. Wendell, K. Yasutome, P. Fernandez, N. McCauley, P. Mehta, A. Pritchard, K. M. Tsui, Y. Fukuda, Y. Itow, H. Menjo, M. Murase, K. Frankiewicz, J. Lagoda, S. M. Lakshmi, M. Mandal, P. Mijakowski, Y. S. Prabhu, J. Zalipska, M. Jia, J. Jiang, C. K. Jung, X. Li, J. L. Palomino, G. Santucci, C. Vilela, M. J. Wilking, C. Yanagisawa, D. Fukuda, K. Hagiwara, M. Harada, H. Ishino, S. Ito, H. Kitagawa, Y. Koshio, W. Ma, S. Sakai, M. Sakuda, Y. Takahira, C. Xu, Y. Kuno, G. Barr, D. Barrow, L. Cook, A. Goldsack, S. Samani, C. Simpson, D. Wark, S. Molina Sedgwick, R. Tacik, F. Nova, J. Y. Yang, S. J. Jenkins, M. Malek, J. M. McElwee, O. Stone, M. D. Thiesse, L. F. Thompson, H. Okazawa, Y. Choi, S. B. Kim, J. W. Seo, I. Yu, A. Ichikawa, K. D. Nakamura, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, K. Iwamoto, K. Nakagiri, Y. Nakajima, Y. Suda, N. Taniuchi, M. Yokoyama, K. Martens, M. Murdoch, M. R. Vagins, D. Hamabe, S. Izumiyama, M. Kuze, Y. Okajima, T. Yoshida, M. Inomoto, M. Ishitsuka, H. Ito, T. Kinoshita, R. Matsumoto, M. Shinoki, T. Suganuma, M. Yonenaga, J. F. Martin, C. M. Nantais, H. A. Tanaka, T. Towstego, R. Akutsu, P. de Perio, V. Gousy-Leblanc, M. Hartz, A. Konaka, P. de Perio, N. W. Prouse, S. Chen, B. D. Xu, B. Zhang, M. Posiadala-Zezula, D. Hadley, M. Nicholson, M. O'Flaherty, B. Richards, A. Ali, B. Jamieson, P. Giorgio, Ll. Marti, A. Minamino, G. Pintaudi, S. Sano, R. Sasaki, and K. Wada [hide authors].

Non-Standard Interactions (NSI) between neutrinos and matter affect the neutrino flavor oscillations. Due to the high matter density in the core of the Sun, solar neutrinos are suited to probe these interactions. Using the $277$ kton-yr exposure of Super-Kamiokande to $^{8}$B solar neutrinos, we search for the presence of NSI. Our data favors the presence of NSI with down quarks at 1.8$\sigma$, and with up quarks at 1.6$\sigma$, with the best fit NSI parameters being ($\epsilon_{11}^{d},\epsilon_{12}^{d}$) = (-3.3, -3.1) for $d$-quarks and ($\epsilon_{11}^{u},\epsilon_{12}^{u}$) = (-2.5, -3.1) for $u$-quarks. After combining with data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and Borexino, the significance increases by 0.1$\sigma$.**Snowmass White Paper: Beyond the Standard Model effects on Neutrino Flavor**

2203.10811 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. A. Argüelles, [and 25 more]G. Barenboim, M. Bustamante, P. Coloma, P. B. Denton, I. Esteban, Y. Farzan, E. Fernández Martínez, D. V. Forero, A. M. Gago, T. Katori, R. Lehnert, M. Ross-Lonergan, A. M. Suliga, Z. Tabrizi, L. Anchordoqui, K. Chakraborty, J. Conrad, A. Das, C. S. Fong, B. R. Littlejohn, M. Maltoni, D. Parno, J. Spitz, J. Tang, and S. Wissel [hide authors].

Neutrinos are one of the most promising messengers for signals of new physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). On the theoretical side, their elusive nature, combined with their unknown mass mechanism, seems to indicate that the neutrino sector is indeed opening a window to new physics. On the experimental side, several long-standing anomalies have been reported in the past decades, providing a strong motivation to thoroughly test the standard three-neutrino oscillation paradigm. In this Snowmass21 white paper, we explore the potential of current and future neutrino experiments to explore BSM effects on neutrino flavor during the next decade.**Constraining ultra-high-energy cosmic ray composition through cross-correlations**

2203.09538 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Konstantinos Tanidis, Federico R. Urban, and Stefano Camera.

The chemical composition of the highest end of the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray spectrum is very hard to measure experimentally, and to this day it remains mostly unknown. Since the trajectories of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are deflected in the magnetic field of the Galaxy by an angle that depends on their atomic number $Z$, it could be possible to indirectly measure $Z$ by quantifying the amount of such magnetic deflections. In this paper we show that, using the angular harmonic cross-correlation between ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and galaxies, we could effectively distinguish different atomic numbers with current data. As an example, we show how, if $Z=1$, the cross-correlation can exclude a $39\%$ fraction of Fe56 nuclei at $2\sigma$ for rays above $100\text{EeV}$.**Weaker yet again: mass spectrum-consistent cosmological constraints on the neutrino lifetime**

2203.09075 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joe Zhiyu Chen, [and 3 more]Isabel M. Oldengott, Giovanni Pierobon, and Yvonne Y. Y. Wong [hide authors].

We consider invisible neutrino decay $\nu_H \to \nu_l + \phi$ in the ultra-relativistic limit and compute the neutrino anisotropy loss rate relevant for the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. Improving on our previous work which assumed massless $\nu_l$ and $\phi$, we reinstate in this work the daughter neutrino mass $m_{\nu l}$ in a manner consistent with the experimentally determined neutrino mass splittings. We find that a nonzero $m_{\nu l}$ introduces a new phase space factor in the loss rate $\Gamma_{\rm T}$ proportional to $(\Delta m_\nu^2/m_{\nu_H}^2)^2$ in the limit of a small squared mass gap between the parent and daughter neutrinos, i.e., $\Gamma_{\rm T} \sim (\Delta m_\nu^2/m_{\nu H}^2)^2 (m_{\nu H}/E_\nu )^5 (1/\tau_0)$, where $\tau_0$ is the $\nu_H$ rest-frame lifetime. Using a general form of this result, we update the limit on $\tau_0$ using the Planck 2018 CMB data. We find that for a parent neutrino of mass $m_{\nu H} \lesssim 0.1 {\rm eV}$, the new phase space factor weakens the constraint on its lifetime by up to a factor of 50 if $\Delta m_\nu^2$ corresponds to the atmospheric mass gap and up to $10^{5}$ if the solar mass gap, in comparison with naive estimates that assume $m_{\nu l}=0$. The revised constraints are (i) $\tau^0 \gtrsim (6 \to 10) \times 10^5~{\rm s}$ and $\tau^0 \gtrsim (400 \to 500)~{\rm s}$ if only one neutrino decays to a daughter neutrino separated by, respectively, the atmospheric and the solar mass gap, and (ii) $\tau^0 \gtrsim (2 \to 3) \times 10^7~{\rm s}$ in the case of two decay channels with one near-common atmospheric mass gap. In contrast to previous, naive limits which scale as $m_{\nu H}^5$, these mass spectrum-consistent $\tau_0$ constraints are remarkably independent of the parent mass and open up a swath of parameter space within the projected reach of IceCube and other neutrino telescopes in the next two decades.**Tau Neutrinos in the Next Decade: from GeV to EeV**

2203.05591 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Roshan Mammen Abraham, [and 65 more]Jaime Alvarez-Muñiz, Carlos A. Argüelles, Akitaka Ariga, Tomoko Ariga, Adam Aurisano, Dario Autiero, Mary Bishai, Nilay Bostan, Mauricio Bustamante, Austin Cummings, Valentin Decoene, André de Gouvêa, Giovanni De Lellis, Albert De Roeck, Peter B. Denton, Antonia Di Crescenzo, Milind V. Diwan, Yasaman Farzan, Anatoli Fedynitch, Jonathan L. Feng, Laura J. Fields, Alfonso Garcia, Maria Vittoria Garzelli, Julia Gehrlein, Christian Glaser, Katarzyna Grzelak, Steffen Hallmann, V Hewes, D. Indumathi, Ahmed Ismail, Sudip Jana, Yu Seon Jeong, Kevin J. Kelly, Spencer R. Klein, Felix Kling, Thomas Kosc, Umut Kose, D. Jason Koskinen, John Krizmanic, Jeff Lazar, Yichen Li, Ivan Martinez-Soler, Irina Mocioiu, Jiwoo Nam, Valentin Niess, Nepomuk Otte, Sameer Patel, Roberto Petti, Remy L. Prechelt, Steven Prohira, Miriama Rajaoalisoa, Mary Hall Reno, Ibrahim Safa, Carlos Sarasty-Segura, R. Thiru Senthil, Juliana Stachurska, Oleksandr Tomalak, Sebastian Trojanowski, Roger Alexandre Wendell, Dawn Williams, Stephanie Wissel, Barbara Yaeggy, Enrique Zas, Pavel Zhelnin, and Jing-yu Zhu [hide authors].

Tau neutrinos are the least studied particle in the Standard Model. This whitepaper discusses the current and expected upcoming status of tau neutrino physics with attention to the broad experimental and theoretical landscape spanning long-baseline, beam-dump, collider, and astrophysical experiments. This whitepaper was prepared as a part of the NuTau2021 Workshop.**Consequences of the Dresden-II reactor data for the weak mixing angle and new physics**

2203.02414 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Aristizabal Sierra, V. De Romeri, and D. K. Papoulias.

The Dresden-II reactor experiment has recently reported a suggestive evidence for the observation of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, using a germanium detector. Given the low recoil energy threshold, these data are particularly interesting for a low-energy determination of the weak mixing angle and for the study of new physics leading to spectral distortions at low momentum transfer. Using two hypotheses for the quenching factor, we study the impact of the data on: (i) The weak mixing angle at a renormalization scale of $\sim 10\,\text{MeV}$, (ii) neutrino generalized interactions with light mediators, (iii) the sterile neutrino dipole portal. The results for the weak mixing angle show a strong dependence on the quenching factor choice. Although still with large uncertainties, the Dresden-II data provide for the first time a determination of $\sin^2\theta_W$ at such scale using coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering data. Tight upper limits are placed on the light vector, scalar and tensor mediator scenarios. Kinematic constraints implied by the reactor anti-neutrino flux and the ionization energy threshold allow the sterile neutrino dipole portal to produce up-scattering events with sterile neutrino masses up to $\sim 8\,$MeV. In this context, we find that limits are also sensitive to the quenching factor choice, but in both cases competitive with those derived from XENON1T data and more stringent that those derived with COHERENT data, in the same sterile neutrino mass range.**Search for the Majorana Nature of Neutrinos in the Inverted Mass Ordering Region with KamLAND-Zen**

2203.02139 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by KamLAND-Zen Collaboration, [and 74 more]:, S. Abe, S. Asami, M. Eizuka, S. Futagi, A. Gando, Y. Gando, T. Gima, A. Goto, T. Hachiya, K. Hata, S. Hayashida, K. Hosokawa, K. Ichimura, S. Ieki, H. Ikeda, K. Inoue, K. Ishidoshiro, Y. Kamei, N. Kawada, Y. Kishimoto, M. Koga, M. Kurasawa, N. Maemura, T. Mitsui, H. Miyake, T. Nakahata, K. Nakamura, K. Nakamura, R. Nakamura, H. Ozaki, T. Sakai, H. Sambonsugi, I. Shimizu, J. Shirai, K. Shiraishi, A. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeuchi, K. Tamae, K. Ueshima, H. Watanabe, Y. Yoshida, S. Obara, A. K. Ichikawa, D. Chernyak, A. Kozlov, K. Z. Nakamura, S. Yoshida, Y. Takemoto, S. Umehara, K. Fushimi, K. Kotera, Y. Urano, B. E. Berger, B. K. Fujikawa, J. G. Learned, J. Maricic, S. N. Axani, J. Smolsky, Z. Fu, L. A. Winslow, Y. Efremenko, H. J. Karwowski, D. M. Markoff, W. Tornow, S. Dell'Oro, T. O'Donnell, J. A. Detwiler, S. Enomoto, M. P. Decowski, C. Grant, A. Li, and H. Song [hide authors].

The KamLAND-Zen experiment has provided stringent constraints on the neutrinoless double-beta ($0\nu\beta\beta$) decay half-life in $^{136}$Xe using a xenon-loaded liquid scintillator. We report an improved search using an upgraded detector with almost double the amount of xenon and an ultralow radioactivity container, corresponding to an exposure of 970 kg yr of $^{136}$Xe. These new data provide valuable insight into backgrounds, especially from cosmic muon spallation of xenon, and have required the use of novel background rejection techniques. We obtain a lower limit for the $0\nu\beta\beta$ decay half-life of $T_{1/2}^{0\nu} > 2.3 \times 10^{26}$ yr at 90% C.L., corresponding to upper limits on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of 36-156 meV using commonly adopted nuclear matrix element calculations.**An absolute $ν$ mass measurement with the DUNE experiment**

2203.00024 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Federica Pompa, [and 3 more]Francesco Capozzi, Olga Mena, and Michel Sorel [hide authors].

Time of flight delay in the supernova neutrino signal offers a unique tool to set model-independent constraints on the absolute neutrino mass. The presence of a sharp time structure during a first emission phase, the so-called neutronization burst in the electron neutrino flavor time distribution, makes this channel a very powerful one. Large liquid argon underground detectors will provide precision measurements of the time dependence of the electron neutrino fluxes. We derive here a new $\nu$ mass sensitivity attainable at the future DUNE far detector from a future supernova collapse in our galactic neighborhood, finding a sub-eV reach under favorable scenarios. These values are competitive with those expected for laboratory direct neutrino mass searches.**Theia: Summary of physics program. Snowmass White Paper Submission**

2202.12839 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Askins, [and 86 more]Z. Bagdasarian, N. Barros, E. W. Beier, A. Bernstein, E. Blucher, R. Bonventre, E. Bourret, E. J. Callaghan, J. Caravaca, M. Diwan, S. T. Dye, J. Eisch, A. Elagin, T. Enqvist, U. Fahrendholz, V. Fischer, K. Frankiewicz, C. Grant, D. Guffanti, C. Hagner, A. Hallin, C. M. Jackson, R. Jiang, T. Kaptanoglu, J. R. Klein, Yu. G. Kolomensky, C. Kraus, F. Krennrich, T. Kutter, T. Lachenmaier, B. Land, K. Lande, L. Lebanowski, J. G. Learned, V. A. Li, V. Lozza, L. Ludhova, M. Malek, S. Manecki, J. Maneira, J. Maricic, J. Martyn, A. Mastbaum, C. Mauger, M. Mayer, J. Migenda, F. Moretti, J. Napolitano, B. Naranjo, M. Nieslony, L. Oberauer, G. D. Orebi Gann, J. Ouellet, T. Pershing, S. T. Petcov, L. Pickard, R. Rosero, M. C. Sanchez, J. Sawatzki, S. H. Seo, M. Smiley, M. Smy, A. Stahl, H. Steiger, M. R. Stock, H. Sunej, R. Svoboda, E. Tiras, W. H. Trzaska, M. Tzanov, M. Vagins, C. Vilela, Z. Wang, J. Wang, M. Wetstein, M. J. Wilking, L. Winslow, P. Wittich, B. Wonsak, E. Worcester, M. Wurm, G. Yang, M. Yeh, E. D. Zimmerman, S. Zsoldos, and K. Zuber [hide authors].

Theia would be a novel, "hybrid" optical neutrino detector, with a rich physics program. This paper is intended to provide a brief overview of the concepts and physics reach of Theia. Full details can be found in the Theia white paper [1].**Matter Effects of Sterile Neutrino in Light of Renormalization-Group Equations**

2202.09851 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shuge Zeng and Fanrong Xu.

The renormalization-group equation (RGE) approach to neutrino matter effects is further developed in this work. We derive a complete set of differential equations for effective mixing elements, masses and Jarlskog-like invariants in presence of a light sterile neutrino. The evolutions of mixing elements as well as Jarlskog-like invariants are obtained by numerically solving these differential equations. We calculate terrestrial matter effects in long-baseline (LBL) experiments, taking NOvA, T2K and DUNE as examples. In both three-flavor and four-flavor frameworks, electron-neutrino survival probabilities as well as the day-night asymmetry of solar neutrino are also evaluated as a further examination of the RGE approach.**Improving CP Measurement with THEIA and Muon Decay at Rest**

2202.05038 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shao-Feng Ge, Chui-Fan Kong, and Pedro Pasquini.

We explore the possibility of using the recently proposed THEIA detector to measure the $\bar \nu_\mu \rightarrow \bar \nu_e$ oscillation with neutrinos from a muon decay at rest ($\mu$DAR) source to improve the leptonic CP phase measurement. Due to its intrinsic low-energy beam, this $\mu$THEIA configuration ($\mu$DAR neutrinos at THEIA) is only sensitive to the genuine leptonic CP phase $\delta_D$ and not contaminated by the matter effect. With detailed study of neutrino energy reconstruction and backgrounds at the THEIA detector, we find that the combination with the high-energy DUNE can significantly reduce the CP uncertainty, especially around the maximal CP violation cases $\delta_D = \pm 90^\circ$. Both the $\mu$THEIA-25 with 17kt and $\mu$THEIA-100 with 70kt fiducial volumes are considered. For DUNE + $\mu$THEIA-100, the CP uncertainty can be better than $8^\circ$.**Detecting Beyond the Standard Model Interactions of Solar Neutrinos in Low-Threshold Dark Matter Detectors**

2202.01254 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Schwemberger and Tien-Tien Yu.

As low-threshold dark matter detectors advance in development, they will become sensitive to recoils from solar neutrinos which opens up the possibility to explore neutrino properties. We predict the enhancement of the event rate of solar neutrino scattering from Beyond the Standard Model interactions in low-threshold DM detectors, with a focus on silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, xenon, and argon-based detectors. We consider a set of general neutrino interactions, which fall into five categories: the neutrino magnetic moment as well as interactions mediated by four types of mediators (scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial vector), and consider coupling these mediators to either quarks or electrons. Using these predictions, we place constraints on the mass and couplings of each mediator and the neutrino magnetic moment from current low-threshold detectors like SENSEI, Edelweiss, and SuperCDMS, as well as projections relevant for future experiments such as DAMIC-M, Oscura, Darwin, and ARGO. We find that such low-threshold detectors can improve current constraints by up to two orders of magnitude for vector mediators and one order of magnitude for scalar mediators.**Influence of cross-sectional uncertainty on sensitivity studies of DUNE and T2HK experiments**

2201.08040 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ritu Devi, Jaydip Singh, and Baba Potukuchi.

The ultimate objectives of ongoing and upcoming neutrino experiments are the precise measurement of neutrino mixing parameters and the confirmation of mass hierarchy. The systematic inaccuracy in the cross-section models introduces inaccuracy in the neutrino mixing parameters estimation. It is important to secure a large decrease of uncertainties, particularly those relating to cross-section, neutrino-nucleus interactions, and neutrino-energy reconstruction, in order to achieve these ambitious goals. In this research article, we use three alternative neutrino event generators, GENIE, NuWro, and GiBUU, to analyze sensitivity studies of T2HK, DUNE, and combined sensitivity of DUNE, and T2HK for mass hierarchy, CP violation, and octant degeneracy caused by cross-section uncertainties. The cross-section models of these generators are separate and independent.**Can NSI affect non-local correlations in neutrino oscillations?**

2201.05580 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Bhavna Yadav, [and 3 more]Trisha Sarkar, Khushboo Dixit, and Ashutosh Kumar Alok [hide authors].

Non-local correlations in entangled systems are usually captured by measures such as Bell's inequality violation. It was recently shown that in neutrino systems, a measure of non-local advantage of quantum coherence (NAQC) can be considered as a stronger measure of non-local correlations as compared to the Bell's inequality violation. In this work, we analyze the effects of non standard interaction (NSI) on these measures in the context of two flavour neutrino oscillations for DUNE, MINOS, T2K, KamLAND, JUNO and Daya Bay experimental set-ups. We find that even in the presence of NSI, Bell's inequality violation occurs in the entire energy range whereas the NAQC violation is observed only in some specific energy range justifying the more elementary feature of NAQC. Further, we find that NSI can enhance the violation of NAQC and Bell's inequality parameter in the higher energy range of a given experimental set-up; these enhancements being maximal for the KamLAND experiment. However, the possible enhancement in the violation of the Bell's inequality parameter over the standard model prediction can be up to 11% whereas for NAQC it is 7%. Thus although NAQC is a comparatively stronger witness of nonclassicality, it shows lesser sensitivity to NSI effects in comparison to the Bell's inequality parameter.**Impact of Wave Packet Separation in Low-Energy Sterile Neutrino Searches**

2201.05108 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles, Toni Bertólez-Martínez, and Jordi Salvado.

Light sterile neutrinos have been motivated by anomalies observed in short-baseline neutrino experiments.Among them, radioactive-source and reactor experiments have provided evidence and constraints, respectively, for electron neutrino disappearance compatible with an eV-scale neutrino. The results from these observations are seemingly in conflict. This letter brings into focus the assumption that the neutrino wave packet can be approximated as a plane wave, which is adopted in all analyses of such experiments. We demonstrate that the damping of oscillations, e.g., due to a finite wave packet size, solve the tension between these electron-flavor observations and constraints.**Constraining Light Mediators via Detection of Coherent Elastic Solar Neutrino Nucleus Scattering**

2201.05015 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yu-Feng Li and Shuo-yu Xia.

Dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments are entering the multiple-ton era and will be sensitive to the coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) of solar neutrinos, enabling the possibility to explore contributions from new physics with light mediators at the low energy range. In this paper we consider light mediator models (scalar, vector and axial vector) and the corresponding contributions to the solar neutrino CE$\nu$NS process. Motivated by the current status of new generation of DM direct detection experiments and the future plan, we study the sensitivity of light mediators in DM direct detection experiments of different nuclear targets and detector techniques. The constraints from the latest $^8$B solar neutrino measurements of XENON-1T are also derived. Finally, We show that the solar neutrino CE$\nu$NS process can provide stringent limitation on the $ L_{\mu}-L_{\tau} $ model with the vector mediator mass below 100 MeV, covering the viable parameter space of the solution to the $ (g-2)_{\mu}$ anomaly.**Strong constraints on neutrino nonstandard interactions from TeV-scale $ν_μ$ disappearance at IceCube**

2201.03566 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 383 more]R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, J. Beise, C. Bellenghi, S. Benda, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, M. Boddenberg, F. Bontempo, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, B. Brinson, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, S. Browne, A. Burgman, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Mari{ş}, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, S. McCarthy, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguy{\~{ê}}n, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, M. Pittermann, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, J. Rack-Helleis, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, Z. Rechav, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, R. Reimann, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, N. Shimizu, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, J. Thwaites, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, J. Veitch-Michaelis, S. Verpoest, C. Walck, W. Wang, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, E. Yildizci, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

We report a search for nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI) using eight years of TeV-scale atmospheric muon neutrino data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. By reconstructing incident energies and zenith angles for atmospheric neutrino events, this analysis presents unified confidence intervals for the NSI parameter $\epsilon_{\mu \tau}$. The best-fit value is consistent with no NSI at a p-value of 25.2%. With a 90% confidence interval of $-0.0041 \leq \epsilon_{\mu \tau} \leq 0.0031$ along the real axis and similar strength in the complex plane, this result is the strongest constraint on any NSI parameter from any oscillation channel to date.**MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE Combined Fit to a 3+1 Sterile Neutrino Scenario**

2201.01724 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo, [and 38 more]B. C. Brown, J. M. Conrad, R. Dharmapalan, A. Diaz, Z. Djurcic, D. A. Finley, R. Ford, G. T. Garvey, S. Gollapinni, A. Hourlier, E. -C. Huang, N. W. Kamp, G. Karagiorgi, T. Katori, T. Kobilarcik, K. Lin, W. C. Louis, C. Mariani, W. Marsh, G. B. Mills, J. Mirabal-Martinez, C. D. Moore, R. H. Nelson, J. Nowak, Z. Pavlovic, H. Ray, B. P. Roe, A. D. Russell, A. Schneider, M. H. Shaevitz, J. Spitz, I. Stancu, R. Tayloe, R. T. Thornton, M. Tzanov, R. G. Van de Water, D. H. White, and E. D. Zimmerman [hide authors].

This letter presents the results from the MiniBooNE experiment within a full "3+1" scenario where one sterile neutrino is introduced to the three-active-neutrino picture. In addition to electron-neutrino appearance at short-baselines, this scenario also allows for disappearance of the muon-neutrino and electron-neutrino fluxes in the Booster Neutrino Beam, which is shared by the MicroBooNE experiment. We present the 3+1 fit to the MiniBooNE electron-(anti)neutrino and muon-(anti)neutrino data alone, and in combination with MicroBooNE electron-neutrino data. The best-fit parameters of the combined fit with the exclusive CCQE analysis (inclusive analysis) are $\Delta m^2 = 0.29 eV^2 (0.33 eV^2)$, $|U_{e4}|^2 = 0.016 (0.500)$, $|U_{\mu 4}|^2 = 0.500 (0.500)$, and $\sin^2(2\theta_{\mu e})=0.0316 (1.0)$. Comparing the no-oscillation scenario to the 3+1 model, the data prefer the 3+1 model with a $\Delta \chi^2/\text{dof} = 24.7 / 3 (17.3 / 3)$, a $4.3\sigma (3.4\sigma)$ preference assuming the asymptotic approximation given by Wilks' theorem.**Search for non-standard neutrino interactions with 10 years of ANTARES data**

2112.14517 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Albert, [and 147 more]S. Alves, M. André, M. Anghinolfi, G. Anton, M. Ardid, S. Ardid, J. -J. Aubert, J. Aublin, B. Baret, S. Basa, B. Belhorma, M. Bendahman, F. Benfenati, V. Bertin, S. Biagi, M. Bissinger, J. Boumaaza, M. Bouta, M. C. Bouwhuis, H. Brânzas, R. Bruijn, J. Brunner, J. Busto, B. Caiffi, D. Calvo, A. Capone, L. Caramete, J. Carr, V. Carretero, S. Celli, M. Chabab, T. N. Chau, R. Cherkaoui El Moursli, T. Chiarusi, M. Circella, A. Coleiro, R. Coniglione, P. Coyle, A. Creusot, A. F. Díaz, G. de Wasseige, C. Distefano, I. Di Palma, A. Domi, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, D. Drouhin, T. Eberl, T. van Eeden, D. van Eijk, N. El Khayati, A. Enzenhöfer, P. Fermani, G. Ferrara, F. Filippini, L. Fusco, Y. Gatelet, P. Gay, H. Glotin, R. Gozzini, R. Gracia Ruiz, K. Graf, C. Guidi, S. Hallmann, H. van Haren, A. J. Heijboer, Y. Hello, J. J. Hernández-Rey, J. Hößl, J. Hofestädt, F. Huang, G. Illuminati, C. W. James, B. Jisse-Jung, M. de Jong, P. de Jong, M. Kadler, O. Kalekin, U. Katz, N. R. Khan-Chowdhury, A. Kouchner, I. Kreykenbohm, V. Kulikovskiy, R. Lahmann, R. Le Breton, S. LeStum, D. Lefèvre, E. Leonora, G. Levi, M. Lincetto, D. Lopez-Coto, S. Loucatos, L. Maderer, J. Manczak, M. Marcelin, A. Margiotta, A. Marinelli, J. A. Martínez-Mora, B. Martino, K. Melis, P. Migliozzi, A. Moussa, R. Muller, L. Nauta, S. Navas, E. Nezri, B. Ó Fearraigh, A. Paun, G. E. Pavalas, C. Pellegrino, M. Perrin-Terrin, V. Pestel, P. Piattelli, C. Pieterse, C. Poirè, V. Popa, T. Pradier, N. Randazzo, D. Real, S. Reck, G. Riccobene, A. Romanov, A. Sánchez-Losa, F. Salesa Greus, D. F. E. Samtleben, M. Sanguineti, P. Sapienza, J. Schnabel, J. Schumann, F. Schüssler, J. Seneca, M. Spurio, Th. Stolarczyk, M. Taiuti, Y. Tayalati, T. Thakore, S. J. Tingay, B. Vallage, V. Van Elewyck, F. Versari, S. Viola, D. Vivolo, J. Wilms, S. Zavatarelli, A. Zegarelli, J. D. Zornoza, and J. Zúñiga [hide authors].

Non-standard interactions of neutrinos arising in many theories beyond the Standard Model can significantly alter matter effects in atmospheric neutrino propagation through the Earth. In this paper, a search for deviations from the prediction of the standard 3-flavour atmospheric neutrino oscillations using the data taken by the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. Ten years of atmospheric neutrino data collected from 2007 to 2016, with reconstructed energies in the range from $\sim$16 GeV to $100$ GeV, have been analysed. A log-likelihood ratio test of the dimensionless coefficients $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$ and $\varepsilon_{\tau\tau} - \varepsilon_{\mu\mu}$ does not provide clear evidence of deviations from standard interactions. For normal neutrino mass ordering, the combined fit of both coefficients yields a value 1.7$\sigma$ away from the null result. However, the 68% and 95% confidence level intervals for $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$ and $\varepsilon_{\tau\tau} - \varepsilon_{\mu\mu}$, respectively, contain the null value. Best fit values, one standard deviation errors and bounds at the 90% confidence level for these coefficients are given for both normal and inverted mass orderings. The constraint on $\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}$ is among the most stringent to date and it further restrains the strength of possible non-standard interactions in the $\mu - \tau$ sector.**Damping signatures at JUNO, a medium-baseline reactor neutrino oscillation experiment**

2112.14450 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by JUNO collaboration, [and 606 more]Jun Wang, Jiajun Liao, Wei Wang, Angel Abusleme, Thomas Adam, Shakeel Ahmad, Rizwan Ahmed, Sebastiano Aiello, Muhammad Akram, Fengpeng An, Qi An, Giuseppe Andronico, Nikolay Anfimov, Vito Antonelli, Tatiana Antoshkina, Burin Asavapibhop, João Pedro Athayde Marcondes de André, Didier Auguste, Andrej Babic, Nikita Balashov, Wander Baldini, Andrea Barresi, Davide Basilico, Eric Baussan, Marco Bellato, Antonio Bergnoli, Thilo Birkenfeld, Sylvie Blin, David Blum, Simon Blyth, Anastasia Bolshakova, Mathieu Bongrand, Clément Bordereau, Dominique Breton, Augusto Brigatti, Riccardo Brugnera, Riccardo Bruno, Antonio Budano, Mario Buscemi, Jose Busto, Ilya Butorov, Anatael Cabrera, Hao Cai, Xiao Cai, Yanke Cai, Zhiyan Cai, Riccardo Callegari, Antonio Cammi, Agustin Campeny, Chuanya Cao, Guofu Cao, Jun Cao, Rossella Caruso, Cédric Cerna, Jinfan Chang, Yun Chang, Pingping Chen, Po-An Chen, Shaomin Chen, Xurong Chen, Yi-Wen Chen, Yixue Chen, Yu Chen, Zhang Chen, Jie Cheng, Yaping Cheng, Alexey Chetverikov, Davide Chiesa, Pietro Chimenti, Artem Chukanov, Gérard Claverie, Catia Clementi, Barbara Clerbaux, Selma Conforti Di Lorenzo, Daniele Corti, Flavio Dal Corso, Olivia Dalager, Christophe De La Taille, Jiawei Deng, Zhi Deng, Ziyan Deng, Wilfried Depnering, Marco Diaz, Xuefeng Ding, Yayun Ding, Bayu Dirgantara, Sergey Dmitrievsky, Tadeas Dohnal, Dmitry Dolzhikov, Georgy Donchenko, Jianmeng Dong, Evgeny Doroshkevich, Marcos Dracos, Frédéric Druillole, Ran Du, Shuxian Du, Stefano Dusini, Martin Dvorak, Timo Enqvist, Heike Enzmann, Andrea Fabbri, Lukas Fajt, Donghua Fan, Lei Fan, Jian Fang, Wenxing Fang, Marco Fargetta, Dmitry Fedoseev, Vladko Fekete, Li-Cheng Feng, Qichun Feng, Richard Ford, Amélie Fournier, Haonan Gan, Feng Gao, Alberto Garfagnini, Arsenii Gavrikov, Marco Giammarchi, Agnese Giaz, Nunzio Giudice, Maxim Gonchar, Guanghua Gong, Hui Gong, Yuri Gornushkin, Alexandre Göttel, Marco Grassi, Christian Grewing, Vasily Gromov, Minghao Gu, Xiaofei Gu, Yu Gu, Mengyun Guan, Nunzio Guardone, Maria Gul, Cong Guo, Jingyuan Guo, Wanlei Guo, Xinheng Guo, Yuhang Guo, Paul Hackspacher, Caren Hagner, Ran Han, Yang Han, Muhammad Sohaib Hassan, Miao He, Wei He, Tobias Heinz, Patrick Hellmuth, Yuekun Heng, Rafael Herrera, YuenKeung Hor, Shaojing Hou, Yee Hsiung, Bei-Zhen Hu, Hang Hu, Jianrun Hu, Jun Hu, Shouyang Hu, Tao Hu, Zhuojun Hu, Chunhao Huang, Guihong Huang, Hanxiong Huang, Wenhao Huang, Xin Huang, Xingtao Huang, Yongbo Huang, Jiaqi Hui, Lei Huo, Wenju Huo, Cédric Huss, Safeer Hussain, Ara Ioannisian, Roberto Isocrate, Beatrice Jelmini, Kuo-Lun Jen, Ignacio Jeria, Xiaolu Ji, Xingzhao Ji, Huihui Jia, Junji Jia, Siyu Jian, Di Jiang, Wei Jiang, Xiaoshan Jiang, Ruyi Jin, Xiaoping Jing, Cécile Jollet, Jari Joutsenvaara, Sirichok Jungthawan, Leonidas Kalousis, Philipp Kampmann, Li Kang, Rebin Karaparambil, Narine Kazarian, Khanchai Khosonthongkee, Denis Korablev, Konstantin Kouzakov, Alexey Krasnoperov, Andre Kruth, Nikolay Kutovskiy, Pasi Kuusiniemi, Tobias Lachenmaier, Cecilia Landini, Sébastien Leblanc, Victor Lebrin, Frederic Lefevre, Ruiting Lei, Rupert Leitner, Jason Leung, Demin Li, Fei Li, Fule Li, Haitao Li, Huiling Li, Jiaqi Li, Mengzhao Li, Min Li, Nan Li, Nan Li, Qingjiang Li, Ruhui Li, Shanfeng Li, Tao Li, Weidong Li, Weiguo Li, Xiaomei Li, Xiaonan Li, Xinglong Li, Yi Li, Yufeng Li, Zhaohan Li, Zhibing Li, Ziyuan Li, Hao Liang, Hao Liang, Daniel Liebau, Ayut Limphirat, Sukit Limpijumnong, Guey-Lin Lin, Shengxin Lin, Tao Lin, Jiajie Ling, Ivano Lippi, Fang Liu, Haidong Liu, Hongbang Liu, Hongjuan Liu, Hongtao Liu, Hui Liu, Jianglai Liu, Jinchang Liu, Min Liu, Qian Liu, Qin Liu, Runxuan Liu, Shuangyu Liu, Shubin Liu, Shulin Liu, Xiaowei Liu, Xiwen Liu, Yan Liu, Yunzhe Liu, Alexey Lokhov, Paolo Lombardi, Claudio Lombardo, Kai Loo, Chuan Lu, Haoqi Lu, Jingbin Lu, Junguang Lu, Shuxiang Lu, Xiaoxu Lu, Bayarto Lubsandorzhiev, Sultim Lubsandorzhiev, Livia Ludhova, Arslan Lukanov, Fengjiao Luo, Guang Luo, Pengwei Luo, Shu Luo, Wuming Luo, Vladimir Lyashuk, Bangzheng Ma, Qiumei Ma, Si Ma, Xiaoyan Ma, Xubo Ma, Jihane Maalmi, Yury Malyshkin, Roberto Carlos Mandujano, Fabio Mantovani, Francesco Manzali, Xin Mao, Yajun Mao, Stefano M. Mari, Filippo Marini, Sadia Marium, Cristina Martellini, Gisele Martin-Chassard, Agnese Martini, Matthias Mayer, Davit Mayilyan, Ints Mednieks, Yue Meng, Anselmo Meregaglia, Emanuela Meroni, David Meyhöfer, Mauro Mezzetto, Jonathan Miller, Lino Miramonti, Paolo Montini, Michele Montuschi, Axel Müller, Massimiliano Nastasi, Dmitry V. Naumov, Elena Naumova, Diana Navas-Nicolas, Igor Nemchenok, Minh Thuan Nguyen Thi, Feipeng Ning, Zhe Ning, Hiroshi Nunokawa, Lothar Oberauer, Juan Pedro Ochoa-Ricoux, Alexander Olshevskiy, Domizia Orestano, Fausto Ortica, Rainer Othegraven, Hsiao-Ru Pan, Alessandro Paoloni, Sergio Parmeggiano, Yatian Pei, Nicomede Pelliccia, Anguo Peng, Haiping Peng, Frédéric Perrot, Pierre-Alexandre Petitjean, Fabrizio Petrucci, Oliver Pilarczyk, Luis Felipe Piñeres Rico, Artyom Popov, Pascal Poussot, Wathan Pratumwan, Ezio Previtali, Fazhi Qi, Ming Qi, Sen Qian, Xiaohui Qian, Zhen Qian, Hao Qiao, Zhonghua Qin, Shoukang Qiu, Muhammad Usman Rajput, Gioacchino Ranucci, Neill Raper, Alessandra Re, Henning Rebber, Abdel Rebii, Bin Ren, Jie Ren, Barbara Ricci, Markus Robens, Mathieu Roche, Narongkiat Rodphai, Aldo Romani, Bedřich Roskovec, Christian Roth, Xiangdong Ruan, Xichao Ruan, Saroj Rujirawat, Arseniy Rybnikov, Andrey Sadovsky, Paolo Saggese, Simone Sanfilippo, Anut Sangka, Nuanwan Sanguansak, Utane Sawangwit, Julia Sawatzki, Fatma Sawy, Michaela Schever, Cédric Schwab, Konstantin Schweizer, Alexandr Selyunin, Andrea Serafini, Giulio Settanta, Mariangela Settimo, Zhuang Shao, Vladislav Sharov, Arina Shaydurova, Jingyan Shi, Yanan Shi, Vitaly Shutov, Andrey Sidorenkov, Fedor Šimkovic, Chiara Sirignano, Jaruchit Siripak, Monica Sisti, Maciej Slupecki, Mikhail Smirnov, Oleg Smirnov, Thiago Sogo-Bezerra, Sergey Sokolov, Julanan Songwadhana, Boonrucksar Soonthornthum, Albert Sotnikov, Ondřej Šrámek, Warintorn Sreethawong, Achim Stahl, Luca Stanco, Konstantin Stankevich, Dušan Štefánik, Hans Steiger, Jochen Steinmann, Tobias Sterr, Matthias Raphael Stock, Virginia Strati, Alexander Studenikin, Shifeng Sun, Xilei Sun, Yongjie Sun, Yongzhao Sun, Narumon Suwonjandee, Michal Szelezniak, Jian Tang, Qiang Tang, Quan Tang, Xiao Tang, Alexander Tietzsch, Igor Tkachev, Tomas Tmej, Marco Danilo Claudio Torri, Konstantin Treskov, Andrea Triossi, Giancarlo Troni, Wladyslaw Trzaska, Cristina Tuve, Nikita Ushakov, Johannes van den Boom, Stefan van Waasen, Guillaume Vanroyen, Vadim Vedin, Giuseppe Verde, Maxim Vialkov, Benoit Viaud, Cornelius Moritz Vollbrecht, Cristina Volpe, Vit Vorobel, Dmitriy Voronin, Lucia Votano, Pablo Walker, Caishen Wang, Chung-Hsiang Wang, En Wang, Guoli Wang, Jian Wang, Kunyu Wang, Lu Wang, Meifen Wang, Meng Wang, Meng Wang, Ruiguang Wang, Siguang Wang, Wei Wang, Wenshuai Wang, Xi Wang, Xiangyue Wang, Yangfu Wang, Yaoguang Wang, Yi Wang, Yi Wang, Yifang Wang, Yuanqing Wang, Yuman Wang, Zhe Wang, Zheng Wang, Zhimin Wang, Zongyi Wang, Muhammad Waqas, Apimook Watcharangkool, Lianghong Wei, Wei Wei, Wenlu Wei, Yadong Wei, Kaile Wen, Liangjian Wen, Christopher Wiebusch, Steven Chan-Fai Wong, Bjoern Wonsak, Diru Wu, Qun Wu, Zhi Wu, Michael Wurm, Jacques Wurtz, Christian Wysotzki, Yufei Xi, Dongmei Xia, Xiaochuan Xie, Yuguang Xie, Zhangquan Xie, Zhizhong Xing, Benda Xu, Cheng Xu, Donglian Xu, Fanrong Xu, Hangkun Xu, Jilei Xu, Jing Xu, Meihang Xu, Yin Xu, Yu Xu, Baojun Yan, Taylor Yan, Wenqi Yan, Xiongbo Yan, Yupeng Yan, Anbo Yang, Changgen Yang, Chengfeng Yang, Huan Yang, Jie Yang, Lei Yang, Xiaoyu Yang, Yifan Yang, Yifan Yang, Haifeng Yao, Zafar Yasin, Jiaxuan Ye, Mei Ye, Ziping Ye, Ugur Yegin, Frédéric Yermia, Peihuai Yi, Na Yin, Xiangwei Yin, Zhengyun You, Boxiang Yu, Chiye Yu, Chunxu Yu, Hongzhao Yu, Miao Yu, Xianghui Yu, Zeyuan Yu, Zezhong Yu, Chengzhuo Yuan, Ying Yuan, Zhenxiong Yuan, Ziyi Yuan, Baobiao Yue, Noman Zafar, Andre Zambanini, Vitalii Zavadskyi, Shan Zeng, Tingxuan Zeng, Yuda Zeng, Liang Zhan, Aiqiang Zhang, Feiyang Zhang, Guoqing Zhang, Haiqiong Zhang, Honghao Zhang, Jiawen Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jin Zhang, Jingbo Zhang, Jinnan Zhang, Peng Zhang, Qingmin Zhang, Shiqi Zhang, Shu Zhang, Tao Zhang, Xiaomei Zhang, Xuantong Zhang, Xueyao Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yinhong Zhang, Yiyu Zhang, Yongpeng Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yumei Zhang, Zhenyu Zhang, Zhijian Zhang, Fengyi Zhao, Jie Zhao, Rong Zhao, Shujun Zhao, Tianchi Zhao, Dongqin Zheng, Hua Zheng, Minshan Zheng, Yangheng Zheng, Weirong Zhong, Jing Zhou, Li Zhou, Nan Zhou, Shun Zhou, Tong Zhou, Xiang Zhou, Jiang Zhu, Kangfu Zhu, Kejun Zhu, Zhihang Zhu, Bo Zhuang, Honglin Zhuang, Liang Zong, and Jiaheng Zou [hide authors].

We study damping signatures at the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a medium-baseline reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. These damping signatures are motivated by various new physics models, including quantum decoherence, $\nu_3$ decay, neutrino absorption, and wave packet decoherence. The phenomenological effects of these models can be characterized by exponential damping factors at the probability level. We assess how well JUNO can constrain these damping parameters and how to disentangle these different damping signatures at JUNO. Compared to current experimental limits, JUNO can significantly improve the limits on $\tau_3/m_3$ in the $\nu_3$ decay model, the width of the neutrino wave packet $\sigma_x$, and the intrinsic relative dispersion of neutrino momentum $\sigma_{\rm rel}$.**Neutrino oscillations in Earth for probing dark matter inside the core**

2112.14201 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anuj Kumar Upadhyay, [and 3 more]Anil Kumar, Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, and Amol Dighe [hide authors].

Atmospheric neutrinos offer the possibility of probing dark matter inside the core of the Earth in a unique way, through Earth matter effects in neutrino oscillations. For example, if dark matter constitutes 40% of the mass inside the core, a detector like ICAL at INO with muon charge identification capability can be sensitive to it at around 2$\sigma$ confidence level with 1000 kt$\cdot$yr exposure. We demonstrate that while the dark matter profile will be hard to identify, the baryonic matter profile inside the core can be probed in a manner complementary to the seismic measurements.**Improved cosmological constraints on the neutrino mass and lifetime**

2112.13862 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guillermo F. Abellán, [and 5 more]Zackaria Chacko, Abhish Dev, Peizhi Du, Vivian Poulin, and Yuhsin Tsai [hide authors].

We present cosmological constraints on the sum of neutrino masses as a function of the neutrino lifetime, in a framework in which neutrinos decay into dark radiation after becoming non-relativistic. We find that in this regime the cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and (uncalibrated) luminosity distance to supernovae from the Pantheon catalog constrain the sum of neutrino masses $\sum m_\nu$ to obey $\sum m_\nu< 0.42$ eV at (95$\%$ C.L.). While the the bound has improved significantly as compared to the limits on the same scenario from Planck 2015, it still represents a significant relaxation of the constraints as compared to the stable neutrino case. We show that most of the improvement can be traced to the more precise measurements of low-$\ell$ polarization data in Planck 2018, which leads to tighter constraints on $\tau_{\rm reio}$ (and thereby on $A_s$), breaking the degeneracy arising from the effect of (large) neutrino masses on the amplitude of the CMB power spectrum.**Neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments: From measurements to parameter space**

2112.12817 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Aristizabal Sierra, [and 3 more]O. G. Miranda, D. K. Papoulias, and G. Sanchez Garcia [hide authors].

Searches for neutrino magnetic moments/transitions in low energy neutrino scattering experiments are sensitive to effective couplings which are an intricate function of the Hamiltonian parameters. We study the parameter space dependence of these couplings in the Majorana (transitions) and Dirac (moments) cases, as well as the impact of the current most stringent experimental upper limits on the fundamental parameters. In the Majorana case we find that for reactor, short-baseline and solar neutrinos, CP violation can be understood as a measurement of parameter space vectors misalignments. The presence of nonvanishing CP phases opens a blind spot region where -- regardless of how large the parameters are -- no signal can be observed in either reactor or short-baseline experiments. Identification of these regions requires a combination of different data sets and allows for the determination of those CP phases. We point out that stringent bounds not necessarily imply suppressed Hamiltonian couplings, thus allowing for regions where disparate upper limits can be simultaneously satisfied. In contrast, in the Dirac case stringent experimental upper limits necessarily translate into tight bounds on the fundamental couplings. In terms of parameter space vectors, we provide a straightforward mapping of experimental information into parameter space.**Depletion of atmospheric neutrino fluxes from parton energy loss**

2112.10791 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by François Arleo, Greg Jackson, and Stéphane Peigné.

The phenomenon of fully coherent energy loss (FCEL) in the collisions of protons on light ions affects the physics of cosmic ray air showers. As an illustration, we address two closely related observables: hadron production in forthcoming proton-oxygen collisions at the LHC, and the atmospheric neutrino fluxes induced by the semileptonic decays of hadrons produced in proton-air collisions. In both cases, a significant nuclear suppression due to FCEL is predicted. The conventional and prompt neutrino fluxes are suppressed by $\sim 10...25\%$ in their relevant neutrino energy ranges. Previous estimates of atmospheric neutrino fluxes should be scaled down accordingly to account for FCEL.**The Return of the Templates: Revisiting the Galactic Center Excess with Multi-Messenger Observations**

2112.09706 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ilias Cholis, [and 3 more]Yi-Ming Zhong, Samuel D. McDermott, and Joseph P. Surdutovich [hide authors].

The Galactic center excess (GCE) remains one of the most intriguing discoveries from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. We revisit the characteristics of the GCE by first producing a new set of high-resolution galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission templates, which are ultimately due to cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium. Using multi-messenger observations we constrain the properties of the galactic diffuse emission. The broad properties of the GCE that we find in this work are qualitatively unchanged despite the introduction of this new set of templates, though its quantitative features appear mildly different than those obtained in previous analyses. In particular, we find a high-energy tail at higher significance than previously reported. This tail is very prominent in the northern hemisphere, and less so in the southern hemisphere. This strongly affects one prominent interpretation of the excess: known millisecond pulsars are incapable of producing this high-energy emission, even in the relatively softer southern hemisphere, and are therefore disfavored as the sole explanation of the GCE. The annihilation of dark matter particles of mass $40^{+10}_{-7}$ GeV (95$\%$ CL) to $b$ quarks with a cross-section of $\sigma v = 1.4^{+0.6}_{-0.3} \times 10^{-26}$ cm$^{3}$s$^{-1}$ provides a good fit to the excess especially in the relatively cleaner southern sky. Dark matter of the same mass range annihilating to $b$ quarks or heavier dark matter particles annihilating to heavier Standard Model bosons can combine with millisecond pulsars to provide a good fit to the southern hemisphere emission. As part of this paper, we make publicly available all of our templates and the data covariance matrix we have generated to account for systematic uncertainties.[abridged]**Probing New Physics at Future Tau Neutrino Telescopes**

2112.09476 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guo-yuan Huang, [and 3 more]Sudip Jana, Manfred Lindner, and Werner Rodejohann [hide authors].

We systematically investigate new physics scenarios that can modify the interactions between neutrinos and matter at upcoming tau neutrino telescopes, which will test neutrino-proton collisions with energies $ \gtrsim 45~{\rm TeV}$, and can provide unique insights to the elusive tau neutrino. At such high energy scales, the impact of parton distribution functions of second and third generations of quarks (usually suppressed) can be comparable to the contribution of first generation with small momentum fraction, hence making tau neutrino telescopes an excellent facility to probe new physics associated with second and third families. Among an inclusive set of particle physics models, we identify new physics scenarios at tree level that can give competitive contributions to the neutrino cross sections while staying within laboratory constraints: charged/neutral Higgs and leptoquarks. Our analysis is close to the actual experimental configurations of the telescopes, and we perform a $\chi^2$-analysis on the energy and angular distributions of the tau events. By numerically solving the propagation equations of neutrino and tau fluxes in matter, we obtain the sensitivities of representative upcoming tau neutrino telescopes, GRAND, POEMMA and Trinity, to the charged Higgs and leptoquark models. While each of the experiments can achieve a sensitivity better than the current collider reaches for certain models, their combination is remarkably complementary in probing the new physics. In particular, the new physics will affect the energy and angular distributions in different ways at those telescopes.**Towards Probing the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background in All Flavors**

2112.09168 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anna M. Suliga, John F. Beacom, and Irene Tamborra.

Fully understanding the average core-collapse supernova requires detecting the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) in all flavors. While the DSNB $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux is near detection, and the DSNB $\nu_e$ flux has a good upper limit and prospects for improvement, the DSNB $\nu_x$ (each of $\nu_\mu, \nu_\tau, \bar{\nu}_\mu, \bar{\nu}_\tau$) flux has a poor limit and heretofore had no clear path for improved sensitivity. We show that a succession of xenon-based dark matter detectors -- XENON1T (completed), XENONnT/LUX-ZEPLIN (running), and DARWIN (proposed) -- can dramatically improve sensitivity to DSNB $\nu_x$ the neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering channel. XENON1T could match the present sensitivity of $\sim 10^3 \; \mathrm{cm}^{-2}~\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ per $\nu_x$ flavor, XENONnT/LUX-ZEPLIN would have linear improvement of sensitivity with exposure, and a long run of DARWIN could reach a flux sensitivity of $\sim 10 \; \mathrm{cm}^{-2}~\mathrm{s}^{-1}$. Together, these would also contribute to greatly improve bounds on non-standard scenarios. Ultimately, to reach the standard flux range of $\sim 1 \; \mathrm{cm}^{-2}~\mathrm{s}^{-1}$, even larger exposures will be needed, which we show may be possible with the series of proposed lead-based RES-NOVA detectors.**On T violation in non-standard neutrino oscillation scenarios**

2112.08801 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Schwetz and Alejandro Segarra.

We discuss time reversal (T) violation in neutrino oscillations in generic new physics scenarios. A general parameterization is adopted to describe flavour evolution, which captures a wide range of new physics effects, including non-standard neutrino interactions, non-unitarity, and sterile neutrinos in a model-independent way. In this framework, we discuss general properties of time reversal in the context of long-baseline neutrino experiments. Special attention is given to fundamental versus environmental T violation in the presence of generic new physics. We point out that T violation in the disappearance channel requires new physics which modifies flavour mixing at neutrino production and detection. We use time-dependent perturbation theory to study the effect of non-constant matter density along the neutrino path, and quantify the effects for the well studied baselines of the DUNE, T2HK, and T2HKK projects. The material presented here provides the phenomenological background for the model-independent test of T violation proposed by us in Ref. [1].**Excess of Tau events at SND@LHC, FASER$ν$ and FASER$ν$2**

2112.08799 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Saeed Ansarifard and Yasaman Farzan.

During the run III of the LHC, the forward experiments FASER$\nu$ and SND@LHC will be able to detect the Charged Current (CC) interactions of the high energy neutrinos of all three flavors produced at the ATLAS Interaction Point (IP). This opportunity may unravel mysteries of the third generation leptons. We build three models that can lead to a tau excess at these detectors through the following Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) beyond Standard Model (SM) processes: (1) $\pi^+ \to \mu^+ \nu_\tau$; (2) $\pi^+ \to \mu^+ \bar{\nu}_\tau$ and (3) $\nu_e+{\rm nucleus}\to \tau +X$. We comment on the possibility of solving the $(g-2)_\mu$ anomaly and the $\tau$ decay anomalies within these models. We study the potential of the forward experiments to discover the $\tau$ excess or to constrain these models in case of no excess. We then compare the reach of the forward experiments with that of the previous as well as next generation experiments such as DUNE. We also discuss how the upgrade of FASER$\nu$ can distinguish between these models by studying the energy spectrum of the tau.**Tau Appearance from High-Energy Neutrino Interactions**

2112.06937 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alfonso Garcia Soto, [and 3 more]Pavel Zhelnin, Ibrahim Safa, and Carlos A. Argüelles [hide authors].

High-energy muon- and electron-neutrinos yield a non-negligible flux of tau neutrinos as they propagate through Earth. In this letter, we address the impact of this additional component in the PeV and EeV energy regimes for the first time. This contribution is predicted to be significantly larger than the atmospheric background above 300 TeV, and alters current and future neutrino telescopes' capabilities to discover a cosmic tau-neutrino flux. Further we demonstrate that Earthskimming neutrino experiments, designed to observe tau neutrinos, will be sensitive to cosmogenic neutrinos even in extreme scenarios without a primary tau-neutrino component.**Toward diagnosing neutrino non-unitarity through CP phase correlations**

2112.06178 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

We discuss correlations between the $\nu$SM CP phase $\delta$ and the phases that originate from new physics which causes neutrino-sector unitarity violation (UV) at low energies. This study is motivated to provide one of the building pieces for a machinery to diagnose non-unitarity, our ultimate goal. We extend the perturbation theory of neutrino oscillation in matter proposed by Denton {\it et al.}~(DMP) to include the UV effect expressed by the $\alpha$ parametrization. By analyzing the DMP-UV perturbation theory to first order, we are able to draw a completed picture of the $\delta$ - UV phase correlations in the whole kinematical region covered by the terrestrial neutrino experiments. There exist the two regions with the characteristically different patterns of the correlations: (1) the chiral-type $[e^{- i \delta } \alpha_{\mu e}, ~e^{ - i \delta} \alpha_{\tau e}, ~\alpha_{\tau \mu}]$ (PDG convention) correlation in the entire high-energy region $\vert \rho E \vert \gsim 6~(\text{g/cm}^3)$ GeV, and (2) (blobs of the $\alpha$ parameters) - $e^{ \pm i \delta}$ correlation in anywhere else. Some relevant aspects for measurement of the UV parameters, such as the necessity of determining all the $\alpha_{\beta \gamma}$ elements at once, are also pointed out.**Neutrino Transition in Dark Matter**

2112.05057 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eung Jin Chun.

An ultralight dark matter may have interesting implications in neutrino physics which have been studied actively in recent years. It is pointed out that there appears yet unexplored medium effect in neutrino transitions which occurs at the first order in perturbation of the neutrino-medium interaction. We derive the general formula for the neutrino transition probability in a medium which describes the standard neutrino oscillation as well as the new medium contribution. It turns out that such an effect constrains the model parameter space more than ever.**Neutrino Mass Bounds in the era of Tension Cosmology**

2112.02993 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eleonora Di Valentino and Alessandro Melchiorri.

The measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies made by the Planck satellite provide extremely tight upper bounds on the total neutrino mass scale ($\Sigma m_{\nu}<0.26 eV$ at $95\%$ C.L.). However, as recently discussed in the literature, Planck data show anomalies that could affect this result. Here we provide new constraints on neutrino masses using the recent and complementary CMB measurements from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope DR4 and the South Polar Telescope SPT-3G experiments. We found that both the ACT-DR4 and SPT-3G data, when combined with WMAP, mildly suggest a neutrino mass with $\Sigma m_{\nu}=0.68 \pm 0.31$ eV and $\Sigma m_{\nu}=0.46_{-0.36}^{+0.14}$ eV at $68 \%$ C.L, respectively. Moreover, when CMB lensing from the Planck experiment is included, the ACT-DR4 data now indicates a neutrino mass above the two standard deviations, with $\Sigma m_{\nu}=0.60_{-0.50}^{+0.44}$ eV at $95 \%$, while WMAP+SPT-3G provides a weak upper limit of $\Sigma m_{\nu}<0.37$ eV at $68 \%$ C.L.. Interestingly, these results are consistent with the Planck CMB+Lensing constraint of $\Sigma m_{\nu} = 0.41_{-0.25}^{+0.17}$ eV at $68 \%$ C.L. when variation in the $A_{\rm lens}$ parameter are considered. We also show that these indications are still present after the inclusion of BAO or SN-Ia data in extended cosmologies that are usually considered to solve the so-called Hubble tension. A combination of ACT-DR4, WMAP, BAO and constraints on the Hubble constant from the SH0ES collaboration gives $\Sigma m_{\nu}=0.39^{+0.13}_{-0.25}$ eV at $68 \%$ C.L. in extended cosmologies. We conclude that a total neutrino mass above the $0.26$ eV limit still provides an excellent fit to several cosmological data and that future data must be considered before safely ruling it out.**Time- and Space-Varying Neutrino Mass Matrix from Soft Topological Defects**

2112.02107 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gia Dvali, Lena Funcke, and Tanmay Vachaspati.

We study the formation and evolution of topological defects that arise in the post-recombination phase transition predicted by the gravitational neutrino mass model in [Dvali, Funcke, Phys. Rev. D 93, 113002 (2016)]. In the transition, global skyrmions, monopoles, strings, and domain walls form due to the spontaneous breaking of the neutrino flavor symmetry. These defects are unique in their softness and origin; as they appear at a very low energy scale, they only require Standard Model particle content, and they differ fundamentally depending on the Majorana or Dirac nature of the neutrinos. One of the observational signatures is the time dependence and space dependence of the neutrino mass matrix, which could be observable in future neutrino experiments. Already existing data rule out parts of the parameter space in the Majorana case. The detection of this effect could shed light onto the open question of the Dirac versus Majorana neutrino nature.**Short-baseline oscillation scenarios at JUNO and TAO**

2112.00379 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by V. S. Basto-Gonzalez, [and 4 more]D. V. Forero, C. Giunti, A. A. Quiroga, and C. A. Ternes [hide authors].

We study the sensitivity of JUNO and TAO to the oscillations induced by two well-motivated scenarios beyond the standard model: Large Extra Dimensions (LED) and light sterile neutrinos in the context of 3+1 neutrino mixing. We find that JUNO+TAO can set competitive bounds on the parameter space of each scenario. In particular, we find that JUNO+TAO can be competitive with MINOS, DUNE or KATRIN in the context of LED. If LED are present in nature, we show that the parameters could be measured with a similar precision as the standard oscillation parameters. We also show that JUNO+TAO can test nearly all of the parameter space preferred by Gallium experiments in the context of 3+1 mixing. Finally, we discuss the possibility to distinguish the two scenarios from each other.**Leptogenesis and eV scale sterile neutrino**

2111.14719 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Srubabati Goswami, [and 3 more]Vishnudath K. N., Ananya Mukherjee, and Nimmala Narendra [hide authors].

We consider the minimal extended seesaw model which can accommodate an eV scale sterile neutrino. The scenario also includes three heavy right handed neutrinos in addition to the light sterile neutrino. In this model, the active-sterile mixing act as non-unitary parameters. If the values of these mixing angles are of $\mathcal{O}(0.1)$, the model introduces deviation of the PMNS matrix from unitarity to this order. We find that the oscillation data from various experiments imposes an upper bound on the lightest heavy neutrino mass scale as $\sim 10^{11}$ GeV in the context of this model. We study {\it vanilla} leptogenesis in this scheme, where the decay of the heavy right handed neutrinos in the early universe can give rise to the observed baryon asymmetry. Here, even though the eV scale sterile neutrino does not participate directly in leptogenesis, its effect is manifested through the non-unitary effects. We find that the parameter space that can give rise to successful leptogenesis is constrained by the bounds on the active-sterile mixing as obtained from the global analysis.**The UHECR dipole and quadrupole in the latest data from the original Auger and TA surface detectors**

2111.14593 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter Tinyakov, [and 15 more]Luis Anchordoqui, Teresa Bister, Jonathan Biteau, Lorenzo Caccianiga, Rogério de Almeida, Olivier Deligny, Armando di Matteo, Ugo Giaccari, Diego Harari, Jihyun Kim, Mikhail Kuznetsov, Ioana Mariş, Grigory Rubtsov, Sergey Troitsky, and Federico Urban [hide authors].

The sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are still unknown, but assuming standard physics, they are expected to lie within a few hundred megaparsecs from us. Indeed, over cosmological distances cosmic rays lose energy to interactions with background photons, at a rate depending on their mass number and energy and properties of photonuclear interactions and photon backgrounds. The universe is not homogeneous at such scales, hence the distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays is expected to reflect the inhomogeneities in the distribution of galaxies; the shorter the energy loss lengths, the stronger the expected anisotropies. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields can blur and distort the picture, but the magnitudes of the largest-scale anisotropies, namely the dipole and quadrupole moments, are the most robust to their effects. Measuring them with no bias regardless of any higher-order multipoles is not possible except with full-sky coverage. In this work, we achieve this in three energy ranges (approximately 8--16 EeV, 16--32 EeV, and 32--$\infty$ EeV) by combining surface-detector data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory until 2020 and at the Telescope Array (TA) until 2019, before the completion of the upgrades of the arrays with new scintillator detectors. We find that the full-sky coverage achieved by combining Auger and TA data reduces the uncertainties on the north-south components of the dipole and quadrupole in half compared to Auger-only results.**Non-minimal Lorentz invariance violation in light of muon anomalous magnetic moment and long-baseline neutrino oscillation data**

2111.14336 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hai-Xing Lin, [and 3 more]Pedro Pasquini, Jian Tang, and Sampsa Vihonen [hide authors].

In light of the increasing hints of new physics at the muon $g-2$ and neutrino oscillation experiments, we consider the recently observed tension in the long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments as a potential indication of Lorentz invariance violation. For this purpose, the latest data from T2K and NO$\nu$A is analysed in presence of non-minimal Lorentz invariance violation. Indeed, we find that isotropic violation in dimensions $D =$ 4, 5 and 6 can alleviate the tension in neutrino oscillation data by 0.4$-$2.4$\sigma$ CL significance, with the isotropic coefficient $\gamma^{(5)}_{\tau \tau} =$ 3.58$\times$10$^{-32}$GeV$^{-1}$ yielding the best fit. At the same time, the anomalous muon $g-2$ result can be reproduced with an additional non-isotropic violation of $d^{zt} =$ -1.7$\times$10$^{-25}$. The analysis highlights the possibility of simultaneous relaxation of experimental tensions with Lorentz invariance violation of mixed nature.**Neutrino propagation when mass eigenstates and decay eigenstates mismatch**

2111.13128 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Dibya S. Chattopadhyay, [and 4 more]Kaustav Chakraborty, Amol Dighe, Srubabati Goswami, and S. M. Lakshmi [hide authors].

We point out that the Hermitian and anti-Hermitian components of the effective Hamiltonian for decaying neutrinos cannot be simultaneously diagonalized by unitary transformations for all matter densities. We develop a formalism for the two-flavor neutrino propagation through matter of uniform density, for neutrino decay to invisible states. Employing a resummation of the Zassenhaus expansion, we obtain compact analytic expressions for neutrino survival and conversion probabilities, to first and second order in the "mismatch parameter" $\bar{\gamma}$.**T-violating effect in $ν_τ (\barν_τ)-$nucleon quasielastic scattering**

2111.13021 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Fatima, M. Sajjad Athar, and S. K. Singh.

The production cross sections and polarization observables of the $\tau$ leptons produced in the $|\Delta S| = 0$ and $1$ induced $\nu_{\tau}(\bar{\nu}_{\tau})-N$ quasielastic scattering have been studied. The effect of T violation, in the case of $\Delta S=0$ and 1 processes, and the SU(3) symmetry breaking effects, in the case of $\Delta S=1$ processes, on the total scattering cross sections as well polarization observables are explored. Experimentally, it would be possible to observe these effects in the forthcoming (anti)neutrino experiments like DUNE, SHiP and DsTau.**Exploring the effects of Scalar Non Standard Interactions on the CP violation sensitivity at DUNE**

2111.12943 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Abinash Medhi, Debajyoti Dutta, and Moon Moon Devi.

The Neutrino oscillations have provided an excellent opportunity to study new-physics beyond the Standard Model, popularly known as BSM. The unknown couplings involving neutrinos, termed non-standard interactions (NSI), may appear as `new-physics' in different neutrino experiments. The neutrino NSI offers significant effects on neutrino oscillations and CP-sensitivity, which may be probed in various neutrino experiments. The idea of neutrinos coupling with a scalar has evolved recently and looks promising. The effects of scalar NSI may appear as a perturbation to the neutrino mass matrix in the neutrino Hamiltonian. It modifies the neutrino mass matrix and may provide a direct possibility of probing neutrino mass models. As the scalar NSI affects the neutrino mass matrix in the Hamiltonian, its effect is energy independent. Moreover, the matter effects due to scalar NSI scales linearly with the matter density. In this work, we have performed a model-independent study of the effects of scalar NSI at long baseline neutrino experiments, taking DUNE as a case study. We have performed such a thorough study for DUNE for the first time. Various neutrino parameters may get affected due to the inclusion of scalar NSI as it modifies the effective mass matrix of neutrinos. We have explored the impact of scalar NSI in neutrino oscillations and its impact on the measurements of various mixing parameters. We have probed the effects of scalar NSI on different oscillation channels relevant to the experiment. We have also explored the impact of various possible elements in the scalar NSI term on the CP-violation sensitivity at DUNE.**What can CMB observations tell us about the neutrino distribution function?**

2111.12726 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by James Alvey, Miguel Escudero, and Nashwan Sabti.

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations have been used extensively to constrain key properties of neutrinos, such as their mass. However, these inferences are typically dependent on assumptions about the cosmological model, and in particular upon the distribution function of neutrinos in the early Universe. In this paper, we aim to assess the full extent to which CMB experiments are sensitive to the shape of the neutrino distribution. We demonstrate that Planck and CMB-S4-like experiments have no prospects for detecting particular features in the distribution function. Consequently, we take a general approach and marginalise completely over the form of the neutrino distribution to derive constraints on the relativistic and non-relativistic neutrino energy densities, characterised by $N_\mathrm{eff} = 3.0 \pm 0.4$ and $\rho_{\nu,0}^{\rm NR} < 14 \, \mathrm{eV}\,\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$ at 95% CL, respectively. The fact that these are the only neutrino properties that CMB data can constrain has important implications for neutrino mass limits from cosmology. Specifically, in contrast to the $\Lambda$CDM case where CMB and BAO data tightly constrain the sum of neutrinos masses to be $\sum m_\nu < 0.12 \, \mathrm{eV}$, we explicitly show that neutrino masses as large as $\sum m_\nu \sim 3 \, \mathrm{eV}$ are perfectly consistent with this data. Importantly, for this to be the case, the neutrino number density should be suitably small such that the bound on $\rho_{\nu,0}^\mathrm{NR} = \sum m_\nu n_{\nu,0}$ is still satisfied. We conclude by giving an outlook on the opportunities that may arise from other complementary experimental probes, such as galaxy surveys, neutrino mass experiments and facilities designed to directly detect the cosmic neutrino background.**Statistical significance of the sterile-neutrino hypothesis in the context of reactor and gallium data**

2111.12530 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jeffrey M. Berryman, [and 4 more]Pilar Coloma, Patrick Huber, Thomas Schwetz, and Albert Zhou [hide authors].

We evaluate the statistical significance of the 3+1 sterile-neutrino hypothesis using $\nu_e$ and $\bar\nu_e$ disappearance data from reactor, solar and gallium radioactive source experiments. Concerning the latter, we investigate the implications of the recent BEST results. For reactor data we focus on relative measurements independent of flux predictions. For the problem at hand, the usual $\chi^2$-approximation to hypothesis testing based on Wilks' theorem has been shown in the literature to be inaccurate. We therefore present results based on Monte Carlo simulations, and find that this typically reduces the significance by roughly $1\,\sigma$ with respect to the na\"ive expectation. We find no significant indication in favor of sterile-neutrino oscillations from reactor data. On the other hand, gallium data (dominated by the BEST result) show more than $5\,\sigma$ of evidence supporting the sterile-neutrino hypothesis, favoring oscillation parameters in agreement with constraints from reactor data. This explanation is, however, in significant tension ($\sim 3\,\sigma$) with solar neutrino experiments. In order to assess the robustness of the signal for gallium experiments we present a discussion of the impact of cross-section uncertainties on the results.**A close look on 2-3 mixing angle with DUNE in light of current neutrino oscillation data**

2111.11748 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, [and 3 more]Ritam Kundu, Suprabh Prakash, and Masoom Singh [hide authors].

Recent global fit analyses of oscillation data show a preference for normal mass ordering (NMO) at 2.5$\sigma$ and provide 1.6$\sigma$ indications for lower $\theta_{23}$ octant and leptonic CP violation. A high-precision measurement of $\theta_{23}$ is pivotal to convert these hints into discoveries. In this work, we study in detail the capabilities of DUNE to establish the deviation from maximal $\theta_{23}$ and to resolve its octant at high confidence levels. We exhibit the possible correlations and degeneracies among $\sin^2\theta_{23}$, $\Delta m^2_{31}$, and $\delta_{CP}$ in disappearance and appearance oscillation channels at the probability and event levels. Introducing for the first time, a bi-events plot in the plane of total $\nu$ and $\bar\nu$ disappearance events, we discuss the impact of $\sin^2\theta_{23}$ - $\Delta m^2_{31}$ degeneracy in establishing non-maximal $\theta_{23}$ and show how this degeneracy can be resolved by exploiting the spectral shape information in $\nu$ and $\bar\nu$ disappearance events. A 3$\sigma$ (5$\sigma$) determination of non-maximal $\theta_{23}$ is possible in DUNE in total 7 years if $\sin^2\theta_{23} \lesssim 0.465~(0.450)$ or $\sin^2\theta_{23} \gtrsim 0.554~(0.572)$ for any value of $\delta_{CP}$ and NMO. We study the individual contributions from appearance and disappearance channels, impact of systematic uncertainties and marginalization over oscillation parameters, importance of spectral analysis and data from both $\nu$ and $\bar\nu$ runs, while analyzing DUNE's sensitivity to establish non-maximal $\theta_{23}$. DUNE can resolve the octant of $\theta_{23}$ at 4.2$\sigma$ (5$\sigma$) using 7 (10) years of run assuming $\sin^2\theta_{23}$ = 0.455, $\delta_{CP}$ = $223^\circ$, and NMO. DUNE can improve the current relative 1$\sigma$ precision on $\sin^2\theta_{23}$ ($\Delta m^2_{31}$) by a factor of 4.4 (2.8) using 7 years of run.**Improved Characterization of the Astrophysical Muon-Neutrino Flux with 9.5 Years of IceCube Data**

2111.10299 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Abbasi, [and 379 more]M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, J. M. Alameddine, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, M. Boddenberg, F. Bontempo, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, B. Brinson, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, S. Browne, A. Burgman, R. T. Burley, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, C. Chen, Z. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, C. Dappen, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, D. Delgado López, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dittmer, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, K. L. Fan, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, N. Feigl, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, C. Günther, P. Gutjahr, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, K. Hymon, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, M. Jin, B. J. P. Jones, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, L. Kardum, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, T. Kozynets, E. Kun, N. Kurahashi, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, I. Martinez-Soler, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, T. McElroy, F. McNally, J. V. Mead, K. Meagher, S. Mechbal, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyên, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, B. Oeyen, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, L. Peters, J. Peterson, S. Philippen, S. Pieper, M. Pittermann, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, P. Reichherzer, R. Reimann, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, S. Schindler, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, G. Schwefer, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and P. Zhelnin [hide authors].

We present a measurement of the high-energy astrophysical muon-neutrino flux with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The measurement uses a high-purity selection of ~650k neutrino-induced muon tracks from the Northern celestial hemisphere, corresponding to 9.5 years of experimental data. With respect to previous publications, the measurement is improved by the increased size of the event sample and the extended model testing beyond simple power-law hypotheses. An updated treatment of systematic uncertainties and atmospheric background fluxes has been implemented based on recent models. The best-fit single power-law parameterization for the astrophysical energy spectrum results in a normalization of $\phi_{\mathrm{@100TeV}}^{\nu_\mu+\bar{\nu}_\mu} = 1.44_{-0.26}^{+0.25} \times 10^{-18}\,\mathrm{GeV}^{-1}\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\mathrm{s}^{-1}\mathrm{sr}^{-1}$ and a spectral index $\gamma_{\mathrm{SPL}} = 2.37_{-0.09}^{+0.09}$, constrained in the energy range from $15\,\mathrm{TeV}$ to $5\,\mathrm{PeV}$. The model tests include a single power law with a spectral cutoff at high energies, a log-parabola model, several source-class specific flux predictions from the literature and a model-independent spectral unfolding. The data is well consistent with a single power law hypothesis, however, spectra with softening above one PeV are statistically more favorable at a two sigma level.**Neutrino meets ultralight dark matter: $\boldsymbol{0νββ}$ decay and cosmology**

2111.08732 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guo-yuan Huang and Newton Nath.

We explore the neutrinoless double beta ($0\nu \beta\beta$) decay induced by an ultralight dark matter field coupled to neutrinos. The effect on $0\nu\beta\beta$ decay is significant if the coupling violates the lepton number, for which the $\Delta L=2$ transition is directly driven by the dark matter field without further suppression of small neutrino masses. As the ultralight dark matter can be well described by a classical field, the effect features a periodic modulation pattern in decay events. However, we find that in the early Universe such coupling will be very likely to alter the standard cosmological results. In particular, the requirement of neutrino free-streaming before the matter-radiation equality severely constrains the parameter space, such that the future $0\nu \beta\beta$ decay experiments can hardly see any signal even with a meV sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass.**Nonunitarity of the lepton mixing matrix at the European Spallation Source**

2111.08673 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sabya Sachi Chatterjee, [and 3 more]O. G. Miranda, M. Tórtola, and J. W. F. Valle [hide authors].

If neutrinos get mass through the exchange of lepton mediators, as in seesaw schemes, the neutrino appearance probabilities in oscillation experiments are modified due to effective nonunitarity of the lepton mixing matrix. This also leads to new CP phases and an ambiguity in underpinning the ''conventional'' phase of the three-neutrino paradigm. We study the CP sensitivities of various setups based at the European spallation source neutrino super-beam (ESSnuSB) experiment in the presence of nonunitarity. We also examine its potential in constraining the associated new physics parameters. Moreover, we show how the combination of DUNE and ESSnuSB can help further improve the sensitivities on the nonunitarity parameters.**Non-standard Neutrino and $Z'$ Interactions at the FASER$ν$ and the LHC**

2111.08375 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kingman Cheung, C. J. Ouseph, and TseChun Wang.

We study the impact of non-standard neutrino interactions in the context of a new gauge boson $Z'$ in neutral-current deep-inelastic scattering performed in ForwArd Search ExpeRiment-$\nu$ (FASER$\nu$) and in monojet production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We simulate the neutral-current deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering $\nu N \rightarrow \nu N$ at FASER$\nu$ in the presence of an additional $Z'$ boson, and estimate the anticipated sensitivities to the gauge coupling in a wide range of $Z'$ mass. At the LHC, we study the effect of $Z'$ on monojet production, which can be enhanced in regions with large missing transverse momenta. We then use the recent results from ATLAS with an integrated luminosity of 139 fb$^{-1}$ to improve the limits on the gauge coupling of $Z'$. We interpret such limits on $Z'$ gauge couplings as bounds on effective non-standard neutrino interactions. We show that the FASER$\rm \nu$ and the LHC results cover the medium and high energy scales, respectively, and complement one another.**Status and Perspectives of Neutrino Physics**

2111.07586 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Sajjad Athar, [and 18 more]Steven W. Barwick, Thomas Brunner, Jun Cao, Mikhail Danilov, Kunio Inoue, Takaaki Kajita, Marek Kowalski, Manfred Lindner, Kenneth R. Long, Nathalie Palanque-Delabrouille, Werner Rodejohann, Heidi Schellman, Kate Scholberg, Seon-Hee Seo, Nigel J. T. Smith, Walter Winter, Geralyn P. Zeller, and Renata Zukanovich Funchal [hide authors].

This review demonstrates the unique role of the neutrino by discussing in detail the physics of and with neutrinos. We deal with neutrino sources, neutrino oscillations, absolute masses, interactions, the possible existence of sterile neutrinos, and theoretical implications. In addition, synergies of neutrino physics with other research fields are found, and requirements to continue successful neutrino physics in the future, in terms of technological developments and adequate infrastructures, are stressed.**Probing Neutrino-Portal Dark Matter at the Forward Physics Facility**

2111.05868 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kevin J. Kelly, [and 3 more]Felix Kling, Douglas Tuckler, and Yue Zhang [hide authors].

The Forward Physics Facility (FPF), planned to operate near the ATLAS interaction point at the LHC, offers exciting new terrain to explore neutrino properties at TeV energy scales. It will reach an unprecedented regime for terrestrial neutrino experiments and provide the opportunity to reveal new physics of neutrinos at higher energy scales. We demonstrate that future detectors at the FPF have the potential to discover new mediators that couple predominantly to neutrinos, with masses between 0.3 and 20 GeV and small couplings not yet probed by existing searches. Such a neutrinophilic mediator is well motivated for addressing the origin of several neutrino-portal dark matter candidates, including thermal freeze-out and sterile-neutrino dark matter scenarios. Experimentally, the corresponding signatures include neutrino charged-current scattering events associated with large missing transverse momentum, and excessive apparent tau-neutrino events. We discuss the FPF detector capabilities needed for this search, most importantly the hadronic energy resolution.**Sterile Neutrino Searches with MicroBooNE: Electron Neutrino Disappearance**

2111.05793 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton.

A sterile neutrino is a well motivated minimal new physics model that leaves an imprint in neutrino oscillations. Over the last two decades, a number of hints pointing to a sterile neutrino have emerged, many of which are pointing near $m_4\sim1$ eV. Here we show how MicroBooNE data can be used to search for electron neutrino disappearance using each of their four analysis channels. We find a hint for oscillations with the highest single channel significance of $2.4\sigma$ (using the Feldman-Cousins approach) coming from the Wire-Cell analysis and a simplified treatment of the experimental systematics. The preferred parameters are $\sin^2(2\theta_{14})=0.35^{+0.19}_{-0.16}$ and $\Delta m^2_{41}=1.25^{+0.74}_{-0.39}$ eV$^2$. This region of parameter space is in good agreement with existing hints from source experiments, is at a similar frequency but higher mixing than indicated by reactor anti-neutrinos, and is at the edge of the region allowed by solar neutrino data. Existing unanalyzed data from MicroBooNE could increase the sensitivity to the $>3\sigma$ level.**Scalable Qubit Representations of Neutrino Mixing Matrices**

2111.05401 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. J. Molewski and B. J. P. Jones.

Oscillating neutrino beams exhibit quantum coherence over distances of thousands of kilometers. Their unambiguously quantum nature suggests an appealing test system for direct quantum simulation. Such techniques may enable presently analytically intractable calculations involving multi-neutrino entanglements, such as collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae, but only once oscillation phenomenology is properly re-expressed in the language of quantum circuits. Here we resolve outstanding conceptual issues regarding encoding of arbitrarily mixed neutrino flavor states in the Hilbert space of an n-qubit quantum computer. We introduce algorithms to encode mixing and oscillation of any number of flavor-mixed neutrinos, both with and without CP-violation, with an efficient number of prescriptive input parameters in terms of sub-rotations of the PMNS matrix in standard form. Examples encoded for an IBM-Q quantum computer are shown to converge to analytic predictions both with and without CP-violation.**Galactic rotation curves versus ultralight dark matter: A systematic comparison with SPARC data**

2111.03070 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nitsan Bar, Kfir Blum, and Chen Sun.

We look for and place observational constraints on the imprint of ultralight dark matter (ULDM) soliton cores in rotation-dominated galaxies. Extending previous analyses, we find a conservative constraint which disfavors the soliton-host halo relation found in some numerical simulations over a broad range in the ULDM particle mass $m$. Combining the observational constraints with theoretical arguments for the efficiency of soliton formation via gravitational dynamical relaxation, and assuming that the soliton-halo relation is correct, our results disfavor ULDM from comprising 100\% of the total cosmological dark matter in the range $10^{-24}~{\rm eV}\lesssim m\lesssim10^{-20}~{\rm eV}$. The constraints probe the ULDM fraction down to $f\lesssim0.3$ of the total dark matter.**Non-standard interactions from the future neutrino solar sector**

2111.03031 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. Martínez-Miravé, S. Molina Sedgwick, and M. Tórtola.

The next-generation neutrino experiment JUNO will determine the solar oscillation parameters - $\sin^2 \theta_{12}$ and $\Delta m^2_{21}$ - with great accuracy, in addition to measuring $\sin^2\theta_{13}$, $\Delta m^2_{31}$, and the mass ordering. In parallel, the continued study of solar neutrinos at Hyper-Kamiokande will provide complementary measurements in the solar sector. In this paper, we address the expected sensitivity to non-universal and flavour-changing non-standard interactions (NSI) with $d$-type quarks from the combination of these two future neutrino experiments. We also show the robustness of their measurements of the solar parameters $\sin^2 \theta_{12}$ and $\Delta m^2_{21}$ in the presence of NSI. We study the impact of the exact experimental configuration of the Hyper-Kamiokande detector, and conclude it is of little relevance in this scenario. Finally, we find that the LMA-D solution is expected to be present if no additional input from non-oscillation experiments is considered.**$pp$ Solar Neutrinos at DARWIN**

2111.02421 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, [and 3 more]Emma McGinness, Ivan Martinez-Soler, and Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez [hide authors].

The DARWIN collaboration recently argued that DARWIN (DARk matter WImp search with liquid xenoN) can collect, via neutrino--electron scattering, a large, useful sample of solar $pp$-neutrinos, and measure their survival probability with sub-percent precision. We explore the physics potential of such a sample in more detail. We estimate that, with 300 ton-years of data, DARWIN can also measure, with the help of current solar neutrino data, the value of $\sin^2\theta_{13}$, with the potential to exclude $\sin^2\theta_{13}=0$ close to the three-sigma level. We explore in some detail how well DARWIN can constrain the existence of a new neutrino mass-eigenstate $\nu_4$ that is quasi-mass-degenerate with $\nu_1$ and find that DARWIN's sensitivity supersedes that of all current and near-future searches for new, very light neutrinos. In particular, DARWIN can test the hypothesis that $\nu_1$ is a pseudo-Dirac fermion as long as the induced mass-squared difference is larger than $10^{-13}$ eV$^2$, one order of magnitude more sensitive than existing constraints. Throughout, we allowed for the hypotheses that DARWIN is filled with natural xenon or $^{136}$Xe-depleted xenon.**Anisotropies of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in a scenario with nearby sources**

2111.00560 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Silvia Mollerach and Esteban Roulet.

The images of ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray sources get distorted, in an energy dependent way, by the effects of Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. These deflections can also affect the observed cosmic ray spectrum, specially when the sources are transient. We study scenarios in which one or a few nearby extragalactic sources, such as CenA or M81/M82, provide the dominant contribution to the cosmic ray flux above the ankle of the spectrum. We discuss the effects of the angular dispersion induced by the turbulent extragalactic magnetic fields, and the coherent deflections caused by the regular Galactic magnetic field, with the associated multiple imaging of the sources. We consider the possible contribution from those sources to the dipolar distribution discovered by the Pierre Auger Observatory above 8 EeV, as well as to the hot spots hinted in the observations by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array observatories at higher energies, taking into account the mixed nature of the cosmic ray composition.**Model-Independent Constraints on Non-Unitary Neutrino Mixing from High-Precision Long-Baseline Experiments**

2111.00329 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, [and 3 more]Sudipta Das, Alessio Giarnetti, and Davide Meloni [hide authors].

Our knowledge on the active 3$\nu$ mixing angles ($\theta_{12}$, $\theta_{13}$, and $\theta_{23}$) and the CP phase $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ is becoming accurate day-by-day enabling us to test the unitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix with utmost precision. Future high-precision long-baseline experiments are going to play an important role in this direction. In this work, we study the impact of possible non-unitary neutrino mixing (NUNM) in the context of next-generation long-baseline experiments DUNE and T2HKK/JD+KD having one detector in Japan (T2HK/JD) and a second detector in Korea (KD). We estimate the sensitivities of these setups to place direct, model-independent, and competitive constraints on various NUNM parameters. We demonstrate the possible correlations between the NUNM parameters, $\theta_{23}$, and $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$. Our numerical results obtained using only far detector data and supported by simple approximate analytical expressions of the oscillation probabilities in matter, reveal that JD+KD has better sensitivities for $|\alpha_{21}|$ and $\alpha_{22}$ as compared to DUNE, due to its larger statistics in the appearance channel and less systematic uncertainties in the disappearance channel, respectively. For $|\alpha_{31}|$, $|\alpha_{32}|$, and $\alpha_{33}$, DUNE gives better constraints as compared to JD+KD, due to its larger matter effect and wider neutrino energy spectrum. For $\alpha_{11}$, both DUNE and JD+KD give similar bounds. We also show how much the bounds on the NUNM parameters can be improved by combining the prospective data from DUNE and JD+KD setups. We find that due to zero-distance effects, the near detectors alone can also constrain $\alpha_{11}$, $|\alpha_{21}|$, and $\alpha_{22}$ in both these setups. Finally, we observe that the $\nu_\tau$ appearance sample in DUNE can improve the constraints on $|\alpha_{32}|$ and $\alpha_{33}$.**Time variation of the atmospheric neutrino flux at dark matter detectors**

2110.14723 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yi Zhuang, Louis E. Strigari, and Rafael F. Lang.

The cosmic ray flux at the lowest energies, $\lesssim 10$ GeV, is modulated by the solar cycle, inducing a time variation that is expected to carry over into the atmospheric neutrino flux at these energies. Here we estimate this time variation of the atmospheric neutrino flux at five prospective underground locations for multi-tonne scale dark matter detectors (CJPL, Kamioka, LNGS, SNOlab and SURF). We find that between solar minimum and solar maximum, the normalization of the flux changes by $\sim 30\%$ at a high-latitude location such as SURF, while it changes by a smaller amount, $\lesssim 10\%$, at LNGS. A dark matter detector that runs for a period extending through solar cycles will be most effective at identifying this time variation. This opens the possibility to distinguish such neutrino-induced nuclear recoils from dark matter-induced nuclear recoils, thus allowing for the possibility of using timing information to break through the "neutrino floor."**TauRunner: A Public Python Program to Propagate Neutral and Charged Leptons**

2110.14662 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ibrahim Safa, [and 5 more]Jeffrey Lazar, Alex Pizzuto, Oswaldo Vasquez, Carlos A. Argüelles, and Justin Vandenbroucke [hide authors].

In the past decade IceCube's observations have revealed a flux of astrophysical neutrinos extending to $10^{7}~\rm{GeV}$. The forthcoming generation of neutrino observatories promises to grant further insight into the high-energy neutrino sky, with sensitivity reaching energies up to $10^{12}~\rm{GeV}$. At such high energies, a new set of effects becomes relevant, which was not accounted for in the last generation of neutrino propagation software. Thus, it is important to develop new simulations which efficiently and accurately model lepton behavior at this scale. We present TauRunner a PYTHON-based package that propagates neutral and charged leptons. TauRunner supports propagation between $10~\rm{GeV}$ and $10^{12}~\rm{GeV}$. The package accounts for all relevant secondary neutrinos produced in charged-current tau neutrino interactions. Additionally, tau energy losses of taus produced in neutrino interactions is taken into account, and treated stochastically. Finally, TauRunner is broadly adaptable to divers experimental setups, allowing for user-specified trajectories and propagation media, neutrino cross sections, and initial spectra.**A full parametrization of the $9\times 9$ active-sterile flavor mixing matrix in the inverse or linear seesaw scenario of massive neutrinos**

2110.12705 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by He-chong Han and Zhi-zhong Xing.

The inverse and linear seesaw scenarios are two typical extensions of the canonical seesaw mechanism, which contain much more sterile degrees of freedom but can naturally explain the smallness of three active neutrino masses at a sufficiently low energy scale (e.g., the TeV scale). To fully describe the mixing among three active neutrinos, three sterile neutrinos and three extra gauge-singlet neutral fermions in either of these two seesaw paradigms, we present the {\it first} full parametrization of the $9\times 9$ flavor mixing matrix in terms of 36 rotation angles and 36 CP-violating phases. The exact inverse and linear seesaw formulas are derived, respectively; and possible deviations of the $3\times 3$ active neutrino mixing matrix from its unitary limit are discussed by calculating the effective Jarlskog invariants and unitarity nonagons.**Measurement of the Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering Cross Section on CsI by COHERENT**

2110.07730 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Akimov, [and 75 more]P. An, C. Awe, P. S. Barbeau, B. Becker, V. Belov, I. Bernardi, M. A. Blackston, C. Bock, A. Bolozdynya, J. Browning, B. Cabrera-Palmer, D. Chernyak, E. Conley, J. Daughhetee, J. Detwiler, K. Ding, M. R. Durand, Y. Efremenko, S. R. Elliott, L. Fabris, M. Febbraro, A. Gallo Rosso, A. Galindo-Uribarri, M. P. Green, M. R. Heath, S. Hedges, D. Hoang, M. Hughes, T. Johnson, A. Khromov, A. Konovalov, E. Kozlova, A. Kumpan, L. Li, J. M. Link, J. Liu, K. Mann, D. M. Markoff, J. Mastroberti, P. E. Mueller, J. Newby, D. S. Parno, S. I. Penttila, D. Pershey, R. Rapp, H. Ray, J. Raybern, O. Razuvaeva, D. Reyna, G. C. Rich, J. Ross, D. Rudik, J. Runge, D. J. Salvat, A. M. Salyapongse, K. Scholberg, A. Shakirov, G. Simakov, G. Sinev, W. M. Snow, V. Sosnovstsev, B. Suh, R. Tayloe, K. Tellez-Giron-Flores, I. Tolstukhin, E. Ujah, J. Vanderwerp, R. L. Varner, C. J. Virtue, G. Visser, T. Wongjirad, Y. -R. Yen, J. Yoo, C. -H. Yu, and J. Zettlemoyer [hide authors].

We measured the cross section of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (\cevns{}) using a CsI[Na] scintillating crystal in a high flux of neutrinos produced at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New data collected before detector decommissioning has more than doubled the dataset since the first observation of \cevns{}, achieved with this detector. Systematic uncertainties have also been reduced with an updated quenching model, allowing for improved precision. With these analysis improvements, the COHERENT collaboration determined the cross section to be $(165^{+30}_{-25})\times10^{-40}$~cm$^2$, consistent with the standard model, giving the most precise measurement of \cevns{} yet. The timing structure of the neutrino beam has been exploited to compare the \cevns{} cross section from scattering of different neutrino flavors. This result places leading constraints on neutrino non-standard interactions while testing lepton flavor universality and measures the weak mixing angle as $\sin^2\theta_{W}=0.220^{+0.028}_{-0.026}$ at $Q^2\approx(50\text{ MeV})^2$**Ultra-high-energy neutrino scattering in an anomalous U(1) effective field theory**

2110.07517 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Chuan-Hung Chen, Cheng-Wei Chiang, and Chun-Wei Su.

A unique characteristic of exponentially growing scattering amplitude arises in an anomalous Abelian effective field theory when an extremely light Dirac neutrino mass is introduced to break the symmetry. We show that the low energy effective Lagrangian can be made explicitly gauge invariant with the help of a nonlinear representation of the Goldstone or Stueckelberg field. We study the peculiar feature of exponential growth in the ultra-high-energy neutrino-nucleon inelastic scattering. It is found that the inelastic scattering cross section is highly sensitive to the ratio of gauge coupling to the gauge boson mass, $g_X/m_X$. When the IceCube measurement of ultra-high-energy neutrinos, which is consistent with the standard model prediction up to $E_\nu \sim 6$ PeV, is taken into account, the inferred constraint on $g_X/m_X$ is more severe than that obtained from the events of mono-lepton$+$missing transverse energy at the LHC. A muon collider with a collision energy of $10$ TeV can be a good environment other than hadron colliders to probe the novel effect.**Reactor antineutrino anomaly in light of recent flux model refinements**

2110.06820 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Giunti, [and 3 more]Y. F. Li, C. A. Ternes, and Z. Xin [hide authors].

We study the status of the reactor antineutrino anomaly in light of recent reactor flux models obtained with the conversion and summation methods. We present a new improved calculation of the IBD yields of the standard Huber-Mueller (HM) model and those of the new models. We show that the reactor rates and the fuel evolution data are consistent with the predictions of the Kurchatov Institute (KI) conversion model and with those of the Estienne-Fallot (EF) summation model, leading to a plausible robust demise of the reactor antineutrino anomaly. We show that the results of several goodness of fit tests favor the KI and EF models over other models that we considered. We also discuss the implications of the new reactor flux models for short-baseline neutrino oscillations due to active-sterile oscillations. We show that reactor data give upper bounds on active-sterile neutrino mixing that are not very different for the reactor flux models under consideration and are in tension with the large mixing required by the Gallium anomaly that has been refreshed by the recent results of the BEST experiment.**Effect of non-unitary mixing on the mass hierarchy and CP violation determination at the Protvino to Orca experiment**

2110.02917 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Daljeet Kaur, Nafis Rezwan Khan Chowdhury, and Ushak Rahaman.

In this paper, we have estimated the neutrino mass ordering and the CP violation sensitivity of the proposed Protvino to Orca (P2O) experiment after 6 years of data-taking. Both unitary and non-unitary $3\times 3$ neutrino mass mixing have been considered in the simulations. A forecast analysis deriving possible future constraints on non-unitary parameters at P2O have been performed.**Novel constraints on neutrino physics beyond the standard model from the CONUS experiment**

2110.02174 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by CONUS Collaboration, [and 12 more]H. Bonet, A. Bonhomme, C. Buck, K. Fülber, J. Hakenmüller, G. Heusser, T. Hugle, M. Lindner, W. Maneschg, T. Rink, H. Strecker, and R. Wink [hide authors].

The measurements of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) experiments have opened up the possibility to constrain neutrino physics beyond the standard model of elementary particle physics. Furthermore, by considering neutrino-electron scattering in the keV-energy region, it is possible to set additional limits on new physics processes. Here, we present constraints that are derived from CONUS germanium data on beyond the standard model (BSM) processes like tensor and vector non-standard interactions (NSIs) in the neutrino-quark sector, as well as light vector and scalar mediators. Thanks to the realized low background levels in the CONUS experiment at ionization energies below 1 keV, we are able to set the world's best limits on tensor NSIs from CE$\nu$NS and constrain the scale of corresponding new physics to lie above 360 GeV. For vector NSIs, the derived limits strongly depend on the assumed ionization quenching factor within the detector material, since small quenching factors largely suppress potential signals for both, the expected standard model CE$\nu$NS process and the vector NSIs. Furthermore, competitive limits on scalar and vector mediators are obtained from the CE$\nu$NS channel at reactor-site which allow to probe coupling constants as low as $5\cdot10^{-5}$ of low mediator masses, assuming the currently favored quenching factor regime. The consideration of neutrino-electron scatterings allows to set even stronger constraints for mediator masses below $\sim1$ MeV and $\sim 10$ MeV for scalar and vector mediators, respectively.**Neutrino Oscillations through the Earth's Core**

2110.01148 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Rebekah Pestes.

Neutrinos have two properties that make them fairly unique from other known particles: extremely low cross sections and flavor changing oscillations. With a good knowledge of the oscillation parameters soon in hand, it will become possible to detect low-energy atmospheric neutrinos sensitive to the forward elastic scattering off electrons in the Earth's core providing a measurement of the core properties and the matter effect itself. As the dynamics of the Earth's core are complicated and in a difficult to probe environment, additional information from upcoming neutrino experiments will provide feedback into our knowledge of geophysics as well as useful information about exoplanet formation and various new physics scenarios including dark matter. In addition, we can probe the existence of the matter effect in the Earth and constrain the non-standard neutrino interaction parameter $\epsilon_{ee}^\oplus$. We show how DUNE's sensitivity to low-energy atmospheric neutrino oscillations can provide a novel constraint on the density and radius of the Earth's core at the 9\% level and the Earth's matter effect at the 5\% level. Finally, we illuminate the physics behind low-energy atmospheric neutrino resonances in the Earth.**Search for Neutrino-Induced Neutral Current $Δ$ Radiative Decay in MicroBooNE and a First Test of the MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess Under a Single-Photon Hypothesis**

2110.00409 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by MicroBooNE collaboration, [and 187 more]P. Abratenko, R. An, J. Anthony, L. Arellano, J. Asaadi, A. Ashkenazi, S. Balasubramanian, B. Baller, C. Barnes, G. Barr, V. Basque, L. Bathe-Peters, O. Benevides Rodrigues, S. Berkman, A. Bhanderi, A. Bhat, M. Bishai, A. Blake, T. Bolton, J. Y. Book, L. Camilleri, D. Caratelli, I. Caro Terrazas, R. Castillo Fernandez, F. Cavanna, G. Cerati, Y. Chen, D. Cianci, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, L. Cooper-Troendle, J. I. Crespo-Anadon, M. Del Tutto, S. R. Dennis, P. Detje, A. Devitt, R. Diurba, R. Dorrill, K. Duffy, S. Dytman, B. Eberly, A. Ereditato, J. J. Evans, R. Fine, G. A. Fiorentini Aguirre, R. S. Fitzpatrick, B. T. Fleming, N. Foppiani, D. Franco, A. P. Furmanski, D. Garcia-Gamez, S. Gardiner, G. Ge, S. Gollapinni, O. Goodwin, E. Gramellini, P. Green, H. Greenlee, W. Gu, R. Guenette, P. Guzowski, L. Hagaman, O. Hen, C. Hilgenberg, G. A. Horton-Smith, A. Hourlier, R. Itay, C. James, X. Ji, L. Jiang, J. H. Jo, R. A. Johnson, Y. J. Jwa, D. Kalra, N. Kamp, N. Kaneshige, G. Karagiorgi, W. Ketchum, M. Kirby, T. Kobilarcik, I. Kreslo, R. LaZur, I. Lepetic, K. Li, Y. Li, K. Lin, B. R. Littlejohn, W. C. Louis, X. Luo, K. Manivannan, C. Mariani, D. Marsden, J. Marshall, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, K. Mason, A. Mastbaum, N. McConkey, V. Meddage, T. Mettler, K. Miller, J. Mills, K. Mistry, T. Mohayai, A. Mogan, J. Moon, M. Mooney, A. F. Moor, C. D. Moore, L. Mora Lepin, J. Mousseau, M. Murphy, D. Naples, A. Navrer-Agasson, M. Nebot-Guinot, R. K. Neely, D. A. Newmark, J. Nowak, M. Nunes, O. Palamara, V. Paolone, A. Papadopoulou, V. Papavassiliou, S. F. Pate, N. Patel, A. Paudel, Z. Pavlovic, E. Piasetzky, I. Ponce-Pinto, S. Prince, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, V. Radeka, A. Rafique, M. Reggiani-Guzzo, L. Ren, L. C. J. Rice, L. Rochester, J. Rodriguez Rondon, M. Rosenberg, M. Ross-Lonergan, G. Scanavini, D. W. Schmitz, A. Schukraft, W. Seligman, M. H. Shaevitz, R. Sharankova, J. Shi, J. Sinclair, A. Smith, E. L. Snider, M. Soderberg, S. Soldner-Rembold, P. Spentzouris, J. Spitz, M. Stancari, J. St. John, T. Strauss, K. Sutton, S. Sword-Fehlberg, A. M. Szelc, W. Tang, K. Terao, C. Thorpe, D. Totani, M. Toups, Y. -T. Tsai, M. A. Uchida, T. Usher, W. Van De Pontseele, B. Viren, M. Weber, H. Wei, Z. Williams, S. Wolbers, T. Wongjirad, M. Wospakrik, K. Wresilo, N. Wright, W. Wu, E. Yandel, T. Yang, G. Yarbrough, L. E. Yates, H. W. Yu, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, and C. Zhang [hide authors].

We report results from a search for neutrino-induced neutral current (NC) resonant $\Delta$(1232) baryon production followed by $\Delta$ radiative decay, with a $\langle0.8\rangle$~GeV neutrino beam. Data corresponding to MicroBooNE's first three years of operations (6.80$\times$10$^{20}$ protons on target) are used to select single-photon events with one or zero protons and without charged leptons in the final state ($1\gamma1p$ and $1\gamma0p$, respectively). The background is constrained via an in-situ high-purity measurement of NC $\pi^0$ events, made possible via dedicated $2\gamma1p$ and $2\gamma0p$ selections. A total of 16 and 153 events are observed for the $1\gamma1p$ and $1\gamma0p$ selections, respectively, compared to a constrained background prediction of $20.5 \pm 3.65 \text{(sys.)} $ and $145.1 \pm 13.8 \text{(sys.)} $ events. The data lead to a bound on an anomalous enhancement of the normalization of NC $\Delta$ radiative decay of less than $2.3$ times the predicted nominal rate for this process at the 90% confidence level (CL). The measurement disfavors a candidate photon interpretation of the MiniBooNE low-energy excess as a factor of $3.18$ times the nominal NC $\Delta$ radiative decay rate at the 94.8% CL, in favor of the nominal prediction, and represents a greater than $50$-fold improvement over the world's best limit on single-photon production in NC interactions in the sub-GeV neutrino energy range**DUNE atmospheric neutrinos: Earth Tomography**

2110.00003 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kevin J. Kelly, [and 3 more]Pedro A. N. Machado, Ivan Martinez-Soler, and Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez [hide authors].

In this paper we show that the DUNE experiment can measure the Earth's density profile by analyzing atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The crucial feature that enables such measurement is the detailed event reconstruction capability of liquid argon time projection chambers. This allows for studying the sub-GeV atmospheric neutrino component, which bears a rich oscillation phenomenology, strongly dependent on the matter potential sourced by the Earth. We provide a pedagogical discussion of the MSW and parametric resonances and their role in measuring the core and mantle densities. By performing a detailed simulation, accounting for particle reconstruction at DUNE, nuclear physics effects relevant to neutrino-argon interactions and several uncertainties on the atmospheric neutrino flux, we manage to obtain a robust estimate of DUNE's sensitivity to the Earth matter profile. We find that DUNE can measure the total mass of the Earth at 8.4% precision with an exposure of 400~kton-year. By accounting for previous measurements of the total mass and moment of inertia of the Earth, the core, lower mantle and upper mantle densities can be determined with 8.8%, 13% and 22% precision, respectively, for the same exposure. Finally, DUNE could take atmospheric neutrino data while the beam is being commissioned and far detector modules are up and running. For a low exposure run of 60~kton-year, which would correspond to two far detectors running for three years, we have found that the core density could be measured by DUNE at $\sim30\%$ precision.**Testing sterile neutrino mixing with present and future solar neutrino data**

2109.14898 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kim Goldhagen, [and 3 more]Michele Maltoni, Shayne Reichard, and Thomas Schwetz [hide authors].

We investigate the sensitivity of solar neutrino data to mixing of sterile neutrinos with masses $\gtrsim$ eV. For current data, we perform a Feldman-Cousins analysis to derive a robust limit on the sterile neutrino mixing. The solar neutrino limit excludes significant regions of the parameter space relevant to hints from reactor and radioactive gallium source experiments. We then study the sensitivity of upcoming solar neutrino data, most notably elastic neutrino-electron scattering in the DARWIN and DUNE experiments as well as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering in DARWIN. These high precision measurements will increase the sensitivity to sterile neutrino mixing by about a factor of 4.5 compared to present limits. As a by-product, we introduce a simplified solar neutrino analysis using only four data points: the low- and high-energy $\nu_e$ survival and transition probabilities. We show that this simplified analysis is in excellent agreement with a full solar neutrino analysis; it is very easy to handle numerically and can be applied to any new physics model in which the energy dependence of the $\nu_e$ transition probabilities is not significantly modified.**Tau Neutrino Identification in Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations Without Particle Identification or Unitarity**

2109.14576 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton.

The largest tau neutrino dataset to date is IceCube's atmospheric tau neutrino appearance dataset containing $>1,000$ tau neutrino and antineutrino events as determined by a fit to a standard three-flavor oscillation framework. On an event-by-event basis, however, it is impossible to know that any given event is a tau neutrino as they are identical to either an electron neutrino charged-current event or a neutral-current interaction of any active flavor. Nonetheless, we conclusively show that, using only the cascade sample even without knowledge of the oscillation parameters and without assuming that the lepton mixing matrix is unitary, tau neutrino identification is still possible and there is no viable scenario in which all of the tau neutrino candidates are actually electron neutrinos. This is primarily due to the matter effect and the tau lepton production threshold, as well as the fact that tau neutrinos are systematically reconstructed at a lower energy than electron neutrinos due to one or more outgoing neutrinos. This conclusively shows that it is possible for an atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiment to confirm that $U_{\tau1}$, $U_{\tau2}$, and $U_{\tau3}$ are not all zero even with limited particle identification.**New oscillation and scattering constraints on the tau row matrix elements without assuming unitarity**

2109.14575 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Julia Gehrlein.

The tau neutrino is the least well measured particle in the Standard Model. Most notably, the tau neutrino row of the lepton mixing matrix is quite poorly constrained when unitarity is not assumed. In this paper, we identify data sets involving tau neutrinos that improve our understanding of the tau neutrino part of the mixing matrix, in particular $\nu_\tau$ appearance in atmospheric neutrinos. We present new results on the elements of the tau row leveraging existing constraints on the electron and muon rows for the cases of unitarity violation, with and without kinematically accessible steriles. We also show the expected sensitivity due to upcoming experiments and demonstrate that the tau neutrino row precision may be comparable to the muon neutrino row in a careful combined fit.**Lorentz symmetry and high-energy neutrino astronomy**

2109.13973 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles and Teppei Katori.

The search of violation of Lorentz symmetry, or Lorentz violation (LV), is an active research field. The effects of LV are expected to be very small and special systems are often used to search it. High-energy astrophysical neutrinos offer a unique system to search signatures of LV due to the three factors: high neutrino energy, long propagation distance, and the presence of quantum mechanical interference. In this brief review, we introduce tests of LV and summarize existing searches of LV using atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos.**Non-unitary Leptonic Flavor Mixing and CP Violation in Neutrino-antineutrino Oscillations**

2109.13622 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yilin Wang and Shun Zhou.

If massive neutrinos are Majorana particles, then the lepton number should be violated in nature and neutrino-antineutrino oscillations $\nu^{}_\alpha \leftrightarrow \overline{\nu}^{}_\beta$ (for $\alpha, \beta = e, \mu, \tau$) will definitely take place. In the present paper, we study the properties of CP violation in neutrino-antineutrino oscillations with the non-unitary leptonic flavor mixing matrix, which is actually a natural prediction in the canonical seesaw model due to the mixing between light and heavy Majorana neutrinos. The oscillation probabilities $P(\nu^{}_\alpha \to \overline{\nu}^{}_\beta)$ and $P(\overline{\nu}^{}_\alpha \to \nu^{}_\beta)$ are derived, and the CP asymmetries ${\cal A}^{}_{\alpha \beta} \equiv [P(\nu^{}_\alpha \to \overline{\nu}^{}_\beta) - P(\overline{\nu}^{}_\alpha \to \nu^{}_\beta)]/[P(\nu^{}_\alpha \to \overline{\nu}^{}_\beta) + P(\overline{\nu}^{}_\alpha \to \nu^{}_\beta)]$ are also calculated. Taking into account current experimental bounds on the leptonic unitarity violation, we show that the CP asymmetries induced by the non-unitary mixing parameters can significantly deviate from those in the limit of a unitary leptonic flavor mixing.**Updating $ν_{3}$ lifetime from solar antineutrino spectra**

2109.13272 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by R. Picoreti, [and 3 more]D. Pramanik, P. C. de Holanda, and O. L. G. Peres [hide authors].

We study the production of antineutrinos from the solar neutrinos due the Majorana neutrino decays of neutrino to antineutrino. Using the antineutrino spectra from KamLAND and Borexino, we present newest limits on the lifetime of $\nu_{3}$ in this scenario. We consider $\nu_{3} \rightarrow \bar{\nu}_{1} + X$ and $\nu_{3} \rightarrow \bar{\nu}_{2} + X$ channels assuming scalar or pseudo-scalar interactions. For hierarchical mass-splittings, the limits obtained by us are $\tau_{3}/m_{3}~\geq 7\times 10^{-5} s/eV$ and $\tau_{3}/m_{3}~\geq 1\times 10^{-5} s/eV$ for the two channels at $90\%$ C.L. We found that the newest bound is five orders of magnitude better than the atmospheric and long-baseline bounds.**Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background Search at Super-Kamiokande**

2109.11174 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, [and 221 more]:, K. Abe, C. Bronner, Y. Hayato, K. Hiraide, M. Ikeda, S. Imaizumi, J. Kameda, Y. Kanemura, Y. Kataoka, S. Miki, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, Y. Nagao, M. Nakahata, S. Nakayama, T. Okada, K. Okamoto, A. Orii, G. Pronost, H. Sekiya, M. Shiozawa, Y. Sonoda, Y. Suzuki, A. Takeda, Y. Takemoto, A. Takenaka, H. Tanaka, S. Watanabe, T. Yano, S. Han, T. Kajita, K. Okumura, T. Tashiro, J. Xia, G. D. Megias, D. Bravo-Bergu, L. Labarga, Ll. Marti, B. Zaldivar, B. W. Pointon, F. d. M. Blaszczyk, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. Wan, T. Wester, J. Bian, N. J. Griskevich, W. R. Kropp, S. Locke, S. Mine, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, V. Takhistov, J. Hill, J. Y. Kim, I. T. Lim, R. G. Park, B. Bodur, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, S. Cao, L. Bernard, A. Coffani, O. Drapier, S. El Hedri, A. Giampaolo, M. Gonin, Th. A. Mueller, P. Paganini, B. Quilain, T. Ishizuka, T. Nakamura, J. S. Jang, J. G. Learned, L. H. V. Anthony, D. Martin, M. Scott, A. A. Sztuc, Y. Uchida, V. Berardi, M. G. Catanesi, E. Radicioni, N. F. Calabria, L. N. Machado, G. De Rosa, G. Collazuol, F. Iacob, M. Lamoureux, M. Mattiazzi, N. Ospina, L. Ludovici, Y. Maekawa, Y. Nishimura, M. Friend, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, M. Jakkapu, T. Matsubara, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, Y. Kotsar, Y. Nakano, H. Ozaki, T. Shiozawa, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, S. Yamamoto, A. Ali, Y. Ashida, J. Feng, S. Hirota, T. Kikawa, M. Mori, T. Nakaya, R. A. Wendell, K. Yasutome, P. Fernandez, N. McCauley, P. Mehta, K. M. Tsui, Y. Fukuda, Y. Itow, H. Menjo, T. Niwa, K. Sato, M. Tsukada, J. Lagoda, S. M. Lakshmi, P. Mijakowski, J. Zalipska, J. Jiang, C. K. Jung, C. Vilela, M. J. Wilking, C. Yanagisawa, K. Hagiwara, M. Harada, T. Horai, H. Ishino, S. Ito, H. Kitagawa, Y. Koshio, W. Ma, N. Piplani, S. Sakai, G. Barr, D. Barrow, L. Cook, A. Goldsack, S. Samani, D. Wark, F. Nova, T. Boschi, F. Di Lodovico, J. Gao, J. Migenda, M. Taani, S. Zsoldos, J. Y. Yang, S. J. Jenkins, M. Malek, J. M. McElwee, O. Stone, M. D. Thiesse, L. F. Thompson, H. Okazawa, S. B. Kim, J. W. Seo, I. Yu, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, K. Iwamoto, K. Nakagiri, Y. Nakajima, N. Ogawa, M. Yokoyama, K. Martens, M. R. Vagins, M. Kuze, S. Izumiyama, T. Yoshida, M. Inomoto, M. Ishitsuka, H. Ito, T. Kinoshita, R. Matsumoto, K. Ohta, M. Shinoki, T. Suganuma, A. K. Ichikawa, K. Nakamura, J. F. Martin, H. A. Tanaka, T. Towstego, R. Akutsu, V. Gousy-Leblanc, M. Hartz, A. Konaka, P. de Perio, N. W. Prouse, S. Chen, B. D. Xu, Y. Zhang, M. Posiadala-Zezula, D. Hadley, M. O'Flaherty, B. Richards, B. Jamieson, J. Walker, A. Minamino, K. Okamoto, G. Pintaudi, S. Sano, and R. Sasaki [hide authors].

A new search for the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) flux has been conducted at Super-Kamiokande (SK), with a $22.5\times2970$-kton$\cdot$day exposure from its fourth operational phase IV. The new analysis improves on the existing background reduction techniques and systematic uncertainties and takes advantage of an improved neutron tagging algorithm to lower the energy threshold compared to the previous phases of SK. This allows for setting the world's most stringent upper limit on the extraterrestrial $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux, for neutrino energies below 31.3 MeV. The SK-IV results are combined with the ones from the first three phases of SK to perform a joint analysis using $22.5\times5823$ kton$\cdot$days of data. This analysis has the world's best sensitivity to the DSNB $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux, comparable to the predictions from various models. For neutrino energies larger than 17.3 MeV, the new combined $90\%$ C.L. upper limits on the DSNB $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux lie around $2.7$ cm$^{-2}$$\cdot$$\text{sec}^{-1}$, strongly disfavoring the most optimistic predictions. Finally, potentialities of the gadolinium phase of SK and the future Hyper-Kamiokande experiment are discussed.**The Forward Physics Facility: Sites, Experiments, and Physics Potential**

2109.10905 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Luis A. Anchordoqui, [and 80 more]Akitaka Ariga, Tomoko Ariga, Weidong Bai, Kincso Balazs, Brian Batell, Jamie Boyd, Joseph Bramante, Mario Campanelli, Adrian Carmona, Francesco G. Celiberto, Grigorios Chachamis, Matthew Citron, Giovanni De Lellis, Albert De Roeck, Hans Dembinski, Peter B. Denton, Antonia Di Crecsenzo, Milind V. Diwan, Liam Dougherty, Herbi K. Dreiner, Yong Du, Rikard Enberg, Yasaman Farzan, Jonathan L. Feng, Max Fieg, Patrick Foldenauer, Saeid Foroughi-Abari, Alexander Friedland, Michael Fucilla, Jonathan Gall, Maria Vittoria Garzelli, Francesco Giuli, Victor P. Goncalves, Marco Guzzi, Francis Halzen, Juan Carlos Helo, Christopher S. Hill, Ahmed Ismail, Ameen Ismail, Richard Jacobsson, Sudip Jana, Yu Seon Jeong, Krzysztof Jodlowski, Kevin J. Kelly, Felix Kling, Fnu Karan Kumar, Zhen Liu, Rafal Maciula, Roshan Mammen Abraham, Julien Manshanden, Josh McFayden, Mohammed M. A. Mohammed, Pavel M. Nadolsky, Nobuchika Okada, John Osborne, Hidetoshi Otono, Vishvas Pandey, Alessandro Papa, Digesh Raut, Mary Hall Reno, Filippo Resnati, Adam Ritz, Juan Rojo, Ina Sarcevic, Christiane Scherb, Holger Schulz, Pedro Schwaller, Dipan Sengupta, Torbjörn Sjöstrand, Tyler B. Smith, Dennis Soldin, Anna Stasto, Antoni Szczurek, Zahra Tabrizi, Sebastian Trojanowski, Yu-Dai Tsai, Douglas Tuckler, Martin W. Winkler, Keping Xie, and Yue Zhang [hide authors].

The Forward Physics Facility (FPF) is a proposal to create a cavern with the space and infrastructure to support a suite of far-forward experiments at the Large Hadron Collider during the High Luminosity era. Located along the beam collision axis and shielded from the interaction point by at least 100 m of concrete and rock, the FPF will house experiments that will detect particles outside the acceptance of the existing large LHC experiments and will observe rare and exotic processes in an extremely low-background environment. In this work, we summarize the current status of plans for the FPF, including recent progress in civil engineering in identifying promising sites for the FPF and the experiments currently envisioned to realize the FPF's physics potential. We then review the many Standard Model and new physics topics that will be advanced by the FPF, including searches for long-lived particles, probes of dark matter and dark sectors, high-statistics studies of TeV neutrinos of all three flavors, aspects of perturbative and non-perturbative QCD, and high-energy astroparticle physics.**Potential for a precision measurement of solar $pp$ neutrinos in the Serappis Experiment**

2109.10782 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lukas Bieger, [and 58 more]Thilo Birkenfeld, David Blum, Wilfried Depnering, Timo Enqvist, Heike Enzmann, Feng Gao, Christoph Genster, Alexandre Göttel, Christian Grewing, Maxim Gromov, Paul Hackspacher, Caren Hagner, Tobias Heinz, Philipp Kampmann, Michael Karagounis, Andre Kruth, Pasi Kuusiniemi, Tobias Lachenmaier, Daniel Liebau, Runxuan Liu, Kai Loo, Livia Ludhova, David Meyhöfer, Axel Müller, Pavithra Muralidharan, Lothar Oberauer, Rainer Othegraven, Nina Parkalian, Yatian Pei, Oliver Pilarczyk, Henning Rebber, Markus Robens, Christian Roth, Julia Sawatzki, Konstantin Schweizer, Giulio Settanta, Maciej Slupecki, Oleg Smirnov, Achim Stahl, Hans Steiger, Jochen Steinmann, Tobias Sterr, Matthias Raphael Stock, Jian Tang, Eric Theisen, Alexander Tietzsch, Wladyslaw Trzaska, Johannes van den Boom, Stefan van Waasen, Cornelius Vollbrecht, Christopher Wiebusch, Bjoern Wonsak, Michael Wurm, Christian Wysotzki, Yu Xu, Ugur Yegin, Andre Zambanini, and Jan Züfle [hide authors].

The Serappis (SEarch for RAre PP-neutrinos In Scintillator) project aims at a precision measurement of the flux of solar $pp$ neutrinos on the few-percent level. Such a measurement will be a relevant contribution to the study of solar neutrino oscillation parameters and a sensitive test of the solar luminosity constraint. The concept of Serappis relies on a small organic liquid scintillator detector ($\sim$20 m$^3$) with excellent energy resolution ($\sim$2.5 % at 1 MeV), low internal background and sufficient shielding from surrounding radioactivity. This can be achieved by a minor upgrade of the OSIRIS facility at the site of the JUNO neutrino experiment in southern China. To go substantially beyond current accuracy levels for the $pp$ flux, an organic scintillator with ultra-low $^{14}$C levels (below $10^{-18}$) is required. The existing OSIRIS detector and JUNO infrastructure will be instrumental in identifying suitable scintillator materials, offering a unique chance for a low-budget high-precision measurement of a fundamental property of our Sun that will be otherwise hard to access.**Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino and charged lepton propagation in the Earth with nuPyProp**

2109.08198 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sameer Patel, [and 18 more]Mary Hall Reno, Yosui Akaike, Luis Anchordoqui, Douglas Bergman, Isaac Buckland, Austin Cummings, Johannes Eser, Claire Guépin, John F. Krizmanic, Simon Mackovjak, Angela Olinto, Thomas Paul, Alex Reustle, Andrew Romero-Wolf, Fred Sarazin, Tonia Venters, Lawrence Wiencke, and Stephanie Wissel [hide authors].

An accurate modeling of neutrino flux attenuation and the distribution of leptons they produce in transit through the Earth is an essential component to determine neutrino flux sensitivities of underground, sub-orbital and space-based detectors. Through neutrino oscillations over cosmic distances, astrophysical neutrino sources are expected to produce nearly equal fluxes of electron, muon and tau neutrinos. Of particular interest are tau neutrinos that interact in the Earth at modest slant depths to produce $\tau$-leptons. Some $\tau$-leptons emerge from the Earth and decay in the atmosphere to produce extensive air showers. Future balloon-borne and satellite-based optical Cherenkov neutrino telescopes will be sensitive to upward air showers from tau neutrino induced $\tau$-lepton decays. We present nuPyProp, a python code that is part of the nuSpaceSim package. nuPyProp generates look-up tables for exit probabilities and energy distributions for $\nu_\tau\to \tau$ and $\nu_\mu\to \mu$ propagation in the Earth. This flexible code runs with either stochastic or continuous electromagnetic energy losses for the lepton transit through the Earth. Current neutrino cross section models and energy loss models are included along with templates for user input of other models. Results from nuPyProp are compared with other recent simulation packages for neutrino and charged lepton propagation. Sources of modeling uncertainties are described and quantified.**SNEWPY: A Data Pipeline from Supernova Simulations to Neutrino Signals**

2109.08188 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Amanda L. Baxter, [and 19 more]Segev BenZvi, Joahan Castaneda Jaimes, Alexis Coleiro, Marta Colomer Molla, Damien Dornic, Tomer Goldhagen, Anne M. Graf, Spencer Griswold, Alec Habig, Remington Hill, Shunsaku Horiuchi James P. Kneller Rafael F. Lang, Massimiliano Lincetto, Jost Migenda, Ko Nakamura, Evan O'Connor, Andrew Renshaw, Kate Scholberg, Navya Uberoi, and Arkin Worlikar [hide authors].

Current neutrino detectors will observe hundreds to thousands of neutrinos from a Galactic supernovae, and future detectors will increase this yield by an order of magnitude or more. With such a data set comes the potential for a huge increase in our understanding of the explosions of massive stars, nuclear physics under extreme conditions, and the properties of the neutrino. However, there is currently a large gap between supernova simulations and the corresponding signals in neutrino detectors, which will make any comparison between theory and observation very difficult. SNEWPY is an open-source software package which bridges this gap. The SNEWPY code can interface with supernova simulation data to generate from the model either a time series of neutrino spectral fluences at Earth, or the total time-integrated spectral fluence. Data from several hundred simulations of core-collapse, thermonuclear, and pair-instability supernovae is included in the package. This output may then be used by an event generator such as sntools or an event rate calculator such as SNOwGLoBES. Additional routines in the SNEWPY package automate the processing of the generated data through the SNOwGLoBES software and collate its output into the observable channels of each detector. In this paper we describe the contents of the package, the physics behind SNEWPY, the organization of the code, and provide examples of how to make use of its capabilities.**An Altarelli Cocktail for the MiniBooNE Anomaly?**

2109.08157 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Vedran Brdar and Joachim Kopp.

We critically examine a number of theoretical uncertainties affecting the MiniBooNE short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in an attempt to better understand the observed excess of electron-like events. We re-examine the impact of fake charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) events, the background due to neutral current $\pi^0$ production, and the single-photon background. For all processes, we compare the predictions of different event generators (GENIE, GiBUU, NUANCE, and NuWro) and, for GENIE, of different tunes. Where MiniBooNE uses data-driven background predictions, we discuss the uncertainties affecting the relation between the signal sample and the control sample. In the case of the single-photon background, we emphasize the uncertainties in the radiative branching ratios of heavy hadronic resonances. We find that not even a combination of uncertainties in different channels adding up unfavorably (an "Altarelli cocktail") appears to be sufficient to resolve the MiniBooNE anomaly. We finally investigate how modified background predictions affect the fit of a $3+1$ sterile neutrino scenario. We carefully account for full four-flavor oscillations not only in the signal, but also in the background and control samples. We emphasize that because of the strong correlation between MiniBooNE's $\nu_e$ and $\nu_\mu$ samples, a sterile neutrino mixing only with $\nu_\mu$ is sufficient to explain the anomaly, even though the well-known tension with external constraints on $\nu_\mu$ disappearance persists.**Measuring tau neutrino appearance probability via unitarity**

2109.06933 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Martinez-Soler and Hisakazu Minakata.

We propose a {\em unitarity method} for determining $\tau$ neutrino appearance probability $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{\tau})$ in long-baseline (LBL) accelerator experiments and atmospheric neutrino observations. When simultaneous in situ measurements of $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{\mu})$ and $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{e})$ proceed, as is typical in the LBL experiments, one can use unitarity to "measure" $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{\tau})$. A theorists' toy analysis for the model-independent determination of $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{\mu})$ and $P(\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{e})$ is presented by using the NOvA data. It is shown in our analysis that $\lsim$5\% (8\%) measurement of $\tau$ neutrino appearance probability in neutrino (antineutrino) mode is possible in the peak region $1.5 \lesssim E_\nu \lesssim 2.5$ GeV. The $\nu$SM-independent nature of determination of the probabilities is emphasized.**Neutrino Interaction Physics in Neutrino Telescopes**

2109.04430 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Teppei Katori, Juan Pablo Yanez, and Tianlu Yuan.

Neutrino telescopes can observe neutrino interactions starting at GeV energies by sampling a small fraction of the Cherenkov radiation produced by charged secondary particles. These experiments instrument volumes massive enough to collect substantial samples of neutrinos up to the TeV scale as well as small samples at the PeV scale. This unique ability of neutrino telescopes has been exploited to study the properties of neutrino interactions across energies that cannot be accessed with man-made beams. Here we present the methods and results obtained by IceCube, the most mature neutrino telescope in operation, and offer a glimpse of what the future holds in this field.**Heavy neutral leptons below the kaon mass at hodoscopic detectors**

2109.03831 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles, Nicolò Foppiani, and Matheus Hostert.

Heavy neutral leptons ($N$) below the kaon mass are severely constrained by cosmology and lab-based searches for their decays in flight. If $N$ interacts via an additional force, $N\to\nu e^+e^-$ decays are enhanced and cosmological limits can be avoided. We show that the T2K and MicroBooNE neutrino experiments provide the best limits on the mixing of $N$ with muon-neutrinos, outperforming past-generation experiments, previously thought to dominate. We constrain models with electromagnetically-decaying and long-lived $N$, such as in a transition-magnetic-moment portal and in a leptophilic axion-like particle portal, invoked to explain the MiniBooNE excess. By considering these models as representative examples, our results show that explanations of the MiniBooNE excess that involve $e^+e^-$ pairs from long-lived particles are in tension with T2K, PS191, and MicroBooNE data. Similarly, these searches also constrain MiniBooNE explanations based on single photons due to the associated $e^+e^-$ decay mode via a virtual photon.**Constraining the neutrino mass using a multi-tracer combination of two galaxy surveys and CMB lensing**

2109.03763 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mario Ballardini and Roy Maartens.

Measuring the total neutrino mass is one of the most exciting opportunities available with next-generation cosmological data sets. We study the possibility of detecting the total neutrino mass using large-scale clustering in 21cm intensity mapping and photometric galaxy surveys, together with CMB information. We include the scale-dependent halo bias contribution due to the presence of massive neutrinos, and use a multi-tracer analysis in order to reduce cosmic variance. The multi-tracer combination of an SKAO-MID 21cm intensity map with Stage~4 CMB dramatically shrinks the uncertainty on total neutrino mass to $\sigma(M_\nu) \simeq 45\,$meV, using only linear clustering information ($k_{\rm max} = 0.1\, h/$Mpc) and without a prior on optical depth. When we add to the multi-tracer the clustering information expected from LSST, the forecast is $\sigma(M_\nu) \simeq 12\,$meV.**Mass Composition of UHECRs from $X_{\rm max}$ Distributions Recorded by the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array Observatories**

2109.03626 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nicusor Arsene.

In this paper we infer the mass composition of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) from measurements of $X_{\rm max}$ distributions recorded at the Pierre Auger (2014) and Telescope Array (TA) (2016) Observatories, by fitting them with all possible combinations of Monte Carlo (MC) templates from a large set of primary species (p, He, C, N, O, Ne, Si and Fe), as predicted by EPOS-LHC, QGSJETII-04 and Sibyll 2.1 hadronic interaction models. We use the individual fractions of nuclei reconstructed from one experiment in each energy interval to build equivalent MC $X_{\rm max}$ distributions, which we compare with the experimental $X_{\rm max}$ distributions of the other experiment, applying different statistical tests of compatibility. The results obtained from both experiments confirm that the mass composition of the UHECRs is dominated ($\gtrsim$$70\%$) by protons and He nuclei {in the energy range investigated $\lg E (\rm eV)$ = [17.8--19.3] (Auger) and $\lg E \rm (eV)$ = [18.2--19.0] (TA).} The indirect comparisons between the $X_{\rm max}$ distributions recorded by the two experiments show that the degree of compatibility of the two datasets is good, even excellent in some high energy intervals, especially above the ankle ($\lg E (\rm eV) \sim 18.7$). However, our study reveals that, at low energies, further effort in data analysis is required in order to harmonize the results of the two experiments.**Near-horizon microstructure and superradiant instability of black holes**

2109.03376 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rong-Zhen Guo, Chen Yuan, and Qing-Guo Huang.

Ultralight bosons, as important candidates of dark matter, can condense around spinning black holes (BHs) to form long-lived ``boson clouds'' due to superradiance instability. The boson-BH system can be observed through gravitational wave detection and may become a new window to find traces of ultralight bosons. In this letter we explore the effects on the superradiant instability of BHs from the near-horizon microstructure. By introducing the reflection parameter near a BH horizon, we derived analytical results on the corrections to both energy levels of bosonic cloud and its characteristic frequencies of superradiance instability. Our results imply that the evolution of a boson-BH system and gravitational waves it emits would be influenced by the near-horizon physics of a BH.**Fog on the horizon: a new definition of the neutrino floor for direct dark matter searches**

2109.03116 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ciaran A. J. O'Hare.

The neutrino floor is a theoretical lower limit on WIMP-like dark matter models that are discoverable in direct detection experiments. It is commonly interpreted as the point at which dark matter signals become hidden underneath a remarkably similar-looking background from neutrinos. However, it has been known for some time that the neutrino floor is not a hard limit, but can be pushed past with sufficient statistics. As a consequence, some have recently advocated for calling it the "neutrino fog" instead. The downside of current methods of deriving the neutrino floor are that they rely on arbitrary choices of experimental exposure and energy threshold. Here we propose to define the neutrino floor as the boundary of the neutrino fog, and develop a calculation free from these assumptions. The technique is based on the derivative of a hypothetical experimental discovery limit as a function of exposure, and leads to a neutrino floor that is only influenced by the systematic uncertainties on the neutrino flux normalisations. Our floor is broadly similar to those found in the literature, but differs by almost an order of magnitude in the sub-GeV range, and above 20~GeV.**Unstable Cosmic Neutrino Capture**

2109.02900 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kensuke Akita, Gaetano Lambiase, and Masahide Yamaguchi.

Future direct observations of the Cosmic Neutrino Background (C$\nu$B) have the potential to explore a neutrino lifetime, especially in the region of the age of the universe, $t_0=4.35\times 10^{17}\ {\rm s}$. We forecast constraints on neutrino decay via capture of the C$\nu$B on tritium, with emphasis on the PTOLEMY-type experiment. In addition, in some cases of invisible neutrino decay into lighter neutrinos in the Standard Model and invisible particles, we can constrain not only the neutrino lifetime but also the masses of the invisible particles. For this purpose, we also formulate the energy spectra of the lighter neutrinos produced by 2-body and 3-body decays, and those of the electrons emitted in the process of the detection of the lighter neutrinos.**Probing neutrino decay scenarios by using the Earth matter effects on supernova neutrinos**

2109.02737 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Edwin A. Delgado, Hiroshi Nunokawa, and Alexander A. Quiroga.

The observation of Earth matter effects in the spectrum of neutrinos coming from a next galactic core-collapse supernova (CCSN) could, in principle, reveal if neutrino mass ordering is normal or inverted. One of the possible ways to identify the mass ordering is through the observation of the modulations that appear in the spectrum when neutrinos travel through the Earth before they arrive at the detector. These features in the neutrino spectrum depend on two factors, the average neutrino energies, and the difference between the primary neutrino fluxes of electron and other flavors produced inside the supernova. However, recent studies indicate that the Earth matter effect for CCSN neutrinos is expected to be rather small and difficult to be observed by currently operating or planned neutrino detectors mainly because of the similarity of average energies and fluxes between electron and other flavors of neutrinos, unless the distance to CCSN is significantly smaller than the typically expected one, $\sim 10$ kpc. Here, we are looking towards the possibility if the non-standard neutrino properties such as decay of neutrinos can enhance the Earth matter effect. In this work we show that invisible neutrino decay can potentially enhance significantly the Earth matter effect for both $\nu_e$ and $\bar{\nu}_e$ channels at the same time for both mass orderings, even if the neutrino spectra between electron and other flavors of neutrinos are very similar, which is a different feature not expected for CCSN neutrinos with standard oscillation without the decay effect.**Connecting the Extremes: A Story of Supermassive Black Holes and Ultralight Dark Matter**

2109.01678 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hooman Davoudiasl, Peter B. Denton, and Julia Gehrlein.

The formation of ultra rare supermassive black holes (SMBHs), with masses of $\mathcal O(10^9\,M_\odot)$, in the first billion years of the Universe remains an open question in astrophysics. At the same time, ultralight dark matter (DM) with mass in the vicinity of $\mathcal O(10^{-20}~\text{eV})$ has been motivated by small scale DM distributions. Though this type of DM is constrained by various astrophysical considerations, certain observations could be pointing to modest evidence for it. We present a model with a confining first order phase transition at $\sim 10$ keV temperatures, facilitating production of $\mathcal O(10^9\,M_\odot)$ primordial SMBHs. Such a phase transition can also naturally lead to the implied mass for a motivated ultralight axion DM candidate, suggesting that SMBHs and ultralight DM may be two sides of the same cosmic coin. We consider constraints and avenues to discovery from superradiance and a modification to $N_{\rm eff}$. On general grounds, we also expect primordial gravitational waves -- from the assumed first order phase transition -- characterized by frequencies of $\mathcal O(10^{-12}-10^{-9}~\text{Hz})$. This frequency regime is largely uncharted, but could be accessible to pulsar timing arrays if the primordial gravitational waves are at the higher end of this frequency range, as could be the case in our assumed confining phase transition.**Low exposure long-baseline neutrino oscillation sensitivity of the DUNE experiment**

2109.01304 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by DUNE Collaboration, [and 1156 more]A. Abed Abud, B. Abi, R. Acciarri, M. A. Acero, M. R. Adames, G. Adamov, D. Adams, M. Adinolfi, A. Aduszkiewicz, J. Aguilar, Z. Ahmad, J. Ahmed, B. Aimard, B. Ali-Mohammadzadeh, T. Alion, K. Allison, S. Alonso Monsalve, M. AlRashed, C. Alt, A. Alton, P. Amedo, J. Anderson, C. Andreopoulos, M. Andreotti, M. P. Andrews, F. Andrianala, S. Andringa, N. Anfimov, A. Ankowski, M. Antoniassi, M. Antonova, A. Antoshkin, S. Antusch, A. Aranda-Fernandez, L. O. Arnold, M. A. Arroyave, J. Asaadi, L. Asquith, A. Aurisano, V. Aushev, D. Autiero, M. Ayala-Torres, F. Azfar, A. Back, H. Back, J. J. Back, C. Backhouse, I. Bagaturia, L. Bagby, N. Balashov, S. Balasubramanian, P. Baldi, B. Baller, B. Bambah, F. Barao, G. Barenboim, G. J. Barker, W. Barkhouse, C. Barnes, G. Barr, J. Barranco Monarca, A. Barros, N. Barros, J. L. Barrow, A. Basharina-Freshville, A. Bashyal, V. Basque, E. Belchior, J. B. R. Battat, F. Battisti, F. Bay, J. L. Bazo Alba, J. F. Beacom, E. Bechetoille, B. Behera, L. Bellantoni, G. Bellettini, V. Bellini, O. Beltramello, N. Benekos, C. Benitez Montiel, F. Bento Neves, J. Berger, S. Berkman, P. Bernardini, R. M. Berner, S. Bertolucci, M. Betancourt, A. Betancur Rodríguez, A. Bevan, Y. Bezawada, T. J. C. Bezerra, A. Bhardwaj, V. Bhatnagar, M. Bhattacharjee, S. Bhuller, B. Bhuyan, S. Biagi, J. Bian, M. Biassoni, K. Biery, B. Bilki, M. Bishai, A. Bitadze, A. Blake, F. D. M. Blaszczyk, G. C. Blazey, E. Blucher, J. Boissevain, S. Bolognesi, T. Bolton, L. Bomben, M. Bonesini, M. Bongrand, C. Bonilla-Diaz, F. Bonini, A. Booth, F. Boran, S. Bordoni, A. Borkum, N. Bostan, P. Bour, C. Bourgeois, D. Boyden, J. Bracinik, D. Braga, D. Brailsford, A. Branca, A. Brandt, J. Bremer, C. Brew, S. J. Brice, C. Brizzolari, C. Bromberg, J. Brooke, A. Bross, G. Brunetti, M. Brunetti, N. Buchanan, H. Budd, I. Butorov, I. Cagnoli, D. Caiulo, R. Calabrese, P. Calafiura, J. Calcutt, M. Calin, S. Calvez, E. Calvo, A. Caminata, M. Campanelli, D. Caratelli, G. Carini, B. Carlus, M. F. Carneiro, P. Carniti, I. Caro Terrazas, H. Carranza, T. Carroll, J. F. Castaño Forero, A. Castillo, C. Castromonte, E. Catano-Mur, C. Cattadori, F. Cavalier, F. Cavanna, S. Centro, G. Cerati, A. Cervelli, A. Cervera Villanueva, M. Chalifour, A. Chappell, E. Chardonnet, N. Charitonidis, A. Chatterjee, S. Chattopadhyay, H. Chen, M. Chen, Y. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Cheon, D. Cherdack, C. Chi, S. Childress, A. Chiriacescu, G. Chisnall, K. Cho, S. Choate, D. Chokheli, P. S. Chong, A. Christensen, D. Christian, G. Christodoulou, A. Chukanov, M. Chung, E. Church, V. Cicero, P. Clarke, T. E. Coan, A. G. Cocco, J. A. B. Coelho, N. Colton, E. Conley, R. Conley, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, S. Copello, L. Cremaldi, L. Cremonesi, J. I. Crespo-Anadón, M. Crisler, E. Cristaldo, R. Cross, A. Cudd, C. Cuesta, Y. Cui, D. Cussans, O. Dalager, H. da Motta, L. Da Silva Peres, C. David, Q. David, G. S. Davies, S. Davini, J. Dawson, K. De, P. Debbins, I. De Bonis, M. P. Decowski, A. de Gouvêa, P. C. De Holanda, I. L. De Icaza Astiz, A. Deisting, P. De Jong, A. Delbart, D. Delepine, M. Delgado, A. Dell'Acqua, P. De Lurgio, J. R. T. de Mello Neto, D. M. DeMuth, S. Dennis, C. Densham, G. W. Deptuch, A. De Roeck, V. De Romeri, G. De Souza, R. Devi, R. Dharmapalan, M. Dias, F. Diaz, J. S. Díaz, S. Di Domizio, L. Di Giulio, P. Ding, L. Di Noto, C. Distefano, R. Diurba, M. Diwan, Z. Djurcic, D. Doering, S. Dolan, F. Dolek, M. J. Dolinski, L. Domine, D. Douglas, D. Douillet, G. Drake, F. Drielsma, L. Duarte, D. Duchesneau, K. Duffy, P. Dunne, H. Duyang, O. Dvornikov, D. A. Dwyer, A. S. Dyshkant, M. Eads, A. Earle, D. Edmunds, J. Eisch, L. Emberger, S. Emery, A. Ereditato, T. Erjavec, C. O. Escobar, G. Eurin, J. J. Evans, E. Ewart, A. C. Ezeribe, K. Fahey, A. Falcone, M. Fani', C. Farnese, Y. Farzan, D. Fedoseev, J. Felix, Y. Feng, E. Fernandez-Martinez, P. Fernandez Menendez, M. Fernandez Morales, F. Ferraro, L. Fields, P. Filip, F. Filthaut, A. Fiorentini, M. Fiorini, R. S. Fitzpatrick, W. Flanagan, B. Fleming, R. Flight, S. Fogarty, W. Foreman, D. V. Forero, J. Fowler, W. Fox, J. Franc, K. Francis, D. Franco, J. Freeman, J. Freestone, J. Fried, A. Friedland, F. Fuentes Robayo, S. Fuess, I. K. Furic, A. P. Furmanski, A. Gabrielli, A. Gago, H. Gallagher, A. Gallas, A. Gallego-Ros, N. Gallice, V. Galymov, E. Gamberini, T. Gamble, F. Ganacim, R. Gandhi, R. Gandrajula, F. Gao, S. Gao, D. Garcia-Gamez, M. Á. García-Peris, S. Gardiner, D. Gastler, J. Gauvreau, G. Ge, N. Geffroy, B. Gelli, A. Gendotti, S. Gent, Z. Ghorbani-Moghaddam, P. Giammaria, T. Giammaria, D. Gibin, I. Gil-Botella, S. Gilligan, C. Girerd, A. K. Giri, D. Gnani, O. Gogota, M. Gold, S. Gollapinni, K. Gollwitzer, R. A. Gomes, L. V. Gomez Bermeo, L. S. Gomez Fajardo, F. Gonnella, J. A. Gonzalez-Cuevas, D. Gonzalez-Diaz, M. Gonzalez-Lopez, M. C. Goodman, O. Goodwin, S. Goswami, C. Gotti, E. Goudzovski, C. Grace, R. Gran, E. Granados, P. Granger, A. Grant, C. Grant, D. Gratieri, P. Green, L. Greenler, J. Greer, J. Grenard, W. C. Griffith, M. Groh, J. Grudzinski, K. Grzelak, W. Gu, E. Guardincerri, V. Guarino, M. Guarise, R. Guenette, E. Guerard, M. Guerzoni, D. Guffanti, A. Guglielmi, B. Guo, V. Gupta, K. K. Guthikonda, R. Gutierrez, P. Guzowski, M. M. Guzzo, S. Gwon, C. Ha, A. Habig, H. Hadavand, R. Haenni, A. Hahn, J. Haiston, P. Hamacher-Baumann, T. Hamernik, P. Hamilton, J. Han, D. A. Harris, J. Hartnell, T. Hartnett, J. Harton, T. Hasegawa, C. Hasnip, R. Hatcher, K. W. Hatfield, A. Hatzikoutelis, C. Hayes, K. Hayrapetyan, J. Hays, E. Hazen, M. He, A. Heavey, K. M. Heeger, J. Heise, S. Henry, M. A. Hernandez Morquecho, K. Herner, V Hewes, T. Hill, S. J. Hillier, A. Himmel, E. Hinkle, L. R. Hirsch, J. Ho, J. Hoff, A. Holin, E. Hoppe, G. A. Horton-Smith, M. Hostert, A. Hourlier, B. Howard, R. Howell, I. Hristova, M. S. Hronek, J. Huang, G. Iles, N. Ilic, A. M. Iliescu, R. Illingworth, G. Ingratta, A. Ioannisian, B. Irwin, L. Isenhower, R. Itay, C. M. Jackson, V. Jain, E. James, W. Jang, B. Jargowsky, F. Jediny, D. Jena, Y. S. Jeong, C. Jesús-Valls, X. Ji, L. Jiang, S. Jiménez, A. Jipa, R. Johnson, N. Johnston, B. Jones, S. B. Jones, M. Judah, C. K. Jung, T. Junk, Y. Jwa, M. Kabirnezhad, A. Kaboth, I. Kadenko, D. Kaira, I. Kakorin, A. Kalitkina, F. Kamiya, N. Kaneshige, G. Karagiorgi, G. Karaman, A. Karcher, M. Karolak, Y. Karyotakis, S. Kasai, S. P. Kasetti, L. Kashur, N. Kazaryan, E. Kearns, P. Keener, K. J. Kelly, E. Kemp, O. Kemularia, W. Ketchum, S. H. Kettell, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, A. Khvedelidze, D. Kim, B. King, B. Kirby, M. Kirby, J. Klein, K. Koehler, L. W. Koerner, D. H. Koh, S. Kohn, P. P. Koller, L. Kolupaeva, D. Korablev, M. Kordosky, T. Kosc, U. Kose, V. A. Kostelecký, K. Kothekar, L. Kreczko, F. Krennrich, I. Kreslo, W. Kropp, Y. Kudenko, V. A. Kudryavtsev, S. Kulagin, J. Kumar, P. Kumar, P. Kunze, N. Kurita, C. Kuruppu, V. Kus, T. Kutter, J. Kvasnicka, D. Kwak, A. Lambert, B. J. Land, C. E. Lane, K. Lang, T. Langford, M. Langstaff, J. Larkin, P. Lasorak, D. Last, C. Lastoria, A. Laundrie, G. Laurenti, A. Lawrence, I. Lazanu, R. LaZur, M. Lazzaroni, T. Le, S. Leardini, J. Learned, P. LeBrun, T. LeCompte, C. Lee, S. Y. Lee, G. Lehmann Miotto, R. Lehnert, M. A. Leigui de Oliveira, M. Leitner, L. M. Lepin, S. W. Li, T. Li, Y. Li, H. Liao, C. S. Lin, Q. Lin, S. Lin, R. A. Lineros, J. Ling, A. Lister, B. R. Littlejohn, J. Liu, S. Lockwitz, T. Loew, M. Lokajicek, I. Lomidze, K. Long, T. Lord, J. M. LoSecco, W. C. Louis, X. -G. Lu, K. B. Luk, B. Lunday, X. Luo, E. Luppi, T. Lux, V. P. Luzio, D. MacFarlane, A. A. Machado, P. Machado, C. T. Macias, J. R. Macier, A. Maddalena, A. Madera, P. Madigan, S. Magill, K. Mahn, A. Maio, A. Major, J. A. Maloney, G. Mandrioli, R. C. Mandujano, J. Maneira, L. Manenti, S. Manly, A. Mann, K. Manolopoulos, M. Manrique Plata, V. N. Manyam, L. Manzanillas, M. Marchan, A. Marchionni, W. Marciano, D. Marfatia, C. Mariani, J. Maricic, R. Marie, F. Marinho, A. D. Marino, D. Marsden, M. Marshak, C. M. Marshall, J. Marshall, J. Marteau, J. Martin-Albo, N. Martinez, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, P. Martínez Miravé, S. Martynenko, V. Mascagna, K. Mason, A. Mastbaum, F. Matichard, S. Matsuno, J. Matthews, C. Mauger, N. Mauri, K. Mavrokoridis, I. Mawby, R. Mazza, A. Mazzacane, E. Mazzucato, T. McAskill, E. McCluskey, N. McConkey, K. S. McFarland, C. McGrew, A. McNab, A. Mefodiev, P. Mehta, P. Melas, O. Mena, H. Mendez, P. Mendez, D. P. Méndez, A. Menegolli, G. Meng, M. D. Messier, W. Metcalf, T. Mettler, M. Mewes, H. Meyer, T. Miao, G. Michna, T. Miedema, V. Mikola, R. Milincic, G. Miller, W. Miller, J. Mills, C. Milne, O. Mineev, A. Minotti, O. G. Miranda, S. Miryala, C. S. Mishra, S. R. Mishra, A. Mislivec, D. Mladenov, I. Mocioiu, K. Moffat, N. Moggi, R. Mohanta, T. A. Mohayai, N. Mokhov, J. Molina, L. Molina Bueno, E. Montagna, A. Montanari, C. Montanari, D. Montanari, L. M. Montano Zetina, J. Moon, S. H. Moon, M. Mooney, A. F. Moor, D. Moreno, C. Morris, C. Mossey, E. Motuk, C. A. Moura, J. Mousseau, G. Mouster, W. Mu, L. Mualem, J. Mueller, M. Muether, S. Mufson, F. Muheim, A. Muir, M. Mulhearn, D. Munford, H. Muramatsu, S. Murphy, J. Musser, J. Nachtman, S. Nagu, M. Nalbandyan, R. Nandakumar, D. Naples, S. Narita, A. Nath, A. Navrer-Agasson, N. Nayak, M. Nebot-Guinot, K. Negishi, J. K. Nelson, J. Nesbit, M. Nessi, D. Newbold, M. Newcomer, D. Newhart, H. Newton, R. Nichol, F. Nicolas-Arnaldos, E. Niner, K. Nishimura, A. Norman, A. Norrick, R. Northrop, P. Novella, J. A. Nowak, M. Oberling, J. P. Ochoa-Ricoux, A. Olivier, A. Olshevskiy, Y. Onel, Y. Onishchuk, J. Ott, L. Pagani, S. Pakvasa, G. Palacio, O. Palamara, S. Palestini, J. M. Paley, M. Pallavicini, C. Palomares, J. L. Palomino-Gallo, W. Panduro Vazquez, E. Pantic, V. Paolone, V. Papadimitriou, R. Papaleo, A. Papanestis, S. Paramesvaran, S. Parke, E. Parozzi, Z. Parsa, M. Parvu, S. Pascoli, L. Pasqualini, J. Pasternak, J. Pater, C. Patrick, L. Patrizii, R. B. Patterson, S. J. Patton, T. Patzak, A. Paudel, B. Paulos, L. Paulucci, Z. Pavlovic, G. Pawloski, D. Payne, V. Pec, S. J. M. Peeters, E. Pennacchio, A. Penzo, O. L. G. Peres, J. Perry, D. Pershey, G. Pessina, G. Petrillo, C. Petta, R. Petti, V. Pia, F. Piastra, L. Pickering, F. Pietropaolo, R. Plunkett, R. Poling, X. Pons, N. Poonthottathil, F. Poppi, S. Pordes, J. Porter, M. Potekhin, R. Potenza, B. V. K. S. Potukuchi, J. Pozimski, M. Pozzato, S. Prakash, T. Prakash, M. Prest, S. Prince, F. Psihas, D. Pugnere, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, V. Radeka, J. Rademacker, B. Radics, A. Rafique, E. Raguzin, M. Rai, M. Rajaoalisoa, I. Rakhno, A. Rakotonandrasana, L. Rakotondravohitra, Y. A. Ramachers, R. Rameika, M. A. Ramirez Delgado, B. Ramson, A. Rappoldi, G. Raselli, P. Ratoff, S. Raut, R. F. Razakamiandra, E. Rea, J. S. Real, B. Rebel, M. Reggiani-Guzzo, T. Rehak, J. Reichenbacher, S. D. Reitzner, H. Rejeb Sfar, A. Renshaw, S. Rescia, F. Resnati, A. Reynolds, M. Ribas, S. Riboldi, C. Riccio, G. Riccobene, L. C. J. Rice, J. Ricol, A. Rigamonti, Y. Rigaut, D. Rivera, A. Robert, L. Rochester, M. Roda, P. Rodrigues, M. J. Rodriguez Alonso, E. Rodriguez Bonilla, J. Rodriguez Rondon, S. Rosauro-Alcaraz, M. Rosenberg, P. Rosier, B. Roskovec, M. Rossella, M. Rossi, J. Rout, P. Roy, A. Rubbia, C. Rubbia, B. Russell, D. Ruterbories, A. Rybnikov, A. Saa-Hernandez, R. Saakyan, S. Sacerdoti, T. Safford, N. Sahu, P. Sala, N. Samios, O. Samoylov, M. C. Sanchez, V. Sandberg, D. A. Sanders, D. Sankey, S. Santana, M. Santos-Maldonado, N. Saoulidou, P. Sapienza, C. Sarasty, I. Sarcevic, G. Savage, V. Savinov, A. Scaramelli, A. Scarff, A. Scarpelli, H. Schellman, S. Schifano, P. Schlabach, D. Schmitz, K. Scholberg, A. Schukraft, E. Segreto, A. Selyunin, C. R. Senise, J. Sensenig, M. Seoane, A. Sergi, D. Sgalaberna, M. H. Shaevitz, S. Shafaq, M. Shamma, R. Sharankova, H. R. Sharma, R. Sharma, R. Kumar, T. Shaw, C. Shepherd-Themistocleous, A. Sheshukov, S. Shin, I. Shoemaker, D. Shooltz, R. Shrock, H. Siegel, L. Simard, F. Simon, J. Sinclair, G. Sinev, Jaydip Singh, J. Singh, L. Singh, V. Singh, R. Sipos, F. W. Sippach, G. Sirri, A. Sitraka, K. Siyeon, K. Skarpaas, A. Smith, E. Smith, P. Smith, J. Smolik, M. Smy, E. L. Snider, P. Snopok, D. Snowden-Ifft, M. Soares Nunes, H. Sobel, M. Soderberg, S. Sokolov, C. J. Solano Salinas, S. Söldner-Rembold, S. R. Soleti, N. Solomey, V. Solovov, W. E. Sondheim, M. Sorel, A. Sotnikov, J. Soto-Oton, A. Sousa, K. Soustruznik, F. Spagliardi, M. Spanu, J. Spitz, N. J. C. Spooner, K. Spurgeon, M. Stancari, L. Stanco, R. Stein, H. M. Steiner, A. F. Steklain Lisbôa, J. Stewart, B. Stillwell, J. Stock, F. Stocker, T. Stokes, M. Strait, T. Strauss, A. Stuart, J. G. Suarez, H. Sullivan, D. Summers, A. Surdo, V. Susic, L. Suter, C. M. Sutera, R. Svoboda, B. Szczerbinska, A. M. Szelc, H. A. Tanaka, B. Tapia Oregui, A. Tapper, S. Tariq, E. Tatar, R. Tayloe, A. M. Teklu, M. Tenti, K. Terao, C. A. Ternes, F. Terranova, G. Testera, T. Thakore, A. Thea, J. L. Thompson, C. Thorn, S. C. Timm, V. Tishchenko, L. Tomassetti, A. Tonazzo, D. Torbunov, M. Torti, M. Tortola, F. Tortorici, N. Tosi, D. Totani, M. Toups, C. Touramanis, R. Travaglini, J. Trevor, S. Trilov, W. H. Trzaska, Y. Tsai, Y. -T. Tsai, Z. Tsamalaidze, K. V. Tsang, N. Tsverava, S. Tufanli, C. Tull, E. Tyley, M. Tzanov, L. Uboldi, M. A. Uchida, J. Urheim, T. Usher, S. Uzunyan, M. R. Vagins, P. Vahle, G. A. Valdiviesso, R. Valentim, Z. Vallari, E. Vallazza, J. W. F. Valle, S. Vallecorsa, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, F. Varanini, D. Vargas, G. Varner, J. Vasel, S. Vasina, G. Vasseur, N. Vaughan, K. Vaziri, S. Ventura, A. Verdugo, S. Vergani, M. A. Vermeulen, M. Verzocchi, M. Vicenzi, H. Vieira de Souza, C. Vignoli, C. Vilela, B. Viren, T. Vrba, T. Wachala, A. V. Waldron, M. Wallbank, C. Wallis, H. Wang, J. Wang, L. Wang, M. H. L. S. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Warburton, D. Warner, M. O. Wascko, D. Waters, A. Watson, P. Weatherly, A. Weber, M. Weber, H. Wei, A. Weinstein, D. Wenman, M. Wetstein, A. White, L. H. Whitehead, D. Whittington, M. J. Wilking, C. Wilkinson, Z. Williams, F. Wilson, R. J. Wilson, W. Wisniewski, J. Wolcott, T. Wongjirad, A. Wood, K. Wood, E. Worcester, M. Worcester, C. Wret, W. Wu, W. Wu, Y. Xiao, F. Xie, E. Yandel, G. Yang, K. Yang, T. Yang, A. Yankelevich, N. Yershov, K. Yonehara, T. Young, B. Yu, H. Yu, H. Yu, J. Yu, W. Yuan, R. Zaki, J. Zalesak, L. Zambelli, B. Zamorano, A. Zani, L. Zazueta, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, K. Zeug, C. Zhang, M. Zhao, E. Zhivun, G. Zhu, E. D. Zimmerman, S. Zucchelli, J. Zuklin, V. Zutshi, and R. Zwaska [hide authors].

The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will produce world-leading neutrino oscillation measurements over the lifetime of the experiment. In this work, we explore DUNE's sensitivity to observe charge-parity violation (CPV) in the neutrino sector, and to resolve the mass ordering, for exposures of up to 100 kiloton-megawatt-years (kt-MW-yr). The analysis includes detailed uncertainties on the flux prediction, the neutrino interaction model, and detector effects. We demonstrate that DUNE will be able to unambiguously resolve the neutrino mass ordering at a 3$\sigma$ (5$\sigma$) level, with a 66 (100) kt-MW-yr far detector exposure, and has the ability to make strong statements at significantly shorter exposures depending on the true value of other oscillation parameters. We also show that DUNE has the potential to make a robust measurement of CPV at a 3$\sigma$ level with a 100 kt-MW-yr exposure for the maximally CP-violating values $\delta_{\rm CP}} = \pm\pi/2$. Additionally, the dependence of DUNE's sensitivity on the exposure taken in neutrino-enhanced and antineutrino-enhanced running is discussed. An equal fraction of exposure taken in each beam mode is found to be close to optimal when considered over the entire space of interest.**Using Secondary Tau Neutrinos to Probe Heavy Dark Matter Decays in Earth**

2108.13412 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Matthew Saveliev and Jeffrey Hyde.

Dark matter particles can be gravitationally trapped by celestial bodies, motivating searches for localized annihilation or decay. If neutrinos are among the decay products, then IceCube and other neutrino observatories could detect them. We investigate this scenario for dark matter particles above $m_{\chi} \gtrsim$ PeV producing tau neutrino signals, using updated modeling of dark matter capture and thermalization. At these energies, tau neutrino regeneration is an important effect during propagation through Earth, allowing detection at distances far longer than one interaction length. We show how large energy loss of tau leptons above $\sim$ PeV drives a wide range of initial energies to the same final energy spectrum of "secondary" tau neutrinos at the detector, and we provide an analytic approximation to the numerical results. This effect enables an experiment to constrain decays that occur at very high energies, and we examine the reach of the IceCube high-energy starting event (HESE) sample in the parameter space of trapped dark matter annihilations and decays above PeV. We find that the parameter space probed by IceCube searches would require dark matter cross sections in tension with existing direct-detection bounds.**Energy-Dependent Neutrino Mixing Parameters at Oscillation Experiments**

2108.11961 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by K. S. Babu, [and 3 more]Vedran Brdar, André de Gouvêa, and Pedro A. N. Machado [hide authors].

Neutrino mixing parameters are subject to quantum corrections and hence are scale dependent. This means that the mixing parameters associated to the production and detection of neutrinos need not coincide since these processes are characterized by different energy scales. We show that, in the presence of relatively light new physics, the scale dependence of the mixing parameters can lead to observable consequences in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, such as T2K and NOvA, and in neutrino telescopes like IceCube. We discuss some of the experimental signatures of this scenario, including zero-baseline flavor transitions, new sources of CP-invariance violation, and apparent inconsistencies among measurements of mixing angles at different experiments or oscillation channels. Finally, we present simple, ultraviolet-complete models of neutrino masses which lead to observable running of the neutrino mixing matrix below the weak scale.**An Improved Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters by the NOvA Experiment**

2108.08219 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. A. Acero, [and 204 more]P. Adamson, L. Aliaga, N. Anfimov, A. Antoshkin, E. Arrieta-Diaz, L. Asquith, A. Aurisano, A. Back, C. Backhouse, M. Baird, N. Balashov, P. Baldi, B. A. Bambah, S. Bashar, K. Bays, R. Bernstein, V. Bhatnagar, D. Bhattarai, B. Bhuyan, J. Bian, J. Blair, A. C. Booth, R. Bowles, C. Bromberg, N. Buchanan, A. Butkevich, S. Calvez, T. J. Carroll, E. Catano-Mur, B. C. Choudhary, A. Christensen, T. E. Coan, M. Colo, L. Cremonesi, G. S. Davies, P. F. Derwent, P. Ding, Z. Djurcic, M. Dolce, D. Doyle, D. Dueñas Tonguino, E. C. Dukes, H. Duyang, R. Ehrlich, M. Elkins, E. Ewart, G. J. Feldman, P. Filip, J. Franc, M. J. Frank, H. R. Gallagher, R. Gandrajula, F. Gao, A. Giri, R. A. Gomes, M. C. Goodman, V. Grichine, M. Groh, R. Group, B. Guo, A. Habig, F. Hakl, A. Hall, J. Hartnell, R. Hatcher, H. Hausner, M. He, K. Heller, V. Hewes, A. Himmel, A. Holin, J. Huang, B. Jargowsky, J. Jarosz, F. Jediny, C. Johnson, M. Judah, I. Kakorin, D. M. Kaplan, A. Kalitkina, R. Keloth, O. Klimov, L. W. Koerner, L. Kolupaeva, S. Kotelnikov, R. Kralik, Ch. Kullenberg, M. Kubu, A. Kumar, C. D. Kuruppu, V. Kus, T. Lackey, K. Lang, P. Lasorak, J. Lesmeister, S. Lin, A. Lister, J. Liu, M. Lokajicek, S. Magill, M. Manrique Plata, W. A. Mann, M. L. Marshak, M. Martinez-Casales, V. Matveev, B. Mayes, D. P. Méndez, M. D. Messier, H. Meyer, T. Miao, W. H. Miller, S. R. Mishra, A. Mislivec, R. Mohanta, A. Moren, A. Morozova, W. Mu, L. Mualem, M. Muether, S. Mufson, K. Mulder, D. Naples, N. Nayak, J. K. Nelson, R. Nichol, E. Niner, A. Norman, A. Norrick, T. Nosek, H. Oh, A. Olshevskiy, T. Olson, J. Ott, J. Paley, R. B. Patterson, G. Pawloski, O. Petrova, R. Petti, D. D. Phan, R. K. Plunkett, J. C. C. Porter, A. Rafique, F. Psihas, V. Raj, M. Rajaoalisoa, B. Ramson, B. Rebel, P. Rojas, P. Roy, V. Ryabov, O. Samoylov, M. C. Sanchez, S. Sánchez Falero, P. Shanahan, A. Sheshukov, P. Singh, V. Singh, E. Smith, J. Smolik, P. Snopok, N. Solomey, A. Sousa, K. Soustruznik, M. Strait, L. Suter, A. Sutton, S. Swain, C. Sweeney, A. Sztuc, R. L. Talaga, B. Tapia Oregui, P. Tas, T. Thakore, R. B. Thayyullathil, J. Thomas, E. Tiras, J. Tripathi, J. Trokan-Tenorio, A. Tsaris, Y. Torun, J. Urheim, P. Vahle, Z. Vallari, J. Vasel, P. Vokac, T. Vrba, M. Wallbank, T. K. Warburton, M. Wetstein, D. Whittington, D. A. Wickremasinghe, S. G. Wojcicki, J. Wolcott, W. Wu, Y. Xiao, A. Yallappa Dombara, A. Yankelevich, K. Yonehara, S. Yu, Y. Yu, S. Zadorozhnyy, J. Zalesak, Y. Zhang, and R. Zwaska [hide authors].

We present new $\nu_\mu\rightarrow\nu_e$, $\nu_\mu\rightarrow\nu_\mu$, $\overline{\nu}_\mu\rightarrow\overline{\nu}_e$, and $\overline{\nu}_\mu\rightarrow\overline{\nu}_\mu$ oscillation measurements by the NOvA experiment, with a 50% increase in neutrino-mode beam exposure over the previously reported results. The additional data, combined with previously published neutrino and antineutrino data, are all analyzed using improved techniques and simulations. A joint fit to the $\nu_e$, $\nu_\mu$, $\overline{\nu}_e$, and $\overline{\nu}_\mu$ candidate samples within the 3-flavor neutrino oscillation framework continues to yield a best-fit point in the normal mass ordering and the upper octant of the $\theta_{23}$ mixing angle, with $\Delta m^{2}_{32} = (2.41\pm0.07)\times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$ and $\sin^2\theta_{23} = 0.57^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$. The data disfavor combinations of oscillation parameters that give rise to a large asymmetry in the rates of $\nu_e$ and $\overline{\nu}_e$ appearance. This includes values of the CP-violating phase in the vicinity of $\delta_\text{CP} = \pi/2$ which are excluded by $>3\sigma$ for the inverted mass ordering, and values around $\delta_\text{CP} = 3\pi/2$ in the normal ordering which are disfavored at 2$\sigma$ confidence.**Combined sensitivity of JUNO and KM3NeT/ORCA to the neutrino mass ordering**

2108.06293 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by KM3NeT Collaboration, [and 277 more]S. Aiello, A. Albert, M. Alshamsi, S. Alves Garre, Z. Aly, A. Ambrosone, F. Ameli, M. Andre, G. Androulakis, M. Anghinolfi, M. Anguita, M. Ardid, S. Ardid, J. Aublin, C. Bagatelas, B. Baret, S. Basegmez du Pree, M. Bendahman, F. Benfenati, E. Berbee, A. M. van den Berg, V. Bertin, S. Biagi, M. Boettcher, M. Bou Cabo, J. Boumaaza, M. Bouta, M. Bouwhuis, C. Bozza, H. Brânzaş, R. Bruijn, J. Brunner, R. Bruno, E. Buis, R. Buompane, J. Busto, B. Caiffi, D. Calvo, S. Campion, A. Capone, V. Carretero, P. Castaldi, S. Celli, M. Chabab, N. Chau, A. Chen, S. Cherubini, V. Chiarella, T. Chiarusi, M. Circella, R. Cocimano, J. A. B. Coelho, A. Coleiro, M. Colomer Molla, R. Coniglione, P. Coyle, A. Creusot, A. Cruz, G. Cuttone, R. Dallier, B. De Martino, I. Di Palma, A. F. Díaz, D. Diego-Tortosa, C. Distefano, A. Domi, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, M. Dörr, D. Drouhin, T. Eberl, A. Eddyamoui, T. van Eeden, D. van Eijk, I. El Bojaddaini, A. Enzenhöfer, V. Espinosa, P. Fermani, G. Ferrara, M. D. Filipovic, F. Filippini, L. A. Fusco, T. Gal, J. García Méndez, A. Garcia Soto, F. Garufi, Y. Gatelet, C. Gatius, N. Geisselbrecht, L. Gialanella, E. Giorgio, S. R. Gozzini, R. Gracia, K. Graf, G. Grella, D. Guderian, C. Guidi, B. Guillon, M. Gutiérrez, J. Haefner, S. Hallmann, H. Hamdaoui, H. van Haren, A. Heijboer, A. Hekalo, L. Hennig, J. J. Hernández-Rey, J. Hofestädt, F. Huang, W. Idrissi Ibnsalih, G. Illuminati, C. W. James, M. de Jong, P. de Jong, B. J. Jung, P. Kalaczynski, O. Kalekin, U. F. Katz, N. R. Khan Chowdhury, G. Kistauri, F. van der Knaap, P. Kooijman, A. Kouchner, V. Kulikovskiy, M. Labalme, R. Lahmann, M. Lamoureux, G. Larosa, C. Lastoria, A. Lazo, R. Le Breton, S. Le Stum, G. Lehaut, O. Leonardi, F. Leone, E. Leonora, N. Lessing, G. Levi, M. Lincetto, M. Lindsey Clark, T. Lipreau, C. Llorens Alvarez, F. Longhitano, D. Lopez-Coto, A. Lygda, L. Maderer, J. Majumdar, J. Mańczak, A. Margiotta, A. Marinelli, C. Markou, L. Martin, J. A. Martínez-Mora, A. Martini, F. Marzaioli, S. Mastroianni, K. W. Melis, G. Miele, P. Migliozzi, E. Migneco, P. Mijakowski, L. S. Miranda, C. M. Mollo, M. Moser, A. Moussa, R. Muller, M. Musumeci, L. Nauta, S. Navas, C. A. Nicolau, B. Nkosi, B. Ó Fearraigh, M. O'Sullivan, M. Organokov, A. Orlando, J. Palacios González, G. Papalashvili, R. Papaleo, A. M. Păun, G. E. Păvălaş, C. Pellegrino, M. Perrin-Terrin, V. Pestel, P. Piattelli, C. Pieterse, O. Pisanti, C. Poirè, V. Popa, T. Pradier, I. Probst, S. Pulvirenti, G. Quéméner, N. Randazzo, S. Razzaque, D. Real, S. Reck, G. Riccobene, A. Romanov, A. Rovelli, F. Salesa Greus, D. F. E. Samtleben, A. Sánchez Losa, M. Sanguineti, D. Santonocito, P. Sapienza, J. Schnabel, M. F. Schneider, J. Schumann, H. M. Schutte, J. Seneca, I. Sgura, R. Shanidze, A. Sharma, A. Sinopoulou, B. Spisso, M. Spurio, D. Stavropoulos, S. M. Stellacci, M. Taiuti, Y. Tayalati, H. Thiersen, S. Tingay, S. Tsagkli, V. Tsourapis, E. Tzamariudaki, D. Tzanetatos, V. Van Elewyck, G. Vasileiadis, F. Versari, D. Vivolo, G. de Wasseige, J. Wilms, R. Wojaczyński, E. de Wolf, T. Yousfi, S. Zavatarelli, A. Zegarelli, D. Zito, J. D. Zornoza, J. Zúñiga, N. Zywucka, JUNO Collaboration members, :, S. Ahmad, J. P. A. M. de André, E. Baussan, C. Bordereau, A. Cabrera, C. Cerna, G. Donchenko, E. A. Doroshkevich, M. Dracos, F. Druillole, C. Jollet, L. N. Kalousis, P. Kampmann, K. Kouzakov, A. Lokhov, B. K. Lubsandorzhiev, S. B. Lubsandorzhiev, A. Meregaglia, L. Miramonti, F. Perrot, L. F. Piñeres Rico, A. Popov, R. Rasheed, M. Settimo, K. Stankevich, H. Steiger, M. R. Stock, A. Studenikin, A. Triossi, W. Trzaska, M. Vialkov, B. Wonsak, J. Wurtz, and F. Yermia [hide authors].

This article presents the potential of a combined analysis of the JUNO and KM3NeT/ORCA experiments to determine the neutrino mass ordering. This combination is particularly interesting as it significantly boosts the potential of either detector, beyond simply adding their neutrino mass ordering sensitivities, by removing a degeneracy in the determination of $\Delta m_{31}^2$ between the two experiments when assuming the wrong ordering. The study is based on the latest projected performances for JUNO, and on simulation tools using a full Monte Carlo approach to the KM3NeT/ORCA response with a careful assessment of its energy systematics. From this analysis, a $5\sigma$ determination of the neutrino mass ordering is expected after 6 years of joint data taking for any value of the oscillation parameters. This sensitivity would be achieved after only 2 years of joint data taking assuming the current global best-fit values for those parameters for normal ordering.**Probing the environments surrounding ultrahigh energy cosmic ray accelerators and their implications for astrophysical neutrinos**

2108.05512 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Marco Stein Muzio, Glennys R. Farrar, and Michael Unger.

We explore inferences on ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) source environments -- constrained by the spectrum and composition of UHECRs and non-observation of extremely high energy neutrinos -- and their implications for the observed high energy astrophysical neutrino spectrum. We find acceleration mechanisms producing power-law CR spectra~$\propto E^{-2}$ are compatible with UHECR data, if CRs at high rigidities are in the quasi-ballistic diffusion regime as they escape their source environment. Both gas-dominated and photon-dominated source environments are able to account for UHECR observations, however photon-dominated sources give a better fit. Additionally, gas-dominated sources are in tension with current neutrino constraints. Accurate measurement of the neutrino flux at $\sim 10$ PeV will provide crucial information on the viability of gas-dominated sources, as well as whether diffusive shock acceleration is consistent with UHECR observations. We also show that UHECR sources are able to give a good fit to the high energy portion of the astrophysical neutrino spectrum, above $\sim$ PeV. This common origin of UHECRs and high energy astrophysical neutrinos is natural if air shower data is interpreted with the Sibyll2.3c hadronic interaction model, which gives the best-fit to UHECRs and astrophysical neutrinos in the same part of parameter space, but not for EPOS-LHC.**The potential of CMS as a high-energy neutrino scattering experiment**

2108.05370 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Patrick Foldenauer, Felix Kling, and Peter Reimitz.

With its enormous number of produced neutrinos the LHC is a prime facility to study the behaviour of high-energy neutrinos. In this paper we propose a novel search strategy for identifying neutrino scattering via displaced appearing jets in the high granularity calorimeter (HGCAL) of the CMS endcap in the high luminosity run of the LHC. We demonstrate in a cut-and-count based analysis how the enormous hadronic background can be reduced while keeping most of the neutrino signal. This paper serves as a proof-of-principle study to illustrate the feasibility of the first direct observation of high-energetic neutrinos coming from $W$ decays.**Searches for light dark matter using condensed matter systems**

2108.03239 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yonatan Kahn and Tongyan Lin.

Identifying the nature of dark matter (DM) has long been a pressing question for particle physics. In the face of ever-more-powerful exclusions and null results from large-exposure searches for TeV-scale DM interacting with nuclei, a significant amount of attention has shifted to lighter (sub-GeV) DM candidates. Direct detection of the light dark matter in our galaxy by observing DM scattering off a target system requires new approaches compared to prior searches. Lighter DM particles have less available kinetic energy, and achieving a kinematic match between DM and the target mandates the proper treatment of collective excitations in condensed matter systems, such as charged quasiparticles or phonons. In this context, the condensed matter physics of the target material is crucial, necessitating an interdisciplinary approach. In this review, we provide a self-contained introduction to direct detection of keV--GeV DM with condensed matter systems. We give a brief survey of dark matter models and basics of condensed matter, while the bulk of the review deals with the theoretical treatment of DM-nucleon and DM-electron interactions. We also review recent experimental developments in detector technology, and conclude with an outlook for the field of sub-GeV DM detection over the next decade.**First results from a search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$ν$NS) at a reactor site**

2108.02880 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. Colaresi, [and 6 more]J. I. Collar, T. W. Hossbach, A. R. L. Kavner, C. M. Lewis, A. E. Robinson, and K. M. Yocum [hide authors].

The deployment of a low-noise 3 kg p-type point contact germanium detector at the Dresden-II power reactor, 8 meters from its 2.96 GW$_{th}$ core, is described. This location provides an unprecedented (anti)neutrino flux of 8.1$\times 10^{13} ~\bar{\nu_{e}}/$cm$^{2}$s. When combined with the 0.2 keV$_{ee}$ detector threshold achieved, a first measurement of CE$\nu$NS from a reactor source appears to be within reach. We report on the characterization and abatement of backgrounds during initial runs, deriving improved limits on extensions of the Standard Model involving a light vector mediator, from preliminary data.**Searching for a Galactic component in the IceCube track-like neutrino events**

2108.01805 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gregory S. Vance, [and 3 more]Kimberly L. Emig, Cecilia Lunardini, and Rogier A. Windhorst [hide authors].

Searches for spatial associations between high-energy neutrinos observed at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory and known astronomical objects may hold the key to establishing the neutrinos' origins and the origins of hadronic cosmic rays. While extragalactic sources like the blazar TXS 0506+056 merit significant attention, Galactic sources may also represent part of the puzzle. Here, we explore whether open clusters and supernova remnants in the Milky Way contribute measurably to the IceCube track-like neutrino events above 200 TeV. By searching for positional coincidences with catalogs of known astronomical objects, we can identify and investigate neutrino events whose origins are potentially Galactic. We use Monte Carlo randomization together with models of the Galactic plane in order to determine whether these coincidences are more likely to be causal associations or random chance. In all analyses presented, the number of coincidences detected was found to be consistent with the null hypothesis of chance coincidence. Our results imply that the combined contribution of Galactic open clusters and supernova remnants to the track-like neutrino events detected at IceCube is well under 30%. This upper limit is compatible with the results presented in other Galactic neutrino studies.**Re-examination of the Time Structure of the SN1987A Neutrino Burst Data in Kamiokande-II**

2108.01783 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yuichi Oyama.

The seven seconds' gap in the Kamiokande-II SN1987A neutrino data is reexamined.**The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND) Project**

2108.00032 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kumiko Kotera.

The GRAND project aims to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, cosmic rays and gamma rays, with an array of $200,000$ radio antennas over $200,000\,{\rm km}^2$, split into $\sim 20$ sub-arrays of $\sim 10,000\,{\rm km}^2$ deployed worldwide. The strategy of GRAND is to detect air showers above $10^{17}\,$eV that are induced by the interaction of ultra-high-energy particles in the atmosphere or in the Earth crust, through its associated coherent radio-emission in the $50-200\,$MHz range. In its final configuration, GRAND plans to reach a neutrino-sensitivity of $\sim 10^{-10}\,{\rm GeV}\,{\rm cm}^{-2}\,{\rm s}^{-1}\,{\rm sr}^{-1}$ above $5\times 10^{17}\,$eV combined with a sub-degree angular resolution. GRANDProto300, the 300-antenna pathfinder array, is planned to start data-taking in 2021. It aims at demonstrating autonomous radio detection of inclined air-showers, and study cosmic rays around the transition between Galactic and extra-Galactic sources. We present preliminary designs and simulation results, plans for the ongoing, staged approach to construction, and the rich research program made possible by the proposed sensitivity and angular resolution.**Search for neutrino non-standard interactions with ANTARES and KM3NeT-ORCA**

2107.14296 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. J. Hernández Rey, [and 4 more]N. R. Khan Chowdhury, J. Manczak, S. Navas, and J. D. Zornoza [hide authors].

Non-standard interactions (NSIs) in the propagation of neutrinos in matter can lead to significant deviations in neutrino oscillations expected within the standard 3-neutrino framework. These additional interactions would result in an anomalous flux of neutrinos observable at neutrino telescopes. The ANTARES detector and its next-generation successor, KM3NeT, located in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea, have the potential to measure sub-dominant effects in neutrino oscillations, coming from non-standard neutrino interactions. In this contribution, a likelihood-based search for NSIs with 10 years of atmospheric muon-neutrino data recorded with ANTARES is reported and sensitivity projections for KM3NeT/ORCA, based on realistic detector simulations, are shown. The bounds obtained with ANTARES in the NSI $\mu - \tau$ sector constitute the most stringent limits up to date.**Recent Progress in Solar Atmospheric Neutrino Searches with IceCube**

2107.13696 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joshua Villarreal, Gerrit Roellinghoff, and Jeffrey Lazar.

Cosmic-rays interacting with nucleons in the solar atmosphere produce a cascade of particles that give rise to a flux of high-energy neutrinos and gamma-rays. Fermi has observed this gamma-ray flux; however, the associated neutrino flux has escaped observation. In this contribution, we put forward two strategies to detect these neutrinos, which, if seen, would push forward our understanding of the solar atmosphere and provide a new testing ground of neutrino properties. First, we will extend the previous analysis, which used high-energy through-going muon events collected in the years of maximum solar activity and yielded only flux upper limits, to include data taken during the solar minimum from 2018 to 2020. Extending the analysis to the solar minimum is important as the gamma-ray data collected during past solar cycles indicates a possible enhancement in the high-energy neutrino flux. Second, we will incorporate sub-TeV events and include contributions from all neutrino flavors. These will improve our analysis sensitivity since the solar atmospheric spectrum is soft and, due to oscillation, contains significant contributions of all neutrino flavors. As we will present in this contribution, these complementary strategies yield a significant improvement in sensitivity, making substantial progress towards observing this flux.**Probing Secret Interactions of Astrophysical Neutrinos in the High-Statistics Era**

2107.13568 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Esteban, [and 3 more]Sujata Pandey, Vedran Brdar, and John F. Beacom [hide authors].

Do neutrinos have sizable self-interactions? They might. Laboratory constraints are weak, so strong effects are possible in astrophysical environments and the early universe. Observations with neutrino telescopes can provide an independent probe of neutrino self ("secret") interactions, as the sources are distant and the cosmic neutrino background intervenes. We define a roadmap for making decisive progress on testing secret neutrino interactions governed by a light mediator. This progress will be enabled by IceCube-Gen2 observations of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. Critical to this is our comprehensive treatment of the theory, taking into account previously neglected or overly approximated effects, as well as including realistic detection physics. We show that IceCube-Gen2 can realize the full potential of neutrino astronomy for testing neutrino self-interactions, being sensitive to cosmologically relevant interaction models. To facilitate forthcoming studies, we release nuSIProp, a code that can also be used to study neutrino self-interactions from a variety of sources.**JUNO's prospects for determining the neutrino mass ordering**

2107.12410 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by David V. Forero, [and 3 more]Stephen J. Parke, Christoph A. Ternes, and Renata Zukanovich Funchal [hide authors].

The flagship measurement of the JUNO experiment is the determination of the neutrino mass ordering. Here we revisit its prospects to make this determination by 2030, using the current global knowledge of the relevant neutrino parameters as well as current information on the reactor configuration and the critical parameters of the JUNO detector. We pay particular attention to the non-linear detector energy response. Using the measurement of $\theta_{13}$ from Daya Bay, but without information from other experiments, we estimate the probability of JUNO determining the neutrino mass ordering at $\ge$ 3$\sigma$ to be 31% by 2030. As this probability is particularly sensitive to the true values of the oscillation parameters, especially $\Delta m^2_{21}$, JUNO's improved measurements of $\sin^2 \theta_{12}$, $\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $|\Delta m^2_{ee}|$, obtained after a couple of years of operation, will allow an updated estimate of the probability that JUNO alone can determine the neutrino mass ordering by the end of the decade. Combining JUNO's measurement of $|\Delta m^2_{ee}|$ with other experiments in a global fit will most likely lead to an earlier determination of the mass ordering.**Symmetry Finder applied to the 1-3 mass eigenstate exchange symmetry**

2107.12086 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

In a previous paper, Symmetry Finder (SF) method is proposed to find the reparametrization symmetry of the state-exchange type in neutrino oscillation in matter. It has been applied successfully to the 1-2 state exchange symmetry in the DMP perturbation theory, yielding the eight symmetries. In this paper, we apply the SF method to the atmospheric-resonance perturbation theory to uncover the 1-3 state relabeling symmetries. The pure 1-3 state symmetry takes the unique position that it is practically impossible to formulate in vacuum under the conventional choice of the flavor mixing matrix. In contrast, our SF method produces the sixteen 1-3 state exchange symmetries in matter. The relationship between the symmetries in the original (vacuum plus matter) Hamiltonian and the ones in the diagonalized system is discussed.**Ultralight bosons for strong gravity applications from simple Standard Model extensions**

2107.09493 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Felipe F. Freitas, [and 7 more]Carlos A. R. Herdeiro, António P. Morais, António Onofre, Roman Pasechnik, Eugen Radu, Nicolas Sanchis-Gual, and Rui Santos [hide authors].

We construct families, and concrete examples, of simple extensions of the Standard Model that can yield ultralight {real or} complex vectors or scalars with potential astrophysical relevance. Specifically, the mass range for these putative fundamental bosons ($\sim 10^{-10}-10^{-20}$ eV) would lead dynamically to both new non-black hole compact objects (bosonic stars) and new non-Kerr black holes, with masses of $\sim M_\odot$ to $\sim 10^{10} M_\odot$, corresponding to the mass range of astrophysical black hole candidates (from stellar mass to supermassive). For each model, we study the properties of the mass spectrum and interactions after spontaneous symmetry breaking, discuss its theoretical viability and caveats, as well as some of its potential and most relevant phenomenological implications {linking them to the} physics of compact objects.**Searching for High-Energy Neutrinos from Core-Collapse Supernovae with IceCube**

2107.09317 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jannis Necker.

IceCube is a cubic kilometer neutrino detector array in the Antarctic ice that was designed to search for astrophysical, high-energy neutrinos. It has detected a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos that appears to be of extragalactic origin. A possible contribution to this diffuse flux could stem from core-collapse supernovae. The high-energy neutrinos could either come from the interaction of the ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium or a jet, emanating from the star's core, that stalls in the star's envelope. Here, we will present results of a stacking analysis to search for this high-energy neutrino emission from core-collapse supernovae using 7 years of $\nu_\mu$ track events from IceCube.**The Future of Solar Neutrinos**

2107.08613 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by G. D. Orebi Gann, [and 3 more]K. Zuber, D. Bemmerer, and A. Serenelli [hide authors].

In this article we review the current state of the field of solar neutrinos, including flavour oscillations, non-standard effects, solar models, cross section measurements, and the broad experimental program thus motivated and enabled. We discuss the historical discoveries that contributed to current knowledge, and define critical open questions to be addressed in the next decade. We discuss the state of the art of standard solar models, including uncertainties and problems related to the solar composition, and review experimental and model solar neutrino fluxes, including future prospects. We review the state of the art of the nuclear reaction data relevant for solar fusion in the proton-proton chain and carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle. Finally, we review the current and future experimental program that can address outstanding questions in this field.**Updated physics performance of the ESSnuSB experiment**

2107.07585 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Alekou, [and 50 more]E. Baussan, N. Blaskovic Kraljevic, M. Blennow, M. Bogomilov, E. Bouquerel, A. Burgman, C. J. Carlile, J. Cederkall, P. Christiansen, M. Collins, E. Cristaldo Morales, L. D'Alessi, H. Danared, J. P. A. M. de André, J. P. Delahaye, M. Dracos, I. Efthymiopoulos, T. Ekelöf, M. Eshraqi, G. Fanourakis, E. Fernandez-Martinez, B. Folsom, M. Ghosh, G. Gokbulut, L. Halić, A. Kayis Topaksu, B. Kliček, K. Krhač, M. Lindroos, M. Mezzetto, M. Oglakci, T. Ohlsson, M. Olvegård, T. Ota, J. Park, G. Petkov, P. Poussot, S. Rosauro-Alcaraz, G. Stavropoulos, M. Stipčević, F. Terranova, J. Thomas, T. Tolba, R. Tsenov, G. Vankova-Kirilova, N. Vassilopoulos, E. Wildner, J. Wurtz, O. Zormpa, and Y. Zou [hide authors].

In this paper, we present the physics performance of the ESSnuSB experiment in the standard three flavor scenario using the updated neutrino flux calculated specifically for the ESSnuSB configuration and updated migration matrices for the far detector. Taking conservative systematic uncertainties corresponding to a normalization error of $5\%$ for signal and $10\%$ for background, we find that there is $10\sigma$ $(13\sigma)$ CP violation discovery sensitivity for the baseline option of 540 km (360 km) at $\delta_{\rm CP} = \pm 90^\circ$. The corresponding fraction of $\delta_{\rm CP}$ for which CP violation can be discovered at more than $5 \sigma$ is $70\%$. Regarding CP precision measurements, the $1\sigma$ error associated with $\delta_{\rm CP} = 0^\circ$ is around $5^\circ$ and with $\delta_{\rm CP} = -90^\circ$ is around $14^\circ$ $(7^\circ)$ for the baseline option of 540 km (360 km). For hierarchy sensitivity, one can have $3\sigma$ sensitivity for 540 km baseline except $\delta_{\rm CP} = \pm 90^\circ$ and $5\sigma$ sensitivity for 360 km baseline for all values of $\delta_{\rm CP}$. The octant of $\theta_{23}$ can be determined at $3 \sigma$ for the values of: $\theta_{23} > 51^\circ$ ($\theta_{23} < 42^\circ$ and $\theta_{23} > 49^\circ$) for baseline of 540 km (360 km). Regarding measurement precision of the atmospheric mixing parameters, the allowed values at $3 \sigma$ are: $40^\circ < \theta_{23} < 52^\circ$ ($42^\circ < \theta_{23} < 51.5^\circ$) and $2.485 \times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2 < \Delta m^2_{31} < 2.545 \times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$ ($2.49 \times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2 < \Delta m^2_{31} < 2.54 \times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$) for the baseline of 540 km (360 km).**Multimessenger Analysis Strategy for Core-Collapse Supernova Search: Gravitational Waves and Low-energy Neutrinos**

2107.02050 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Odysse Halim, [and 6 more]Claudio Casentini, Marco Drago, Viviana Fafone, Kate Scholberg, Carlo Francesco Vigorito, and Giulia Pagliaroli [hide authors].

Core-collapse supernovae are fascinating astrophysical objects for multimessenger studies. Gravitational waves (GWs) are expected to play a role in the supernova explosion mechanism, but their modelling is also challenging due to the stochastic nature of the dynamics and the vast possible progenitors, and moreover, the GW detection from these objects is still elusive with the already advanced detectors. Low-energy neutrinos will be emitted enormously during the core-collapse explosion and can help for the gravitational wave counterpart search. In this work we develop a multi-messenger strategy to search for such astrophysical objects by exploiting a global network of both low-energy neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. First, we discuss how to improve the detection potential of the neutrino sub-network by exploiting the temporal behaviour of a neutrino burst from a core-collapse supernova. We show that with the proposed approach neutrino detectors can gain at least $10\%$ of detection efficiency at the distance where their efficiency drops. Then, we combine the information provided by GW and neutrino in a multimessenger strategy. In particular, we obtain an increase of the probability to detect the GW signal from a CCSN at $60$ kpc from zero when using only GW analysis to $\sim 33\%$ with our combined GW-$\nu$ approach. Keywords: multimessenger, supernova, core-collapse, low-energy neutrino, gravitational wave.**Sensitivity to light sterile neutrino mixing parameters with KM3NeT/ORCA**

2107.00344 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Aiello, [and 247 more]A. Albert, M. Alshamsi, S. Alves Garre, Z. Aly, A. Ambrosone, F. Ameli, M. Andre, G. Androulakis, M. Anghinolfi, M. Anguita, G. Anton, M. Ardid, S. Ardid, J. Aublin, C. Bagatelas, B. Baret, S. Basegmez du Pree, M. Bendahman, F. Benfenati, E. Berbee, A. M. van den Berg, V. Bertin, S. Biagi, M. Bissinger, M. Boettcher, M. Bou Cabo, J. Boumaaza, M. Bouta, M. Bouwhuis, C. Bozza, H. Brânzaş, F. Bretaudeau, R. Bruijn, J. Brunner, R. Bruno, E. Buis, R. Buompane, J. Busto, B. Caiffi, D. Calvo, S. Campion, A. Capone, V. Carretero, P. Castaldi, S. Celli, M. Chabab, N. Chau, A. Chen, S. Cherubini, V. Chiarella, T. Chiarusi, M. Circella, R. Cocimano, J. A. B. Coelho, A. Coleiro, M. Colomer Mollac, R. Coniglione, P. Coyle, A. Creusot, A. Cruz, G. Cuttone, R. Dallier, B. De Martino, M. De Palma, I. Di Palma, A. F. Díaz, D. Diego-Tortosan, C. Distefano, A. Domi, C. Donzaud, D. Dornic, M. Dorr, D. Drouhin, T. Eberl, A. Eddyamoui, T. van Eeden, D. van Eijk, I. El Bojaddaini, D. Elsaesser, A. Enzenhofer, V. Espinosa, P. Fermani, G. Ferrara, M. D. Filipovic, F. Filippini, L. A. Fusco, T. Gal, J. Garcıa Mendez, A. Garcia Soto, F. Garufi, Y. Gatelet, N. Geisselbrecht, L. Gialanella, E. Giorgio, S. R. Gozzini, R. Gracia, K. Graf, G. Grella, D. Guderian, C. Guid, M. Gutierrez, J. Haefner, S. Hallmann, H. Hamdaoui, H. van Haren, A. Heijboer, A. Hekalo, L. Hennig, J. J. Hernandez-Rey, J. Hofestadt, F. Huang, W. Idrissi Ibnsalih, G. Illuminati, C. W. James, M. de Jong, P. de Jong, B. J. Jung, M. Kadler, P. Kalaczynski, O. Kalekin, U. F. Katz, N. R. Khan Chowdhury, G. Kistauri, F. van der Knaap, P. Kooijman, A. Kouchner, V. Kulikovskiy, R. Lahmann, M. Lamoureux, G. Lara, G. Larosa, C. Lastoria, R. Le Breton, S. Le Stum, O. Leonardi, F. Leone, E. Leonora, N. Lessing, G. Levi, M. Lincetto, M. Lindsey Clark, T. Lipreau, F. Longhitano, D. Lopez-Coto, A. Lygda, L. Maderer, J. Mańczak, K. Mannheim, A. Margiotta, A. Marinelli, C. Markou, L. Martin, J. A. Martínez-Mora, A. Martini, F. Marzaioli, S. Mastroianni, K. W. Melis, G. Miele, P. Migliozzi, E. Migneco, P. Mijakowski, L. S. Miranda, C. M. Mollo, M. Moser, A. Moussa, R. Muller, M. Musumeci, L. Nauta, S. Navas, C. A. Nicolau, B. Nkosi, B. Ó Fearraigh, M. O'Sullivan, M. Organokov, A. Orlando, J. Palacios González, G. Papalashvili, R. Papaleo, C. Pastore, A. M. Păun, G. E. Păv ălaş, C. Pellegrino, S. Peña Martínez, M. Perrin-Terrin, V. Pestel, P. Piattelli, C. Pieterse, O. Pisanti, C. Poirè, V. Pontoriere, V. Popa, T. Pradier, I. Probst, G. Pühlhofer, S. Pulvirenti, N. Randazzo, S. Razzaque, D. Real, S. Reck, G. Riccobene, A. Romanov, A. Rovelli, F. Salesa Greus, D. F. E. Samtleben, A. Sánchez Losa, M. Sanguineti, A. Santangelo, D. Santonocito, P. Sapienza, J. Schnabel, M. F. Schneider, J. Schumann, H. M. Schutte, J. Seneca, I. Sgura, R. Shanidze, A. Sharma, A. Sinopoulou, B. Spisso, M. Spurio, D. Stavropoulos, S. M. Stellacci, M. Taiuti, F. Tatone, Y. Tayalati, T. Thakore, H. Thiersen, S. Tingay, S. Tsagkli, V. Tsourapis, E. Tzamariudaki, D. Tzanetatos, V. Van Elewyck, G. Vasileiadis, F. Versari, D. Vivolo, G. de Wasseige, J. Wilms, R. Wojaczyński, E. de Wolf, T. Yousfi, S. Zavatarelli, A. Zegarelli, D. Zito, J. D. Zornoza, J. Zúñiga, and N. Zywucka [hide authors].

KM3NeT/ORCA is a next-generation neutrino telescope optimised for atmospheric neutrino oscillations studies. In this paper, the sensitivity of ORCA to the presence of a light sterile neutrino in a 3+1 model is presented. After three years of data taking, ORCA will be able to probe the active-sterile mixing angles $\theta_{14}$, $\theta_{24}$, $\theta_{34}$ and the effective angle $\theta_{\mu e}$, over a broad range of mass squared difference $\Delta m^2_{41} \sim [10^{-5}, 10]$ $\rm{eV}^2$, allowing to test the eV-mass sterile neutrino hypothesis as the origin of short baseline anomalies, as well as probing the hypothesis of a very light sterile neutrino, not yet constrained by cosmology. ORCA will be able to explore a relevant fraction of the parameter space not yet reached by present measurements.**Model-independent test of T violation in neutrino oscillations**

2106.16099 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Schwetz and Alejandro Segarra.

We propose a method to establish time reversal symmetry violation at future neutrino oscillation experiments in a largely model-independent way. We introduce a general parametrization of flavour transition probabilities which holds under weak assumptions and covers a large class of new-physics scenarios. This can be used to search for the presence of T-odd components in the transition probabilities by comparing data at different baselines but at the same neutrino energies. We show that this test can be performed already with experiments at three different baselines and might be feasible with experiments under preparation/consideration.**Exploring SMEFT Induced Non-Standard Interactions from COHERENT to Neutrino Oscillations**

2106.15800 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yong Du, [and 4 more]Hao-Lin Li, Jian Tang, Sampsa Vihonen, and Jiang-Hao Yu [hide authors].

We investigate the prospects of next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments DUNE, T2HK and JUNO including TAO within Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT). We also re-interpret COHERENT data in this framework. Considering both charged and neutral current neutrino Non-Standard Interactions (NSIs), we analyse dimension-6 SMEFT operators and derive lower bounds to UV scale $\Lambda$. The most powerful probe is obtained on ${\cal O}_{{ledq}_{1211}}$ with $\Lambda \gtrsim$ 450 TeV due to the electron neutrino sample in T2HK near detector. We find DUNE and JUNO to be complementary to T2HK in exploring different subsets of SMEFT operators at about 25 TeV. We conclude that near detectors play a significant role in each experiment. We also find COHERENT with CsI and LAr targets to be sensitive to new physics up to $\sim$900 GeV.**Testing non-standard neutrino interactions in (anti)-electron neutrino disappearance experiments**

2106.15725 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mariano Chaves, Orlando Luis Goulart Peres, and Pedro Cunha de Holanda.

We search for scalar and tensor non-standard interactions using (anti)-electron neutrino disappearance in oscillation data. We found a slight preference for non-zero CP violation, coming from both tensor and scalar interactions. The preference for CP violation is lead by Daya Bay low-energy data with a significance that reaches $\sim1.7\sigma$ in the global analysis (and $\sim2.1\sigma$ when considering only medium baseline reactors data) compared to the standard neutrino oscillation scenario.**On the most constraining cosmological neutrino mass bounds**

2106.15267 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Eleonora Di Valentino, Stefano Gariazzo, and Olga Mena.

We present here up-to-date neutrino mass limits exploiting the most recent cosmological data sets. By making use of the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature fluctuation and polarization measurements, Supernovae Ia luminosity distances, Baryon Acoustic Oscillation observations and determinations of the growth rate parameter, we are able to set the most constraining bound to date, $\sum m_\nu<0.09$ eV at $95\%$~CL. This very tight limit is obtained without the assumption of any prior on the value of the Hubble constant and highly compromises the viability of the inverted mass ordering as the underlying neutrino mass pattern in nature. The results obtained here further strengthen the case for very large multitracer spectroscopic surveys as unique laboratories for cosmological relics, such as neutrinos: that would be the case of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey and of the Euclid mission.**Resonance refraction and neutrino oscillations**

2106.13829 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alexei Y. Smirnov and Victor B. Valera.

The refraction index and matter potential depend on neutrino energy and this dependence has a resonance character associated to the production of the mediator in the $s-$channel. For light mediators and light particles of medium (background) the resonance can be realized at energies accessible to laboratory experiments. We study properties of the energy dependence of the potential for different C-asymmetries of background. Interplay of the background potential and the vacuum term leads to (i) bump in the oscillation probability in the resonance region, (ii) dip related to the MSW resonance in the background, (iii) substantial deviation of the effective $\Delta m^2$ above the resonance from the low energy value, etc. We considered generation of mixing in the background. Interactions with background shifts the energy of usual MSW resonance and produces new MSW resonances. Searches of the background effects allow us to put bounds on new interactions of neutrinos and properties of the background. We show that explanation of the MiniBooNE excess, as the bump due to resonance refraction, is excluded.**Parameter symmetries of neutrino oscillations in vacuum, matter, and approximation schemes**

2106.12436 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Stephen J. Parke.

Expressions for neutrino oscillations contain a high degree of symmetry, but typical forms for the oscillation probabilities mask these symmetries of the oscillation parameters. We elucidate the $2^7$ parameter symmetries of the vacuum parameters and draw connections to the choice of definitions of the parameters as well as interesting degeneracies. We also show that in the presence of matter an \emph{additional} set of $2^7$ parameter symmetries exist of the matter parameters. Due to the complexity of the exact expressions for neutrino oscillations in matter, numerous approximations have been developed; we show that under certain assumptions, approximate expressions have at most $2^6$ additional parameter symmetries of the matter parameters. We also include one parameter symmetry related to the LMA-Dark degeneracy that holds under the assumption of CPT invariance; this adds one additional factor of two to all of the above cases. Explicit, non-trivial examples are given of how physical observables in neutrino oscillations, such as the probabilities, CP violation, the position of the solar and atmospheric resonance, and the effective $\Delta m^2$'s for disappearance probabilities, are invariant under all of the above symmetries. We investigate which of these parameter symmetries apply to numerous approximate expressions in the literature and show that a more careful consideration of symmetries improves the precision of approximations.**Symmetry Finder: A method for hunting symmetry in neutrino oscillation**

2106.11472 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

Symmetry in neutrino oscillation serves for a better understanding of the physical properties of the phenomenon. We present a systematic way of finding symmetry in neutrino oscillation, which we call Symmetry Finder (SF). By extending the known framework in vacuum into a matter environment, we derive the SF equation, a powerful machinery for identifying symmetry in the system. After learning lessons on symmetry in the Zaglauer-Schwarzer system with a matter equivalent of the vacuum symmetry, we apply the SF method to the Denton et al. (DMP) perturbation theory to first order. We show that the method is so powerful that we uncover the eight reparametrization symmetries with the $1 \leftrightarrow 2$ state exchange in DMP, denoted as IA, IB, $\cdot \cdot \cdot$, IVB, all new except for IA. The transformations consist of the both fundamental and dynamical variables, indicating their equal importance. It is also shown that all the symmetries discussed in this paper can be understood as the Hamiltonian symmetries, which ensures their all-order validity and applicability to varying density matter.**A deuterated liquid scintillator for supernova neutrino detection**

2106.10927 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Bhavesh Chauhan, Basudeb Dasgupta, and Vivek Datar.

For the next galactic supernova, operational neutrino telescopes will measure the neutrino flux several hours before their optical counterparts. Existing detectors, relying mostly on charged current interactions, are mostly sensitive to $\bar{\nu}_e$ and to a lesser extent to $\nu_e$. In order to measure the flux of other flavors ($\nu_{\mu},\bar{\nu}_{\mu},\nu_{\tau},\text{and}~\bar{\nu}_{\tau}$), we need to observe their neutral current interactions with the detector. Such a measurement is not only crucial for overall normalization of the supernova neutrino flux but also for understanding the intricate neutrino oscillation physics. A deuterium based detector will be sensitive to all neutrino flavors. In this paper, we propose a 1 kton deuterated liquid scintillator (DLS) based detector that will see about 435 neutral current events and 170 (108) charged current $\nu_e$ ($\bar{\nu}_e$) events from a fiducial supernova at a distance of 10 kpc from Earth. We explore the possibility of extracting spectral information from the neutral current channel $\overset{\scriptscriptstyle(-)}{\nu} d \rightarrow \overset{\scriptscriptstyle(-)}{\nu}np$ by measuring the quenched kinetic energy of the proton in the final state, where the neutron in the final state is tagged and used to reduce backgrounds. We also discuss the secondary interactions of the recoil neutrons in the detector.**Neutrino As The Dark Force**

2106.08339 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nicholas Orlofsky and Yue Zhang.

We point out a novel role for the Standard Model neutrino in dark matter phenomenology where the exchange of neutrinos generates a long-range potential between dark matter particles. The resulting dark matter self interaction could be sufficiently strong to impact small-scale structure formation, without the need of any dark force carrier. This is a generic feature of theories where dark matter couples to the visible sector through the neutrino portal. It is highly testable with improved decay rate measurements at future $Z$, Higgs, and $\tau$ factories, as well as precision cosmology.**All-flavor constraints on nonstandard neutrino interactions and generalized matter potential with three years of IceCube DeepCore data**

2106.07755 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 373 more]R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, A. A. Alves Jr., N. M. Amin, R. An, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, Y. Ashida, S. Axani, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, C. Bellenghi, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, F. Bontempo, J. Borowka, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, S. Browne, A. Burgman, R. S. Busse, M. A. Campana, C. Chen, D. Chirkin, K. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, H. Erpenbeck, J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, A. R. Fazely, S. Fiedlschuster, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, P. Fürst, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, A. Garcia, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, S. Griswold, M. Gündüz, C. Günther, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, M. Ha Minh, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. A. Harnisch, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, K. Helbing, F. Henningsen, E. C. Hettinger, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, T. Kontrimas, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, N. Lad, C. Lagunas Gualda, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, J. W. Lee, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, M. Lincetto, Q. R. Liu, M. Liubarska, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, T. McElroy, F. McNally, K. Meagher, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, R. Naab, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, J. Necker, L. V. Nguyên, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, L. Paul, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, M. Pittermann, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, B. Pries, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, J. Saffer, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Skrzypek, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, C. Spannfellner, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, F. Tischbein, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, N. Valtonen-Mattila, J. Vandenbroucke, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, P. Weigel, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, M. Weyrauch, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, M. Wolf, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, S. Yu, T. Yuan, and Z. Zhang [hide authors].

We report constraints on nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI) from the observation of atmospheric neutrinos with IceCube, limiting all individual coupling strengths from a single dataset. Furthermore, IceCube is the first experiment to constrain flavor-violating and nonuniversal couplings simultaneously. Hypothetical NSI are generically expected to arise due to the exchange of a new heavy mediator particle. Neutrinos propagating in matter scatter off fermions in the forward direction with negligible momentum transfer. Hence the study of the matter effect on neutrinos propagating in the Earth is sensitive to NSI independently of the energy scale of new physics. We present constraints on NSI obtained with an all-flavor event sample of atmospheric neutrinos based on three years of IceCube DeepCore data. The analysis uses neutrinos arriving from all directions, with reconstructed energies between 5.6 GeV and 100 GeV. We report constraints on the individual NSI coupling strengths considered singly, allowing for complex phases in the case of flavor-violating couplings. This demonstrates that IceCube is sensitive to the full NSI flavor structure at a level competitive with limits from the global analysis of all other experiments. In addition, we investigate a generalized matter potential, whose overall scale and flavor structure are also constrained.**Aspects of gravitational decoherence in neutrino lensing**

2106.07671 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Himanshu Swami, Kinjalk Lochan, and Ketan M. Patel.

We study decoherence effects in neutrino flavour oscillations in curved spacetime with particular emphasis on the lensing in a Schwarzschild geometry. Assuming Gaussian wave packets for neutrinos, we argue that the decoherence length derived from the exponential suppression of the flavour transition amplitude depends on the proper time of the geodesic connecting the events of the production and detection in general gravitational setting. In the weak gravity limit, the proper time between two events of given proper distance is smaller than that in the flat spacetime. Therefore, in presence of a Schwarzschild object, the neutrino wave packets have to travel relatively more physical distance in space to lapse the same amount of proper time before they decoher. For non-radial propagation applicable to the lensing phenomena, we show that the decoherence, in general, is sensitive to the absolute values of neutrino masses as well as the classical trajectories taken by neutrinos between the source and detector along with the spatial widths of neutrino wave packets. At distances beyond the decoherence length, the probability of neutrino flavour transition due to lensing attains a value which depends only on the leptonic mixing parameters. Hence, the observability of neutrino lensing significantly depends on these parameters and in-turn the lensing can provide useful information about them.**Sterile Neutrinos**

2106.05913 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Basudeb Dasgupta and Joachim Kopp.

Neutrinos, being the only fermions in the Standard Model of Particle Physics that do not possess electromagnetic or color charges, have the unique opportunity to communicate with fermions outside the Standard Model through mass mixing. Such Standard Model-singlet fermions are generally referred to as "sterile neutrinos''. In this review article, we discuss the theoretical and experimental motivation for sterile neutrinos, as well as their phenomenological consequences. With the benefit of hindsight in 2020, we point out potentially viable and interesting ideas. We focus in particular on sterile neutrinos that are light enough to participate in neutrino oscillations, but we also comment on the benefits of introducing heavier sterile states. We discuss the phenomenology of eV-scale sterile neutrinos in terrestrial experiments and in cosmology, we survey the global data, and we highlight various intriguing anomalies. We also expose the severe tension that exists between different data sets and prevents a consistent interpretation of the global data in at least the simplest sterile neutrino models. We discuss non-minimal scenarios that may alleviate some of this tension. We briefly review the status of keV-scale sterile neutrinos as dark matter and the possibility of explaining the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe through leptogenesis driven by yet heavier sterile neutrinos.**Impact of Improved Energy Resolution on DUNE sensitivity to Neutrino Non-Standard Interactions**

2106.04597 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sabya Sachi Chatterjee, P. S. Bhupal Dev, and Pedro A. N. Machado.

The full physics potential of the next-generation Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is still being explored. In particular, there have been some recent studies on the possibility of improving DUNE's neutrino energy reconstruction. The main motivation is that a better determination of the neutrino energy in an event-by-event basis will translate into an improved measurement of the Dirac $CP$ phase and other neutrino oscillation parameters. To further motivate studies and improvements on the neutrino energy reconstruction, we evaluate the impact of energy resolution at DUNE on an illustrative new physics scenario, viz. non-standard interactions (NSI) of neutrinos with matter. We show that a better energy resolution in comparison to the ones given in the DUNE conceptual and technical design reports may significantly enhance the experimental sensitivity to NSI, particularly when degeneracies are present. While a better reconstruction of the first oscillation peak helps disentangling standard $CP$ effects from those coming from NSIs, we find that the second oscillation peak also plays a nontrivial role in improving DUNE's sensitivity.**Closing the Neutrino "BSM Gap": Physics Potential of Atmospheric Through-Going Muons at DUNE**

2106.01508 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Austin Schneider, [and 3 more]Barbara Skrzypek, Carlos A. Argüelles, and Janet M. Conrad [hide authors].

Many Beyond-Standard Model physics signatures are enhanced in high-energy neutrino interactions. To explore these signatures, ultra-large Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube exploit event samples with charged current muon neutrino interactions > 1 TeV. Most of these interactions occur below the detector volume, and produce muons that enter the detector. However, the large spacing between detectors leads to inefficiency for measuring muons with energies below or near the critical energy of 400 GeV. In response, IceCube has built a densely instrumented region within the larger detector. This provides large samples of well-reconstructed interactions that are contained within the densely instrumented region, extending up to energies of ~50 GeV. This leaves a gap of relatively unexplored atmospheric-neutrino events with energies between 50 GeV and 1 TeV in the ultra-large detectors. In this paper we point out that interesting Beyond Standard Model signatures may appear in this energy window, and that early running of the DUNE far detectors can give insight into new physics that may appear in this range.**New sources of leptonic CP violation at the DUNE neutrino experiment**

2106.00030 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Giarnetti and D. Meloni.

We check the capability of the DUNE neutrino experiment to detect new sources of leptonic CP violation beside the single phase expected in the Standard Model. We illustrate our strategy based on the measurement of CP asymmetries in the case New Physics will show up as Non-Standard neutrino Interactions and sterile neutrino states and show that the most promising one, once the experimental errors are taken into account in both scenarios, is the one related to the $\nu_\mu \to \nu_e$ transition.**Neutrino Oscillations at JUNO, the Born Rule, and Sorkin's Triple Path Interference**

2105.14061 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Patrick Huber, [and 4 more]Hisakazu Minakata, Djordje Minic, Rebekah Pestes, and Tatsu Takeuchi [hide authors].

We argue that neutrino oscillations at JUNO offer a unique opportunity to study Sorkin's triple-path interference, which is predicted to be zero in canonical quantum mechanics by virtue of the Born rule. In particular, we compute the expected bounds on triple-path interference at JUNO and demonstrate that they are comparable to those already available from electromagnetic probes. Furthermore, the neutrino probe of the Born rule is much more direct due to an intrinsic independence from any boundary conditions, whereas such dependence on boundary conditions is always present in the case of electromagnetic probes. Thus, neutrino oscillations present an ideal probe of this aspect of the foundations of quantum mechanics.**The framework for a common origin of $δ_{\rm CKM}$ and $δ_{\rm PMNS}$**

2105.14054 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by João M. Alves, [and 4 more]Francisco J. Botella, Gustavo C. Branco, Fernando Cornet-Gomez, and Miguel Nebot [hide authors].

We analyse a possible connection between CP violations in the quark and lepton sectors, parametrised by the CKM and PMNS phases. If one assumes that CP breaking arises from complex Yukawa couplings, both in the quark and lepton sectors, the above connection is not possible in general, since Yukawa couplings in the two sectors have independent flavour structures. We show that both the CKM and PMNS phases can instead be generated by a vacuum phase in a class of two Higgs doublet models, and in this case a connection may be established. This scenario requires the presence of scalar FCNC at tree level, both in the quark and lepton sectors. The appearance of these FCNC is an obstacle and a blessing. An obstacle since one has to analyse which models are able to conform to the strict experimental limits on FCNC, both in the quark and lepton sectors. A blessing, because this class of models is falsifiable since FCNC arise at a level which can be probed experimentally in the near future, specially in the processes $h\to e^\pm\tau^\mp$ and $t\to h c$. The connection between CP violations in CKM and PMNS is explicitely illustrated in models with Minimal Flavour Violation.**First Dark Matter Search Results From Coherent CAPTAIN-Mills**

2105.14020 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo, [and 49 more]S. Biedron, J. Boissevain, M. Borrego, M. Chavez-Estrada, A. Chavez, J. M. Conrad, R. L. Cooper, A. Diaz, J. R. Distel, J. D'Olivo, E. Dunton, B. Dutta, A. Elliott, D. Evans, D. Fields, J. Greenwood, M. Gold, J. Gordon, E. D. Guarincerri, E. C. Huang, N. Kamp, C. Kelsey, K. Knickerbocker, R. Lake, W. C. Louis, R. Mahapatra, S. Maludze, J. Mirabal, R. Moreno, H. Neog, P. deNiverville, V. Pandey, J. Plata-Salas, D. Poulson, H. Ray, E. Renner, T. J. Schaub, M. H. Shaevitz, D. Smith, W. Sondheim, A. M. Szelc, C. Taylor, W. H. Thompson, M. Tripathi, R. T. Thornton, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, S. Verma, and K. Walker [hide authors].

This paper describes the operation of the Coherent CAPTAIN-Mills (CCM) detector located at the Lujan Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). CCM is a 10-ton liquid argon (LAr) detector located 20 meters from a high flux neutron/neutrino source and is designed to search for sterile neutrinos ($\nu_s$) and light dark matter (LDM). An engineering run was performed in Fall 2019 to study the characteristics of the CCM120 detector by searching for coherent scattering signals consistent with $\nu_s$'s and LDM resulting from $\pi^+$ and $\pi^0$ decays in the tungsten target. New parameter space in a leptophobic dark matter model was excluded for DM masses between $\sim2.0$ and 30 MeV. The lessons learned from this run have guided the development and construction of the new CCM200 detector that will begin operations in 2021 and significantly improve on these searches.**Hot spots in the neutrino flux created by cosmic rays from Cygnus and Vela?**

2105.13378 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Bouyahiaoui, M. Kachelriess, and D. V. Semikoz.

An analysis of 7.5 years of data in the high-energy starting event sample has been recently published by the IceCube collaboration. The hottest spot in a search for neutrino sources was found far above the Galactic plane and is thus, at first sight, difficult to reconcile with a Galactic origin. In this work, we calculate the cosmic ray (CR) density around nearby, young supernova remnants assuming anisotropic diffusion. Combining the obtained CR densities with the matter distribution deduced from extinction maps, we find two prominent hot spots: The one close to the most significant point in the IceCube search for point sources is created by CRs from the Cygnus loop and has an intensity corresponding to two to four neutrino events. Another, more extended one may be caused by CRs from Vela if CR trajectories are sufficiently disturbed by the magnetic field in the shell around the superbubble Loop I.**SN1987A still shining: A Quest for Pseudo-Dirac Neutrinos**

2105.12736 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Martinez-Soler, Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez, and Manibrata Sen.

Ever since the discovery of neutrinos, we have wondered if neutrinos are their own antiparticles. One remarkable possibility is that neutrinos have a pseudo-Dirac nature, predicting a tiny mass difference between active and sterile states. We analyze the neutrino data from SN1987A in the light of active-sterile oscillations and find a mild preference ($\Delta\chi^2\approx 3$) for $\delta m^2=6.31\times 10^{-20}{\rm eV}^2$. Notably, the same data is able to exclude $\delta m^2\sim[2.55,3.01]\times 10^{-20}{\rm eV}^2$ with $\Delta\chi^2> 9$, the tiniest mass differences constrained so far. We further consider the next-generation of experiments and demonstrate their sensitivity exploring the nature of the neutrino mass.**Probing the Particle Spectrum of Nature with Evaporating Black Holes**

2105.10506 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Michael J. Baker and Andrea Thamm.

Photons radiated from an evaporating black hole in principle provide complete information on the particle spectrum of nature up to the Planck scale. If an evaporating black hole were to be observed, it would open a unique window onto models beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. To demonstrate this, we compute the limits that could be placed on the size of a dark sector. We find that observation of an evaporating black hole at a distance of 0.01 parsecs could probe dark sector models containing one or more copies of the Standard Model particles, with any mass scale up to 100 TeV.**Constraining active-sterile neutrino transition magnetic moments at DUNE near and far detectors**

2105.09699 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Schwetz, Albert Zhou, and Jing-Yu Zhu.

We consider the sensitivity of the DUNE experiment to a heavy neutral lepton, HNL (also known as sterile neutrino) in the mass range from a few MeV to a few GeV, interacting with the Standard Model via a transition magnetic moment to the active neutrinos, the so-called dipole portal. The HNL is produced via the upscattering of active neutrinos, and the subsequent decay inside the detector provides a single-photon signal. We show that the tau-neutrino dipole portal can be efficiently probed at the DUNE far detector, using the tau-neutrino flux generated by neutrino oscillations, while the near detector provides better sensitivity to the electron- and muon-neutrino dipole portal. DUNE will be able to explore large regions of currently unconstrained parameter space and has comparable sensitivity to other planned dedicated experiments, such as SHiP. We also comment briefly on the sensitivity to pure HNL mixing with the tau neutrino at the DUNE far detector.**Heavy Neutrino searches through Double-Bang Events at Super-Kamiokande, DUNE, and Hyper-Kamiokande**

2105.09357 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mack Atkinson, [and 4 more]Pilar Coloma, Ivan Martinez-Soler, Noemi Rocco, and Ian M. Shoemaker [hide authors].

A variety of new physics scenarios allow for neutrinos to up-scatter into a heavy neutral lepton state. For a range of couplings and neutrino energies, the heavy neutrino may travel some distance before decaying to visible final states. When both the up-scattering and decay occur within the detector volume, these "double bang" events produce distinctive phenomenology with very low background. In this work, we first consider the current sensitivity at Super-Kamiokande via the atmospheric neutrino flux, and find current data may already provide new constraints. We then examine projected future sensitivity at DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, including both atmospheric and beam flux contributions to double-bang signals.**New Interference Effects from Light Gauge Bosons in Neutrino-Electron Scattering**

2105.09309 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. S. Bhupal Dev, [and 3 more]Doojin Kim, Kuver Sinha, and Yongchao Zhang [hide authors].

We point out that light gauge boson mediators could induce new interference effects in neutrino-electron scattering that can be used to enhance the sensitivity of neutrino-flavor-selective high-intensity neutrino experiments, such as DUNE. We particularly emphasize a destructive interference effect, leading to a deficit between the Standard Model expectation and the experimental measurement of the differential cross-sections, which is prominent only in either the neutrino or the antineutrino mode, depending on the mediator couplings. Therefore, the individual neutrino (or antineutrino) mode could allow for sensitivity reaches superior to the combined analysis, and moreover, could distinguish between different types of gauge boson mediators.**Violation of Equivalence Principle in Neutrino Sector: Probing the Extended Parameter Space**

2105.08744 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Arman Esmaili.

The oscillation of neutrino flavors, due to its interferometry nature, is extremely sensitive to the phase differences developing during the propagation of neutrinos. In this paper we investigate the effect of the Violation of Equivalence Principle (VEP) on the flavor oscillation probabilities of atmospheric and cosmic neutrinos observed at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. Assuming a general parameterization of VEP, dubbed extended parameter space, we show that the synergy between the collected data of high energy atmospheric and cosmic neutrinos severely constrains the VEP parameters. Also, the projected sensitivity of IceCube-Gen2 to VEP parameters is discussed.**First direct neutrino-mass measurement with sub-eV sensitivity**

2105.08533 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Aker, [and 127 more]A. Beglarian, J. Behrens, A. Berlev, U. Besserer, B. Bieringer, F. Block, B. Bornschein, L. Bornschein, M. Böttcher, T. Brunst, T. S. Caldwell, R. M. D. Carney, L. La Cascio, S. Chilingaryan, W. Choi, K. Debowski, M. Deffert, M. Descher, D. Díaz Barrero, P. J. Doe, O. Dragoun, G. Drexlin, K. Eitel, E. Ellinger, R. Engel, S. Enomoto, A. Felden, J. A. Formaggio, F. M. Fränkle, G. B. Franklin, F. Friedel, A. Fulst, K. Gauda, W. Gil, F. Glück, R. Grössle, R. Gumbsheimer, V. Gupta, T. Höhn, V. Hannen, N. Haußmann, K. Helbing, S. Hickford, R. Hiller, D. Hillesheimer, D. Hinz, T. Houdy, A. Huber, A. Jansen, C. Karl, F. Kellerer, J. Kellerer, M. Klein, C. Köhler, L. Köllenberger, A. Kopmann, M. Korzeczek, A. Kovalík, B. Krasch, H. Krause, N. Kunka, T. Lasserre, T. L. Le, O. Lebeda, B. Lehnert, A. Lokhov, M. Machatschek, E. Malcherek, M. Mark, A. Marsteller, E. L. Martin, C. Melzer, A. Menshikov, S. Mertens, J. Mostafa, K. Müller, S. Niemes, P. Oelpmann, D. S. Parno, A. W. P. Poon, J. M. L. Poyato, F. Priester, M. Röllig, C. Röttele, R. G. H. Robertson, W. Rodejohann, C. Rodenbeck, M. Ryšavý, R. Sack, A. Saenz, P. Schäfer, A. Schaller, L. Schimpf, K. Schlösser, M. Schlösser, L. Schlüter, S. Schneidewind, M. Schrank, B. Schulz, A. Schwemmer, M. Šefčík, V. Sibille, D. Siegmann, M. Slezák, M. Steidl, M. Sturm, M. Sun, D. Tcherniakhovski, H. H. Telle, L. A. Thorne, T. Thümmler, N. Titov, I. Tkachev, K. Urban, K. Valerius, D. Vénos, A. P. Vizcaya Hernández, C. Weinheimer, S. Welte, J. Wendel, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wolf, S. Wüstling, W. Xu, Y. -R. Yen, S. Zadoroghny, and G. Zeller [hide authors].

We report the results of the second measurement campaign of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment. KATRIN probes the effective electron anti-neutrino mass, $m_{\nu}$, via a high-precision measurement of the tritium $\beta$-decay spectrum close to its endpoint at $18.6\,\mathrm{keV}$. In the second physics run presented here, the source activity was increased by a factor of 3.8 and the background was reduced by $25\,\%$ with respect to the first campaign. A sensitivity on $m_{\nu}$ of $0.7\,\mathrm{eV/c^2}$ at $90\,\%$ confidence level (CL) was reached. This is the first sub-eV sensitivity from a direct neutrino-mass experiment. The best fit to the spectral data yields $m_{\nu}^2 = (0.26\pm0.34)\,\mathrm{eV^4/c^4}$, resulting in an upper limit of $m_{\nu}<0.9\,\mathrm{eV/c^2}$ ($90\,\%$ CL). By combining this result with the first neutrino mass campaign, we find an upper limit of $m_{\nu}<0.8\,\mathrm{eV/c^2}$ ($90\,\%$ CL).**Cosmological radiation density with non-standard neutrino-electron interactions**

2105.08168 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pablo F. de Salas, [and 4 more]Stefano Gariazzo, Pablo Martínez-Miravé, Sergio Pastor, and Mariam Tórtola [hide authors].

Neutrino non-standard interactions (NSI) with electrons are known to alter the picture of neutrino decoupling from the cosmic plasma. NSI modify both flavour oscillations through matter effects, and the annihilation and scattering between neutrinos and electrons and positrons in the thermal plasma. In view of the forthcoming cosmological observations, we perform a precision study of the impact of non-universal and flavour-changing NSI on the effective number of neutrinos, $N_{eff}$. We present the variation of $N_{eff}$ arising from the different NSI parameters and discuss the existing degeneracies among them, from cosmology alone and in relation to the current bounds from terrestrial experiments. Even though cosmology is generally less sensitive to NSI than these experiments, we find that future cosmological data would provide competitive and complementary constraints for some of the couplings and their combinations.**Neutrinos as a probe of the Universe**

2105.07502 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Luis A. Anchordoqui and Thomas J. Weiler.

A brief essay on how studying neutrinos can help us to better understand the Universe.**Z-Boson Decays into Majorana or Dirac (Heavy) Neutrinos**

2105.06576 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alain Blondel, André de Gouvêa, and Boris Kayser.

We computed the kinematics of Z-boson decay into a heavy-light neutrino pair when the Z-boson is produced at rest in electron-positron collisions, including the subsequent decay of the heavy neutrino into a visible final state containing a charged-lepton. We concentrated on heavy-neutrino masses of order dozens of GeV and the issue of addressing the nature of the neutrinos - Dirac fermions or Majorana fermions. We find that while it is not possible to tell the nature of the heavy and light neutrinos on an event-by-event basis, the nature of the neutrinos can nonetheless be inferred given a large-enough sample of heavy-light neutrino pairs. We identify two observables sensitive to the nature of neutrinos. One is the forward-backward asymmetry of the daughter-charged-leptons. This asymmetry is exactly zero if the neutrinos are Majorana fermions and is non-zero (and opposite) for positively- and negatively-charged daughter-leptons if the neutrinos are Dirac fermions. The other observable is the polarization of the heavy neutrino, imprinted in the laboratory-frame energy distribution of the daughter-charged-leptons. Dirac neutrinos and antineutrinos produced in electron-positron collisions at the Z-pole are strongly polarized while Majorana neutrinos are at most as polarized as the $Z$-bosons.**Global constraints on neutral-current generalized neutrino interactions**

2105.06484 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by F. J. Escrihuela, [and 3 more]L. J. Flores, O. G. Miranda, and Javier Rendón [hide authors].

We study generalized neutrino interactions (GNI) for several neutrino processes, including neutrinos from electron-positron collisions, neutrino-electron scattering, and neutrino deep inelastic scattering. We constrain scalar, pseudoscalar, and tensor new physics effective couplings, based on the standard model effective field theory at low energies. We have performed a global analysis for the different effective couplings. We also present the different individual constraints for each effective parameter (scalar, pseudoscalar, and tensor). Being a global analysis, we show robust resul