**Rotations of the polarization of a gravitational wave propagating in Universe**

2010.09224 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jia-Xi Feng, Fu-Wen Shu, and Anzhong Wang.

In this paper, we study the polarization of a gravitational wave (GW) emitted by an astrophysical source at a cosmic distance propagating through the Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walk universe. By considering the null geodesic deviations, we first provide a definition of the polarization of the GW in terms of the Weyl scalars with respect to a parallelly-transported frame along the null geodesics, and then show explicitly that, due to different effects of the expansion of the universe on the two polarization modes, the so-called "+" and "$\times$" modes, the polarization angle of the GW changes generically, when it is propagating through the curved background. By direct computations of the polarization angle, we show that different epochs, radiation-, matter- and $\Lambda$-dominated, have different effects on the polarization. In particular, for a GW emitted by a binary system, we find explicitly the relation between the change of the polarization angle $|\Delta \varphi|$ and the redshift $z_s$ of the source in different epochs. In the $\Lambda$CDM model, we find that the order of $|\Delta \varphi|{\eta_0 F}$ is typically $O(10^{-3})$ to $O(10^3)$, depending on the values of $z_s$, where $\eta_0$ is the (comoving) time of the current universe, and $F\equiv\Big(\frac{5}{256}\frac{1}{\tau_{obs}}\Big)^{3/8}\left(G_NM_c\right)^{-5/8}$ with $\tau_{obs}$ and $M_c$ being, respectively, the time to coalescence in the observer's frame and the chirp mass of the binary system.**Astronomy with energy dependent flavour ratios of extragalactic neutrinos**

2010.07336 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Siddhartha Karmakar, Sujata Pandey, and Subhendu Rakshit.

High energy astrophysical neutrinos interacting with ultralight dark matter (DM) can undergo flavour oscillations that induce an energy dependence in the flavour ratios. Such a dependence on the neutrino energy will reflect in the track to shower ratio in neutrino telescopes like IceCube or KM3NeT. This opens up a possibility to study DM density profiles of astrophysical objects like AGN, GRB etc., which are the suspected sources of such neutrinos.**Charged Higgs effects in IceCube: PeV events and NSIs**

2010.05797 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ujjal Kumar Dey, Newton Nath, and Soumya Sadhukhan.

Extensions of the Standard Model with charged Higgs, having a non-negligible coupling with neutrinos, can have interesting implications vis-\`{a}-vis neutrino experiments. Such models can leave their footprints in the ultra-high energy neutrino detectors like IceCube in the form of neutrino non-standard interactions (NSIs) which can also be probed in lower energy neutrino experiments. We consider a model based on the neutrinophilic two-Higgs doublets and study its imprints in the recently reported excess neutrino events in the PeV energy bins at the IceCube. An additional signature of the model is that it also leads to sizeable NSIs. We perform a combined study of the latest IceCube data along with various other constraints arising from neutrino experiments e.g., Borexino, TEXONO, COHERENT, DUNE, and T2HK, together with the limits set by the LEP experiment, and explore the parameter space which can lead to a sizeable NSI.**Stellar Collapse Diversity and the Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background**

2010.04728 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Daniel Kresse, Thomas Ertl, and Hans-Thomas Janka.

The diffuse cosmic supernova neutrino background (DSNB) is observational target of the gadolinium-loaded Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector and the forthcoming JUNO and Hyper-Kamiokande detectors. Current predictions are hampered by our still incomplete understanding of the supernova (SN) explosion mechanism and of the neutron star (NS) equation of state and maximum mass. In our comprehensive study we revisit this problem on grounds of the landscapes of successful and failed SN explosions obtained by Sukhbold et al. and Ertl et al. with parametrized one-dimensional neutrino engines for large sets of single-star and helium-star progenitors, with the latter serving as proxy of binary evolution effects. Besides considering engines of different strengths, leading to different fractions of failed SNe with black-hole (BH) formation, we also vary the NS mass limit, the spectral shape of the neutrino emission, and include contributions from poorly understood alternative NS-formation channels such as accretion-induced or merger-induced collapse events. Since the neutrino signals of our large model sets are approximate, we calibrate the associated degrees of freedom by using state-of-the-art simulations of proto-neutron star cooling. Our predictions are higher than other recent ones because of a large fraction of failed SNe with long delay to BH formation. Our best-guess model predicts a DSNB electron-antineutrino-flux of 28.8^{+24.6}_{-10.9} cm^{-2}s^{-1} with 6.0^{+5.1}_{-2.1} cm^{-2}s^{-1} in the favorable measurement interval of [10,30] MeV, and 1.3^{+1.1}_{-0.4} cm^{-2}s^{-1} with electron-antineutrino energies > 17.3 MeV, which is roughly a factor of two below the current SK limit. The uncertainty range is dominated by the still insufficiently constrained cosmic rate of stellar core-collapse events.**Assessing the tension between a black hole dominated early universe and leptogenesis**

2010.03565 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez and Jessica Turner.

We perform the first rigorous calculation of black hole induced leptogenesis, demonstrating that there can be an enhancement of the matter-antimatter asymmetry if the right-handed neutrino mass exceeds $10^9{\rm\ GeV}$. We show, however, that primordial black holes of mass $M_i \gtrsim \mathcal{O}\left(10\right)$ kg provide a sufficiently large entropy injection into the early universe plasma to exponentially dilute the baryon asymmetry created from thermal leptogenesis. As such, the intermediate-mass regime of the right-handed neutrinos, $10^6{\rm\ GeV} \lesssim M_{N} \lesssim 10^{9}{\rm\ GeV}$, could not explain the observed baryon asymmetry even for fine-tuned scenarios. Detection of the gravitational waves emitted from the same primordial black holes would place intermediate-scale thermal leptogenesis under tension.**Exoplanets as New Sub-GeV Dark Matter Detectors**

2010.00015 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rebecca K. Leane and Juri Smirnov.

We present exoplanets as new targets to discover Dark Matter (DM), with advantages due to their large expected abundance, low temperatures, and large sizes. Throughout the Milky Way, DM can scatter, become captured, deposit annihilation energy, and increase the heat flow within exoplanets. We estimate upcoming infrared telescope sensitivity to this scenario, finding actionable discovery or exclusion searches. We find that DM with masses above about an MeV can be probed with exoplanets, with DM-proton and DM-electron scattering cross sections down to about $10^{-37}$cm$^2$, stronger than existing limits by up to six orders of magnitude. Supporting evidence of a DM origin can be identified through DM-induced exoplanet heating correlated with Galactic position, and hence DM density. This also allows a potential tracer of DM overdensities. Our results provide new motivation to measure the temperature of the billions of brown dwarfs, rogue planets, and gas giants peppered throughout our Galaxy.**Neutrino oscillation in dark matter with $L_μ-L_τ$**

2009.14703 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Wei Chao, [and 3 more]Yanyan Hu, Siyu Jiang, and Mingjie Jin [hide authors].

In this paper, we study the phenomenology of a Dirac dark matter in the $L_\mu-L_\tau$ model and investigate the neutrino oscillation in the dark halo. Since dark matter couples to the muon neutrino and the tau neutrino with opposite sign couplings, it contributes effective potentials, $\pm A_\chi$, to the evolution equation of the neutrino flavor transition amplitude, which can be significant for high energy neutrino oscillations in a dense dark matter environment. We discuss neutrino masses, lepton mixing angles, Dirac CP phase, and neutrino oscillation probabilities in the dark halo using full numerical calculations. Results show that neutrinos can endure very different matter effects. When the potential $A_\chi$ becomes ultra-large, three neutrino flavors decouple from each other.**Neutrino Oscillation Constraints on U(1)' Models: from Non-Standard Interactions to Long-Range Forces**

2009.14220 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Coloma, M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, and Michele Maltoni.

We quantify the effect of gauge bosons from a weakly coupled lepton flavor dependent $U(1)'$ interaction on the matter background in the evolution of solar, atmospheric, reactor and long-baseline accelerator neutrinos in the global analysis of oscillation data. The analysis is performed for interaction lengths ranging from the Sun-Earth distance to effective contact neutrino interactions. We survey $\sim 10000$ set of models characterized by the six relevant fermion $U(1)'$ charges and find that in all cases, constraints on the coupling and mass of the $Z'$ can be derived. We also find that about 5% of the $U(1)'$ model charges lead to a viable LMA-D solution but this is only possible in the contact interaction limit. We explicitly quantify the constraints for a variety of models including $U(1)_{B-3L_e}$, $U(1)_{B-3L_\mu}$, $U(1)_{B-3L_\tau}$, $U(1)_{B-\frac{3}{2}(L_\mu+L_\tau)}$, $U(1)_{L_e-L_\mu}$, $U(1)_{L_e-L_\tau}$, $U(1)_{L_e-\frac{1}{2}(L_\mu+L_\tau)}$. We compare the constraints imposed by our oscillation analysis with the strongest bounds from fifth force searches, violation of equivalence principle as well as bounds from scattering experiments and white dwarf cooling. Our results show that generically, the oscillation analysis improves over the existing bounds from gravity tests for $Z'$ lighter than $\sim 10^{-8} \to 10^{-11}$ eV depending on the specific couplings. In the contact interaction limit, we find that for most models listed above there are values of $g'$ and $M_{Z'}$ for which the oscillation analysis provides constraints beyond those imposed by laboratory experiments. Finally we illustrate the range of $Z'$ and couplings leading to a viable LMA-D solution for two sets of models.**Experimental tests of sub-surface reflectors as an explanation for the ANITA anomalous events**

2009.13010 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Smith, [and 33 more]D. Z. Besson, C. Deaconu, S. Prohira, P. Allison, L. Batten, J. J. Beatty, W. R. Binns, V. Bugaev, P. Cao, C. Chen, P. Chen, J. M. Clem, A. Connolly, L. Cremonesi, P. Dasgupta, P. W. Gorham, M. H. Israel, T. C. Liu, A. Ludwig, S. Matsuno, C. Miki, J. Nam, A. Novikov, R. J. Nichol, E. Oberla, R. Prechelt, B. F. Rauch, J. Russell, D. Saltzberg, D. Seckel, G. S. Varner, A. G. Vieregg, and S. A. Wissel [hide authors].

The balloon-borne ANITA experiment is designed to detect ultra-high energy neutrinos via radio emissions produced by an in-ice shower. Although initially purposed for interactions within the Antarctic ice sheet, ANITA also demonstrated the ability to self-trigger on radio emissions from ultra-high energy charged cosmic rays interacting in the Earth's atmosphere. For showers produced above the Antarctic ice sheet, reflection of the down-coming radio signals at the Antarctic surface should result in a polarity inversion prior to subsequent observation at the $\sim$35-40 km altitude ANITA gondola. ANITA has published two anomalous instances of upcoming cosmic-rays with measured polarity opposite the remaining sample of $\sim$50 UHECR signals. The steep observed upwards incidence angles (25--30 degrees relative to the horizontal) require non-Standard Model physics if these events are due to in-ice neutrino interactions, as the Standard Model cross-section would otherwise prohibit neutrinos from penetrating the long required chord of Earth. Shoemaker et al. posit that glaciological effects may explain the steep observed anomalous events. We herein consider the scenarios offered by Shoemaker et al. and find them to be disfavored by extant ANITA and HiCal experimental data. We note that the recent report of four additional near-horizon anomalous ANITA-4 events, at $>3\sigma$ significance, are incompatible with their model, which requires significant signal transmission into the ice.**Squeezing the Parameter Space for Lorentz Violation in the Neutrino Sector by Additional Decay Channels**

2009.11947 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ulrich D. Jentschura.

The hypothesis of Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector has intrigued scientists for the last two to three decades. A number of theoretical arguments support the emergence of such violations first and foremost for neutrinos, which constitute the "most elusive" and "least interacting" particles known to mankind. It is of obvious interest to place stringent bounds on the Lorentz-violating parameters in the neutrino sector. In the past, the most stringent bounds have been placed by calculating the probability of neutrino decay into a lepton pair, a process made kinematically feasible by Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector, above a certain threshold. However, even more stringent bounds can be placed on the Lorentz-violating parameters if one takes into account, additionally, the possibility of neutrino splitting, i.e., of neutrino decay into a neutrino of lower energy, accompanied by "neutrino-pair Cerenkov radiation". This process has negligible threshold and can be used to improve the bounds on Lorentz-violating parameters in the neutrino sector. Finally, we take the opportunity to discuss the relation of Lorentz and gauge symmetry breaking, with a special emphasis on the theoretical models employed in our calculations.**Ejection of supermassive black holes and implications for merger rates in fuzzy dark matter haloes**

2009.10167 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Amr El-Zant, Zacharias Roupas, and Joseph Silk.

Fuzzy dark matter (FDM) consisting of ultra-light axions has been invoked to alleviate galactic-scale problems in the cold dark matter scenario. FDM fluctuations, created via the superposition of waves, can impact the motion of a central supermassive black hole (SMBH) immersed in an FDM halo. The SMBH will undergo a random walk, induced by FDM fluctuations, that can result in its ejection from the central region. This effect is strongest in dwarf galaxies, accounting for wandering SMBHs and the low detection rate of AGN in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In addition, a lower bound on the allowed axion masses is inferred both for Sagittarius $A^*$ and heavier SMBH; to avoid ejection from the galactic centres, axion masses of the order of $10^{-22}{\rm eV}$ or lighter are excluded. Stronger limits are inferred for merging galaxies. We find that the event rate of SMBH mergers in FDM haloes and the associated SMBH growth rates can be reduced by at least an order of magnitude.**Imprints of Axion Superradiance in the CMB**

2009.10074 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Diego Blas and Samuel J. Witte.

Light axions ($m_a \lesssim 10^{-10}$ eV) can form dense clouds around rapidly rotating astrophysical black holes via a mechanism known as rotational superradiance. The coupling between axions and photons induces a parametric resonance, arising from the stimulated decay of the axion cloud, which can rapidly convert regions of large axion number densities into an enormous flux of low-energy photons. In this work we consider the phenomenological implications of a superradiant axion cloud undergoing resonant decay. We show that the low energy photons produced from such events will be absorbed over cosmologically short distances, potentially inducing massive shockwaves that heat and ionize the IGM over Mpc scales. These shockwaves may leave observable imprints in the form of anisotropic spectral distortions or inhomogeneous features in the optical depth.**Ultralight Bosonic Field Mass Bounds from Astrophysical Black Hole Spin**

2009.07206 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Matthew J. Stott.

Black Hole measurements have grown significantly in the new age of gravitation wave astronomy from LIGO observations of binary black hole mergers. As yet unobserved massive ultralight bosonic fields represent one of the most exciting features of Standard Model extensions, capable of providing solutions to numerous paradigmatic issues in particle physics and cosmology. In this work we explore bounds from spinning astrophysical black holes and their angular momentum energy transfer to bosonic condensates which can form surrounding the black hole via superradiant instabilities. Using recent analytical results we perform a simplified analysis with a generous ensemble of black hole parameter measurements where we find superradiance very generally excludes bosonic fields in the mass ranges; spin-0: ${\scriptsize \{ 3.8\times10^{-14}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_0 \leq 3.4\times10^{-11}\ {\rm eV}, 5.5\times10^{-20}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_0 \leq 1.3\times10^{-16}\ {\rm eV}, 2.5\times10^{-21}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_0 \leq 1.2\times10^{-20}\ {\rm eV}\}}$, spin-1: ${\scriptsize \{ 6.2\times10^{-15}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_1 \leq 3.9\times10^{-11}\ {\rm eV}, 2.8\times10^{-22}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_1 \leq 1.9\times10^{-16}\ {\rm eV} \}}$ and spin-2: ${\scriptsize \{ 2.2\times10^{-14}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_2 \leq 2.8\times10^{-11}\ {\rm eV}, 1.8\times10^{-20}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_2 \leq 1.8\times10^{-16}\ {\rm eV}, 6.4\times10^{-22}\ {\rm eV} \leq \mu_2 \leq 7.7\times10^{-21}\ {\rm eV} \}}$ respectively. We also explore these bounds in the context of specific phenomenological models, specifically the QCD axion, M-theory models and fuzzy dark matter sitting at the edges of current limits. In particular we include recent measurements of event GW190521 and M87* used to constrain both the masses and decay constants of axion like fields. Finally we comment a simple example of a spectrum of fields for the spin-0 and spin-1 cases.**Constraints on neutrino non-standard interactions from LHC data with large missing transverse momentum**

2009.06668 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by DianYu Liu, ChuanLe Sun, and Jun Gao.

The possible non-standard interactions (NSIs) of neutrinos with matter plays important role in the global determination of neutrino properties. In our study we select various data sets from LHC measurements at 13 TeV with integrated luminosities of $35 \sim 139$ fb$^{-1}$, including production of a single jet, photon, $W/Z$ boson, or charged lepton accompanied with large missing transverse momentum. We derive constraints on neutral-current NSIs with quarks imposed by different data sets in a framework of either effective operators or simplified $Z'$ models. We use theoretical predictions of productions induced by NSIs at next-to-leading order in QCD matched with parton showering which stabilize the theory predictions and result in more robust constraints. In a simplified $Z'$ model we obtain a 95\% CLs upper limit on the conventional NSI strength $\epsilon$ of 0.042 and 0.0028 for a $Z'$ mass of 0.2 and 2 TeV respectively. We also discuss possible improvements from future runs of LHC with higher luminosities.**Cosmic String Interpretation of NANOGrav Pulsar Timing Data**

2009.06555 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by John Ellis and Marek Lewicki.

Pulsar timing data used to provide upper limits on a possible stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB). However, the NANOGrav Collaboration has recently reported strong evidence for a stochastic common-spectrum process, which we interpret as a SGWB in the framework of cosmic strings. The possible NANOGrav signal would correspond to a string tension $G\mu \in (4 \times 10^{-11}, 10^{-10}) $ at the 68% confidence level, with a different frequency dependence from supermassive black hole mergers. The SGWB produced by cosmic strings with such values of $G\mu$ would be beyond the reach of LIGO, but could be measured by other planned and proposed detectors such as SKA, LISA, TianQin, AION-1km, AEDGE, Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer.**The (ultra) light in the dark: A potential vector boson of $8.7\times 10^{-13}$ eV from GW190521**

2009.05376 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Juan Calderón Bustillo, [and 8 more]Nicolas Sanchis-Gual, Alejandro Torres-Forné, José A. Font, Avi Vajpeyi, Rory Smith, Carlos Herdeiro, Eugen Radu, and Samson H. W. Leong [hide authors].

Advanced LIGO-Virgo reported a short gravitational-wave signal (GW190521) interpreted as a quasi-circular merger of black holes, one populating the pair-instability supernova gap, forming a remnant black hole of $M_f\sim 142 M_\odot$ at a luminosity distance of $d_L \sim 5.3$ Gpc. With barely visible pre-merger emission, however, GW190521 merits further investigation of the pre-merger dynamics and even of the very nature of the colliding objects. We show that GW190521 is consistent with numerically simulated signals from head-on collisions of two (equal mass and spin) horizonless vector boson stars (aka Proca stars), forming a final black hole with $M_f = 231^{+13}_{-17}\,M_\odot$, located at a distance of $d_L = 571^{+348}_{-181}$ Mpc. The favoured mass for the ultra-light vector boson constituent of the Proca stars is $\mu_{\rm V}= 8.72^{+0.73}_{-0.82}\times10^{-13}$ eV. This provides the first demonstration of close degeneracy between these two theoretical models, for a real gravitational-wave event. Confirmation of the Proca star interpretation, which we find statistically slightly preferred, would provide the first evidence for a long sought dark matter particle.**Impact of high energy beam tunes on the sensitivities to the standard unknowns at DUNE**

2009.05061 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jogesh Rout, [and 4 more]Samiran Roy, Mehedi Masud, Mary Bishai, and Poonam Mehta [hide authors].

Even though neutrino oscillations have been conclusively established, there are a few unanswered questions pertaining to leptonic Charge Parity violation (CPV), mass hierarchy (MH) and $\theta_{23}$ octant degeneracy. Addressing these questions is of paramount importance at the current and future neutrino experiments including the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) which has a baseline of 1300 km. In the standard mode, DUNE is expected to run with a {\textit{low energy}} (LE) tuned beam which peaks around the first oscillation maximum ($2-3$ GeV) (and then sharply falls off as we go to higher energies). However, the wide band nature of the beam available at long baseline neutrino facility (LBNF) allows for the flexibility in utilizing beam tunes that are well-suited at higher energies as well. In this work, we utilize a beam that provides high statistics at higher energies which is referred to as the {\textit{medium energy}} (ME) beam. This opens up the possibility of exploring not only the usual oscillation channels but also the $\nu_{\mu} \to \nu_{\tau}$ oscillation channel which was otherwise not accessible. Our goal is to find an optimal combination of beam tune and runtime (with the total runtime held fixed) distributed in neutrino and antineutrino mode that leads to an improvement in the sensitivities of these parameters at DUNE. In our analysis, we incorporate all the three channels ($\nu_{\mu} \to \nu_{e}, \nu_{\mu} \to \nu_{\mu}, \nu_{\mu} \to \nu_{\tau}$) and develop an understanding of their relative contributions in sensitivities at the level of $\Delta \chi^2$. Finally, we obtain the preferred combination of runtime using both the beam tunes as well as neutrino and antineutrino mode that lead to enhanced sensitivity to the current unknowns in neutrino oscillation physics i.e., CPV, MH and $\theta_{23}$ octant.**On the rate of core collapse supernovae in the Milky Way**

2009.03438 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Karolina Rozwadowska, Francesco Vissani, and Enrico Cappellaro.

Several large neutrino telescopes, operating at various sites around the world, have as their main objective the first detection of neutrinos emitted by a gravitational collapse in the Milky Way. The success of these observation programs depends on the rate of supernova core collapse in the Milky Way, $R$. In this work, standard statistical techniques are used to combine several independent results. Their consistency is discussed and the most critical input data are identified. The inference on $R$ is further tested and refined by including direct information on the occurrence rate of gravitational collapse events in the Milky Way and in the Local Group, obtained from neutrino telescopes and electromagnetic surveys. A conservative treatment of the errors yields a combined rate $R=1.63 \pm 0.46$ (100 yr)$^{-1}$; the corresponding time between core collapse supernova events turns out to be $T=61_{-14}^{+24}$~yr. The importance to update the analysis of the stellar birthrate method is emphasized.**Astrophysical hints for magnetic black holes**

2009.03363 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Diptimoy Ghosh, Arun Thalapillil, and Farman Ullah.

We discuss a cornucopia of potential astrophysical signatures and constraints on magnetically charged black holes of various masses. As recently highlighted, being potentially viable astrophysical candidates with immense electromagnetic fields, they may be ideal windows to fundamental physics, electroweak symmetry restoration and non-perturbative quantum field theoretic phenomena. We investigate various potential astrophysical pointers and bounds---including limits on charges, location of stable orbits and horizons in asymptotically flat and asymptotically de Sitter backgrounds, bounds from galactic magnetic fields and dark matter measurements, characteristic electromagnetic fluxes and tell-tale gravitational wave emissions during binary inspirals. Stable orbits around these objects hold an imprint of their nature and in the asymptotically de Sitter case, there is also a qualitatively new feature with the emergence of a stable outer orbit. We consider binary inspirals of both magnetic and neutral, and magnetic and magnetic, black hole pairs. The electromagnetic emissions and the gravitational waveform evolution, along with inter-black hole separation, display distinct features. Many of the astrophysical signatures may be observationally glaring---for instance, even in regions of parameter space where no electroweak corona forms, owing to magnetic fields that are still many orders of magnitude larger than even Magnetars, their consequent electromagnetic emissions will be spectacular during binary inspirals. While adding new results, our discussions also complement works in similar contexts, that have appeared recently in the literature.**Strengthening the bound on the mass of the lightest neutrino with terrestrial and cosmological experiments**

2009.03287 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by The GAMBIT Cosmology Workgroup, [and 14 more]:, Patrick Stöcker, Csaba Balázs, Sanjay Bloor, Torsten Bringmann, Tomás E. Gonzalo, Will Handley, Selim Hotinli, Cullan Howlett, Felix Kahlhoefer, Janina J. Renk, Pat Scott, Aaron C. Vincent, and Martin White [hide authors].

We determine the upper limit on the mass of the lightest neutrino from the most robust recent cosmological and terrestrial data. Marginalising over possible effective relativistic degrees of freedom at early times ($N_\mathrm{eff}$) and assuming normal mass ordering, the mass of the lightest neutrino is less than 0.037 eV at 95% confidence; with inverted ordering, the bound is 0.042 eV. This improves nearly 60% on other recent limits, bounding the mass of the lightest neutrino to be barely larger than the largest mass splitting. We show the impacts of realistic mass models, and different sources of $N_\mathrm{eff}$.**Neutrino telescopes and high-energy cosmic neutrinos**

2009.01919 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Andrea Palladino, Maurizio Spurio, and Francesco Vissani.

In this review paper, we present the main aspects of high-energy cosmic neutrino astrophysics. We begin by describing the generic expectations for cosmic neutrinos, including the effects of propagation from their sources to the detectors. Then we introduce the operating principles of current neutrino telescopes, and examine the main features (topologies) of the observable events. After a discussion of the main background processes, due to the concomitant presence of secondary particles produced in the terrestrial atmosphere by cosmic rays, we summarize the current status of the observations with astrophysical relevance that have been greatly contributed by IceCube detector. Then, we examine various interpretations of these findings, trying to assess the best candidate sources of cosmic neutrinos. We conclude with a brief perspective on how the field could evolve within a few years.**Search for sterile neutrino with light gauge interactions: recasting collider, beam-dump, and neutrino telescope searches**

2008.12598 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yongsoo Jho, [and 3 more]Jongkuk Kim, Pyungwon Ko, and Seong Chan Park [hide authors].

We investigate features of the sterile neutrinos in the presence of a light gauge boson $X^\mu$ that couples to the neutrino sector. The novel bounds on the active-sterile neutrino mixings $| U_{\ell 4} |^2$, especially for tau flavor ($l = \tau$), from various collider and fixed target experiments are explored. Also, taking into account the additional decay channel of the sterile neutrino into a light gauge boson ($\nu_4 \to \nu_\ell e^+ e^-$), we explore and constrain a parameter space for low energy excess in neutrino oscillation experiments.**Constraints on Decaying Sterile Neutrinos from Solar Antineutrinos**

2008.11851 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Matheus Hostert and Maxim Pospelov.

Solar neutrino experiments are highly sensitive to sources of $\nu\to\bar{\nu}$ conversions in the $^8$B neutrino flux. In this work we adapt these searches to non-minimal sterile neutrino models recently proposed to explain the LSND, MiniBooNE, and reactor anomalies. The production of such sterile neutrinos in the Sun, followed the decay chain $\nu_4 \to \nu \phi \to \nu \nu \bar{\nu}$ with a new scalar $\phi$ results in upper limits for the neutrino mixing $|U_{e4}|^2$ at the per mille level. We conclude that a simultaneous explanations of all anomalies is in tension with KamLAND, Super-Kamiokande, and Borexino constraints on the flux of solar antineutrinos. We then present other minimal models that violate parity or lepton number, and discuss the applicability of our constraints in each case. Future improvements can be expected from existing Borexino data as well as from future searches at Super-Kamiokande with added Gd.**Earliest Resolution to the Neutrino Mass Ordering?**

2008.11280 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anatael Cabrera, [and 26 more]Yang Han, Michel Obolensky, Fabien Cavalier, João Coelho, Diana Navas Nicolás, Hiroshi Nunokawa, Laurent Simard, Jianming Bian, Nitish Nayak, Juan Pedro Ochoa-Ricoux, Bedřich Roskovec, Pietro Chimenti, Stefano Dusini, Marco Grassi, Mathieu Bongrand, Rebin Karaparambil, Victor Lebrin, Benoit Viaud, Frederic Yermia, Lily Asquith, Thiago J. C. Bezerra, Jeff Hartnell, Pierre Lasorak, Jiajie Ling, Jiajun Liao, and Hongzhao Yu [hide authors].

We hereby illustrate and numerically demonstrate via a simplified proof of concept calculation tuned to the latest average neutrino global data that the combined sensitivity of JUNO with NOvA and T2K experiments has the potential to be the first fully resolved ($\geq$5$\sigma$) measurement of neutrino Mass Ordering (MO) around 2028; tightly linked to the JUNO schedule. Our predictions account for the key ambiguities and the most relevant $\pm$1$\sigma$ data fluctuations. In the absence of any concrete MO theoretical prediction and given its intrinsic binary outcome, we highlight the benefits of having such a resolved measurement in the light of the remarkable MO resolution ability of the next generation of long baseline neutrino beams experiments. We motivate the opportunity of exploiting the MO experimental framework to scrutinise the standard oscillation model, thus, opening for unique discovery potential, should unexpected discrepancies manifest. Phenomenologically, the deepest insight relies on the articulation of MO resolved measurements via at least the two possible methodologies matter effects and purely vacuum oscillations. Thus, we argue that the JUNO vacuum MO measurement may feasibly yield full resolution in combination to the next generation of long baseline neutrino beams experiments.**Multimessenger Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Coincidence Alerts using HAWC and IceCube sub-threshold Data**

2008.10616 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by H. A. Ayala Solares, [and 449 more]S. Coutu, J. J. DeLaunay, D. B. Fox, T. Grégoire, A. Keivani, F. Krauß, M. Mostafá, K. Murase, C. F. Turley, A. Albert, R. Alfaro, C. Alvarez, J. R. Angeles Camacho, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, K. P. Arunbabu, D. Avila Rojas, E. Belmont-Moreno, C. Brisbois, K. S. Caballero-Mora, A. Carramiñana, S. Casanova, U. Cotti, E. De la Fuente, R. Diaz Hernandez, B. L. Dingus, M. A. DuVernois, M. Durocher, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, C. Espinoza, K. L. Fan, H. Fleischhack, N. Fraija, A. Galván-Gámez, D. Garcia, J. A. García-González, F. Garfias, M. M. González, J. A. Goodman, J. P. Harding, B. Hona, D. Huang, F. Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, P. Huntemeyer, A. Iriarte, A. Jardin-Blicq, V. Joshi, H. León Vargas, J. T. Linnemann, A. L. Longinotti, G. Luis-Raya, J. Lundeen, K. Malone, O. Martinez, I. Martinez-Castellanos, J. Martínez-Castro, J. A. Matthews, P. Miranda-Romagnoli, E. Moreno, L. Nellen, M. Newbold, M. U. Nisa, R. Noriega-Papaqui, A. Peisker, E. G. Pérez-Pérez, C. D. Rho, D. Rosa-González, H. Salazar, F. Salesa Greus, A. Sandoval, A. J. Smith, R. W. Springer, K. Tollefson, I. Torres, R. Torres-Escobedo, F. Ureña-Mena, L. Villaseñor, T. Weisgarber, E. Willox, A. Zepeda, H. Zhou, C. de León, M. G. Aartsen, R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, A. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Günder, M. Gündüz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krückl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, J. Lünemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, T. Meures, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momenté, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, G. Neer, L. V. Nguyen, H. Niederhausen, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, A. O'Murchadha, E. O'Sullivan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, W. Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and M. Zöcklein [hide authors].

The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) and IceCube observatories, through the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) framework, have developed a multimessenger joint search for extragalactic astrophysical sources. This analysis looks for sources that emit both cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays that are produced in photo-hadronic or hadronic interactions. The AMON system is running continuously, receiving sub-threshold data (i.e. data that is not suited on its own to do astrophysical searches) from HAWC and IceCube, and combining them in real-time. We present here the analysis algorithm, as well as results from archival data collected between June 2015 and August 2018, with a total live-time of 3.0 years. During this period we found two coincident events that have a false alarm rate (FAR) of $<1$ coincidence per year, consistent with the background expectations. The real-time implementation of the analysis in the AMON system began on November 20th, 2019, and issues alerts to the community through the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network with a FAR threshold of $<4$ coincidences per year.**Retrieval of energy spectra for all flavor of neutrinos from core-collapse supernova with multiple detectors**

2008.10082 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hiroki Nagakura.

We present a new method by which to retrieve energy spectrum for all flavor of neutrinos from core-collapse supernova (CCSN). In the retrieval process, we do not assume any analytic formulae to express the energy spectrum of neutrinos but rather take a direct way of spectrum reconstruction from the observed data; the Singular Value Decomposition algorithm with a newly developed adaptive energy-gridding technique is adopted. We employ three independent reaction channels having different flavor sensitivity to neutrinos. Two reaction channels, inverse beta decay on proton and elastic scattering on electrons, from a water Cherenkov detector such as Super-Kamiokande (SK) and Hyper-Kamiokande (HK), and a charged current reaction channel with Argon from the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) are adopted. Given neutrino oscillation models, we iteratively search the neutrino energy spectra at the CCSN source until they provide the consistent event counts in the three reaction channels. We test the capability of our method by demonstrating the spectrum retrieval to a theoretical neutrino data computed by our recent three-dimensional CCSN simulation. Although the energy spectrum with either electron-type or electron-type anti-neutrinos at the CCSN source has relatively large error compared to that of other species, the joint analysis with HK + DUNE or SK + DUNE will provide precise energy spectrum of all flavors of neutrinos at the source. Finally, we discuss perspectives for improvements of our method by using neutrino data of other detectors.**Global oscillation data analysis on the $3ν$ mixing without unitarity**

2008.09730 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Zhuojun Hu, [and 3 more]Jiajie Ling, Jian Tang, and TseChun Wang [hide authors].

We present results of a combined analysis in neutrino oscillations without unitarity assumption in the $3\nu$ mixing picture. Constraints on neutrino mixing matrix elements are based on recent data from the reactor, solar and long-baseline accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments. The current data are consistent with the standard $3\nu$ scheme. The precision on different matrix elements can be as good as a few percent at $3\sigma$ CL, and is mainly limited by the experimental statistical uncertainty. The $\nu_e$ related elements are the most precisely measured among all sectors with the uncertainties $<20\%$. The measured leptonic CP violation is very close to the one assuming the standard $3\nu$ mixing. The deviations on normalization and the unitarity triangle closure are confined within $\mathcal{O}(10^{-3})$, $\mathcal{O}(10^{-2})$ and $\mathcal{O}(10^{-1})$, for $\nu_e$, $\nu_{\mu}$ and $\nu_{\tau}$ sectors, respectively. We look forward to the next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments \textit{such as} DUNE, T2HK, and JUNO, especially the precise measurements on $\nu_\tau$ oscillations, to significantly improve the precision of unitarity test on the $3\nu$ mixing matrix.**Neutrinos in a dense medium, CP and CPT violations: Beyond the MSW effect**

2008.08119 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Antonio Capolupo, Salvatore Marco Giampaolo, and Aniello Quaranta.

We present a theory of neutrino oscillations in a dense medium which goes beyond the effective matter potential used in the description of the MSW effect. We show how the purity of the neutrino state is degraded by neutrino interactions with the environment and how neutrino--matter interactions can be a source of decoherence. We present new oscillation formulae for neutrinos interacting with leptons and carry out a numerical analysis which exhibits deviations from the MSW formulae for propagation in dense objects, such as white dwarfs, with energies of order of $1 GeV$. In particular, we show that at high density and/or high neutrino energy, the vanishing transition probabilities derived for MSW effect, are non zero when the scattering is taken into account. Moreover, we analyze CP and CPT symmetry violations due to the scattering term and to the related decoherence effect.**Summary of Workshop on Common Neutrino Event Generator Tools**

2008.06566 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Josh Barrow, [and 22 more]Minerba Betancourt, Linda Cremonesi, Steve Dytman, Laura Fields, Hugh Gallagher, Steven Gardiner, Walter Giele, Robert Hatcher, Joshua Isaacson, Teppei Katori, Pedro Machado, Kendall Mahn, Kevin McFarland, Vishvas Pandey, Afroditi Papadopoulou, Cheryl Patrick, Gil Paz, Luke Pickering, Noemi Rocco, Jan Sobczyk, Jeremy Wolcott, and Clarence Wret [hide authors].

A neutrino community workshop was held at Fermilab in Jan 2020, with the aim of developing an implementation plan for a set of common interfaces to Neutrino Event Generators. This white paper summarizes discussions at the workshop and the resulting plan.**Ultralight Fermionic Dark Matter**

2008.06505 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hooman Davoudiasl, Peter B. Denton, and David A. McGady.

Conventional lore from Tremaine and Gunn excludes fermionic dark matter lighter than a few hundred eV, based on the Pauli exclusion principle. We highlight a simple way of evading this bound with a large number of species that leads to numerous non-trivial consequences. In this scenario there are many distinct species of fermions with quasi-degenerate masses and no couplings to the standard model. Nonetheless, gravitational interactions lead to constraints from measurements at the LHC, of cosmic rays, of supernovae, and of black hole spins and lifetimes. We find that the LHC constrains the number of distinct species, bosons or fermions lighter than $\sim 500$~GeV, to be $N \lesssim 10^{62}$. This, in particular, implies that roughly degenerate fermionic dark matter must be heavier than $\sim 10^{-14}$~eV, which thus relaxes the Tremaine-Gunn bound by $\sim 16$ orders of magnitude. Slightly weaker constraints applying to masses up to $\sim100$ TeV exist from cosmic ray measurements while various constraints on masses $\lesssim10^{-10}$ eV apply from black hole observations. We consider a variety of phenomenological bounds on the number of species of particles. Finally, we note that there exist theoretical considerations regarding quantum gravity which could impose more severe constraints that may limit the number of physical states to $N\lesssim 10^{32}$.**Measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum above $2.5{\times} 10^{18}$ eV using the Pierre Auger Observatory**

2008.06486 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by The Pierre Auger Collaboration, [and 382 more]A. Aab, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, J. M. Albury, I. Allekotte, A. Almela, J. Alvarez Castillo, J. Alvarez-Muñiz, R. Alves Batista, G. A. Anastasi, L. Anchordoqui, B. Andrada, S. Andringa, C. Aramo, P. R. Araújo Ferreira, H. Asorey, P. Assis, G. Avila, A. M. Badescu, A. Bakalova, A. Balaceanu, F. Barbato, R. J. Barreira Luz, K. H. Becker, J. A. Bellido, C. Berat, M. E. Bertaina, X. Bertou, P. L. Biermann, T. Bister, J. Biteau, A. Blanco, J. Blazek, C. Bleve, M. Boháčová, D. Boncioli, C. Bonifazi, L. Bonneau Arbeletche, N. Borodai, A. M. Botti, J. Brack, T. Bretz, F. L. Briechle, P. Buchholz, A. Bueno, S. Buitink, M. Buscemi, K. S. Caballero-Mora, L. Caccianiga, L. Calcagni, A. Cancio, F. Canfora, I. Caracas, J. M. Carceller, R. Caruso, A. Castellina, F. Catalani, G. Cataldi, L. Cazon, M. Cerda, J. A. Chinellato, K. Choi, J. Chudoba, L. Chytka, R. W. Clay, A. C. Cobos Cerutti, R. Colalillo, A. Coleman, M. R. Coluccia, R. Conceição, A. Condorelli, G. Consolati, F. Contreras, F. Convenga, C. E. Covault, S. Dasso, K. Daumiller, B. R. Dawson, J. A. Day, R. M. de Almeida, J. de Jesús, S. J. de Jong, G. De Mauro, J. R. T. de Mello Neto, I. De Mitri, J. de Oliveira, D. de Oliveira Franco, V. de Souza, E. De Vito, J. Debatin, M. del Río, O. Deligny, H. Dembinski, N. Dhital, C. Di Giulio, A. Di Matteo, M. L. Díaz Castro, C. Dobrigkeit, J. C. D'Olivo, Q. Dorosti, R. C. dos Anjos, M. T. Dova, J. Ebr, R. Engel, I. Epicoco, M. Erdmann, C. O. Escobar, A. Etchegoyen, H. Falcke, J. Farmer, G. Farrar, A. C. Fauth, N. Fazzini, F. Feldbusch, F. Fenu, B. Fick, J. M. Figueira, A. Filipčič, T. Fodran, M. M. Freire, T. Fujii, A. Fuster, C. Galea, C. Galelli, B. García, A. L. Garcia Vegas, H. Gemmeke, F. Gesualdi, A. Gherghel-Lascu, P. L. Ghia, U. Giaccari, M. Giammarchi, M. Giller, J. Glombitza, F. Gobbi, F. Gollan, G. Golup, M. Gómez Berisso, P. F. Gómez Vitale, J. P. Gongora, N. González, I. Goos, D. Góra, A. Gorgi, M. Gottowik, T. D. Grubb, F. Guarino, G. P. Guedes, E. Guido, S. Hahn, R. Halliday, M. R. Hampel, P. Hansen, D. Harari, V. M. Harvey, A. Haungs, T. Hebbeker, D. Heck, G. C. Hill, C. Hojvat, J. R. Hörandel, P. Horvath, M. Hrabovský, T. Huege, J. Hulsman, A. Insolia, P. G. Isar, J. A. Johnsen, J. Jurysek, A. Kääpä, K. H. Kampert, B. Keilhauer, J. Kemp, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, M. Köpke, G. Kukec Mezek, B. L. Lago, D. LaHurd, R. G. Lang, M. A. Leigui de Oliveira, V. Lenok, A. Letessier-Selvon, I. Lhenry-Yvon, D. Lo Presti, L. Lopes, R. López, R. Lorek, Q. Luce, A. Lucero, A. Machado Payeras, M. Malacari, G. Mancarella, D. Mandat, B. C. Manning, J. Manshanden, P. Mantsch, S. Marafico, A. G. Mariazzi, I. C. Mariş, G. Marsella, D. Martello, H. Martinez, O. Martínez Bravo, M. Mastrodicasa, H. J. Mathes, J. Matthews, G. Matthiae, E. Mayotte, P. O. Mazur, G. Medina-Tanco, D. Melo, A. Menshikov, K. -D. Merenda, S. Michal, M. I. Micheletti, L. Miramonti, D. Mockler, S. Mollerach, F. Montanet, C. Morello, M. Mostafá, A. L. Müller, M. A. Muller, K. Mulrey, R. Mussa, M. Muzio, W. M. Namasaka, L. Nellen, P. H. Nguyen, M. Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. Niechciol, D. Nitz, D. Nosek, V. Novotny, L. Nožka, A Nucita, L. A. Núñez, M. Palatka, J. Pallotta, M. P. Panetta, P. Papenbreer, G. Parente, A. Parra, M. Pech, F. Pedreira, J. Pękala, R. Pelayo, J. Peña-Rodriguez, J. Perez Armand, M. Perlin, L. Perrone, C. Peters, S. Petrera, T. Pierog, M. Pimenta, V. Pirronello, M. Platino, B. Pont, M. Pothast, P. Privitera, M. Prouza, A. Puyleart, S. Querchfeld, J. Rautenberg, D. Ravignani, M. Reininghaus, J. Ridky, F. Riehn, M. Risse, P. Ristori, V. Rizi, W. Rodrigues de Carvalho, G. Rodriguez Fernandez, J. Rodriguez Rojo, M. J. Roncoroni, M. Roth, E. Roulet, A. C. Rovero, P. Ruehl, S. J. Saffi, A. Saftoiu, F. Salamida, H. Salazar, G. Salina, J. D. Sanabria Gomez, F. Sánchez, E. M. Santos, E. Santos, F. Sarazin, R. Sarmento, C. Sarmiento-Cano, R. Sato, P. Savina, C. Schäfer, V. Scherini, H. Schieler, M. Schimassek, M. Schimp, F. Schlüter, D. Schmidt, O. Scholten, P. Schovánek, F. G. Schröder, S. Schröder, A. Schulz, S. J. Sciutto, M. Scornavacche, R. C. Shellard, G. Sigl, G. Silli, O. Sima, R. Šmída, P. Sommers, J. F. Soriano, J. Souchard, R. Squartini, M. Stadelmaier, D. Stanca, S. Stanič, J. Stasielak, P. Stassi, A. Streich, M. Suárez-Durán, T. Sudholz, T. Suomijärvi, A. D. Supanitsky, J. Šupík, Z. Szadkowski, A. Taboada, A. Tapia, C. Timmermans, O. Tkachenko, P. Tobiska, C. J. Todero Peixoto, B. Tomé, G. Torralba Elipe, A. Travaini, P. Travnicek, C. Trimarelli, M. Trini, M. Tueros, R. Ulrich, M. Unger, M. Urban, L. Vaclavek, M. Vacula, J. F. Valdés Galicia, I. Valiño, L. Valore, A. van Vliet, E. Varela, B. Vargas Cárdenas, A. Vásquez-Ramírez, D. Veberič, C. Ventura, I. D. Vergara Quispe, V. Verzi, J. Vicha, L. Villaseñor, J. Vink, S. Vorobiov, H. Wahlberg, A. A. Watson, M. Weber, A. Weindl, L. Wiencke, H. Wilczyński, T. Winchen, M. Wirtz, D. Wittkowski, B. Wundheiler, A. Yushkov, O. Zapparrata, E. Zas, D. Zavrtanik, M. Zavrtanik, L. Zehrer, A. Zepeda, M. Ziolkowski, and F. Zuccarello [hide authors].

We report a measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays for energies above $2.5 {\times} 10^{18}~$eV based on 215,030 events recorded with zenith angles below $60^\circ$. A key feature of the work is that the estimates of the energies are independent of assumptions about the unknown hadronic physics or of the primary mass composition. The measurement is the most precise made hitherto with the accumulated exposure being so large that the measurements of the flux are dominated by systematic uncertainties except at energies above $5 {\times} 10^{19}~$eV. The principal conclusions are: (1) The flattening of the spectrum near $5 {\times} 10^{18}~$eV, the so-called "ankle", is confirmed. (2) The steepening of the spectrum at around $5 {\times} 10^{19}~$eV is confirmed. (3) A new feature has been identified in the spectrum: in the region above the ankle the spectral index $\gamma$ of the particle flux ($\propto E^{-\gamma}$) changes from $2.51 \pm 0.03~{\rm (stat.)} \pm 0.05~{\rm (sys.)}$ to $3.05 \pm 0.05~{\rm (stat.)} \pm 0.10~{\rm (sys.)}$ before changing sharply to $5.1 \pm 0.3~{\rm (stat.)} \pm 0.1~{\rm (sys.)}$ above $5 {\times} 10^{19}~$eV. (4) No evidence for any dependence of the spectrum on declination has been found other than a mild excess from the Southern Hemisphere that is consistent with the anisotropy observed above $8 {\times} 10^{18}~$eV.**Statistical interpretation of sterile neutrino oscillation searches at reactors**

2008.06083 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Coloma, Patrick Huber, and Thomas Schwetz.

A considerable experimental effort is currently under way to test the persistent hints for oscillations due to an eV-scale sterile neutrino in the data of various reactor neutrino experiments. The assessment of the statistical significance of these hints is usually based on Wilks' theorem, whereby the assumption is made that the log-likelihood is $\chi^2$-distributed. However, it is well known that the preconditions for the validity of Wilks' theorem are not fulfilled for neutrino oscillation experiments. In this work we derive a simple asymptotic form of the actual distribution of the log-likelihood based on reinterpreting the problem as fitting white Gaussian noise. From this formalism we show that, even in the absence of a sterile neutrino, the expectation value for the maximum likelihood estimate of the mixing angle remains non-zero with attendant large values of the log-likelihood. Our analytical results are then confirmed by numerical simulations of a toy reactor experiment. Finally, we apply this framework to the data of the Neutrino-4 experiment and show that the null hypothesis of no-oscillation is rejected at the 2.6\,$\sigma$ level, compared to 3.2\,$\sigma$ obtained under the assumption that Wilks' theorem applies.**A Statistical Analysis of the COHERENT Data and Applications to New Physics**

2008.06062 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Julia Gehrlein.

The observation of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) by the COHERENT collaboration in 2017 has opened a new window to both test Standard Model predictions at relatively low energies and probe new physics scenarios. Our investigations show, however, that a careful treatment of the statistical methods used to analyze the data is essential to derive correct constraints and bounds on new physics parameters. In this manuscript we perform a detailed analysis of the publicly available COHERENT CsI data making use of all available background data. We point out that due to the low statistics of the CsI data Wilks' theorem is not fulfilled in general and a calculation of the $p$ values and confidence regions via Monte Carlo simulations is necessary. As an example for the necessity of this approach to test new physics scenarios we quantify the allowed ranges for several scenarios with neutrino non-standard interactions. We emphasize the effect of binning which can significantly weaken constraints if incorrectly applied. Furthermore, we provide accompanying code to enable an easy implementation of other new physics scenarios as well as data files of our results.**Ultra-high Energy Air Showers Observed by ANITA-IV**

2008.05690 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by ANITA Collaboration, [and 59 more]P. W. Gorham, A. Ludwig, C. Deaconu, P. Cao, P. Allison, O. Banerjee, L. Batten, D. Bhattacharya, J. J. Beatty, K. Belov, W. R. Binns, V. Bugaev, C. H. Chen, P. Chen, Y. Chen, J. M. Clem, L. Cremonesi, B. Dailey, P. F. Dowkontt, B. D. Fox, J. W. H. Gordon, C. Hast, B. Hill, S. Y. Hsu, J. J. Huang, K. Hughes, R. Hupe, M. H. Israel, T. C. Liu, L. Macchiarulo, S. Matsuno, K. McBride, C. Miki, J. Nam, C. J. Naudet, R. J. Nichol, A. Novikov, E. Oberla, M. Olmedo, R. Prechelt, S. Prohira, B. F. Rauch, J. M. Roberts, A. Romero-Wolf, B. Rotter, J. W. Russell, D. Saltzberg, D. Seckel, H. Schoorlemmer, J. Shiao, S. Stafford, J. Stockham, M. Stockham, B. Strutt, M. S. Sutherland, G. S. Varner, A. G. Vieregg, S. H. Wang, and S. A. Wissel [hide authors].

ANITA's fourth long-duration balloon flight in late 2016 detected 29 cosmic-ray (CR)-like events on a background of $0.37^{+0.27}_{-0.17}$ anthropogenic events. CRs are mainly seen in reflection off the Antarctic ice sheets, creating a characteristic phase-inverted waveform polarity. However, four of the below-horizon CR-like events show anomalous non-inverted polarity, a $\sim 3.2\sigma$ fluctuation if due to background. All anomalous events are from locations near the horizon; ANITA-IV observed no steeply-upcoming anomalous events similar to the two such events seen in prior flights.**IceCube-Gen2: The Window to the Extreme Universe**

2008.04323 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by The IceCube-Gen2 Collaboration, [and 435 more]:, M. G. Aartsen, R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, P. Allison, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, T. C. Arlen, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, I. Bartos, B. Bastian, V. Basu, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, M. Bohmer, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, R. T. Burley, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, M. Bustamante, M. A. Campana, E. G. Carnie-Bronca, T. Carver, C. Chen, P. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, A. Connolly, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. Deaconu, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, S. De Kockere, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, J. J. Evans, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, K. Farrag, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, L. Fischer, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, D. Garcia-Fernandez, S. Garrappa, A. Gartner, L. Gerhardt, R. Gernhaeuser, A. Ghadimi, C. Glaser, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, S. Goswami, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Gündüz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, J. C. Hanson, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, J. Haugen, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, D. Heinen, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, C. Hill, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, B. Hoffmann, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Holzapfel, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, T. Huege, K. Hughes, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, O. Kalekin, D. Kang, W. Kang, X. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, T. Katori, U. Katz, M. Kauer, A. Keivani, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, K. Kin, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, M. Kleifges, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kovacevich, M. Kowalski, C. B. Krauss, K. Krings, G. Krückl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, C. Lagunas Gualda, R. Lahmann, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, U. Latif, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, J. LoSecco, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, J. Lünemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, S. Mancina, S. Mandalia, I. C. Mariş, S. Marka, Z. Marka, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, Z. S. Meyers, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momenté, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Naab, R. Nagai, J. Nam, U. Naumann, J. Necker, G. Neer, A. Nelles, L. V. Nguyên, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, E. Oberla, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, E. O'Sullivan, Y. Pan, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, L. Papp, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Pérez de los Heros, T. C. Petersen, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, J. L. Pinfold, A. Pizzuto, I. Plaisier, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, S. Reusch, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, M. Riegel, E. J. Roberts, S. Robertson, G. Roellinghoff, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, P. Sandstrom, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, M. H. Shaevitz, A. Sharma, S. Shefali, M. Silva, D. Smith, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, S. Söldner-Rembold, M. Song, D. Southall, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, A. Taketa, H. K. M. Tanaka, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, J. Torres, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, J. P. Twagirayezu, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, J. Vandenbroucke, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, D. Veberic, S. Verpoest, A. Vieregg, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, L. Weinstock, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Welling, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, S. A. Wissel, M. Wolf, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, S. Wren, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, S. Zierke, and M. Zöcklein [hide authors].

The observation of electromagnetic radiation from radio to $\gamma$-ray wavelengths has provided a wealth of information about the universe. However, at PeV (10$^{15}$ eV) energies and above, most of the universe is impenetrable to photons. New messengers, namely cosmic neutrinos, are needed to explore the most extreme environments of the universe where black holes, neutron stars, and stellar explosions transform gravitational energy into non-thermal cosmic rays. The discovery of cosmic neutrinos with IceCube has opened this new window on the universe. In this white paper, we present an overview of a next-generation instrument, IceCube-Gen2, which will sharpen our understanding of the processes and environments that govern the universe at the highest energies. IceCube-Gen2 is designed to: 1) Resolve the high-energy neutrino sky from TeV to EeV energies; 2) Investigate cosmic particle acceleration through multi-messenger observations; 3) Reveal the sources and propagation of the highest energy particles in the universe; 4) Probe fundamental physics with high-energy neutrinos. IceCube-Gen2 will increase the annual rate of observed cosmic neutrinos by a factor of ten compared to IceCube, and will be able to detect sources five times fainter than its predecessor. Furthermore, through the addition of a radio array, IceCube-Gen2 will extend the energy range by several orders of magnitude compared to IceCube. Construction will take 8 years and cost about \$350M. The goal is to have IceCube-Gen2 fully operational by 2033. IceCube-Gen2 will play an essential role in shaping the new era of multi-messenger astronomy, fundamentally advancing our knowledge of the high-energy universe. This challenging mission can be fully addressed only in concert with the new survey instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum and gravitational wave detectors which will be available in the coming years.**Future CEvNS experiments as probes of lepton unitarity and light-sterile neutrinos**

2008.02759 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by O. G. Miranda, [and 4 more]D. K. Papoulias, O. Sanders, M. Tórtola, and J. W. F. Valle [hide authors].

We determine the sensitivities of short-baseline coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) experiments using a pion decay at rest neutrino source as a probe for non-unitarity in the lepton sector, expected in low-scale type-I seesaw schemes. We also identify the best configuration for probing light-sterile neutrinos at future ton-scale liquid argon CE$\nu$NS experiments, estimating the projected sensitivities on the sterile neutrino parameters. Possible experimental setups at the Spallation Neutron Source, Lujan facility and the European Spallation Source are discussed.**CP-Violating Neutrino Non-Standard Interactions in Long-Baseline-Accelerator Data**

2008.01110 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton, Julia Gehrlein, and Rebekah Pestes.

Neutrino oscillations in matter provide a unique probe of new physics. Leveraging the advent of neutrino appearance data from NOvA and T2K in recent years, we investigate the presence of CP-violating neutrino non-standard interactions in the oscillation data. We first show how to very simply approximate the expected NSI parameters to resolve differences between two long-baseline appearance experiments analytically. Then, by combining recent NOvA and T2K data, we find a tantalizing hint of CP-violating NSI preferring a new complex phase that is close to maximal: $\phi_{e\mu}$ or $\phi_{e\tau}\approx3\pi/2$ with $|\epsilon_{e\mu}|$ or $|\epsilon_{e\tau}|\sim0.2$. We then compare the results from long-baseline data to constraints from IceCube and COHERENT.**The fate of hints: updated global analysis of three-flavor neutrino oscillations**

2007.14792 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Esteban, [and 4 more]M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, Michele Maltoni, Thomas Schwetz, and Albert Zhou [hide authors].

Our herein described combined analysis of the latest neutrino oscillation data presented at the Neutrino2020 conference shows that previous hints for the neutrino mass ordering have significantly decreased, and normal ordering (NO) is favored only at the $1.6\sigma$ level. Combined with the $\chi^2$ map provided by Super-Kamiokande for their atmospheric neutrino data analysis the hint for NO is at $2.7\sigma$. The CP conserving value $\delta_\text{CP} = 180^\circ$ is within $0.6\sigma$ of the global best fit point. Only if we restrict to inverted mass ordering, CP violation is favored at the $\sim 3\sigma$ level. We discuss the origin of these results - which are driven by the new data from the T2K and NOvA long-baseline experiments -, and the relevance of the LBL-reactor oscillation frequency complementarity. The previous $2.2\sigma$ tension in $\Delta m^2_{21}$ preferred by KamLAND and solar experiments is also reduced to the $1.1\sigma$ level after the inclusion of the latest Super-Kamiokande solar neutrino results. Finally we present updated allowed ranges for the oscillation parameters and for the leptonic Jarlskog determinant from the global analysis.**The Uchuu Simulations: Data Release 1 and Dark Matter Halo Concentrations**

2007.14720 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tomoaki Ishiyama, [and 13 more]Francisco Prada, Anatoly A. Klypin, Manodeep Sinha, R. Benton Metcalf, Eric Jullo, Bruno Altieri, Sofía A. Cora, Darren Croton, Sylvain de la Torre, David E. Millán-Calero, Taira Oogi, José Ruedas, and Cristian A. Vega-Martínez [hide authors].

We introduce the Uchuu suite of large high-resolution cosmological $N$-body simulations. The largest simulation, named Uchuu, consists of 2.1 trillion ($12800^3$) dark matter particles in a box of 2.0 Gpc/h, and the mass of each particle is $3.27 \times 10^{8}$ Msun/h. The highest resolution simulation, called Shin-Uchuu, consists of 262 billion ($6400^3$) particles in a box of 140 Mpc/h, with a particle mass of $8.97 \times 10^{5}$ Msun/h. Combining these simulations we can follow the evolution of dark matter haloes (and subhaloes) spanning from dwarf galaxies to massive galaxy cluster hosts. We present basic statistics, dark matter power spectra and halo (subhalo) mass function, to demonstrate the huge dynamic range and superb statistics of the Uchuu simulations. From the analysis of the evolution of the power spectra we conclude that our simulations are accurate enough from the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations up to very small scales. We also provide parameters of a mass-concentration model, which describes the evolution of halo concentrations, that reproduces our simulation data within 5% error. We make publicly available various $N$-body products, as part of Uchuu Data Release 1, on the Skies & Universes site. We also plan to release gravitational lensing maps, mock galaxy, X-ray cluster and active galactic nuclei catalogues in the near future.**A Dark Seesaw Solution to Low Energy Anomalies: MiniBooNE, the muon $(g-2)$, and BaBar**

2007.11813 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Asli Abdullahi, Matheus Hostert, and Silvia Pascoli.

A recent update from MiniBooNE has strengthened the observed $4.8\sigma$ excess of $e$-like events. Motivated by this and other notable deviations from standard model predictions, such as the muon $(g-2)$, we propose a solution to low energy anomalies through a dark neutrino sector. The model is renormalizable and can also explain light neutrino masses with an anomaly-free and dark $U(1)^\prime$ gauge symmetry broken at the GeV scale. Large kinetic mixing leads to s-channel production of heavy neutral leptons at $e^+e^-$ colliders, where we point out and explain a $\gtrsim 2\sigma$ excess observed in the BaBar monophoton data. Our model is also compatible with anomalous $e$-like events seen at old accelerator experiments, as well as with an excess of double vertex signatures observed at CCFR.**Ultra-High-Energy Tau Neutrino Cross Sections with GRAND and POEMMA**

2007.10334 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Yves Kini.

Next generation neutrino experiments will push the limits in our understanding of astroparticle physics in the neutrino sector to energies orders of magnitude higher than the current state-of-the-art high-energy neutrino experiment, IceCube. These experiments will use neutrinos to tell us about the most extreme environments in the universe, while simultaneously leveraging these extreme environments as probes of neutrino properties at the highest energies accessible in the foreseeable future: $E\sim10^9$ GeV. At these energies neutrinos are readily absorbed in the Earth. Assuming an isotropic distribution, by looking at how the flux varies as a function of angle through the Earth, we show that it is possible to extract the $\nu_\tau$-$N$ cross section with precision at the $\sim20\%$ level ($1\sigma$ assuming Wilks' theorem) given $N_{\rm events}\sim100$ events.**The Sound of Clearing the Throat: Gravitational Waves from a Black Hole Orbiting in a Wormhole Geometry**

2007.09135 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by James B. Dent, [and 3 more]William E. Gabella, Kelly Holley-Bockelmann, and Thomas W. Kephart [hide authors].

Current ground-based gravitational wave detectors are tuned to capture the collision of compact objects such as stellar origin black holes and neutron stars; over 20 such events have been published to date. Theoretically, however, more exotic compact objects may exist, collisions of which should also generate copious gravitational waves. In this paper, we model the inspiral of a stellar mass black hole into a stable, non-spinning, traversable wormhole, and find a characteristic waveform -- an anti-chirp and/or burst -- as the black hole emerges, i.e., outspirals, into our region of the Universe. This novel waveform signature may be useful in searches for wormholes in future gravitational wave data or used to constrain possible wormhole geometries in our Universe.**Back to (Mass-)Square(d) One: The Neutrino Mass Ordering in Light of Recent Data**

2007.08526 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kevin J. Kelly, [and 4 more]Pedro A. N. Machado, Stephen J. Parke, Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez, and Renata Zukanovich Funchal [hide authors].

We inspect recently updated neutrino oscillation data -- specifically coming from the Tokai to Kamioka and NuMI Off-axis $\nu_e$ Appearance experiments -- and how they are analyzed to determine whether the neutrino mass ordering is normal ($m_1 < m_2 < m_3$) or inverted ($m_3 < m_1 < m_2$). We show that, despite previous results giving a strong preference for the normal ordering, with the newest data from T2K and NOvA, this preference has all but vanished. Additionally, we highlight the importance of this result for non-oscillation probes of neutrinos, including neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmology. Future experiments, including JUNO, DUNE, and T2HK will provide valuable information and determine the mass ordering at a high confidence level.**A search for $hep$ solar neutrinos and the diffuse supernova neutrino background using all three phases of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory**

2007.08018 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by B. Aharmim, [and 131 more]S. N. Ahmed, A. E. Anthony, N. Barros, E. W. Beier, A. Bellerive, B. Beltran, M. Bergevin, S. D. Biller, E. Blucher, R. Bonventre, K. Boudjemline, M. G. Boulay, B. Cai, E. J. Callaghan, J. Caravaca, Y. D. Chan, D. Chauhan, M. Chen, B. T. Cleveland, G. A. Cox, X. Dai, H. Deng, F. B. Descamps, J. A. Detwiler, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, P. -L. Drouin, M. Dunford, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, F. Fleurot, R. J. Ford, J. A. Formaggio, N. Gagnon, K. Gilje, J. TM. Goon, K. Graham, E. Guillian, S. Habib, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, A. Hime, C. Howard, M. Huang, P. Jagam, B. Jamieson, N. A. Jelley, M. Jerkins, K. J. Keeter, J. R. Klein, L. L. Kormos, M. Kos, C. Kraus, C. B. Krauss, A. Krüger, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, K. Labe, B. J. Land, R. Lange, A. LaTorre, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, J. C. Loach, R. MacLellan, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, J. Maneira, R. D. Martin, A. Mastbaum, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, S. R. McGee, M. L. Miller, B. Monreal, J. Monroe, B. G. Nickel, A. J. Noble, H. M. O'Keeffe, N. S. Oblath, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, G. D. Orebi Gann, S. M. Oser, R. A. Ott, S. J. M. Peeters, A. W. P. Poon, G. Prior, S. D. Reitzner, K. Rielage, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, M. H. Schwendener, J. A. Secrest, S. R. Seibert, O. Simard, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, T. J. Sonley, L. C. Stonehill, G. Tešić, N. Tolich, T. Tsui, R. Van Berg, B. A. VanDevender, C. J. Virtue, B. L. Wall, D. Waller, H. Wan Chan Tseung, D. L. Wark, J. Wendland, N. West, J. F. Wilkerson, J. R. Wilson, T. Winchester, A. Wright, M. Yeh, F. Zhang, and K. Zuber [hide authors].

A search has been performed for neutrinos from two sources, the $hep$ reaction in the solar $pp$ fusion chain and the $\nu_e$ component of the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB), using the full dataset of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The $hep$ search is performed using both a single-bin counting analysis and a likelihood fit. We find a best-fit flux that is compatible with solar model predictions while remaining consistent with zero flux, and set a one-sided upper limit of $\Phi_{hep} < 30\times10^{3}~\mathrm{cm}^{-2}~\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ (90% credible interval). No events are observed in the DSNB search region, and we also set an improved upper bound on the $\nu_e$ component of the DSNB flux.**Charm contribution to ultrahigh-energy neutrinos from newborn magnetars**

2007.07945 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jose Alonso Carpio, [and 4 more]Kohta Murase, Mary Hall Reno, Ina Sarcevic, and Anna Stasto [hide authors].

Newborn, strongly magnetized neutron stars (so-called magnetars) surrounded by their stellar or merger ejecta are expected to be sources of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos via decay of mesons produced in hadronic interactions of protons which are accelerated to ultrahigh energies by magnetic dissipation of the spindown energy. We show that not only pions and kaons but also charm hadrons, which are typically neglected due to their small production cross sections, can represent dominant contributions to neutrino fluence at ultrahigh energies, because of their short lifetimes, while the ultrahigh-energy neutrino fluence from pion and kaon production is suppressed at early times due to their significant cooling before their decay. We show that the next-generation detectors such as Probe Of Extreme Multi-Messenger Astrophysics (POEMMA), Giant Radio Array for Neurtino Detection (GRAND) and IceCube-Gen2 have a good chance of observing neutrinos, primarily originating from charm hadrons, from nearby magnetars. We also show that neutrinos from nearby magnetar-driven merger novae could be observed in the time interval between $10^2$ s and $10^3$ s, where the charm hadron contribution is dominant for neutrino energies above $10^8$ GeV, of relevance to next generation detectors. We also comment on potential impacts of the charm hadron contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux.**Relaxing Cosmological Neutrino Mass Bounds with Unstable Neutrinos**

2007.04994 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Miguel Escudero, [and 3 more]Jacobo Lopez-Pavon, Nuria Rius, and Stefan Sandner [hide authors].

At present, cosmological observations set the most stringent bound on the neutrino mass scale. Within the standard cosmological model ($\Lambda$CDM), the Planck collaboration reports $\sum m_\nu < 0.12\,\text{eV}$ at 95% CL. This bound, taken at face value, excludes many neutrino mass models. However, unstable neutrinos, with lifetimes shorter than the age of the universe $\tau_\nu \lesssim t_U$, represent a particle physics avenue to relax this constraint. Motivated by this fact, we present a taxonomy of neutrino decay modes, categorizing them in terms of particle content and final decay products. Taking into account the relevant phenomenological bounds, our analysis shows that 2-body decaying neutrinos into BSM particles are a promising option to relax cosmological neutrino mass bounds. We then build a simple extension of the type I seesaw scenario by adding one sterile state $\nu_4$ and a Goldstone boson $\phi$, in which $\nu_i \to \nu_4 \, \phi$ decays can loosen the neutrino mass bounds up to $\sum m_\nu \sim 1\,\text{eV}$, without spoiling the light neutrino mass generation mechanism. Remarkably, this is possible for a large range of the right-handed neutrino masses, from the electroweak up to the GUT scale. We successfully implement this idea in the context of minimal neutrino mass models based on a $U(1)_{\mu-\tau}$ flavor symmetry, which are otherwise in tension with the current bound on $\sum m_\nu$.**An Attractive Scenario for Light Dark Matter Direct Detection**

2007.04989 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hooman Davoudiasl, Peter B. Denton, and Julia Gehrlein.

Direct detection of light dark matter (DM), below the GeV scale, through electron recoil can be efficient if DM has a velocity well above the virial value of $v\sim 10^{-3}$. We point out that if there is a long range attractive force sourced by bulk ordinary matter, i.e. baryons or electrons, DM can be accelerated towards the Earth and reach velocities $v\sim 0.1$ near the Earth surface. In this "attractive scenario," $\textit{all DM}$ will be boosted to high velocities by the time it reaches direct detection apparatuses in laboratories. We elucidate the implications of this scenario for electron recoil direct detection experiments and find parameters that could lead to potential signals, while being consistent with stellar cooling and other bounds. Our scenario can potentially explain the recent excess in electron recoil signals reported by the XENON1T experiment in the $\sim$ keV energy regime.**Sensitivities of KM3NeT on decaying dark matter**

2007.03692 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kenny C. Y. Ng, [and 13 more]Ariane Dekker, Shin'ichiro Ando, Bjarne Bouwer, Maurice Geijsen, Claudia Glazener, June Groothuizen, Jildou Hollander, M. J. F. M. Janssen, Lukas Kemme, Wessel Krah, Sancho Luijten Perona, Mnême Stapel, and Martijn van Hamersveld [hide authors].

The discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube has opened a new window to the Universe. However, the origin of these neutrinos is still a mystery, and some of them could be a result of dark matter interactions such as decay. Next generation gigaton water-Cherenkov neutrino telescope, KM3NeT, is expected to offer significantly improved energy resolution in the cascade channel, and advantageous viewing condition to the Galactic Center; both important for searches of dark matter decay signals. We study the sensitivity of KM3NeT on dark matter decays by performing a mock likelihood analysis for both cascade and track type events, taking into account both angular and energy information. We find that, combining both channels, KM3NeT is expected to produce world leading limits on dark matter decay lifetime in the PeV mass range, and could test some of the dark matter hints in the current IceCube data.**Nuclear Structure Physics in Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering**

2007.03658 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by N. Van Dessel, [and 3 more]V. Pandey, H. Ray, and N. Jachowicz [hide authors].

The prospects of extracting new physics signals in a coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) process are limited by the precision with which the underlying nuclear structure physics, embedded in the weak nuclear form factor, is known. We present microscopic nuclear structure physics calculations of charge and weak nuclear form factors and CE$\nu$NS cross sections on $^{12}$C, $^{16}$O, $^{40}$Ar, $^{56}$Fe and $^{208}$Pb nuclei. We obtain the proton and neutron densities, and charge and weak form factors by solving Hartree-Fock equations with a Skyrme (SkE2) nuclear potential. We validate our approach by comparing $^{208}$Pb and $^{40}$Ar charge form factor predictions with elastic electron scattering data. In view of the worldwide interest in liquid-argon based neutrino and dark matter experiments, we pay special attention to the $^{40}$Ar nucleus and make predictions for the $^{40}$Ar weak form factor and the CE$\nu$NS cross sections. Furthermore, we attempt to gauge the level of theoretical uncertainty pertaining to the description of the $^{40}$Ar form factor and CE$\nu$NS cross sections by comparing relative differences between recent microscopic nuclear theory and widely-used phenomenological form factor predictions. Future precision measurements of CE$\nu$NS will potentially help in constraining these nuclear structure details that will in turn improve prospects of extracting new physics.**Signatures of Ultralight Dark Matter in Neutrino Oscillation Experiments**

2007.03590 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Abhish Dev, Pedro A. N. Machado, and Pablo Martínez-Miravé.

We study how neutrino oscillations could probe the existence of ultralight bosonic dark matter. Three distinct signatures on neutrino oscillations are identified, depending on the mass of the dark matter and the specific experimental setup. These are time modulation signals, oscillation probability distortions due to fast modulations, and fast varying matter effects. We provide all the necessary information to perform a bottom-up, model-independent experimental analysis to probe such scenarios. Using the future DUNE experiment as an example, we estimate its sensitivity to ultralight scalar dark matter. Our results could be easily used by any other oscillation experiment.**Neutrino decoherence from quantum gravitational stochastic perturbations**

2007.00068 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Stuttard and Mikkel Jensen.

Neutrinos undergoing stochastic perturbations as they propagate experience decoherence, damping neutrino oscillations over distance. Such perturbations may result from fluctuations in space-time itself if gravity is a quantum force, including interactions between neutrinos and virtual black holes. In this work we model the influence of heuristic neutrino-virtual black hole interaction scenarios on neutrino propagation and evaluate the resulting signals in astrophysical and atmospheric neutrinos. We demonstrate how these effects can be represented in the framework of open quantum systems, allowing experimental constraints on such systems to be connected to quantum gravitational effects. Finally, we consider the energy-dependence of such Planck scale physics at energies observed in current neutrino experiments, and show that sensitivity to Planck scale physics well below the `natural' expectation is achievable in certain scenarios.**Tau neutrinos at DUNE: new strategies, new opportunities**

2007.00015 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pedro Machado, Holger Schulz, and Jessica Turner.

We propose a novel analysis strategy, that leverages the unique capabilities of the DUNE experiment, to study tau neutrinos. We integrate collider physics ideas, such as jet clustering algorithms in combination with machine learning techniques, into neutrino measurements. Through the construction of a set of observables and kinematic cuts, we obtain a superior discrimination of the signal ($S$) over the background ($B$). In a single year, using the nominal neutrino beam mode, DUNE may achieve $S/\sqrt{B}$ of $3.3$ and $2.3$ for the hadronic and leptonic decay channels of the tau respectively. Operating in the tau-optimized beam mode would increase $S/\sqrt{B}$ to $8.8$ and $11$ for each of these channels. We premier the use of the analysis software Rivet, a tool ubiquitously used by the LHC experiments, in neutrino physics. For wider accessibility, we provide our analysis code.**Updated MiniBooNE Neutrino Oscillation Results with Increased Data and New Background Studies**

2006.16883 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by MiniBooNE Collaboration, [and 39 more]A. A. Aguilar-Arevalo, B. C. Brown, J. M. Conrad, R. Dharmapalan, A. Diaz, Z. Djurcic, D. A. Finley, R. Ford, G. T. Garvey, S. Gollapinni, A. Hourlier, E. -C. Huang, N. W. Kamp, G. Karagiorgi, T. Katori, T. Kobilarcik, K. Lin, W. C. Louis, C. Mariani, W. Marsh, G. B. Mills, J. Mirabal-Martinez, C. D. Moore, R. H. Nelson, J. Nowak, I. Parmaksiz, Z. Pavlovic, H. Ray, B. P. Roe, A. D. Russell, M. H. Shaevitz, J. Spitz, I. Stancu, R. Tayloe, R. T. Thornton, M. Tzanov, R. G. Van de Water, D. H. White, and E. D. Zimmerman [hide authors].

The MiniBooNE experiment at Fermilab reports a total excess of $638.0 \pm 132.8$ electron-like events ($4.8 \sigma$) from a data sample corresponding to $18.75 \times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target in neutrino mode, which is a 46% increase in the data sample with respect to previously published results, and $11.27 \times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target in antineutrino mode. The additional statistics allow several studies to address questions on the source of the excess. First, we provide two-dimensional plots in visible energy and cosine of the angle of the outgoing lepton, which can provide valuable input to models for the event excess. Second, we test whether the excess may arise from photons that enter the detector from external events or photons exiting the detector from $\pi^0$ decays in two model independent ways. Beam timing information shows that almost all of the excess is in time with neutrinos that interact in the detector. The radius distribution shows that the excess is distributed throughout the volume, while tighter cuts on the fiducal volume increase the significance of the excess. We conclude that models of the event excess based on entering and exiting photons are disfavored.**Neutrino amplitude decomposition: Toward observing the atmospheric - solar wave interference**

2006.16594 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hisakazu Minakata.

Observation of the interference between the atmospheric and solar oscillation waves with the correct magnitude would provide another manifestation of the three-generation structure of leptons. As a prerequisite for such analyses we develop the method for decomposing the oscillation $S$ matrix into the atmospheric and solar amplitudes. Though it was recently proposed successfully in vacuum, once an extension into the matter environment is attempted, it poses highly nontrivial problems. Even for an infinitesimal matter potential, inherent mixture of the atmospheric and solar oscillation waves occurs, rendering a simple extension of the vacuum definition untenable. We utilize general kinematic structure as well as analyses of the five perturbative frameworks, in which the nature of matter-dressed atmospheric and solar oscillations are known, to understand the origin of the trouble, how to deal with the difficulty, and to grasp the principle of decomposition. Then, we derive the amplitude decomposition formulas in these frameworks, and discuss properties of the decomposed probabilities. We mostly discuss the $\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{e}$ channel, but a comparison with the $\nu_{\mu} \rightarrow \nu_{\tau}$ channel reveals an interesting difference.**The First Three Seconds: a Review of Possible Expansion Histories of the Early Universe**

2006.16182 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rouzbeh Allahverdi, [and 25 more]Mustafa A. Amin, Asher Berlin, Nicolás Bernal, Christian T. Byrnes, M. Sten Delos, Adrienne L. Erickcek, Miguel Escudero, Daniel G. Figueroa, Katherine Freese, Tomohiro Harada, Dan Hooper, David I. Kaiser, Tanvi Karwal, Kazunori Kohri, Gordan Krnjaic, Marek Lewicki, Kaloian D. Lozanov, Vivian Poulin, Kuver Sinha, Tristan L. Smith, Tomo Takahashi, Tommi Tenkanen, James Unwin, Ville Vaskonen, and Scott Watson [hide authors].

It is commonly assumed that the energy density of the Universe was dominated by radiation between reheating after inflation and the onset of matter domination 54,000 years later. While the abundance of light elements indicates that the Universe was radiation dominated during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), there is scant evidence that the Universe was radiation dominated prior to BBN. It is therefore possible that the cosmological history was more complicated, with deviations from the standard radiation domination during the earliest epochs. Indeed, several interesting proposals regarding various topics such as the generation of dark matter, matter-antimatter asymmetry, gravitational waves, primordial black holes, or microhalos during a nonstandard expansion phase have been recently made. In this paper, we review various possible causes and consequences of deviations from radiation domination in the early Universe - taking place either before or after BBN - and the constraints on them, as they have been discussed in the literature during the recent years.**Long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics potential of the DUNE experiment**

2006.16043 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by DUNE Collaboration, [and 973 more]B. Abi, R. Acciarri, M. A. Acero, G. Adamov, D. Adams, M. Adinolfi, Z. Ahmad, J. Ahmed, T. Alion, S. Alonso Monsalve, C. Alt, J. Anderson, C. Andreopoulos, M. P. Andrews, F. Andrianala, S. Andringa, A. Ankowski, M. Antonova, S. Antusch, A. Aranda-Fernandez, A. Ariga, L. O. Arnold, M. A. Arroyave, J. Asaadi, A. Aurisano, V. Aushev, D. Autiero, F. Azfar, H. Back, J. J. Back, C. Backhouse, P. Baesso, L. Bagby, R. Bajou, S. Balasubramanian, P. Baldi, B. Bambah, F. Barao, G. Barenboim, G. J. Barker, W. Barkhouse, C. Barnes, G. Barr, J. Barranco Monarca, N. Barros, J. L. Barrow, A. Bashyal, V. Basque, F. Bay, J. L. Bazo Alba, J. F. Beacom, E. Bechetoille, B. Behera, L. Bellantoni, G. Bellettini, V. Bellini, O. Beltramello, D. Belver, N. Benekos, F. Bento Neves, J. Berger, S. Berkman, P. Bernardini, R. M. Berner, H. Berns, S. Bertolucci, M. Betancourt, Y. Bezawada, M. Bhattacharjee, B. Bhuyan, S. Biagi, J. Bian, M. Biassoni, K. Biery, B. Bilki, M. Bishai, A. Bitadze, A. Blake, B. Blanco Siffert, F. D. M. Blaszczyk, G. C. Blazey, E. Blucher, J. Boissevain, S. Bolognesi, T. Bolton, M. Bonesini, M. Bongrand, F. Bonini, A. Booth, C. Booth, S. Bordoni, A. Borkum, T. Boschi, N. Bostan, P. Bour, S. B. Boyd, D. Boyden, J. Bracinik, D. Braga, D. Brailsford, A. Brandt, J. Bremer, C. Brew, E. Brianne, S. J. Brice, C. Brizzolari, C. Bromberg, G. Brooijmans, J. Brooke, A. Bross, G. Brunetti, N. Buchanan, H. Budd, D. Caiulo, P. Calafiura, J. Calcutt, M. Calin, S. Calvez, E. Calvo, L. Camilleri, A. Caminata, M. Campanelli, D. Caratelli, G. Carini, B. Carlus, P. Carniti, I. Caro Terrazas, H. Carranza, A. Castillo, C. Castromonte, C. Cattadori, F. Cavalier, F. Cavanna, S. Centro, G. Cerati, A. Cervelli, A. Cervera Villanueva, M. Chalifour, C. Chang, E. Chardonnet, A. Chatterjee, S. Chattopadhyay, J. Chaves, H. Chen, M. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Cherdack, C. Chi, S. Childress, A. Chiriacescu, K. Cho, S. Choubey, A. Christensen, D. Christian, G. Christodoulou, E. Church, P. Clarke, T. E. Coan, A. G. Cocco, J. A. B. Coelho, E. Conley, J. M. Conrad, M. Convery, L. Corwin, P. Cotte, L. Cremaldi, L. Cremonesi, J. I. Crespo-Anadón, E. Cristaldo, R. Cross, C. Cuesta, Y. Cui, D. Cussans, M. Dabrowski, H. da Motta, L. Da Silva Peres, C. David, Q. David, G. S. Davies, S. Davini, J. Dawson, K. De, R. M. De Almeida, P. Debbins, I. De Bonis, M. P. Decowski, A. de Gouvêa, P. C. De Holanda, I. L. De Icaza Astiz, A. Deisting, P. De Jong, A. Delbart, D. Delepine, M. Delgado, A. Dell'Acqua, P. De Lurgio, J. R. T. de Mello Neto, D. M. DeMuth, S. Dennis, C. Densham, G. Deptuch, A. De Roeck, V. De Romeri, J. J. De Vries, R. Dharmapalan, M. Dias, F. Diaz, J. S. Díaz, S. Di Domizio, L. Di Giulio, P. Ding, L. Di Noto, C. Distefano, R. Diurba, M. Diwan, Z. Djurcic, N. Dokania, M. J. Dolinski, L. Domine, D. Douglas, F. Drielsma, D. Duchesneau, K. Duffy, P. Dunne, T. Durkin, H. Duyang, O. Dvornikov, D. A. Dwyer, A. S. Dyshkant, M. Eads, D. Edmunds, J. Eisch, S. Emery, A. Ereditato, C. O. Escobar, L. Escudero Sanchez, J. J. Evans, E. Ewart, A. C. Ezeribe, K. Fahey, A. Falcone, C. Farnese, Y. Farzan, J. Felix, E. Fernandez-Martinez, P. Fernandez Menendez, F. Ferraro, L. Fields, A. Filkins, F. Filthaut, R. S. Fitzpatrick, W. Flanagan, B. Fleming, R. Flight, J. Fowler, W. Fox, J. Franc, K. Francis, D. Franco, J. Freeman, J. Freestone, J. Fried, A. Friedland, S. Fuess, I. Furic, A. P. Furmanski, A. Gago, H. Gallagher, A. Gallego-Ros, N. Gallice, V. Galymov, E. Gamberini, T. Gamble, R. Gandhi, R. Gandrajula, S. Gao, D. Garcia-Gamez, M. Á. García-Peris, S. Gardiner, D. Gastler, G. Ge, B. Gelli, A. Gendotti, S. Gent, Z. Ghorbani-Moghaddam, D. Gibin, I. Gil-Botella, C. Girerd, A. K. Giri, D. Gnani, O. Gogota, M. Gold, S. Gollapinni, K. Gollwitzer, R. A. Gomes, L. V. Gomez Bermeo, L. S. Gomez Fajardo, F. Gonnella, J. A. Gonzalez-Cuevas, M. C. Goodman, O. Goodwin, S. Goswami, C. Gotti, E. Goudzovski, C. Grace, M. Graham, E. Gramellini, R. Gran, E. Granados, A. Grant, C. Grant, D. Gratieri, P. Green, S. Green, L. Greenler, M. Greenwood, J. Greer, W. C. Griffith, M. Groh, J. Grudzinski, K. Grzelak, W. Gu, V. Guarino, R. Guenette, A. Guglielmi, B. Guo, K. K. Guthikonda, R. Gutierrez, P. Guzowski, M. M. Guzzo, S. Gwon, A. Habig, A. Hackenburg, H. Hadavand, R. Haenni, A. Hahn, J. Haigh, J. Haiston, T. Hamernik, P. Hamilton, J. Han, K. Harder, D. A. Harris, J. Hartnell, T. Hasegawa, R. Hatcher, E. Hazen, A. Heavey, K. M. Heeger, J. Heise, K. Hennessy, S. Henry, M. A. Hernandez Morquecho, K. Herner, L. Hertel, A. S. Hesam, J. Hewes, A. Higuera, T. Hill, S. J. Hillier, A. Himmel, J. Hoff, C. Hohl, A. Holin, E. Hoppe, G. A. Horton-Smith, M. Hostert, A. Hourlier, B. Howard, R. Howell, J. Huang, J. Huang, J. Hugon, G. Iles, N. Ilic, A. M. Iliescu, R. Illingworth, A. Ioannisian, R. Itay, A. Izmaylov, E. James, B. Jargowsky, F. Jediny, C. Jesùs-Valls, X. Ji, L. Jiang, S. Jiménez, A. Jipa, A. Joglekar, C. Johnson, R. Johnson, B. Jones, S. Jones, C. K. Jung, T. Junk, Y. Jwa, M. Kabirnezhad, A. Kaboth, I. Kadenko, F. Kamiya, G. Karagiorgi, A. Karcher, M. Karolak, Y. Karyotakis, S. Kasai, S. P. Kasetti, L. Kashur, N. Kazaryan, E. Kearns, P. Keener, K. J. Kelly, E. Kemp, W. Ketchum, S. H. Kettell, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, A. Khvedelidze, D. Kim, B. King, B. Kirby, M. Kirby, J. Klein, K. Koehler, L. W. Koerner, S. Kohn, P. P. Koller, M. Kordosky, T. Kosc, U. Kose, V. A. Kostelecký, K. Kothekar, F. Krennrich, I. Kreslo, Y. Kudenko, V. A. Kudryavtsev, S. Kulagin, J. Kumar, R. Kumar, C. Kuruppu, V. Kus, T. Kutter, A. Lambert, K. Lande, C. E. Lane, K. Lang, T. Langford, P. Lasorak, D. Last, C. Lastoria, A. Laundrie, A. Lawrence, I. Lazanu, R. LaZur, T. Le, J. Learned, P. LeBrun, G. Lehmann Miotto, R. Lehnert, M. A. Leigui de Oliveira, M. Leitner, M. Leyton, L. Li, S. Li, S. W. Li, T. Li, Y. Li, H. Liao, C. S. Lin, S. Lin, A. Lister, B. R. Littlejohn, J. Liu, S. Lockwitz, T. Loew, M. Lokajicek, I. Lomidze, K. Long, K. Loo, D. Lorca, T. Lord, J. M. LoSecco, W. C. Louis, K. B. Luk, X. Luo, N. Lurkin, T. Lux, V. P. Luzio, D. MacFarland, A. A. Machado, P. Machado, C. T. Macias, J. R. Macier, A. Maddalena, P. Madigan, S. Magill, K. Mahn, A. Maio, J. A. Maloney, G. Mandrioli, J. Maneira, L. Manenti, S. Manly, A. Mann, K. Manolopoulos, M. Manrique Plata, A. Marchionni, W. Marciano, D. Marfatia, C. Mariani, J. Maricic, F. Marinho, A. D. Marino, M. Marshak, C. Marshall, J. Marshall, J. Marteau, J. Martin-Albo, N. Martinez, D. A. Martinez Caicedo, S. Martynenko, K. Mason, A. Mastbaum, M. Masud, S. Matsuno, J. Matthews, C. Mauger, N. Mauri, K. Mavrokoridis, R. Mazza, A. Mazzacane, E. Mazzucato, E. McCluskey, N. McConkey, K. S. McFarland, C. McGrew, A. McNab, A. Mefodiev, P. Mehta, P. Melas, M. Mellinato, O. Mena, S. Menary, H. Mendez, A. Menegolli, G. Meng, M. D. Messier, W. Metcalf, M. Mewes, H. Meyer, T. Miao, G. Michna, T. Miedema, J. Migenda, R. Milincic, W. Miller, J. Mills, C. Milne, O. Mineev, O. G. Miranda, S. Miryala, C. S. Mishra, S. R. Mishra, A. Mislivec, D. Mladenov, I. Mocioiu, K. Moffat, N. Moggi, R. Mohanta, T. A. Mohayai, N. Mokhov, J. Molina, L. Molina Bueno, A. Montanari, C. Montanari, D. Montanari, L. M. Montano Zetina, J. Moon, M. Mooney, A. Moor, D. Moreno, B. Morgan, C. Morris, C. Mossey, E. Motuk, C. A. Moura, J. Mousseau, W. Mu, L. Mualem, J. Mueller, M. Muether, S. Mufson, F. Muheim, A. Muir, M. Mulhearn, H. Muramatsu, S. Murphy, J. Musser, J. Nachtman, S. Nagu, M. Nalbandyan, R. Nandakumar, D. Naples, S. Narita, D. Navas-Nicolás, N. Nayak, M. Nebot-Guinot, L. Necib, K. Negishi, J. K. Nelson, J. Nesbit, M. Nessi, D. Newbold, M. Newcomer, D. Newhart, R. Nichol, E. Niner, K. Nishimura, A. Norman, A. Norrick, R. Northrop, P. Novella, J. A. Nowak, M. Oberling, A. Olivares Del Campo, A. Olivier, Y. Onel, Y. Onishchuk, J. Ott, L. Pagani, S. Pakvasa, O. Palamara, S. Palestini, J. M. Paley, M. Pallavicini, C. Palomares, E. Pantic, V. Paolone, V. Papadimitriou, R. Papaleo, A. Papanestis, S. Paramesvaran, S. Parke, Z. Parsa, M. Parvu, S. Pascoli, L. Pasqualini, J. Pasternak, J. Pater, C. Patrick, L. Patrizii, R. B. Patterson, S. J. Patton, T. Patzak, A. Paudel, B. Paulos, L. Paulucci, Z. Pavlovic, G. Pawloski, D. Payne, V. Pec, S. J. M. Peeters, Y. Penichot, E. Pennacchio, A. Penzo, O. L. G. Peres, J. Perry, D. Pershey, G. Pessina, G. Petrillo, C. Petta, R. Petti, F. Piastra, L. Pickering, F. Pietropaolo, J. Pillow, J. Pinzino, R. Plunkett, R. Poling, X. Pons, N. Poonthottathil, S. Pordes, M. Potekhin, R. Potenza, B. V. K. S. Potukuchi, J. Pozimski, M. Pozzato, S. Prakash, T. Prakash, S. Prince, G. Prior, D. Pugnere, K. Qi, X. Qian, J. L. Raaf, R. Raboanary, V. Radeka, J. Rademacker, B. Radics, A. Rafique, E. Raguzin, M. Rai, M. Rajaoalisoa, I. Rakhno, H. T. Rakotondramanana, L. Rakotondravohitra, Y. A. Ramachers, R. Rameika, M. A. Ramirez Delgado, B. Ramson, A. Rappoldi, G. Raselli, P. Ratoff, S. Ravat, H. Razafinime, J. S. Real, B. Rebel, D. Redondo, M. Reggiani-Guzzo, T. Rehak, J. Reichenbacher, S. D. Reitzner, A. Renshaw, S. Rescia, F. Resnati, A. Reynolds, G. Riccobene, L. C. J. Rice, K. Rielage, Y. Rigaut, D. Rivera, L. Rochester, M. Roda, P. Rodrigues, M. J. Rodriguez Alonso, J. Rodriguez Rondon, A. J. Roeth, H. Rogers, S. Rosauro-Alcaraz, M. Rossella, J. Rout, S. Roy, A. Rubbia, C. Rubbia, B. Russell, J. Russell, D. Ruterbories, R. Saakyan, S. Sacerdoti, T. Safford, N. Sahu, P. Sala, N. Samios, M. C. Sanchez, D. A. Sanders, D. Sankey, S. Santana, M. Santos-Maldonado, N. Saoulidou, P. Sapienza, C. Sarasty, I. Sarcevic, G. Savage, V. Savinov, A. Scaramelli, A. Scarff, A. Scarpelli, T. Schaffer, H. Schellman, P. Schlabach, D. Schmitz, K. Scholberg, A. Schukraft, E. Segreto, J. Sensenig, I. Seong, A. Sergi, F. Sergiampietri, D. Sgalaberna, M. H. Shaevitz, S. Shafaq, M. Shamma, H. R. Sharma, R. Sharma, T. Shaw, C. Shepherd-Themistocleous, S. Shin, D. Shooltz, R. Shrock, L. Simard, N. Simos, J. Sinclair, G. Sinev, J. Singh, J. Singh, V. Singh, R. Sipos, F. W. Sippach, G. Sirri, A. Sitraka, K. Siyeon, D. Smargianaki, A. Smith, A. Smith, E. Smith, P. Smith, J. Smolik, M. Smy, P. Snopok, M. Soares Nunes, H. Sobel, M. Soderberg, C. J. Solano Salinas, S. Söldner-Rembold, N. Solomey, V. Solovov, W. E. Sondheim, M. Sorel, J. Soto-Oton, A. Sousa, K. Soustruznik, F. Spagliardi, M. Spanu, J. Spitz, N. J. C. Spooner, K. Spurgeon, R. Staley, M. Stancari, L. Stanco, H. M. Steiner, J. Stewart, B. Stillwell, J. Stock, F. Stocker, T. Stokes, M. Strait, T. Strauss, S. Striganov, A. Stuart, D. Summers, A. Surdo, V. Susic, L. Suter, C. M. Sutera, R. Svoboda, B. Szczerbinska, A. M. Szelc, R. Talaga, H. A. Tanaka, B. Tapia Oregui, A. Tapper, S. Tariq, E. Tatar, R. Tayloe, A. M. Teklu, M. Tenti, K. Terao, C. A. Ternes, F. Terranova, G. Testera, A. Thea, J. L. Thompson, C. Thorn, S. C. Timm, A. Tonazzo, M. Torti, M. Tortola, F. Tortorici, D. Totani, M. Toups, C. Touramanis, J. Trevor, W. H. Trzaska, Y. T. Tsai, Z. Tsamalaidze, K. V. Tsang, N. Tsverava, S. Tufanli, C. Tull, E. Tyley, M. Tzanov, M. A. Uchida, J. Urheim, T. Usher, M. R. Vagins, P. Vahle, G. A. Valdiviesso, E. Valencia, Z. Vallari, J. W. F. Valle, S. Vallecorsa, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, D. Vanegas Forero, F. Varanini, D. Vargas, G. Varner, J. Vasel, G. Vasseur, K. Vaziri, S. Ventura, A. Verdugo, S. Vergani, M. A. Vermeulen, M. Verzocchi, H. Vieira de Souza, C. Vignoli, C. Vilela, B. Viren, T. Vrba, T. Wachala, A. V. Waldron, M. Wallbank, H. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, K. Warburton, D. Warner, M. Wascko, D. Waters, A. Watson, P. Weatherly, A. Weber, M. Weber, H. Wei, A. Weinstein, D. Wenman, M. Wetstein, M. R. While, A. White, L. H. Whitehead, D. Whittington, M. J. Wilking, C. Wilkinson, Z. Williams, F. Wilson, R. J. Wilson, J. Wolcott, T. Wongjirad, K. Wood, L. Wood, E. Worcester, M. Worcester, C. Wret, W. Wu, W. Wu, Y. Xiao, G. Yang, T. Yang, N. Yershov, K. Yonehara, T. Young, B. Yu, J. Yu, R. Zaki, J. Zalesak, L. Zambelli, B. Zamorano, A. Zani, L. Zazueta, G. P. Zeller, J. Zennamo, K. Zeug, C. Zhang, M. Zhao, E. Zhivun, G. Zhu, E. D. Zimmerman, M. Zito, S. Zucchelli, J. Zuklin, V. Zutshi, and R. Zwaska [hide authors].

The sensitivity of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to neutrino oscillation is determined, based on a full simulation, reconstruction, and event selection of the far detector and a full simulation and parameterized analysis of the near detector. Detailed uncertainties due to the flux prediction, neutrino interaction model, and detector effects are included. DUNE will resolve the neutrino mass hierarchy to a precision of 5$\sigma$, for all $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ values, after 2 years of running with the nominal detector design and beam configuration. It has the potential to observe charge-parity violation in the neutrino sector to a precision of 3$\sigma$ (5$\sigma$) after an exposure of 5 (10) years, for 50\% of all $\delta_{\mathrm{CP}}$ values. It will also make precise measurements of other parameters governing long-baseline neutrino oscillation, and after an exposure of 15 years will achieve a similar sensitivity to $\sin^{2} 2\theta_{13}$ to current reactor experiments.**Recent results from the TOTEM collaboration at the LHC**

2006.15220 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Royon.

We describe the most recent results from the TOTEM collaboration at the LHC, namely the elastic cross section measurements at a center-of-mass on 2.76, 7, 8 and 13 TeV. No structure or resonance is observed at high $t$ at high center-of-mass energies. A pure exponential form of $d \sigma/dt$ is excluded both at 8 and 13 TeV. Accessing the very low $t$ region allows measuring the $\rho$ parameter at 13 TeV.**Precision constraints for three-flavor neutrino oscillations from the full MINOS+ and MINOS data set**

2006.15208 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by MINOS+ Collaboration, [and 72 more]:, P. Adamson, I. Anghel, A. Aurisano, G. Barr, A. Blake, S. V. Cao, T. J. Carroll, C. M. Castromonte, R. Chen, S. Childress, J. A. B. Coelho, S. De Rijck, J. J. Evans, G. J. Feldman, W. Flanagan, M. Gabrielyan, S. Germani, R. A. Gomes, P. Gouffon, N. Graf, K. Grzelak, A. Habig, S. R. Hahn, J. Hartnell, R. Hatcher, A. Holin, J. Huang, L. W. Koerner, M. Kordosky, A. Kreymer, K. Lang, P. Lucas, W. A. Mann, M. L. Marshak, N. Mayer, R. Mehdiyev, J. R. Meier, W. H. Miller, G. Mills, D. Naples, J. K. Nelson, R. J. Nichol, J. O'Connor, R. B. Pahlka, Z. Pavlovic, G. Pawloski, A. Perch, M. M. Pfutzner, D. D. Phan, R. K. Plunkett, N. Poonthottathil, X. Qiu, A. Radovic, P. Sail, M. C. Sanchez, J. Schneps, A. Schreckenberger, R. Sharma, A. Sousa, N. Tagg, J. Thomas, M. A. Thomson, A. Timmons, J. Todd, S. C. Tognini, R. Toner, D. Torretta, P. Vahle, A. Weber, L. H. Whitehead, and S. G. Wojcicki [hide authors].

We report the final measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters $\Delta m^2_{32}$ and $\sin^2\theta_{23}$ using all data from the MINOS and MINOS+ experiments. These data were collected using a total exposure of $23.76 \times 10^{20}$ protons on target producing $\nu_{mu}$ and $\overline{\nu_\mu}$ beams and 60.75 kt$\cdot$yr exposure to atmospheric neutrinos. The measurement of the disappearance of $\nu_{\mu}$ and the appearance of $\nu_e$ events between the Near and Far detectors yields $|\Delta m^2_{32}|=2.40^{+0.08}_{-0.09}~(2.45^{+0.07}_{-0.08}) \times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$ and $\sin^2\theta_{23} = 0.43^{+0.20}_{-0.04} ~(0.42^{+0.07}_{-0.03})$ at 68% C.L. for Normal (Inverted) Hierarchy.**First Direct Experimental Evidence of CNO neutrinos**

2006.15115 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Agostini, [and 95 more]K. Altenmüller, S. Appel, V. Atroshchenko, Z. Bagdasarian, D. Basilico, G. Bellini, J. Benziger, R. Biondi, D. Bravo, B. Caccianiga, F. Calaprice, A. Caminata, P. Cavalcante, A. Chepurnov, D. D'Angelo, S. Davini, A. Derbin, A. Di Giacinto, V. Di Marcello, X. F. Ding, A. Di Ludovico, L. Di Noto, I. Drachnev, A. Formozov, D. Franco, C. Galbiati, C. Ghiano, M. Giammarchi, A. Goretti, A. S. Göttel, M. Gromov, D. Guffanti, Aldo Ianni, Andrea Ianni, A. Jany, D. Jeschke, V. Kobychev, G. Korga, S. Kumaran, M. Laubenstein, E. Litvinovich, P. Lombardi, I. Lomskaya, L. Ludhova, G. Lukyanchenko, L. Lukyanchenko, I. Machulin, J. Martyn, E. Meroni, M. Meyer, L. Miramonti, M. Misiaszek, V. Muratova, B. Neumair, M. Nieslony, R. Nugmanov, L. Oberauer, V. Orekhov, F. Ortica, M. Pallavicini, L. Papp, L. Pellicci, Ö. Penek, L. Pietrofaccia, N. Pilipenko, A. Pocar, G. Raikov, M. T. Ranalli, G. Ranucci, A. Razeto, A. Re, M. Redchuk, A. Romani, N. Rossi, S. Schönert, D. Semenov, G. Settanta, M. Skorokhvatov, A. Singhal, O. Smirnov, A. Sotnikov, Y. Suvorov, R. Tartaglia, G. Testera, J. Thurn, E. Unzhakov, F. L. Villante, A. Vishneva, R. B. Vogelaar, F. von Feilitzsch, M. Wojcik, M. Wurm, S. Zavatarelli, K. Zuber, and G. Zuzel. The BOREXINO Collaboration [hide authors].

We report the direct observation of neutrinos produced in the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) fusion cycle in the Sun with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. This is the first experimental evidence of the existence of such reaction sequence in a star. The CNO solar neutrino interaction rate is $7.2^{+3.0}_{-1.7}$ counts per day per $100$ tonnes of target at 68% C.L., corresponding to a flux of neutrinos on Earth of $7.0^{+3.0}_{-2.0}\times10^8$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. The absence of CNO signal is disfavoured at 5$\sigma$.**Flavour Symmetry Embedded -- GLoBES (FaSE-GLoBES)**

2006.14886 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jian Tang and Tse-Chun Wang.

Neutrino models based on flavour symmetries provide the natural way to explain the origin of tiny neutrino masses. At the dawn of precision measurements of neutrino mixing parameters, neutrino mass models can be constrained and examined by on-going and up-coming neutrino experiments. We present a supplemental tool Flavour Symmetry Embedded (FaSE) for General Long Baseline Experiment Simulator (GLoBES), and it is available via the link https://github.com/tcwphy/FASE_GLoBES. It can translate the neutrino mass model parameters to standard neutrino oscillation parameters and offer prior functions in a user-friendly way. We demonstrate the robustness of FaSE-GLoBE with four examples on how the model parameters can be constrained and even whether the model is excluded by an experiment or not. We wish that this toolkit will facilitate the study of new neutrino mass models in an effecient and effective manner.**How does a dark compact object ringdown?**

2006.14628 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Elisa Maggio, [and 3 more]Luca Buoninfante, Anupam Mazumdar, and Paolo Pani [hide authors].

A generic feature of nearly out-of-equilibrium dissipative systems is that they resonate through a set of quasinormal modes. Black holes - the absorbing objects par excellence - are no exception. When formed in a merger, black holes vibrate in a process called "ringdown", which leaves the gravitational-wave footprint of the event horizon. In some models of quantum gravity which attempt to solve the information-loss paradox and the singularities of General Relativity, black holes are replaced by regular, horizonless objects with a tiny effective reflectivity. Motivated by these scenarios, here we develop a generic framework to the study of the ringdown of a compact object with various shades of darkness. By extending the black-hole membrane paradigm, we map the interior of any compact object in terms of the bulk and shear viscosities of a fictitious fluid located at the surface, with the black-hole limit being a single point in a three-dimensional parameter space. We unveil some remarkable features of the ringdown and some universal properties of the light ring in this framework. We also identify the region of the parameter space which can be probed by current and future gravitational-wave detectors. A general feature is the appearance of mode doublets which are degenerate only in the black-hole limit. We argue that the merger event GW150914 already imposes a strong lower bound on the compactness of the merger remnant of approximately 99% of the black-hole compactness. This places model-independent constraints on black-hole alternatives such as diffuse "fuzzballs" and nonlocal stars.**From oscillation dip to oscillation valley in atmospheric neutrino experiments**

2006.14529 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anil Kumar, [and 3 more]Amina Khatun, Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla, and Amol Dighe [hide authors].

Atmospheric neutrino experiments can show the "oscillation dip" feature in data, due to their sensitivity over a large $L/E$ range. In experiments that can distinguish between neutrinos and antineutrinos, like INO, oscillation dips can be observed in both these channels separately. We present the dip-identification algorithm employing a data-driven approach -- one that uses the asymmetry in the up and down events, binned in the reconstructed $L/E$ of muons -- to demonstrate the dip, which would confirm the oscillation hypothesis. We further propose, for the first time, the identification of an "oscillation valley" in the reconstructed ($E_\mu$,$\,\cos\theta_\mu$) plane, feasible for detectors like ICAL having excellent muon energy and direction resolutions. We illustrate how this two-dimensional valley would offer a clear visual representation and test of the $L/E$ dependence, the alignment of the valley quantifying the atmospheric mass-squared difference. Taking into account the statistical fluctuations in the 10-year simulated data at ICAL, we estimate the precision to which atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters would be determined using our procedure. Our approach can be adopted by other atmospheric neutrino experiments to establish neutrino oscillations in terms of ($L$,$\,E$) rather than $L/E$.**Supernova Muons: New Constraints on Z' Bosons, Axions, and ALPs**

2006.13942 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Djuna Croon, [and 3 more]Gilly Elor, Rebecca K. Leane, and Samuel D. McDermott [hide authors].

New light particles produced in supernovae can lead to additional energy loss and a consequent deficit in neutrino production in conflict with the neutrinos observed from Supernova 1987A (SN1987A). Contrary to the majority of previous SN1987A studies, we examine the impact of $Z'$ bosons, axions, and axion-like particles (ALPs) interacting with the muons produced in SN1987A. For the first time, we find constraints on generic $Z'$ bosons coupled to muons, and apply our results to particle models including gauged $L_\mu-L_\tau$ number, $U(1)_{L_\mu-L_\tau}$, and gauged $B-L$ number, $U(1)_{B-L}$. We constrain $Z'$ bosons with masses up to about 250-500 MeV, and down to about $10^{-9}$ in $Z'$-muon coupling. We also extend previous work on axion-muon couplings by examining the importance of loop-level interactions, as well as performing calculations over a wider range of axion masses. We constrain muon-coupled axions from arbitrarily low masses up to about 200-500 MeV, with bounds extending down to axion-muon couplings of approximately $10^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$. We conclude that supernovae broadly provide a sensitive probe of new lightly-coupled particles interacting with muons.**COHERENT Collaboration data release from the first detection of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering on argon**

2006.12659 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by COHERENT Collaboration, [and 82 more]D. Akimov, J. B. Albert, P. An, C. Awe, P. S. Barbeau, B. Becker, V. Belov, M. A. Blackston, L. Blokland, A. Bolozdynya, B. Cabrera-Palmer, N. Chen, D. Chernyak, E. Conley, R. L. Cooper, J. Daughhetee, M. del Valle Coello, J. A. Detwiler, M. R. Durand, Y. Efremenko, S. R. Elliott, L. Fabris, M. Febbraro, W. Fox, A. Galindo-Uribarri, M. P. Green, K. S. Hansen, M. R. Heath, S. Hedges, M. Hughes, T. Johnson, M. Kaemingk, L. J. Kaufman, A. Khromov, A. Konovalov, E. Kozlova, A. Kumpan, L. Li, J. T. Librande, J. M. Link, J. Liu, K. Mann, D. M. Markoff, O. McGoldrick, H. Moreno, P. E. Mueller, J. Newby, D. S. Parno, S. Penttila, D. Pershey, D. Radford, R. Rapp, H. Ray, J. Raybern, O. Razuvaeva, D. Reyna, G. C. Rich, D. Rudik, J. Runge, D. J. Salvat, K. Scholberg, A. Shakirov, G. Simakov, G. Sinev, W. M. Snow, V. Sosnovtsev, B. Suh, R. Tayloe, K. Tellez-Giron-Flores, R. T. Thornton, I. Tolstukhin, J. Vanderwerp, R. L. Varner, C. J. Virtue, G. Visser, C. Wiseman, T. Wongjirad, J. Yang, Y. -R. Yen, J. Yoo, C. -H. Yu, and J. Zettlemoyer [hide authors].

Release of COHERENT collaboration data from the first detection of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) on argon. This release corresponds with the results of "Analysis A" published in Akimov et al., arXiv:2003.10630 [nucl-ex]. Data is shared in a binned, text-based format representing both "signal" and "backgrounds" along with associated uncertainties such that the included data can be used to perform independent analyses. This document describes the contents of the data release as well as guidance on the use of the data. Included example code in C++ (ROOT) and Python show one possible use of the included data.**Feasibility and physics potential of detecting $^8$B solar neutrinos at JUNO**

2006.11760 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by JUNO collaboration, [and 596 more]Angel Abusleme, Thomas Adam, Shakeel Ahmad, Sebastiano Aiello, Muhammad Akram, Nawab Ali, Fengpeng An, Guangpeng An, Qi An, Giuseppe Andronico, Nikolay Anfimov, Vito Antonelli, Tatiana Antoshkina, Burin Asavapibhop, João Pedro Athayde Marcondes de André, Didier Auguste, Andrej Babic, Wander Baldini, Andrea Barresi, Eric Baussan, Marco Bellato, Antonio Bergnoli, Enrico Bernieri, David Biare, Thilo Birkenfeld, Sylvie Blin, David Blum, Simon Blyth, Anastasia Bolshakova, Mathieu Bongrand, Clément Bordereau, Dominique Breton, Augusto Brigatti, Riccardo Brugnera, Riccardo Bruno, Antonio Budano, Max Buesken, Mario Buscemi, Jose Busto, Ilya Butorov, Anatael Cabrera, Hao Cai, Xiao Cai, Yanke Cai, Zhiyan Cai, Antonio Cammi, Agustin Campeny, Chuanya Cao, Guofu Cao, Jun Cao, Rossella Caruso, Cédric Cerna, Irakli Chakaberia, Jinfan Chang, Yun Chang, Pingping Chen, Po-An Chen, Shaomin Chen, Shenjian Chen, Xurong Chen, Yi-Wen Chen, Yixue Chen, Yu Chen, Zhang Chen, Jie Cheng, Yaping Cheng, Alexander Chepurnov, Davide Chiesa, Pietro Chimenti, Artem Chukanov, Anna Chuvashova, Gérard Claverie, Catia Clementi, Barbara Clerbaux, Selma Conforti Di Lorenzo, Daniele Corti, Salvatore Costa, Flavio Dal Corso, Christophe De La Taille, Jiawei Deng, Zhi Deng, Ziyan Deng, Wilfried Depnering, Marco Diaz, Xuefeng Ding, Yayun Ding, Bayu Dirgantara, Sergey Dmitrievsky, Tadeas Dohnal, Georgy Donchenko, Jianmeng Dong, Damien Dornic, Evgeny Doroshkevich, Marcos Dracos, Frédéric Druillole, Shuxian Du, Stefano Dusini, Martin Dvorak, Timo Enqvist, Heike Enzmann, Andrea Fabbri, Lukas Fajt, Donghua Fan, Lei Fan, Can Fang, Jian Fang, Marco Fargetta, Anna Fatkina, Dmitry Fedoseev, Vladko Fekete, Li-Cheng Feng, Qichun Feng, Richard Ford, Andrey Formozov, Amélie Fournier, Haonan Gan, Feng Gao, Alberto Garfagnini, Alexandre Göttel, Christoph Genster, Marco Giammarchi, Agnese Giaz, Nunzio Giudice, Franco Giuliani, Maxim Gonchar, Guanghua Gong, Hui Gong, Oleg Gorchakov, Yuri Gornushkin, Marco Grassi, Christian Grewing, Maxim Gromov, Vasily Gromov, Minghao Gu, Xiaofei Gu, Yu Gu, Mengyun Guan, Nunzio Guardone, Maria Gul, Cong Guo, Jingyuan Guo, Wanlei Guo, Xinheng Guo, Yuhang Guo, Paul Hackspacher, Caren Hagner, Ran Han, Yang Han, Miao He, Wei He, Tobias Heinz, Patrick Hellmuth, Yuekun Heng, Rafael Herrera, Daojin Hong, Shaojing Hou, Yee Hsiung, Bei-Zhen Hu, Hang Hu, Jianrun Hu, Jun Hu, Shouyang Hu, Tao Hu, Zhuojun Hu, Chunhao Huang, Guihong Huang, Hanxiong Huang, Qinhua Huang, Wenhao Huang, Xingtao Huang, Yongbo Huang, Jiaqi Hui, Lei Huo, Wenju Huo, Cédric Huss, Safeer Hussain, Antonio Insolia, Ara Ioannisian, Roberto Isocrate, Kuo-Lun Jen, Xiaolu Ji, Xingzhao Ji, Huihui Jia, Junji Jia, Siyu Jian, Di Jiang, Xiaoshan Jiang, Ruyi Jin, Xiaoping Jing, Cécile Jollet, Jari Joutsenvaara, Sirichok Jungthawan, Leonidas Kalousis, Philipp Kampmann, Li Kang, Michael Karagounis, Narine Kazarian, Amir Khan, Waseem Khan, Khanchai Khosonthongkee, Patrick Kinz, Denis Korablev, Konstantin Kouzakov, Alexey Krasnoperov, Svetlana Krokhaleva, Zinovy Krumshteyn, Andre Kruth, Nikolay Kutovskiy, Pasi Kuusiniemi, Tobias Lachenmaier, Cecilia Landini, Sébastien Leblanc, Frederic Lefevre, Liping Lei, Ruiting Lei, Rupert Leitner, Jason Leung, Chao Li, Demin Li, Fei Li, Fule Li, Haitao Li, Huiling Li, Jiaqi Li, Jin Li, Kaijie Li, Mengzhao Li, Nan Li, Nan Li, Qingjiang Li, Ruhui Li, Shanfeng Li, Shuaijie Li, Tao Li, Teng Li, Weidong Li, Weiguo Li, Xiaomei Li, Xiaonan Li, Xinglong Li, Yi Li, Yufeng Li, Zhibing Li, Ziyuan Li, Hao Liang, Hao Liang, Jingjing Liang, Daniel Liebau, Ayut Limphirat, Sukit Limpijumnong, Guey-Lin Lin, Shengxin Lin, Tao Lin, Jiajie Ling, Ivano Lippi, Fang Liu, Haidong Liu, Hongbang Liu, Hongjuan Liu, Hongtao Liu, Hu Liu, Hui Liu, Jianglai Liu, Jinchang Liu, Min Liu, Qian Liu, Qin Liu, Runxuan Liu, Shuangyu Liu, Shubin Liu, Shulin Liu, Xiaowei Liu, Yan Liu, Alexey Lokhov, Paolo Lombardi, Claudio Lombardo, Kai Loo, Chuan Lu, Haoqi Lu, Jingbin Lu, Junguang Lu, Shuxiang Lu, Xiaoxu Lu, Bayarto Lubsandorzhiev, Sultim Lubsandorzhiev, Livia Ludhova, Fengjiao Luo, Guang Luo, Pengwei Luo, Shu Luo, Wuming Luo, Vladimir Lyashuk, Qiumei Ma, Si Ma, Xiaoyan Ma, Xubo Ma, Jihane Maalmi, Yury Malyshkin, Fabio Mantovani, Francesco Manzali, Xin Mao, Yajun Mao, Stefano M. Mari, Filippo Marini, Sadia Marium, Cristina Martellini, Gisele Martin-Chassard, Agnese Martini, Davit Mayilyan, Axel Müller, Yue Meng, Anselmo Meregaglia, Emanuela Meroni, David Meyhöfer, Mauro Mezzetto, Jonathan Miller, Lino Miramonti, Salvatore Monforte, Paolo Montini, Michele Montuschi, Nikolay Morozov, Pavithra Muralidharan, Massimiliano Nastasi, Dmitry V. Naumov, Elena Naumova, Igor Nemchenok, Alexey Nikolaev, Feipeng Ning, Zhe Ning, Hiroshi Nunokawa, Lothar Oberauer, Juan Pedro Ochoa-Ricoux, Alexander Olshevskiy, Domizia Orestano, Fausto Ortica, Hsiao-Ru Pan, Alessandro Paoloni, Nina Parkalian, Sergio Parmeggiano, Teerapat Payupol, Yatian Pei, Nicomede Pelliccia, Anguo Peng, Haiping Peng, Frédéric Perrot, Pierre-Alexandre Petitjean, Fabrizio Petrucci, Luis Felipe Piñeres Rico, Oliver Pilarczyk, Artyom Popov, Pascal Poussot, Wathan Pratumwan, Ezio Previtali, Fazhi Qi, Ming Qi, Sen Qian, Xiaohui Qian, Hao Qiao, Zhonghua Qin, Shoukang Qiu, Muhammad Rajput, Gioacchino Ranucci, Neill Raper, Alessandra Re, Henning Rebber, Abdel Rebii, Bin Ren, Jie Ren, Taras Rezinko, Barbara Ricci, Markus Robens, Mathieu Roche, Narongkiat Rodphai, Aldo Romani, Bedřich Roskovec, Christian Roth, Xiangdong Ruan, Xichao Ruan, Saroj Rujirawat, Arseniy Rybnikov, Andrey Sadovsky, Paolo Saggese, Giuseppe Salamanna, Simone Sanfilippo, Anut Sangka, Nuanwan Sanguansak, Utane Sawangwit, Julia Sawatzki, Fatma Sawy, Michaela Schever, Jacky Schuler, Cédric Schwab, Konstantin Schweizer, Dmitry Selivanov, Alexandr Selyunin, Andrea Serafini, Giulio Settanta, Mariangela Settimo, Muhammad Shahzad, Vladislav Sharov, Gang Shi, Jingyan Shi, Yongjiu Shi, Vitaly Shutov, Andrey Sidorenkov, Fedor Simkovic, Chiara Sirignano, Jaruchit Siripak, Monica Sisti, Maciej Slupecki, Mikhail Smirnov, Oleg Smirnov, Thiago Sogo-Bezerra, Julanan Songwadhana, Boonrucksar Soonthornthum, Albert Sotnikov, Ondrej Sramek, Warintorn Sreethawong, Achim Stahl, Luca Stanco, Konstantin Stankevich, Dus Stefanik, Hans Steiger, Jochen Steinmann, Tobias Sterr, Matthias Raphael Stock, Virginia Strati, Alexander Studenikin, Gongxing Sun, Shifeng Sun, Xilei Sun, Yongjie Sun, Yongzhao Sun, Narumon Suwonjandee, Michal Szelezniak, Jian Tang, Qiang Tang, Quan Tang, Xiao Tang, Alexander Tietzsch, Igor Tkachev, Tomas Tmej, Konstantin Treskov, Andrea Triossi, Giancarlo Troni, Wladyslaw Trzaska, Cristina Tuve, Stefan van Waasen, Johannes Vanden Boom, Guillaume Vanroyen, Nikolaos Vassilopoulos, Vadim Vedin, Giuseppe Verde, Maxim Vialkov, Benoit Viaud, Cristina Volpe, Vit Vorobel, Lucia Votano, Pablo Walker, Caishen Wang, Chung-Hsiang Wang, En Wang, Guoli Wang, Jian Wang, Jun Wang, Kunyu Wang, Lu Wang, Meifen Wang, Meng Wang, Meng Wang, Ruiguang Wang, Siguang Wang, Wei Wang, Wei Wang, Wenshuai Wang, Xi Wang, Xiangyue Wang, Yangfu Wang, Yaoguang Wang, Yi Wang, Yi Wang, Yifang Wang, Yuanqing Wang, Yuman Wang, Zhe Wang, Zheng Wang, Zhimin Wang, Zongyi Wang, Apimook Watcharangkool, Lianghong Wei, Wei Wei, Yadong Wei, Liangjian Wen, Christopher Wiebusch, Steven Chan-Fai Wong, Bjoern Wonsak, Diru Wu, Fangliang Wu, Qun Wu, Wenjie Wu, Zhi Wu, Michael Wurm, Jacques Wurtz, Christian Wysotzki, Yufei Xi, Dongmei Xia, Yuguang Xie, Zhangquan Xie, Zhizhong Xing, Benda Xu, Donglian Xu, Fanrong Xu, Jilei Xu, Jing Xu, Meihang Xu, Yin Xu, Yu Xu, Baojun Yan, Xiongbo Yan, Yupeng Yan, Anbo Yang, Changgen Yang, Huan Yang, Jie Yang, Lei Yang, Xiaoyu Yang, Yifan Yang, Haifeng Yao, Zafar Yasin, Jiaxuan Ye, Mei Ye, Ugur Yegin, Frédéric Yermia, Peihuai Yi, Xiangwei Yin, Zhengyun You, Boxiang Yu, Chiye Yu, Chunxu Yu, Hongzhao Yu, Miao Yu, Xianghui Yu, Zeyuan Yu, Chengzhuo Yuan, Ying Yuan, Zhenxiong Yuan, Ziyi Yuan, Baobiao Yue, Noman Zafar, Andre Zambanini, Pan Zeng, Shan Zeng, Tingxuan Zeng, Yuda Zeng, Liang Zhan, Feiyang Zhang, Guoqing Zhang, Haiqiong Zhang, Honghao Zhang, Jiawen Zhang, Jie Zhang, Jingbo Zhang, Peng Zhang, Qingmin Zhang, Shiqi Zhang, Tao Zhang, Xiaomei Zhang, Xuantong Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yinhong Zhang, Yiyu Zhang, Yongpeng Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yumei Zhang, Zhenyu Zhang, Zhijian Zhang, Fengyi Zhao, Jie Zhao, Rong Zhao, Shujun Zhao, Tianchi Zhao, Dongqin Zheng, Hua Zheng, Minshan Zheng, Yangheng Zheng, Weirong Zhong, Jing Zhou, Li Zhou, Nan Zhou, Shun Zhou, Xiang Zhou, Jiang Zhu, Kejun Zhu, Honglin Zhuang, Liang Zong, and Jiaheng Zou [hide authors].

The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory~(JUNO) features a 20~kt multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator sphere as its main detector. Some of JUNO's features make it an excellent experiment for $^8$B solar neutrino measurements, such as its low-energy threshold, its high energy resolution compared to water Cherenkov detectors, and its much large target mass compared to previous liquid scintillator detectors. In this paper we present a comprehensive assessment of JUNO's potential for detecting $^8$B solar neutrinos via the neutrino-electron elastic scattering process. A reduced 2~MeV threshold on the recoil electron energy is found to be achievable assuming the intrinsic radioactive background $^{238}$U and $^{232}$Th in the liquid scintillator can be controlled to 10$^{-17}$~g/g. With ten years of data taking, about 60,000 signal and 30,000 background events are expected. This large sample will enable an examination of the distortion of the recoil electron spectrum that is dominated by the neutrino flavor transformation in the dense solar matter, which will shed new light on the tension between the measured electron spectra and the predictions of the standard three-flavor neutrino oscillation framework. If $\Delta m^{2}_{21}=4.8\times10^{-5}~(7.5\times10^{-5})$~eV$^{2}$, JUNO can provide evidence of neutrino oscillation in the Earth at the about 3$\sigma$~(2$\sigma$) level by measuring the non-zero signal rate variation with respect to the solar zenith angle. Moveover, JUNO can simultaneously measure $\Delta m^2_{21}$ using $^8$B solar neutrinos to a precision of 20\% or better depending on the central value and to sub-percent precision using reactor antineutrinos. A comparison of these two measurements from the same detector will help elucidate the current tension between the value of $\Delta m^2_{21}$ reported by solar neutrino experiments and the KamLAND experiment.**2020 Global reassessment of the neutrino oscillation picture**

2006.11237 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. F. de Salas, [and 7 more]D. V. Forero, S. Gariazzo, P. Martínez-Miravé, O. Mena, C. A. Ternes, M. Tórtola, and J. W. F. Valle [hide authors].

We present an updated global fit of neutrino oscillation data in the simplest three-neutrino framework. In the present study we include up-to-date analyses from a number of experiments. Namely, we have included all T2K measurements as of December 2019, the most recent NO$\nu$A antineutrino statistics, and data collected by the Daya Bay and RENO reactor experiments. Concerning the atmospheric and solar sectors, we have also updated our analyses of DeepCore and SNO data, respectively. All in all, these new analyses result in more accurate measurements of $\theta_{13}$, $\theta_{12}$, $\Delta m_{21}^2$ and $|\Delta m_{31}^2|$. The best fit value for the atmospheric angle $\theta_{23}$ lies in the second octant, but first octant solutions remain allowed at $\sim2\sigma$. Regarding CP violation measurements, the preferred value of $\delta$ we obtain is 1.20$\pi$ (1.54$\pi$) for normal (inverted) neutrino mass ordering. These new results should be regarded as extremely robust due to the excellent agreement found between our Bayesian and frequentist approaches. Taking into account only oscillation data, there is a preference for the normal neutrino mass ordering at the $2.7\sigma$ level. While adding neutrinoless double beta decay from the latest Gerda, CUORE and KamLAND-Zen results barely modifies this picture, cosmological measurements raise the significance to $3.1\sigma$ within a conservative approach. A more aggressive data set combination of cosmological observations leads to a stronger preference for normal with respect to inverted mass ordering, at the $3.3\sigma$ level. This cosmological data set provides $2\sigma$ upper limits on the total neutrino mass corresponding to $\sum m_\nu<0.13$ ($0.15$)~eV in the normal (inverted) neutrino mass ordering scenario. These bounds are among the most complete ones in the literature, as they include all currently available neutrino physics inputs.**Improved Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Search and Energy Spectrum Measurement with the PROSPECT Experiment at HFIR**

2006.11210 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Andriamirado, [and 63 more]A. B. Balantekin, H. R. Band, C. D. Bass, D. E. Bergeron, D. Berish, N. S. Bowden, J. P. Brodsky, C. D. Bryan, T. Classen, A. J. Conant, G. Deichert, M. V. Diwan, M. J. Dolinski, A. Erickson, B. T. Foust, J. K. Gaison, A. Galindo-Uribarri, C. E. Gilbert, B. W. Goddard, B. T. Hackett, S. Hans, A. B. Hansell, K. M. Heeger, B. Heffron, D. E. Jaffe, X. Ji, D. C. Jones, O. Kyzylova, C. E. Lane, T. J. Langford, J. LaRosa, B. R. Littlejohn, X. Lu, J. Maricic, M. P. Mendenhall, A. M. Meyer, R. Milincic, I. Mitchell, P. E. Mueller, H. P. Mumm, J. Napolitano, C. Nave, R. Neilson, J. A. Nikkel, D. Norcini, S. Nour, J. L. Palomino, D. A. Pushin, X. Qian, E. Romero-Romero, R. Rosero, P. T. Surukuchi, M. A. Tyra, R. L. Varner, D. Venegas-Vargas, P. B. Weatherly, C. White, J. Wilhelmi, A. Woolverton, M. Yeh, A. Zhang, C. Zhang, and X. Zhang [hide authors].

We present a detailed report on sterile neutrino oscillation and U-235 antineutrino energy spectrum measurement results from the PROSPECT experiment at the highly enriched High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In 96 calendar days of data taken at an average baseline distance of 7.9 m from the center of the 85 MW HFIR core, the PROSPECT detector has observed more than 50,000 interactions of antineutrinos produced in beta decays of U-235 fission products. New limits on the oscillation of antineutrinos to light sterile neutrinos have been set by comparing the detected energy spectra of ten reactor-detector baselines between 6.7 and 9.2 meters. Measured differences in energy spectra between baselines show no statistically significant indication of antineutrinos to sterile neutrino oscillation and disfavor the Reactor Antineutrino Anomaly best-fit point at the 2.5$\sigma$ confidence level. The reported U-235 antineutrino energy spectrum measurement shows excellent agreement with energy spectrum models generated via conversion of the measured U-235 beta spectrum, with a $\chi^2$/DOF of 31/31. PROSPECT is able to disfavor at 2.4$\sigma$ confidence level the hypothesis that U-235 antineutrinos are solely responsible for spectrum discrepancies between model and data obtained at commercial reactor cores. A data-model deviation in PROSPECT similar to that observed by commercial core experiments is preferred with respect to no observed deviation, at a 2.2$\sigma$ confidence level.**Implications of CP invariants for flavoured hybrid neutrino mass matrix**

2006.09687 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Madan Singh.

In the present paper, I have re-examined the weak basis invariants at low energies, proposed by C. Jarlskog and Branco et. al, respectively, in their earlier analyses, after confronting them with the assumptions of two zeros and an equality between arbitrary non-zero elements in the Majorana neutrino mass matrix in the flavoured basis. This particular conjecture is found to be experimentally feasible as shown by S. Dev and D. Raj in their recent work. The present analysis attempts to find the necessary and sufficient condition for CP invariance for each experimentally viable ans\"atz, pertaining to the model along with some important implications.**Searching for Dark Matter Signals in Timing Spectra at Neutrino Experiments**

2006.09386 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Bhaskar Dutta, [and 6 more]Doojin Kim, Shu Liao, Jong-Chul Park, Seodong Shin, Louis E. Strigari, and Adrian Thompson [hide authors].

The sensitivity to dark matter signals at neutrino experiments is fundamentally challenged by the neutrino rates, as they leave similar signatures in their detectors. As a way to improve the signal sensitivity, we investigate a dark matter search strategy which utilizes the timing and energy spectra to discriminate dark matter from neutrino signals at low-energy, pulsed-beam neutrino experiments. This strategy was proposed in our companion paper arXiv:1906.10745, which we apply to potential searches at COHERENT, JSNS$^2$, and CCM. These experiments are not only sources of neutrinos but also high intensity sources of photons. The dark matter candidate of interest comes from the relatively prompt decay of a dark sector gauge boson which may replace a Standard-Model photon, so the delayed neutrino events can be suppressed by keeping prompt events only. Furthermore, prompt neutrino events can be rejected by a cut in recoil energy spectra, as their incoming energy is relatively small and bounded from above while dark matter may deposit a sizable energy beyond it. We apply the search strategy of imposing a combination of energy and timing cuts to the existing CsI data of the COHERENT experiment as a concrete example, and report a mild excess beyond known backgrounds. We then investigate the expected sensitivity reaches to dark matter signals in our benchmark experiments.**The Impact of Different Parameterizations on the Interpretation of CP Violation in Neutrino Oscillations**

2006.09384 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton and Rebekah Pestes.

CP violation in the lepton mass matrix will be probed with good precision in upcoming experiments. The amount of CP violation can be quantified in numerous ways and is typically parameterized by the complex phase $\delta_{\rm PDG}$ in the standard PDG definition of the lepton mixing matrix. There are additional parameterizations of the lepton mixing matrix as well. Through various examples we explore how, given the current data, different parameterizations can lead to different conclusions when working with parameterization dependent variables, such as $\delta$. We demonstrate how the smallness of $|U_{e3}|$ governs the scale of these results. We then demonstrate how $\delta$ can be misleading and argue that the Jarlskog is the cleanest means of presenting the amount of CP violation in the lepton sector.**Adjusting Neutrino Interaction Models and Evaluating Uncertainties using NOvA Near Detector Data**

2006.08727 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by NOvA Collaboration, [and 194 more]M. A. Acero, P. Adamson, G. Agam, L. Aliaga, T. Alion, V. Allakhverdian, N. Anfimov, A. Antoshkin, L. Asquith, A. Aurisano, A. Back, C. Backhouse, M. Baird, N. Balashov, P. Baldi, B. A. Bambah, S. Bashar, K. Bays, S. Bending, R. Bernstein, V. Bhatnagar, B. Bhuyan, J. Bian, J. Blair, A. C. Booth, P. Bour, R. Bowles, C. Bromberg, N. Buchanan, A. Butkevich, S. Calvez, T. J. Carroll, E. Catano-Mur, S. Childress, B. C. Choudhary, T. E. Coan, M. Colo, L. Corwin, L. Cremonesi, G. S. Davies, P. F. Derwent, P. Ding, Z. Djurcic, D. Doyle, E. C. Dukes, P. Dung, H. Duyang, S. Edayath, R. Ehrlich, M. Elkins, G. J. Feldman, P. Filip, W. Flanagan, J. Franc, M. J. Frank, H. R. Gallagher, R. Gandrajula, F. Gao, S. Germani, A. Giri, R. A. Gomes, M. C. Goodman, V. Grichine, M. Groh, R. Group, B. Guo, A. Habig, F. Hakl, J. Hartnell, R. Hatcher, A. Hatzikoutelis, K. Heller, J. Hewes, A. Himmel, A. Holin, B. Howard, J. Huang, J. Hylen, F. Jediny, C. Johnson, M. Judah, I. Kakorin, D. Kalra, D. M. Kaplan, R. Keloth, O. Klimov, L. W. Koerner, L. Kolupaeva, S. Kotelnikov, Ch. Kullenberg, A. Kumar, C. D. Kuruppu, V. Kus, T. Lackey, K. Lang, L. Li, S. Lin, M. Lokajicek, S. Luchuk, K. Maan, S. Magill, W. A. Mann, M. L. Marshak, M. Martinez-Casales, V. Matveev, B. Mayes, D. P. Méndez, M. D. Messier, H. Meyer, T. Miao, W. H. Miller, S. R. Mishra, A. Mislivec, R. Mohanta, A. Moren, A. Morozova, L. Mualem, M. Muether, S. Mufson, K. Mulder, R. Murphy, J. Musser, D. Naples, N. Nayak, J. K. Nelson, R. Nichol, G. Nikseresht, E. Niner, A. Norman, A. Norrick, T. Nosek, A. Olshevskiy, T. Olson, J. Paley, R. B. Patterson, G. Pawloski, O. Petrova, R. Petti, R. K. Plunkett, A. Rafique, F. Psihas, A. Radovic, V. Raj, B. Ramson, B. Rebel, P. Rojas, V. Ryabov, O. Samoylov, M. C. Sanchez, S. Sánchez Falero, I. S. Seong, P. Shanahan, A. Sheshukov, P. Singh, V. Singh, E. Smith, J. Smolik, P. Snopok, N. Solomey, A. Sousa, K. Soustruznik, M. Strait, L. Suter, A. Sutton, C. Sweeney, R. L. Talaga, B. Tapia Oregui, P. Tas, R. B. Thayyullathil, J. Thomas, E. Tiras, D. Torbunov, J. Tripathi, Y. Torun, J. Urheim, P. Vahle, Z. Vallari, J. Vasel, P. Vokac, T. Vrba, M. Wallbank, T. K. Warburton, M. Wetstein, D. Whittington, S. G. Wojcicki, J. Wolcott, A. Yallappa Dombara, K. Yonehara, S. Yu, Y. Yu, S. Zadorozhnyy, J. Zalesak, Y. Zhang, and R. Zwaska [hide authors].

The two-detector design of the NOvA neutrino oscillation experiment, in which two functionally identical detectors are exposed to an intense neutrino beam, aids in canceling leading order effects of cross-section uncertainties. However, limited knowledge of neutrino interaction cross sections still gives rise to some of the largest systematic uncertainties in current oscillation measurements. We show contemporary models of neutrino interactions to be discrepant with data from NOvA, consistent with discrepancies seen in other experiments. Adjustments to neutrino interaction models in GENIE that improve agreement with our data are presented. We also describe systematic uncertainties on these models, including uncertainties on multi-nucleon interactions from a newly developed procedure using NOvA near detector data.**Signatures of secondary acceleration in neutrino flares**

2006.08660 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Claire Guépin.

High-energy neutrino flares are interesting prospective counterparts to photon flares, as their detection would guarantee the presence of accelerated hadrons within a source, provide precious information about cosmic-ray acceleration and interactions, and thus impact the subsequent modeling of non-thermal emissions in explosive transients. In these sources, photomeson production can be efficient, producing a large amount of secondary particles, such as charged pions and muons, that decay and produce high-energy neutrinos. Before their decay, secondary particles can experience energy losses and acceleration, which can impact high-energy neutrino spectra and thus affect their detectability. In this work, we focus on the impact of secondary acceleration. We consider a one zone model, characterized mainly by a variability timescale $t_{\rm var}$, a luminosity $L_{\rm bol}$, a bulk Lorentz factor $\Gamma$. The mean magnetic field $B$ is deduced from these parameters. The photon field is modeled by a broken power-law. This generic model allows to evaluate systematically the maximum energy of high-energy neutrinos in the parameter space of explosive transients, and shows that it could be strongly affected by secondary acceleration for a large number of source categories. In order to determine the impact of secondary acceleration on the high-energy neutrino spectrum and in particular on its peak energy and flux, we complement these estimates by several case studies. We show that secondary acceleration can increase the maximum neutrino flux, and produce a secondary peak at the maximum energy in the case of efficient acceleration. Secondary acceleration could therefore enhance the detectability of very-high-energy neutrinos, that will be the target of next generation neutrino detectors such as KM3NeT, IceCube-Gen2, POEMMA or GRAND.**Determining the nuclear neutron distribution from Coherent Elastic neutrino-Nucleus Scattering: current results and future prospects**

2006.08624 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Coloma, [and 3 more]Ivan Esteban, M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, and Javier Menendez [hide authors].

Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS), a process recently measured for the first time at ORNL's Spallation Neutron Source, is directly sensitive to the weak form factor of the nucleus. The European Spallation Source (ESS), presently under construction, will generate the most intense pulsed neutrino flux suitable for the detection of CE$\nu$NS. In this paper we quantify its potential to determine the root mean square radius of the point-neutron distribution, for a variety of target nuclei and a suite of detectors. To put our results in context we also derive, for the first time, a constraint on this parameter from the analysis of the energy and timing data of the CsI detector at the COHERENT experiment.**Cosmic Flavor Hexagon for Ultrahigh-energy Neutrinos and Antineutrinos at Neutrino Telescopes**

2006.06181 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shun Zhou.

In this paper, we propose a hexagonal description for the flavor composition of ultrahigh-energy (UHE) neutrinos and antineutrinos, which will hopefully be determined at the future large neutrino telescopes. With such a geometrical description, we are able to clearly separate the individual flavor composition of neutrinos from that of antineutrinos in one single regular hexagon, which can be regarded as a natural generalization of the widely-used ternary plot. For illustration, we consider the $pp$ or $p\gamma$ collisions as the dominant production mechanism for UHE neutrinos and antineutrinos in the cosmic accelerator, and investigate how neutrino oscillations in the standard picture and in the presence of Lindblad decoherence could change the flavor composition of neutrinos and antineutrinos at neutrino telescopes.**Unravelling the richness of dark sector by FASER$ν$**

2006.05437 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pouya Bakhti, Yasaman Farzan, and Silvia Pascoli.

FASER$\nu$ is a newly proposed experiment which will take data in run III of the LHC during 2021-2023. It will be located in front of the FASER detector, 480~m away from the ATLAS interaction point in the forward direction. Its main goal is to detect neutrinos of all flavors produced at the interaction point with superb precision in reconstructing charged tracks. This capability makes FASER$\nu$ an ideal setup for uncovering the pattern and properties of a light dark sector. We demonstrate this capability for a well-motivated class of models with a dark matter candidate of mass around a few GeV. Dark matter annihilates to a pair of intermediate neutral particles that subsequently decay into the standard model charged fermions. We show how FASER$\nu$ can shed light on the structure of the dark sector by unravelling the decay chain within such models.**Probing the sensitivity to leptonic $δ_{CP}$ in presence of invisible decay of $ν_3$ using atmospheric neutrinos**

2006.04233 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lakshmi. S. Mohan.

One of the main neutrino oscillation parameters whose value has not been determined very precisely is the leptonic $\delta_{CP}$ phase. Since neutrinos have a tiny but finite mass they can undergo decay both visibly and invisibly. The effect of invisible decay of the third mass eigen state $\nu_3$ on the sensitivity to $\delta_{CP}$ is analysed here using atmospheric neutrino and anti-neutrino events. Effects of detector resolutions and systematic uncertainties are studied to identify the optimum resolutions and efficiencies required by a detector to obtain a significant sensitivity even in presence of decay.**Solar Neutrino Detection Sensitivity in DARWIN via Electron Scattering**

2006.03114 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. Aalbers, [and 166 more]F. Agostini, S. E. M. Ahmed Maouloud, M. Alfonsi, L. Althueser, F. Amaro, J. Angevaare, V. C. Antochi, B. Antunovic, E. Aprile, L. Arazi, F. Arneodo, M. Balzer, L. Baudis, D. Baur, M. L. Benabderrahmane, Y. Biondi, A. Bismark, C. Bourgeois, A. Breskin, P. A. Breur, A. Brown, E. Brown, G. Bruno, S. Brünner, G. Bruno, R. Budnik, C. Capelli, J. Cardoso, D. Cichon, M. Clark, A. P. Colijn, J. Conrad, J. J. Cuenca-García, J. P. Cussonneau, M. P. Decowski, A. Depoian, J. Dierle, P. Di Gangi, A. Di Giovanni, S. Diglio, D. Douillet, G. Drexlin, K. Eitel, R. Engel, E. Erdal, A. D. Ferella, H. Fischer, P. Fischer, W. Fulgione, P. Gaemers, M. Galloway, F. Gao, D. Giovagnoli, F. Girard, R. Glade-Beucke, F. Glück, L. Grandi, S. Grohmann, R. Größle, R. Gumbsheimer, V. Hannen, S. Hansmann-Menzemer, C. Hils, B. Holzapfel, J. Howlett, G. Iaquaniello, F. Jörg, M. Keller, J. Kellerer, G. Khundzakishvili, B. Kilminster, M. Kleifges, T. K. Kleiner, G. Koltmann, A. Kopec, A. Kopmann, L. M. Krauss, F. Kuger, L. LaCascio, H. Landsman, R. F. Lang, S. Lindemann, M. Lindner, F. Lombardi, J. A. M. Lopes, A. Loya Villalpando, Y. Ma, C. Macolino, J. Mahlstedt, A. Manfredini, T. Marrodán Undagoitia, J. Masbou, D. Masson, E. Masson, N. McFadden, P. Meinhardt, R. Meyer, B. Milosevic, S. Milutinovic, A. Molinario, C. M. B. Monteiro, K. Morå, E. Morteau, Y. Mosbacher, M. Murra, J. L. Newstead, K. Ni, U. G. Oberlack, M. Obradovic, K. Odgers, I. Ostrovskiy, J. Palacio, M. Pandurovic, B. Pelssers, R. Peres, J. Pienaar, M. Pierre, V. Pizzella, G. Plante, J. Qi, J. Qin, D. Ramírez García, S. E. Reichard, N. Rupp, P. Sanchez-Lucas, J. Santos, G. Sartorelli, D. Schulte, H. -C. Schultz-Coulon, H. Schulze Eißing, M. Schumann, L. Scotto Lavina, M. Selvi, P. Shagin, S. Sharma, W. Shen, M. Silva, H. Simgen, M. Steidl, S. Stern, D. Subotic, P. Szabo, A. Terliuk, C. Therreau, D. Thers, K. Thieme, F. Toennies, R. Trotta, C. D. Tunnell, K. Valerius, G. Volta, D. Vorkapic, M. Weber, Y. Wei, C. Weinheimer, M. Weiss, D. Wenz, C. Wittweg, J. Wolf, S. Wuestling, M. Wurm, Y. Xing, T. Zhu, Y. Zhu, J. P. Zopounidis, and K. Zuber [hide authors].

We detail the sensitivity of the liquid xenon (LXe) DARWIN observatory to solar neutrinos via elastic electron scattering. We find that DARWIN will have the potential to measure the fluxes of five solar neutrino components: $pp$, $^7$Be, $^{13}$N, $^{15}$O and $pep$. The precision of the $^{13}$N, $^{15}$O and $pep$ components is hindered by the double-beta decay of $^{136}$Xe and, thus, would benefit from a depleted target. A high-statistics observation of $pp$ neutrinos would allow us to infer the values of the weak mixing angle, $\sin^2\theta_w$, and the electron-type neutrino survival probability, $P_e$, in the electron recoil energy region from a few keV up to 200 keV for the first time, with relative precision of 5% and 4%, respectively, at an exposure of 300 ty. An observation of $pp$ and $^7$Be neutrinos would constrain the neutrino-inferred solar luminosity down to 0.2%. A combination of all flux measurements would distinguish between the high (GS98) and low metallicity (AGS09) solar models with 2.1-2.5$\sigma$ significance, independent of external measurements from other experiments or a measurement of $^8$B neutrinos through coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering in DARWIN. Finally, we demonstrate that with a depleted target DARWIN may be sensitive to the neutrino capture process of $^{131}$Xe.**Mapping reactor neutrino spectra from TAO to JUNO**

2006.01648 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Francesco Capozzi, Eligio Lisi, and Antonio Marrone.

The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) project aims at probing, at the same time, the two main frequencies of three-flavor neutrino oscillations, as well as their interference related to the mass ordering (normal or inverted), at a distance of ~53 km from two powerful reactor complexes in China, at Yangjiang and Taishan. In the latter complex, the unoscillated spectrum from one reactor core is planned to be closely monitored by the Taishan Antineutrino Observatory (TAO), expected to have better resolution (x 1/2) and higher statistics (x 30) than JUNO. In the context of neutrino energy spectra endowed with fine-structure features from summation calculations, we analyze in detail the effects of energy resolution and nucleon recoil on observable event spectra. We show that a model spectrum in TAO can be mapped into a corresponding spectrum in JUNO through appropriate convolutions. The mapping is exact in the hypothetical case without oscillations, and holds to a very good accuracy in the real case with oscillations. We then analyze the sensitivity to mass ordering of JUNO (and its precision oscillometry capabilities) assuming a single reference spectrum, as well as bundles of variant spectra, as obtained by changing nuclear input uncertainties in summation calculations from a publicly available toolkit. We show through a chi-squared analysis that variant spectra induce little reduction of the sensitivity in JUNO, especially when TAO constraints are included. Subtle aspects of the statistical analysis of variant spectra are also discussed.**Reactor Antineutrino Oscillations at Super-Kamiokande**

2006.01155 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa and Ivan Martinez-Soler.

SuperKamiokande (SK) doped with gadolinium has the capability to efficiently identify electron-antineutrinos through inverse beta-decay. Given the size of SK and the number of nuclear reactors in its vicinity, we argue that SK can observe the oscillations of reactor antineutrinos driven by the so-called solar mass-squared difference $\Delta m^2_{21}$. After only one year of data taking, we estimate that SK can measure $\Delta m^2_{21}$ with enough precision to help inform the current small tension between existing results from KamLAND and solar neutrino experiments.**Dark Matter-Neutrino Interconversion at COHERENT, Direct Detection, and the Early Universe**

2005.13384 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nicholas Hurtado, [and 4 more]Hana Mir, Ian M. Shoemaker, Eli Welch, and Jason Wyenberg [hide authors].

We study a Dark Matter (DM) model in which the dominant coupling to the standard model occurs through a neutrino-DM-scalar coupling. The new singlet scalar will generically have couplings to nuclei/electrons arising from renormalizable Higgs portal interactions. As a result the DM particle $X$ can convert into a neutrino via scattering on a target nucleus $\mathcal{N}$: $ X + \mathcal{N} \rightarrow \nu + \mathcal{N}$, leading to striking signatures at direct detection experiments. Similarly, DM can be produced in neutrino scattering events at neutrino experiments: $ \nu + \mathcal{N} \rightarrow X + \mathcal{N}$, predicting spectral distortions at experiments such as COHERENT. Furthermore, the model allows for late kinetic decoupling of dark matter with implications for small-scale structure. At low masses, we find that COHERENT and late kinetic decoupling produce the strongest constraints on the model, while at high masses the leading constraints come from DM down-scattering at XENON1T and Borexino. Future improvement will come from CE$\nu$NS data, ultra-low threshold direct detection, and rare kaon decays.**Modified majoron model for cosmological anomalies**

2005.13280 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gabriela Barenboim and Ulrich Nierste.

The vacuum expectation value $v_s$ of a Higgs triplet field $\Delta$ carrying two units of lepton number $L$ induces neutrino masses $\propto v_s$. The neutral component of $\Delta$ gives rise to two Higgs particles, a pseudoscalar $A$ and a scalar $S$. The most general renormalizable Higgs potential $V$ for $\Delta $ and the Standard-Model Higgs doublet $\Phi$ does not permit the possibility that the mass of either $A$ or $S$ is small, of order $v_s$, while the other mass is heavy enough to forbid the decay $Z\to A S$ to comply with LEP 1 data. We present a model with additional dimension-6 terms in $V$, in which this feature is absent and either $A$ or $S$ can be chosen light. Subsequently we propose the model as a remedy to cosmological anomalies, namely the tension between observed and predicted tensor-to-scalar mode ratios in the cosmic microwave background and the different values of the Hubble constant measured at different cosmological scales. Furthermore, if $\Delta$ dominantly couples to the third-generation doublet $L_\tau=(\nu_\tau,\tau)$, the deficit of $\nu_\tau$ events at IceCube can be explained. The singly and doubly charged triplet Higgs bosons are lighter than 280 GeV and 400 GeV respectively, and could be found at the LHC.**Supernovae neutrino detection via coherent scattering off silicon nuclei**

2005.13068 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ana Luisa Foguel, Eduardo Souza Fraga, and Carla Bonifazi.

Low-energy neutrinos are clean messengers from supernovae explosions and probably carry unique insights into the process of stellar evolution. We estimate the expected number of events considering coherent elastic scattering of neutrinos off silicon nuclei, as would happen in Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) detectors. The number of expected events, integrated over a window of about 18 s, is $\sim$ 4 if we assume 10 kg of silicon and a supernovae 1 kpc away. For a a distance similar to the red supergiant Betelgeuse, the number of expected events increases to $\sim$ 30 - 120, depending on the supernovae model. We argue that silicon detectors can be effective for supernovae neutrinos, and might possibly distinguish between models for certain target masses and distances.**Searching for eV-scale sterile neutrinos with eight years of atmospheric neutrinos at the IceCube neutrino telescope**

2005.12943 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. G. Aartsen, [and 376 more]R. Abbasi, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, N. M. Amin, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Basu, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, B. A. Clark, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, A. Desai, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, S. Dharani, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, M. A. DuVernois, E. Dvorak, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, J. Felde, A. T. Fienberg, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Günder, M. Gündüz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, J. Hardin, A. Haungs, S. Hauser, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, M. Kellermann, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, P. Koundal, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krückl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, Y. Li, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, A. Ludwig, J. Lünemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Merz, T. Meures, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momenté, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, G. Neer, L. V. Nguyen, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, A. O'Murchadha, E. O'Sullivan, T. Palczewski, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, G. K. Parker, E. N. Paudel, P. Peiffer, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, Y. Popovych, A. Porcelli, M. Prado Rodriguez, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, B. Riedel, S. Robertson, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk Cantu, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Scharf, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, B. Smithers, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, A. Stößl, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, W. Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, D. Vannerom, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, J. Wulff, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, Z. Zhang, and M. Zöcklein [hide authors].

We report in detail on searches for eV-scale sterile neutrinos, in the context of a 3+1 model, using eight years of data from the IceCube neutrino telescope. By analyzing the reconstructed energies and zenith angles of 305,735 atmospheric $\nu_\mu$ and $\bar{\nu}_\mu$ events we construct confidence intervals in two analysis spaces: $\sin^2 (2\theta_{24})$ vs. $\Delta m^2_{41}$ under the conservative assumption $\theta_{34}=0$; and $\sin^2(2\theta_{24})$ vs. $\sin^2 (2\theta_{34})$ given sufficiently large $\Delta m^2_{41}$ that fast oscillation features are unresolvable. Detailed discussions of the event selection, systematic uncertainties, and fitting procedures are presented. No strong evidence for sterile neutrinos is found, and the best-fit likelihood is consistent with the no sterile neutrino hypothesis with a p-value of 8\% in the first analysis space and 19\% in the second.**Probing Source and Detector NSI parameters at the DUNE Near Detector**

2005.10272 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alessio Giarnetti and Davide Meloni.

We investigate the capability of the DUNE Near Detector (ND) to constrain Non Standard Interaction parameters (NSI) describing the production of neutrinos ($\varepsilon_{\alpha\beta}^s$) and their detection ($\varepsilon_{\alpha\beta}^d$). We show that the DUNE ND is able to reject a large portion of the parameter space allowed by DUNE Far Detector analyses and to set the most stringent bounds from accelerator neutrino experiments on $|\varepsilon_{\mu e}^{s,d}|$ and $|\varepsilon_{\mu\tau}^{s,d}|$ for wide intervals of the related phases. We also provide simple analytic understanding of our results as well as their dependence on the data taking time, showing that the DUNE ND offers a theoretically clean environment where to study source and detector NSI.**The Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment**

2005.09493 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Agostini, [and 35 more]M. Böhmer, J. Bosma, K. Clark, M. Danninger, C. Fruck, R. Gernhäuser, A. Gärtner, D. Grant, F. Henningsen, K. Holzapfel, M. Huber, R. Jenkyns, C. B. Krauss, K. Krings, C. Kopper, K. Leismüller, S. Leys, P. Macoun, S. Meighen-Berger, J. Michel, R. W. Moore, M. Morley, P. Padovani, T. Pollmann, L. Papp, B. Pirenne, C. Qiu, I. C. Rea, E. Resconi, A. Round, A. Ruskey, C. Spannfellner, M. Traxler, A. Turcati, and J. P. Yanez [hide authors].

The Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment (P-ONE) is a new initiative with a vision towards constructing a multi-cubic kilometre neutrino telescope, to expand our observable window of the Universe to highest energies, installed within the deep Pacific Ocean underwater infrastructure of Ocean Networks Canada.**Constraining sterile neutrinos by core-collapse supernovae with multiple detectors**

2005.09168 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jian Tang, TseChun Wang, and Meng-Ru Wu.

The eV-scale sterile neutrino has been proposed to explain some anomalous results in experiments, \textit{such as} the deficit of reactor neutrino fluxes and the excess of $\bar{\nu}_\mu\to\bar{\nu}_e$ in LSND. This hypothesis can be tested by future core-collapse supernova neutrino detection independently since the active-sterile mixing scheme affects the flavor conversion of neutrinos inside the supernova. In this work, we compute the predicted supernova neutrino events in future detectors -- DUNE, Hyper-K, and JUNO -- for neutrinos emitted during the neutronization burst phase when the luminosity of $\nu_e$ dominates the other flavors. We find that for a supernova occurring within 10 kpc, the difference in the event numbers with and without sterile neutrinos allows to exclude the sterile neutrino hypothesis at more than $99\%$ confidence level robustly. The derived constraints on sterile neutrinos mixing parameters are comparably better than the results from cosmology and on-going or proposed reactor experiments by more than two orders of magnitude in the $\sin^22\theta_{14}$-$\Delta m_{41}^2$ plane.**Cross-correlating 2MRS galaxies with UHECR flux from Pierre Auger Observatory**

2005.08782 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pavel Motloch.

We apply a recently proposed cross-correlation power spectrum technique to study relationship between the ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHERC) flux from the Pierre Auger Observatory and galaxies from the 2MASS Redshift Survey. Using a simple linear bias model relative to the galaxy auto power spectrum, we are able to constrain the value of bias to be less than 1% for UHECR with energies 4 EeV - 8 EeV, less than 2.3% for UHECR with energies above 8 EeV and less than 21% for UHECR with energies above 52 EeV (all 95% confidence limit). We study energy dependence of the bias, but the small sample size does not allow us to reach any statistically significant conclusions. For the cosmic ray events above 52 EeV we discover a curious excess cross-correlation at $\sim 1^\circ$ degree scales. Given similar cross-correlation is not visible at larger angular scales, statistical fluctuation seems like the most plausible explanation.**Investigation of energy spectrum and chemical composition of primary cosmic rays in 1-100 PeV energy range with a UAV-borne installation**

2005.07993 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Chernov, [and 8 more]E. Bonvech, M. Finger Jr, M. Finger, V. Galkin, V. Ivanov, D. Podgrudkov, T. Roganova, and I. Vaiman [hide authors].

A new project is developed with the implementation of a relatively new method of studying the primary cosmic ray -- the registration of extensive air showers' optical Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation (Cherenkov light) reflected from the snow surface. The aim of the project is the study of the cosmic ray mass composition in the energy range of 1-100 PeV by detecting the reflected extensive air showers' Cherenkov light. Silicon photomultipliers are planned to be used as the main photosensitive element of the detector and an unmanned aerial vehicle will is planned to lift the measuring equipment over the snow-covered ground.**Evidence for a Supergalactic Structure of Magnetic Deflection Multiplets of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays**

2005.07312 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Telescope Array Collaboration, [and 143 more]R. U. Abbasi, M. Abe, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Allen, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, R. Cady, B. G. Cheon, J. Chiba, M. Chikawa, A. di Matteo, T. Fujii, K. Fujisue, K. Fujita, R. Fujiwara, M. Fukushima, G. Furlich, W. Hanlon, M. Hayashi, N. Hayashida, K. Hibino, R. Higuchi, K. Honda, D. Ikeda, T. Inadomi, N. Inoue, T. Ishii, R. Ishimori, H. Ito, D. Ivanov, H. Iwakura, H. M. Jeong, S. Jeong, C. C. H. Jui, K. Kadota, F. Kakimoto, O. Kalashev, K. Kasahara, S. Kasami, H. Kawai, S. Kawakami, S. Kawana, K. Kawata, E. Kido, H. B. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, M. H. Kim, S. W. Kim, S. Kishigami, V. Kuzmin, M. Kuznetsov, Y. J. Kwon, K. H. Lee, B. Lubsandorzhiev, J. P. Lundquist, K. Machida, H. Matsumiya, T. Matsuyama, J. N. Matthews, R. Mayta, M. Minamino, K. Mukai, I. Myers, S. Nagataki, K. Nakai, R. Nakamura, T. Nakamura, Y. Nakamura, T. Nonaka, H. Oda, S. Ogio, M. Ohnishi, H. Ohoka, Y. Oku, T. Okuda, Y. Omura, M. Ono, R. Onogi, A. Oshima, S. Ozawa, I. H. Park, M. S. Pshirkov, J. Remington, D. C. Rodriguez, G. Rubtsov, D. Ryu, H. Sagawa, R. Sahara, Y. Saito, N. Sakaki, T. Sako, N. Sakurai, K. Sano, T. Seki, K. Sekino, P. D. Shah, F. Shibata, T. Shibata, H. Shimodaira, B. K. Shin, H. S. Shin, J. D. Smith, P. Sokolsky, N. Sone, B. T. Stokes, T. A. Stroman, T. Suzawa, Y. Takagi, Y. Takahashi, M. Takamura, R. Takeishi, A. Taketa, M. Takita, Y. Tameda, H. Tanaka, K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, Y. Tanoue, S. B. Thomas, G. B. Thomson, P. Tinyakov, I. Tkachev, H. Tokuno, T. Tomida, S. Troitsky, Y. Tsunesada, Y. Uchihori, S. Udo, T. Uehama, F. Urban, T. Wong, K. Yada, M. Yamamoto, K. Yamazaki, J. Yang, K. Yashiro, M. Yosei, Y. Zhezher, and Z. Zundel [hide authors].

Evidence for a large-scale supergalactic cosmic ray multiplet (arrival directions correlated with energy) structure is reported for ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) energies above 10$^{19}$ eV using seven years of data from the Telescope Array (TA) surface detector and updated to 10 years. Previous energy-position correlation studies have made assumptions regarding magnetic field shapes and strength, and UHECR composition. Here the assumption tested is that, since the supergalactic plane is a fit to the average matter density of the local Large Scale Structure (LSS), UHECR sources and intervening extragalactic magnetic fields are correlated with this plane. This supergalactic deflection hypothesis is tested by the entire field-of-view (FOV) behavior of the strength of intermediate-scale energy-angle correlations. These multiplets are measured in spherical cap section bins (wedges) of the FOV to account for coherent and random magnetic fields. The structure found is consistent with supergalactic deflection, the previously published energy spectrum anisotropy results of TA (the hotspot and coldspot), and toy-model simulations of a supergalactic magnetic sheet. The seven year data post-trial significance of this supergalactic structure of multiplets appearing by chance, on an isotropic sky, is found by Monte Carlo simulation to be 4.2$\sigma$. The ten years of data post-trial significance is 4.1$\sigma$. Furthermore, the starburst galaxy M82 is shown to be a possible source of the TA Hotspot, and an estimate of the supergalactic magnetic field using UHECR measurements is presented.**Visible Decay of Astrophysical Neutrinos at IceCube**

2005.07200 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Asli Abdullahi and Peter B. Denton.

Neutrino decay modifies neutrino propagation in a unique way; not only is there flavor changing as there is in neutrino oscillations, there is also energy transport from initial to final neutrinos. The most sensitive direct probe of neutrino decay is currently IceCube which can measure the energy and flavor of neutrinos traveling over extragalactic distances. For the first time we calculate the flavor transition probability for the cases of visible and invisible neutrino decay, including the effects of the expansion of the universe, and consider the implications for IceCube. As an example, we demonstrate how neutrino decay addresses a tension in the IceCube data. We also provide a publicly available code to calculate the effect of visible decay.**Muons in supernovae: implications for the axion-muon coupling**

2005.07141 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Robert Bollig, [and 3 more]William DeRocco, Peter W. Graham, and Hans-Thomas Janka [hide authors].

The high temperature and electron degeneracy attained during a supernova allow for the formation of a large muon abundance within the core of the resulting proto-neutron star. If new pseudoscalar degrees of freedom have large couplings to the muon, they can be produced by this muon abundance and contribute to the cooling of the star. By generating the largest collection of supernova simulations with muons to date, we show that observations of the cooling rate of SN 1987A place strong constraints on the coupling of axion-like particles to muons, limiting the coupling to $g_{a\mu} < 10^{-8.1}~\text{GeV}^{-1}$.**CPT and CP, an entangled couple**

2005.05975 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gabriela Barenboim, Christoph A. Ternes, and Mariam Tórtola.

Even though it is undoubtedly very appealing to interpret the latest T2K results as evidence of CP violation, this claim assumes CPT conservation in the neutrino sector to an extent that has not been tested yet. As we will show, T2K results are not robust against a CPT-violating explanation. On the contrary, a CPT-violating CP-conserving scenario is in perfect agreement with current neutrino oscillation data. Therefore, to elucidate whether T2K results imply CP or CPT violation is of utter importance. We show that, even after combining with data from NO$\nu$A and from reactor experiments, no claims about CP violation can be made. Finally, we update the bounds on CPT violation in the neutrino sector.**Resonant Neutrino Self-Interactions**

2005.05332 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Cyril Creque-Sarbinowski, Jeffrey Hyde, and Marc Kamionkowski.

If neutrinos have self-interactions, these will induce scatterings between astrophysical and cosmic neutrinos. Prior work proposed to look for possible resulting resonance features in astrophysical neutrino spectra in order to seek a neutrino self-interaction which can be either diagonal in the neutrino flavor space or couple different neutrino flavors. The calculation of the astrophysical spectra involves either a Monte Carlo simulation or a computationally intensive numerical integration of an integro-partial-differential equation. As a result only limited regions of the neutrino self-interaction parameter space have been explored, and only flavor-diagonal self-interactions have been considered. Here, we present a fully analytic form for the astrophysical neutrino spectra for arbitrary neutrino number and arbitrary self-coupling matrix that accurately obtains the resonance features in the observable neutrino spectra. The results can be applied to calculations of the diffuse supernova neutrino background and of the spectrum from high-energy astrophysical neutrino sources. We illustrate with a few examples.**Probing neutrino quantum decoherence at reactor experiments**

2005.03022 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, Valentina De Romeri, and Christoph A. Ternes.

We explore how well reactor antineutrino experiments can constrain or measure the loss of quantum coherence in neutrino oscillations. We assume that decoherence effects are encoded in the size of the neutrino wave-packet, $\sigma$. We find that the current experiments Daya Bay and the Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation (RENO) already constrain $\sigma>1.0\times 10^{-4}$ nm and estimate that future data from the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) would be sensitive to $\sigma<2.1\times 10^{-3}$ nm. If the effects of loss of coherence are within the sensitivity of JUNO, we expect $\sigma$ to be measured with good precision. The discovery of nontrivial decoherence effects in JUNO would indicate that our understanding of the coherence of neutrino sources is, at least, incomplete.**Bayesian constraints on the astrophysical neutrino source population from IceCube data**

2005.02395 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Francesca Capel, Daniel J. Mortlock, and Chad Finley.

We present constraints on an astrophysical population of neutrino sources imposed by recent data from the IceCube neutrino observatory. By using the IceCube point source search method to model the detection of sources, our detection criterion is more sensitive than using the observation of high-energy neutrino multiplets for source identification. We frame the problem as a Bayesian hierarchical model to connect the high-level population parameters to the IceCube data, allowing us to consistently account for all relevant sources of uncertainty in our model assumptions. Our results show that sources with a local density of $n_0 \gtrsim 10^{-7}$ $\rm{Mpc}^{-3}$ and luminosity $L \lesssim 10^{43}$ erg/s are the most likely candidates, but that populations of rare sources with $n_0 \simeq 10^{-9}$ $\rm{Mpc}^{-3}$ and $L \simeq 10^{45}$ erg/s can still be consistent with the IceCube observations. We demonstrate that these conclusions are strongly dependent on the source evolution considered, for which we consider a wide range of models. In doing so, we present realistic, model-independent constraints on the population parameters that reflect our current state of knowledge from astrophysical neutrino observations. We also use our framework to investigate constraints in the case of possible source detections and future instrument upgrades. Our approach is flexible and can be used to model specific source cases and extended to include multi-messenger information.**Searching for Sub-GeV Dark Matter in the Galactic Centre using Hyper-Kamiokande**

2005.01950 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nicole F. Bell, Matthew J. Dolan, and Sandra Robles.

Indirect detection of dark matter via its annihilation products is a key technique in the search for dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Strong constraints exist on the annihilation of WIMPs to highly visible Standard Model final states such as photons or charged particles. In the case of s-wave annihilation, this typically eliminates thermal relic cross sections for dark matter of mass below $\cal{O}$(10) GeV. However, such limits typically neglect the possibility that dark matter may annihilate to assumed invisible or hard-to-detect final states, such as neutrinos. This is a difficult paradigm to probe due to the weak neutrino interaction cross section. Considering dark matter annihilation in the Galactic halo, we study the prospects for indirect detection using the Hyper-Kamiokande (HyperK) neutrino experiment, for dark matter of mass below 1 GeV. We undertake a dedicated simulation of the HyperK detector, which we benchmark against results from the similar Super-Kamiokande experiment and HyperK physics projections. We provide projections for the annihilation cross-sections that can be probed by HyperK for annihilation to muon or neutrino final states, and discuss uncertainties associated with the dark matter halo profile. For neutrino final states, we find that HyperK is sensitive to thermal annihilation cross-sections for dark matter with mass around 20 MeV, assuming an NFW halo profile. We also discuss the effects of neutron tagging, and prospects for improving the reach at low mass.**Sterile Neutrinos and the Global Reactor Antineutrino Dataset**

2005.01756 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jeffrey M. Berryman and Patrick Huber.

We present results from global fits to the available reactor antineutrino dataset, as of Fall 2019, to determine the global preference for a fourth, sterile neutrino. We have separately considered experiments that measure the integrated inverse-beta decay (IBD) rate from those that measure the energy spectrum of IBD events at one or more locations. The software used is the newly developed GLoBESfit tool set which is based on the publicly available GLoBES framework and will be released as open-source software.**Physics results from the first COHERENT observation of CE$ν$NS in argon and their combination with cesium-iodide data**

2005.01645 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Cadeddu, [and 5 more]F. Dordei, C. Giunti, Y. F. Li, E. Picciau, and Y. Y. Zhang [hide authors].

We present the results on the radius of the neutron distribution in $^{40}\text{Ar}$, on the low-energy value of the weak mixing angle, and on the electromagnetic properties of neutrinos obtained from the analysis of the coherent neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering data in argon recently published by the COHERENT collaboration, taking into account proper radiative corrections. We present also the results of the combined analysis of the COHERENT argon and cesium-iodide data for the determination of the low-energy value of the weak mixing angle and the electromagnetic properties of neutrinos. In particular, the COHERENT argon data allow us to improve significantly the only existing laboratory bounds on the electric charge $q_{\mu\mu}$ of the muon neutrino and on the transition electric charge $q_{\mu\tau}$.**Dirac neutrinos and $N_{\rm eff}$**

2005.01629 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Xuheng Luo, Werner Rodejohann, and Xun-Jie Xu.

If neutrinos are Dirac particles the existence of light right-handed neutrinos $\nu_{R}$ is implied. Those would contribute to the effective number of relativistic neutrino species $N_{{\rm eff}}$ in the early Universe. With pure standard model interactions, the contribution is negligibly small. In the presence of new interactions, however, the contribution could be significantly enhanced. We consider the most general effective four-fermion interactions for neutrinos (scalar, pseudo-scalar, vector, axial-vector and tensor), and compute the contribution of right-handed neutrinos to $N_{{\rm eff}}$. Taking the Planck 2018 measurement of $N_{{\rm eff}}$, strong constraints on the effective four-fermion coupling are obtained, corresponding to interaction strengths of $10^{-5}\sim10^{-3}$ in units of the Fermi constant. This translates in new physics scales of up to 43 TeV and higher. Future experiments such as CMB-S4 can probe or exclude the existence of effective 4-neutrino operators for Dirac neutrinos. Ways to avoid this conclusion are discussed.**Scalar and tensor neutrino interactions**

2004.13869 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tao Han, [and 3 more]Jiajun Liao, Hongkai Liu, and Danny Marfatia [hide authors].

We constrain general Dirac neutrino interactions based on the Standard Model Effective Field Theory framework extended with right-handed neutrinos $N$ (SMNEFT) using deep inelastic and coherent elastic neutrino scattering, nuclear beta decay, and meson decay data, and high energy electron-proton and proton-proton collider data. We compute the one-loop anomalous dimensions of the low-energy effective field theory (LEFT) below the electroweak scale and of SMNEFT above the electroweak scale. The tree-level matching between LEFT and SMNEFT is performed at the electroweak scale. Currently, the most stringent limits on scalar and tensor interactions arise from pseudoscalar meson decays and the LHC measurements at the per mille level. In the future, the upcoming High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) has the potential to reach the $10^{-4}$ level and LHeC can play an important role under certain theoretical assumptions.**The Hubble tension and a renormalizable model of gauged neutrino self-interactions**

2004.13039 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Maximilian Berbig, Sudip Jana, and Andreas Trautner.

We present a simple extension of the Standard Model that leads to renormalizable long-range vector-mediated neutrino self-interactions. This model can resolve the Hubble tension by delaying the onset of neutrino free-streaming during recombination, without conflicting with other measurements. The extended gauge, scalar and neutrino sectors lead to observable signatures, including invisible Higgs and $Z$ decays, thereby relating the Hubble tension to precision measurements at the LHC and future colliders. The model has a new neutrinophilic gauge boson with $m_{Z'}\sim\mathcal{O}(10~\mathrm{eV})$ and charged Higgses at a few $100~\mathrm{GeV}$. It requires hidden neutrinos with active-hidden mixing angles larger than $5\times10^{-4}$ and masses in the range $1\div300\mathrm{eV}$, which could also play a role for short baseline neutrino oscillation anomalies.**Lifting the core-collapse supernova bounds on keV-mass sterile neutrinos**

2004.11389 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anna M. Suliga, Irene Tamborra, and Meng-Ru Wu.

We explore the energy and entropy transport as well as the lepton number variation induced from the mixing between electron and sterile neutrinos with keV mass in the supernova core. We develop a radial- and time-dependent treatment of the sterile-electron neutrino mixing, by including ordinary matter effects, reconversions between sterile and electron antineutrinos, as well as the collisional production of sterile particles for the first time. The dynamical feedback due to the production of sterile particles on the composition and thermodynamic properties of the core only leads to major implications for the supernova physics for large mixing angles ($\sin^2 2 \theta > 10^{-10}$). Our findings suggest that a self-consistent appraisal of the electron-sterile conversion physics in the supernova core would relax the bounds on the sterile neutrino mixing parameters reported in the literature for mixing angles smaller than $10^{-6}$, leaving the parameter space of the mass and mixing angles of sterile neutrinos relevant to dark matter searches unconstrained by supernovae.**Search for magnetically-induced signatures in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory**

2004.10591 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by The Pierre Auger Collaboration, [and 374 more]A. Aab, P. Abreu, M. Aglietta, J. M. Albury, I. Allekotte, A. Almela, J. Alvarez Castillo, J. Alvarez-Muñiz, R. Alves Batista, G. A. Anastasi, L. Anchordoqui, B. Andrada, S. Andringa, C. Aramo, P. R. Araújo Ferreira, H. Asorey, P. Assis, G. Avila, A. M. Badescu, A. Bakalova, A. Balaceanu, F. Barbato, R. J. Barreira Luz, K. H. Becker, J. A. Bellido, C. Berat, M. E. Bertaina, X. Bertou, P. L. Biermann, T. Bister, J. Biteau, A. Blanco, J. Blazek, C. Bleve, M. Boháčová, D. Boncioli, C. Bonifazi, L. Bonneau Arbeletche, N. Borodai, A. M. Botti, J. Brack, T. Bretz, F. L. Briechle, P. Buchholz, A. Bueno, S. Buitink, M. Buscemi, K. S. Caballero-Mora, L. Caccianiga, L. Calcagni, A. Cancio, F. Canfora, I. Caracas, J. M. Carceller, R. Caruso, A. Castellina, F. Catalani, G. Cataldi, L. Cazon, M. Cerda, J. A. Chinellato, K. Choi, J. Chudoba, L. Chytka, R. W. Clay, A. C. Cobos Cerutti, R. Colalillo, A. Coleman, M. R. Coluccia, R. Conceição, A. Condorelli, G. Consolati, F. Contreras, F. Convenga, C. E. Covault, S. Dasso, K. Daumiller, B. R. Dawson, J. A. Day, R. M. de Almeida, J. de Jesús, S. J. de Jong, G. De Mauro, J. R. T. de Mello Neto, I. De Mitri, J. de Oliveira, D. de Oliveira Franco, V. de Souza, J. Debatin, M. del Río, O. Deligny, N. Dhital, A. Di Matteo, M. L. Díaz Castro, C. Dobrigkeit, J. C. D'Olivo, Q. Dorosti, R. C. dos Anjos, M. T. Dova, J. Ebr, R. Engel, I. Epicoco, M. Erdmann, C. O. Escobar, A. Etchegoyen, H. Falcke, J. Farmer, G. Farrar, A. C. Fauth, N. Fazzini, F. Feldbusch, F. Fenu, B. Fick, J. M. Figueira, A. Filipčič, T. Fodran, M. M. Freire, T. Fujii, A. Fuster, C. Galea, C. Galelli, B. García, A. L. Garcia Vegas, H. Gemmeke, F. Gesualdi, A. Gherghel-Lascu, P. L. Ghia, U. Giaccari, M. Giammarchi, M. Giller, J. Glombitza, F. Gobbi, G. Golup, M. Gómez Berisso, P. F. Gómez Vitale, J. P. Gongora, N. González, I. Goos, D. Góra, A. Gorgi, M. Gottowik, T. D. Grubb, F. Guarino, G. P. Guedes, E. Guido, S. Hahn, R. Halliday, M. R. Hampel, P. Hansen, D. Harari, V. M. Harvey, A. Haungs, T. Hebbeker, D. Heck, G. C. Hill, C. Hojvat, J. R. Hörandel, P. Horvath, M. Hrabovský, T. Huege, J. Hulsman, A. Insolia, P. G. Isar, J. A. Johnsen, J. Jurysek, A. Kääpä, K. H. Kampert, B. Keilhauer, J. Kemp, H. O. Klages, M. Kleifges, J. Kleinfeller, M. Köpke, G. Kukec Mezek, B. L. Lago, D. LaHurd, R. G. Lang, M. A. Leigui de Oliveira, V. Lenok, A. Letessier-Selvon, I. Lhenry-Yvon, D. Lo Presti, L. Lopes, R. López, R. Lorek, Q. Luce, A. Lucero, A. Machado Payeras, M. Malacari, G. Mancarella, D. Mandat, B. C. Manning, J. Manshanden, P. Mantsch, S. Marafico, A. G. Mariazzi, I. C. Mariş, G. Marsella, D. Martello, H. Martinez, O. Martínez Bravo, M. Mastrodicasa, H. J. Mathes, J. Matthews, G. Matthiae, E. Mayotte, P. O. Mazur, G. Medina-Tanco, D. Melo, A. Menshikov, K. -D. Merenda, S. Michal, M. I. Micheletti, L. Miramonti, D. Mockler, S. Mollerach, F. Montanet, C. Morello, M. Mostafá, A. L. Müller, M. A. Muller, K. Mulrey, R. Mussa, M. Muzio, W. M. Namasaka, L. Nellen, M. Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. Niechciol, D. Nitz, D. Nosek, V. Novotny, L. Nožka, A Nucita, L. A. Núñez, M. Palatka, J. Pallotta, M. P. Panetta, P. Papenbreer, G. Parente, A. Parra, M. Pech, F. Pedreira, J. Pękala, R. Pelayo, J. Peña-Rodriguez, J. Perez Armand, M. Perlin, L. Perrone, C. Peters, S. Petrera, T. Pierog, M. Pimenta, V. Pirronello, M. Platino, B. Pont, M. Pothast, P. Privitera, M. Prouza, A. Puyleart, S. Querchfeld, J. Rautenberg, D. Ravignani, M. Reininghaus, J. Ridky, F. Riehn, M. Risse, P. Ristori, V. Rizi, W. Rodrigues de Carvalho, J. Rodriguez Rojo, M. J. Roncoroni, M. Roth, E. Roulet, A. C. Rovero, P. Ruehl, S. J. Saffi, A. Saftoiu, F. Salamida, H. Salazar, G. Salina, J. D. Sanabria Gomez, F. Sánchez, E. M. Santos, E. Santos, F. Sarazin, R. Sarmento, C. Sarmiento-Cano, R. Sato, P. Savina, C. Schäfer, V. Scherini, H. Schieler, M. Schimassek, M. Schimp, F. Schlüter, D. Schmidt, O. Scholten, P. Schovánek, F. G. Schröder, S. Schröder, S. J. Sciutto, M. Scornavacche, R. C. Shellard, G. Sigl, G. Silli, O. Sima, R. Šmída, P. Sommers, J. F. Soriano, J. Souchard, R. Squartini, M. Stadelmaier, D. Stanca, S. Stanič, J. Stasielak, P. Stassi, A. Streich, M. Suárez-Durán, T. Sudholz, T. Suomijärvi, A. D. Supanitsky, J. Šupík, Z. Szadkowski, A. Taboada, A. Tapia, C. Timmermans, P. Tobiska, C. J. Todero Peixoto, B. Tomé, G. Torralba Elipe, A. Travaini, P. Travnicek, C. Trimarelli, M. Trini, M. Tueros, R. Ulrich, M. Unger, M. Urban, L. Vaclavek, M. Vacula, J. F. Valdés Galicia, I. Valiño, L. Valore, A. van Vliet, E. Varela, B. Vargas Cárdenas, A. Vásquez-Ramírez, D. Veberič, C. Ventura, I. D. Vergara Quispe, V. Verzi, J. Vicha, L. Villaseñor, J. Vink, S. Vorobiov, H. Wahlberg, A. A. Watson, M. Weber, A. Weindl, L. Wiencke, H. Wilczyński, T. Winchen, M. Wirtz, D. Wittkowski, B. Wundheiler, A. Yushkov, O. Zapparrata, E. Zas, D. Zavrtanik, M. Zavrtanik, L. Zehrer, A. Zepeda, M. Ziolkowski, and F. Zuccarello [hide authors].

We search for signals of magnetically-induced effects in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. We apply two different methods. One is a search for sets of events that show a correlation between their arrival direction and the inverse of their energy, which would be expected if they come from the same point-like source, they have the same electric charge and their deflection is relatively small and coherent. We refer to these sets of events as "multiplets". The second method, called "thrust", is a principal axis analysis aimed to detect the elongated patterns in a region of interest. We study the sensitivity of both methods using a benchmark simulation and we apply them to data in two different searches. The first search is done assuming as source candidates a list of nearby active galactic nuclei and starburst galaxies. The second is an all-sky blind search. We report the results and we find no statistically significant features. We discuss the compatibility of these results with the indications on the mass composition inferred from data of the Pierre Auger Observatory.**Continuous and Discrete Symmetries of Renormalization Group Equations for Neutrino Oscillations in Matter**

2004.10570 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shun Zhou.

Three-flavor neutrino oscillations in matter can be described by three effective neutrino masses $\widetilde{m}^{}_i$ (for $i = 1, 2, 3$) and the effective mixing matrix $V^{}_{\alpha i}$ (for $\alpha = e, \mu, \tau$ and $i = 1, 2, 3$). When the matter parameter $a \equiv 2\sqrt{2} G^{}_{\rm F} N^{}_e E$ is taken as an independent variable, a complete set of first-order ordinary differential equations for $\widetilde{m}^2_i$ and $|V^{}_{\alpha i}|^2$ have been derived in the previous works. In the present paper, we point out that such a system of differential equations possesses both the continuous symmetries characterized by one-parameter Lie groups and the discrete symmetry associated with the permutations of three neutrino mass eigenstates. The implications of these symmetries for solving the differential equations and looking for differential invariants are discussed.**Unified explanation of flavor anomalies, radiative neutrino mass and ANITA anomalous events in a vector leptoquark model**

2004.09464 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. S. Bhupal Dev, [and 3 more]Rukmani Mohanta, Sudhanwa Patra, and Suchismita Sahoo [hide authors].

Driven by the recent experimental hints of lepton-flavor-universality violation in the bottom-quark sector, we consider a simple extension of the Standard Model (SM) with an additional vector leptoquark $V_{\rm LQ}({\bf 3},{\bf 1},2/3)$ and a scalar diquark $S_{\rm DQ}({\bf 6},{\bf 1},4/3)$ under the SM gauge group $SU(3)_c\times SU(2)_L\times U(1)_Y$, in order to simultaneously explain the $b \to s \ell^+ \ell^-$ (with $\ell=e,\mu$) and $b \to c l^- \bar \nu_l$ (with $l=e,\mu,\tau$) flavor anomalies, as well as to generate small neutrino masses through a two-loop radiative mechanism. We perform a global fit to all the relevant and up-to-date $b \to s \ell^+ \ell^-$ and $b \to c l^- \bar \nu_l$ data under the assumption that the leptoquark couples predominantly to second and third-generation SM fermions. We then look over the implications of the allowed parameter space on lepton-flavor-violating $B$ and $\tau$ decay modes, such as $B_s \to \ell^\pm_i \ell^\mp_j$, $B \to K^{(*)} \ell^\pm_i \ell^\mp_j$, $B_s \to \phi \ell^\pm_i \ell^\mp_j$ and $\tau \to \mu \gamma (\phi)$, respectively. Minimally extending this model by adding a fermion singlet $\chi({\bf 1},{\bf 1},0)$ also explains the ANITA anomalous upgoing events. Furthermore, we provide complementary constraints on leptoquark and diquark couplings from high-energy collider and other low-energy experiments to test this model.**Measuring Changes in the Atmospheric Neutrino Rate Over Gigayear Timescales**

2004.08394 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Johnathon R. Jordan, [and 6 more]Sebastian Baum, Patrick Stengel, Alfredo Ferrari, Maria Cristina Morone, Paola Sala, and Joshua Spitz [hide authors].

Measuring the cosmic ray flux over timescales comparable to the age of the solar system, $\sim 4.5\,$Gyr, could provide a new window on the history of the Earth, the solar system, and even our galaxy. We present a technique to indirectly measure the rate of cosmic rays as a function of time using the imprints of atmospheric neutrinos in paleo-detectors, natural minerals which record damage tracks from nuclear recoils. Minerals commonly found on Earth are $\lesssim 1\,$Gyr old, providing the ability to look back across cosmic ray history on timescales of the same order as the age of the solar system. Given a collection of differently aged samples dated with reasonable accuracy, this technique is particularly well-suited to measuring historical changes in the cosmic ray flux at Earth and is broadly applicable in astrophysics and geophysics.**Statistical Significance of Reactor Antineutrino Active-Sterile Oscillations**

2004.07577 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Giunti.

We performed Monte Carlo calculations of the statistical distribution of the $\chi^2$ test statistic used in the analysis of the data of the NEOS, DANSS, Bugey-3, and PROSPECT short-baseline reactor experiments. We show that the statistical significance of the NEOS and DANSS indications in favor of active-sterile neutrino oscillations is smaller than that obtained with the usual method based on the $\chi^2$ distribution. In the combined analysis of the data of the four experiments we find that the statistical significance of active-sterile neutrino oscillations is reduced from $2.4\sigma$ to $1.8\sigma$.**RES-NOVA: A new neutrino observatory based on archaeological lead**

2004.06936 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Luca Pattavina, Nahuel Ferreiro Iachellini, and Irene Tamborra.

We propose the RES-NOVA project which will hunt neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae (SN) via coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) using an array of archaeological lead (Pb) based cryogenic detectors. The high CE$\nu$NS cross-section on Pb and the ultra-high radiopurity of archaeological Pb enable the operation of a high statistics experiment equally sensitive to all neutrino flavors with reduced detector dimensions in comparison with existing Neutrino Observatories, and easy scalability to larger detector volumes. RES-NOVA is planned to operate according to three phases with increasing detector volumes: (60 cm)$^3$, (140 cm)$^3$, and ultimately 15$\times$(140 cm)$^3$. It will be sensitive to SN bursts up to Andromeda with 5$\sigma$ sensitivity with already existing technologies and will have excellent energy resolution with $1$ keV threshold. Within our Galaxy, it will be possible to discriminate core-collapse SNe from black hole forming collapses with no ambiguity even in the first phase of RES-NOVA. The average neutrino energy of all flavors, the SN neutrino light curve, and the total energy emitted in neutrinos can potentially be constrained with a precision of few $\%$ in the final detector phase. RES-NOVA will be sensitive to flavor-blind neutrinos from the diffuse SN neutrino background with an exposure of $620$ ton $\cdot$ y. The proposed RES-NOVA project has the potential to lay down the foundations for a new generation of neutrino telescopes, while relying on a very simple technological setup**New limits on neutrino decay from the Glashow resonance of high-energy cosmic neutrinos**

2004.06844 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mauricio Bustamante.

Discovering neutrino decay would be strong evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. Presently, there are only lax lower limits on the lifetime $\tau$ of neutrinos, of $\tau/m \sim 10^{-3}$ s eV$^{-1}$ or worse, where $m$ is the unknown neutrino mass. High-energy cosmic neutrinos, with TeV-PeV energies, offer superior sensitivity to decay due to their cosmological-scale baselines. To tap into it, we employ a promising method, recently proposed, that uses the Glashow resonance $\bar{\nu}_e + e \to W$, triggered by $\bar{\nu}_e$ of 6.3 PeV, to test decay with only a handful of detected events. If most of the $\nu_1$ and $\nu_2$ decay into $\nu_3$ en route to Earth, no Glashow resonance would occur in neutrino telescopes, because the remaining $\nu_3$ have only a tiny electron-flavor content. We turn this around and use the recent first detection of a Glashow resonance candidate in IceCube to place new lower limits on the lifetimes of $\nu_1$ and $\nu_2$. For $\nu_2$, our limit is the current best. For $\nu_1$, our limit is close to the current best and, with the imminent detection of a second Glashow resonance, will vastly surpass it.**Revisiting Majorana Neutrino Textures in the Light of Dark LMA**

2004.05622 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Happy Borgohain and Debasish Borah.

We study the possibility of texture zeros in Majorana light neutrino mass matrix in the light of dark large mixing angle (DLMA) solution to solar neutrino problem where solar mixing angle ($\sin^2{\theta_{12}}\simeq 0.7 $) lies in the second octant instead of first octant in standard large mixing angle (LMA) scenario ($\sin^2{\theta_{12}}\simeq 0.3 $). In three neutrino scenario, we find that LMA and DLMA solutions lead to different set of allowed and disallowed textures with one and two zeros. While being consistent with existing bounds from neutrino oscillation data, neutrinoless double beta decay and cosmology these allowed textures also lead to interesting correlations among light neutrino parameters which can distinguish LMA from DLMA solution. We also check the implications for texture zeros in $3+1$ neutrino scenario using both LMA and DLMA solutions. While LMA and DLMA solutions do not play decisive role in ruling out texture zeros in this case, they do give rise to distinct predictions and correlations between light neutrino parameters.**Neutrino Oscillations and Non-standard Interactions with KM3NeT-ORCA**

2004.05004 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nafis Rezwan Khan Chowdhury.

ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss) is the low-energy node of KM3NeT, the next generation underwater Cherenkov neutrino detector in the Mediterranean sea. The primary goal of KM3NeT-ORCA is the determination of the neutrino mass ordering (NMO). With an energy threshold of few GeV and an effective mass of several Mtons, KM3NeT-ORCA can also make precision measurements of atmospheric oscillation parameters. Moreover, its access to a wide range of energies and baselines makes it optimal to discover exotic physics beyond the Standard Model such as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI) of neutrinos. The sensitivity of the detector to the neutrino mass ordering is presented, along with its potential for determination of the atmospheric oscillation parameters. It is observed that KM3NeT-ORCA will improve the current upper limits on NSI parameters by an order of magnitude after three years of data taking.**Discovering leptonic forces using non-conserved currents**

2004.04750 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jeff A. Dror.

Differences in lepton number (i.e., $ L _e - L _\mu $, $ L _e - L _\tau $, $ L_\mu - L _\tau $, or combinations thereof) are not conserved charges in the Standard Model due to the observation of neutrino oscillations. We compute the divergence of the corresponding currents in the case of Majorana or Dirac-type neutrinos and show that, in the high energy limit, the vector interactions map onto those of a light scalar coupled to neutrinos with its coupling fixed by the observed neutrino masses and mixing. This leads to amplitudes with external light vectors that scale inversely with the vector mass. By studying these processes, we set new constraints on $ L _i - L _j $ through a combination of semi-leptonic meson decays, invisible neutrino decays, neutrinoless double beta decays, and observations of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis/supernova, which can be much stronger than previous limits for vector masses below an eV. These bounds have important implications on the experimental prospects of detecting $ L _i - L _j $ long-range forces.**On the effect of NSI in the present determination of the mass ordering**

2004.04745 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Esteban, M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, and Michele Maltoni.

In a recent work by Capozzi et al (arXiv:1908.06992), it is observed that the introduction of non-standard neutrino-matter interactions considerably relaxes the preference of T2K and NO$\nu$A for normal over inverted mass ordering observed in the standard three-neutrino scenario. Motivated by this, in this note we update our previous global fit to investigate whether such result still holds once the information of solar, atmospheric and reactor experiments is taken into account. We find that the non-standard parameters responsible for the improvement of the inverted ordering fit to T2K and NO$\nu$A data are not compatible with the other oscillation experiments, and that the preference for NO is restored.**Cosmic-Ray Signatures of Dark Matter from a Flavor Dependent Gauge Symmetry Model with Neutrino Mass Mechanism**

2004.04304 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Holger Motz, [and 3 more]Hiroshi Okada, Yoichi Asaoka, and Kazunori Kohri [hide authors].

We propose an extension to the Standard Model accommodating two families of Dirac neutral fermions and Majorana fermions under additional ${U(1)_{e-\mu} \times Z_3\times Z_2}$ symmetries where ${U(1)_{e-\mu}}$ is a flavor dependent gauge symmetry related to the first and second family of the lepton sector, which features a two-loop induced neutrino mass model. The two families are favored by minimally reproducing the current neutrino oscillation data and two mass difference squares and canceling the gauge anomalies at the same time. As a result, we have a prediction for neutrino masses. The lightest Dirac neutral fermion is a dark matter candidate with tree-level interaction restricted to electron, muon and neutrinos, which makes it difficult to detect in direct dark matter search as well as indirect search focusing on the ${\tau}$-channel, such as through ${\gamma}$-rays. It may however be probed by search for dark matter signatures in electron and positron cosmic rays, and allows interpretation of a structure appearing in the CALET electron+positron spectrum around 350-400 GeV as its signature, with a boost factor $\approx$40 Breit-Wigner enhancement of the annihilation cross section.**Probing Cosmic-Ray Accelerated Light Dark Matter with IceCube**

2004.03161 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gang Guo, Yue-Lin Sming Tsai, and Meng-Ru Wu.

The direct detection of particle dark matter through its scattering with nucleons is of fundamental importance to understand the nature of DM. In this work, we propose that the high-energy neutrino detectors like IceCube can be used to uniquely probe the DM-nucleon cross-section for high-energy DM of $\sim$ PeV, up-scattered by the high-energy cosmic rays. We derive for the first time strong constraints on the DM-nucleon cross-section down to $\sim 10^{-32}$ cm$^2$ at this energy scale for sub-GeV DM candidates. Such independent probe at energy scale far exceeding other existing direct detection experiments can therefore provide useful insights complementary to other searches.**On the contribution of the $^{40}$K geo-antineutrino to single Borexino events**

2004.02533 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by L. B. Bezrukov, [and 6 more]I. S. Karpikov, A. S. Kurlovich, A. K. Mezhokh, S. V. Silaeva, V. V. Sinev, and V. P. Zavarzina [hide authors].

We propose to include in the analysis of Borexino single event energy spectrum the scattering of $^{40}$K geo-antineutrinos by scintillator electrons. The Hydridic Earth model predicts the concentration of potassium in modern Earth from 1\% to 4\% of the Earth mass. We calculated contribution of $^{40}$K geo-antineutrino interactions in single Borexino events for these concentrations. This contribution is comparable to the contribution from the interaction of CNO neutrinos. We discuss the reasons for using the Hydridic Earth model.**Presupernova neutrinos: directional sensitivity and prospects for progenitor identification**

2004.02045 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mainak Mukhopadhyay, [and 3 more]Cecilia Lunardini, F. X. Timmes, and Kai Zuber [hide authors].

We explore the potential of current and future liquid scintillator neutrino detectors of O (10) kt mass to localize a pre-supernova neutrino signal in the sky. In the hours preceding the core collapse of a nearby star (at distance D < 1 kpc), tens to hundreds of inverse beta decay events will be recorded, and their reconstructed topology in the detector can be used to estimate the direction to the star. Although the directionality of inverse beta decay is weak (~8% forward-backward asymmetry for currently available liquid scintillators), we find that for a fiducial signal of 200 events (which is realistic for Betelgeuse), a positional error of ~60 degrees can be achieved, resulting in the possibility to narrow the list of potential stellar candidates to less than ten, typically. For a configuration with improved forward-backward asymmetry (~40%, as expected for a lithium-loaded liquid scintillator), the angular sensitivity improves to ~15 degrees, and - when a distance upper limit is obtained from the overall event rate - it is in principle possible to uniquely identify the progenitor star. Any localization information accompanying an early supernova alert will be useful to multi-messenger observations and to particle physics tests using collapsing stars.**Alternative to the application of PDG scale factors**

2004.01219 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jens Erler and Rodolfo Ferro-Hernandez.

The Particle Data Group recommends a set of procedures to be applied when discrepant data are to be combined. We introduce an alternative method based on a more general and solid statistical framework, providing a robust way to include possible unknown systematic effects interfering with experimental measurements or their theoretical interpretation. The limit of large data sets and practical cases of interest are discussed in detail.**Independent measurement of Muon neutrino and anti-neutrino oscillations at the INO-ICAL Experiment**

2004.01127 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Zubair Ahmad Dar, [and 3 more]Daljeet Kaur, Sanjeev Kumar, and Md. Naimuddin [hide authors].

The magnetised Iron Calorimeter detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) has a unique feature to identify the neutrinos and antineutrinos on an event by event basis. This feature can be harnessed to detect the differences between the oscillation parameters of neutrinos and antineutrinos independently. In this paper, we analysed Charged Current $\nu_{\mu}$ and $\overline{\nu}_{\mu}$ events under the influence of earth matter effect using three neutrino flavor oscillation framework. If the atmospheric mass-squared differences and mixing parameters for neutrinos are different from antineutrinos, we present the prospects for the experimental observation of these differences in atmospheric $\nu$ and $\overline \nu_{\mu}$ oscillations at INO. We estimate the detector sensitivity to confirm a non-zero difference in the mass-squared splittings ($|\Delta m^{2}_{32}|-|\Delta\overline{m^{2}}_{32}|$) for neutrinos and antineutrinos.**Model-independent test for CPT violation using long-baseline and atmospheric neutrino experiments**

2004.00349 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Daljeet Kaur.

Charge-Parity-Time (CPT) symmetry governs that the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos are to be identical. Different mass and mixing parameters for these particles may give us a possible hint for CPT violation in the neutrino sector. Using this approach, we discuss the ability of long-baseline and atmospheric neutrino experiments to determine the difference between mass squared splittings ($\Delta m^{2}_{32}-\Delta\bar{m}^{2}_{32}$) and atmospheric mixing angles ($\sin^{2}\theta_{23}-\sin^{2}\bar{\theta}_{23}$) of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. We show the joint sensitivity of the T2K, NOvA and INO experiments to such CPT violating observables in different possible combinations of octant for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos.**Testing Lepton Flavor Models at ESSnuSB**

2004.00017 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mattias Blennow, [and 3 more]Monojit Ghosh, Tommy Ohlsson, and Arsenii Titov [hide authors].

We review and investigate lepton flavor models, stemming from discrete non-Abelian flavor symmetries, described by one or two free model parameters. First, we confront eleven one- and seven two-parameter models with current results on leptonic mixing angles from global fits to neutrino oscillation data. We find that five of the one- and five of the two-parameter models survive the confrontation test at $3\sigma$. Second, we investigate how these ten one- and two-parameter lepton flavor models may be discriminated at the proposed ESSnuSB experiment in Sweden. We show that the three one-parameter models that predict $\sin\delta_{\rm CP}=0$ can be distinguished from those two that predict $|\sin\delta_{\rm CP}|=1$ by at least $7\sigma$. Finally, we find that three of the five one-parameter models can be excluded by at least $5\sigma$ and two of the one-parameter as well as at most two of the five two-parameter models can be excluded by at least $3\sigma$ with ESSnuSB if the true values of the leptonic mixing parameters remain close to the present best-fit values.**Effects of the Violation of the Equivalence Principle at DUNE**

2003.13712 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by F. N. Díaz, J. Hoefken, and A. M. Gago.

A number of different effects of the violation of the Equivalence Principle (VEP), taken as sub-leading mechanism of neutrino flavor oscillation, are examined within the framework of the DUNE experiment. We study the possibility of obtaining a misleading neutrino oscillation parameter region caused by our unawareness of VEP. Additionally, we evaluate the impact on the measurement of CP violation and the distinction of neutrino mass hierarchy at DUNE. Besides, limits on VEP for a wide variety of textures of the matrix that connects neutrino gravity eigenstates to flavor eigenstates are imposed. An extra-task of our study is to set limits on Hamiltonian added terms considering different energy dependencies ($E^n$, with $n=0,1,2,3$) that can be associated to the usual Lorentz violating terms defined in the Standard Model Extension Hamiltonian. In order to understand our results, approximated analytical three neutrino oscillation probability formulae are derived.**Sensitivities of future solar neutrino observatories to NSI**

2003.12984 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pouya Bakhti and Meshkat Rajaee.

We study the matter effect caused by non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) in the future solar neutrino experiments, DUNE, HK and MICA. The upcoming reactor experiment, JUNO is expected to provide the most precise measurements of solar neutrino oscillation parameters and is going to open up the era of sub-percent precision in the leptonic mixing sector of the Standard Model (SM). Considering JUNO can measure $\Delta m ^2 _{21}$ and $\theta_{12}$ by sub-percent precision and assuming SM as the null hypothesis, we study the possibility to constrain NSI parameters by the future solar neutrino experiments such as DUNE, HK and MICA. For this purpose, we study the effect of NSI on solar neutrino propagation in the Sun and Earth and explore the dependence of the day-night asymmetry on the NSI parameters. We also study the effect of NSI at the water Cerenkov detector on the simulated data for these experiments.**The Effect of Dark Matter on Stars at the Galactic Center: The Paradox of Youth Problem**

2003.12451 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ebrahim Hassani, Reza Pazhouhesh, and Hossein Ebadi.

Stars that evolve near the Galactic massive black hole show strange behaviors. The spectroscopic features of these stars show that they must be old. But their luminosities are much higher than the amounts that are predicted by the current stellar evolutionary models, which means that they must be active and young stars. In fact this group of stars shows signatures of old and young stars, simultaneously. This is a paradox known as the "paradox of youth problem" (PYP). Some people tried to solve the PYP without supposing dark matter effects on stars. But, in this work, we implemented Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) annihilation as a new source of energy inside such stars. This implementation is logical for stars that evolve at high dark matter density environments. The new source of energy causes stars to follow different evolutionary paths on the H-R diagram in comparison with classical stellar evolutionary models. Increasing dark matter density in stellar evolutionary simulations causes the deviations from the standard H-R diagrams becomes more pronounced. By investigating the effects of WIMPs density on stellar structures and evolutions, we concluded that by considering dark matter effects on stars at the Galactic center, it is possible to solve the PYP. In addition to dark matter effect, complete solutions to PYP must consider all extreme and unique physical conditions that are present near the Galactic massive black hole.**Results on Total and Elastic Cross Sections in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV**

2003.12136 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by STAR Collaboration, [and 364 more]J. Adam, L. Adamczyk, J. R. Adams, J. K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, A. Aparin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, F. G. Atetalla, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, V. Bairathi, K. Barish, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, A. Bhasin, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, L. C. Bland, I. G. Bordyuzhin, J. D. Brandenburg, A. V. Brandin, S. Bueltmann, J. Butterworth, H. Caines, M. Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, D. Cebra, I. Chakaberia, P. Chaloupka, B. K. Chan, F-H. Chang, Z. Chang, N. Chankova-Bunzarova, A. Chatterjee, D. Chen, J. H. Chen, X. Chen, Z. Chen, J. Cheng, M. Cherney, M. Chevalier, S. Choudhury, W. Christie, X. Chu, H. J. Crawford, M. Csanád, M. Daugherity, T. G. Dedovich, I. M. Deppner, A. A. Derevschikov, L. Didenko, X. Dong, J. L. Drachenberg, J. C. Dunlop, T. Edmonds, N. Elsey, J. Engelage, G. Eppley, S. Esumi, O. Evdokimov, A. Ewigleben, O. Eyser, R. Fatemi, S. Fazio, P. Federic, J. Fedorisin, C. J. Feng, Y. Feng, P. Filip, E. Finch, Y. Fisyak, A. Francisco, L. Fulek, C. A. Gagliardi, T. Galatyuk, F. Geurts, A. Gibson, K. Gopal, D. Grosnick, W. Guryn, A. I. Hamad, A. Hamed, S. Harabasz, J. W. Harris, S. He, W. He, X. H. He, S. Heppelmann, S. Heppelmann, N. Herrmann, E. Hoffman, L. Holub, Y. Hong, S. Horvat, Y. Hu, H. Z. Huang, S. L. Huang, T. Huang, X. Huang, T. J. Humanic, P. Huo, G. Igo, D. Isenhower, W. W. Jacobs, C. Jena, A. Jentsch, Y. JI, J. Jia, K. Jiang, S. Jowzaee, X. Ju, E. G. Judd, S. Kabana, M. L. Kabir, S. Kagamaster, D. Kalinkin, K. Kang, D. Kapukchyan, K. Kauder, H. W. Ke, D. Keane, A. Kechechyan, M. Kelsey, Y. V. Khyzhniak, D. P. Kikoła, C. Kim, B. Kimelman, D. Kincses, T. A. Kinghorn, I. Kisel, A. Kiselev, M. Kocan, L. Kochenda, L. K. Kosarzewski, L. Kramarik, P. Kravtsov, K. Krueger, N. Kulathunga Mudiyanselage, L. Kumar, S. Kumar, R. Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, J. H. Kwasizur, R. Lacey, S. Lan, J. M. Landgraf, J. Lauret, A. Lebedev, R. Lednicky, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Leung, C. Li, W. Li, W. Li, X. Li, Y. Li, Y. Liang, R. Licenik, T. Lin, Y. Lin, M. A. Lisa, F. Liu, H. Liu, P. Liu, P. Liu, T. Liu, X. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, T. Ljubicic, W. J. Llope, R. S. Longacre, N. S. Lukow, S. Luo, X. Luo, G. L. Ma, L. Ma, R. Ma, Y. G. Ma, N. Magdy, R. Majka, D. Mallick, S. Margetis, C. Markert, H. S. Matis, J. A. Mazer, N. G. Minaev, S. Mioduszewski, B. Mohanty, I. Mooney, Z. Moravcova, D. A. Morozov, M. Nagy, J. D. Nam, Md. Nasim, K. Nayak, D. Neff, J. M. Nelson, D. B. Nemes, M. Nie, G. Nigmatkulov, T. Niida, L. V. Nogach, T. Nonaka, A. S. Nunes, G. Odyniec, A. Ogawa, S. Oh, V. A. Okorokov, B. S. Page, R. Pak, A. Pandav, Y. Panebratsev, B. Pawlik, D. Pawlowska, H. Pei, C. Perkins, L. Pinsky, R. L. Pintér, J. Pluta, J. Porter, M. Posik, N. K. Pruthi, M. Przybycien, J. Putschke, H. Qiu, A. Quintero, S. K. Radhakrishnan, S. Ramachandran, R. L. Ray, R. Reed, H. G. Ritter, O. V. Rogachevskiy, J. L. Romero, L. Ruan, J. Rusnak, N. R. Sahoo, H. Sako, S. Salur, J. Sandweiss, S. Sato, W. B. Schmidke, N. Schmitz, B. R. Schweid, F. Seck, J. Seger, M. Sergeeva, R. Seto, P. Seyboth, N. Shah, E. Shahaliev, P. V. Shanmuganathan, M. Shao, A. I. Sheikh, F. Shen, W. Q. Shen, S. S. Shi, Q. Y. Shou, E. P. Sichtermann, R. Sikora, M. Simko, J. Singh, S. Singha, N. Smirnov, W. Solyst, P. Sorensen, H. M. Spinka, B. Srivastava, T. D. S. Stanislaus, M. Stefaniak, D. J. Stewart, M. Strikhanov, B. Stringfellow, A. A. P. Suaide, M. Sumbera, B. Summa, X. M. Sun, X. Sun, Y. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Surrow, D. N. Svirida, P. Szymanski, A. H. Tang, Z. Tang, A. Taranenko, T. Tarnowsky, J. H. Thomas, A. R. Timmins, D. Tlusty, M. Tokarev, C. A. Tomkiel, S. Trentalange, R. E. Tribble, P. Tribedy, S. K. Tripathy, O. D. Tsai, Z. Tu, T. Ullrich, D. G. Underwood, I. Upsal, G. Van Buren, J. Vanek, A. N. Vasiliev, I. Vassiliev, F. Videbæk, S. Vokal, S. A. Voloshin, F. Wang, G. Wang, J. S. Wang, P. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, J. C. Webb, P. C. Weidenkaff, L. Wen, G. D. Westfall, H. Wieman, S. W. Wissink, R. Witt, Y. Wu, Z. G. Xiao, G. Xie, W. Xie, H. Xu, N. Xu, Q. H. Xu, Y. F. Xu, Y. Xu, Z. Xu, Z. Xu, C. Yang, Q. Yang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, Z. Yang, Z. Ye, Z. Ye, L. Yi, K. Yip, H. Zbroszczyk, W. Zha, C. Zhang, D. Zhang, S. Zhang, S. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Zhong, C. Zhou, X. Zhu, Z. Zhu, M. Zurek, and M. Zyzak [hide authors].

We report results on the total and elastic cross sections in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV obtained with the Roman Pot setup of the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The elastic differential cross section was measured in the squared four-momentum transfer range $0.045 \leq -t \leq 0.135$ GeV$^2$. The value of the exponential slope parameter $B$ of the elastic differential cross section $d\sigma/dt \sim e^{-Bt}$ in the measured $-t$ range was found to be $B = 14.32 \pm 0.09 (stat.)^{\scriptstyle +0.13}_{\scriptstyle -0.28} (syst.)$ GeV$^{-2}$. The total cross section $\sigma_{tot}$, obtained from extrapolation of the $d\sigma/dt$ to the optical point at $-t = 0$, is $\sigma_{tot} = 54.67 \pm 0.21 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle +1.28}_{\scriptstyle -1.38} (syst.)$ mb. We also present the values of the elastic cross section $\sigma_{el} = 10.85 \pm 0.03 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle +0.49}_{\scriptstyle -0.41}(syst.)$ mb, the elastic cross section integrated within the STAR $t$-range $\sigma^{det}_{el} = 4.05 \pm 0.01 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle+0.18}_{\scriptstyle -0.17}(syst.)$ mb, and the inelastic cross section $\sigma_{inel} = 43.82 \pm 0.21 (stat.) ^{\scriptstyle +1.37}_{\scriptstyle -1.44} (syst.)$ mb. The results are compared with the world data.**Implications of the first detection of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) with Liquid Argon**

2003.12050 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by O. G. Miranda, [and 5 more]D. K. Papoulias, G. Sanchez Garcia, O. Sanders, M. Tórtola, and J. W. F. Valle [hide authors].

The CENNS-10 experiment of the COHERENT collaboration has recently reported the first detection of coherent-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) in liquid Argon with more than $3 \sigma$ significance. In this work, we exploit the new data in order to probe various interesting parameters which are of key importance to CEvNS within and beyond the Standard Model. A dedicated statistical analysis of these data shows that the current constraints are significantly improved in most cases. We derive a first measurement of the neutron rms charge radius of Argon, and also an improved determination of the weak mixing angle in the low energy regime. We also update the constraints on neutrino non-standard interactions, electromagnetic properties and light mediators with respect to those derived from the first COHERENT-CsI data.**Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering with directional detectors**

2003.11510 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Abdullah, [and 3 more]D. Aristizabal Sierra, Bhaskar Dutta, and Louis E. Strigari [hide authors].

We study the sensitivity of detectors with directional sensitivity to coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS), and how these detectors complement measurements of the nuclear recoil energy. We consider stopped pion and reactor neutrino sources, and use gaseous helium and fluorine as examples of detector material. We generate Standard Model predictions, and compare to scenarios that include new, light vector or scalar mediators. We show that directional detectors can provide valuable additional information in discerning new physics, and we identify prominent spectral features in both the angular and the recoil energy spectrum for light mediators, even for nuclear recoil energy thresholds as high as $\sim 50$ keV. Combined with energy and timing information, directional information can play an important role in extracting new physics from CE$\nu$NS experiments.**Joint lattice QCD - dispersion theory analysis confirms the quark-mixing top-row unitarity deficit**

2003.11264 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Chien-Yeah Seng, [and 3 more]Xu Feng, Mikhail Gorchtein, and Lu-Chang Jin [hide authors].

Recently, the first ever lattice computation of the $\gamma W$-box radiative correction to the rate of the semileptonic pion decay allowed for a reduction of the theory uncertainty of that rate by a factor of $\sim3$. A recent dispersion evaluation of the $\gamma W$-box correction on the neutron also led to a significant reduction of the theory uncertainty, but shifted the value of $V_{ud}$ extracted from the neutron and superallowed nuclear $\beta$ decay, resulting in a deficit of the CKM unitarity in the top row. A direct lattice computation of the $\gamma W$-box correction for the neutron decay would provide an independent cross-check for this result but is very challenging. Before those challenges are overcome, we propose a hybrid analysis, converting the lattice calculation on the pion to that on the neutron by a combination of dispersion theory and phenomenological input. The new prediction for the universal radiative correction to free and bound neutron $\beta$-decay reads $\Delta_R^V=0.02477(24)$, in excellent agreement with the dispersion theory result $\Delta_R^V=0.02467(22)$. Combining with other relevant information, the top-row CKM unitarity deficit persists.**First Detection of Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering on Argon**

2003.10630 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by COHERENT Collaboration, [and 82 more]D. Akimov, J. B. Albert, P. An, C. Awe, P. S. Barbeau, B. Becker, V. Belov, M. A. Blackston, L. Blokland, A. Bolozdynya, B. Cabrera-Palmer, N. Chen, D. Chernyak, E. Conley, R. L. Cooper, J. Daughhetee, M. del Valle Coello, J. A. Detwiler, M. R. Durand, Y. Efremenko, S. R. Elliott, L. Fabris, M. Febbraro, W. Fox, A. Galindo-Uribarri, M. P. Green, K. S. Hansen, M. R. Heath, S. Hedges, M. Hughes, T. Johnson, M. Kaemingk, L. J. Kaufman, A. Khromov, A. Konovalov, E. Kozlova, A. Kumpan, L. Li, J. T. Librande, J. M. Link, J. Liu, K. Mann, D. M. Markoff, O. McGoldrick, H. Moreno, P. E. Mueller, J. Newby, D. S. Parno, S. Penttila, D. Pershey, D. Radford, R. Rapp, H. Ray, J. Raybern, O. Razuvaeva, D. Reyna, G. C. Rich, D. Rudik, J. Runge, D. J. Salvat, K. Scholberg, A. Shakirov, G. Simakov, G. Sinev, W. M. Snow, V. Sosnovtsev, B. Suh, R. Tayloe, K. Tellez-Giron-Flores, R. T. Thornton, I. Tolstukhin, J. Vanderwerp, R. L. Varner, C. J. Virtue, G. Visser, C. Wiseman, T. Wongjirad, J. Yang, Y. -R. Yen, J. Yoo, C. -H. Yu, and J. Zettlemoyer [hide authors].

We report the first detection of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) on argon using the CENNS-10 liquid argon detector at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source. Two independent analyses prefer CEvNS over the background-only null hypothesis with greater than $3\sigma$ significance. The measured cross section, averaged over the incident neutrino flux, is ($2.2 \pm 0.7) \times 10^{-39}$ cm$^2$ -- consistent with the standard model prediction. This is the lightest nucleus for which CEvNS has been observed, which allows us to verify the expected neutron-number dependence of the cross section and to better constrain non-standard neutrino interactions.**Neutrino Invisible Decay at DUNE: a multi-channel analysis**

2003.09012 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Ghoshal, A. Giarnetti, and D. Meloni.

The hypothesis of the decay of neutrino mass eigenstates leads to substantial modification of the appearance and disappearance probabilities of flavor eigenstates. We investigate the impact on the standard oscillation scenario caused by the decay of the heaviest mass eigenstate $\nu_3$ (with a mass $m_3$ and a mean life $\tau_3$) to a sterile state in DUNE, finding that the lower bound of $5.2 \times 10^{-11}$ s/eV at 90\% CL on the decay parameter $\tau_3/m_3$ can be set, thus providing the best long baseline limit so far. Our numerical results are corroborated by analytical formulae for the appearance and disappearance probabilities in vacuum (matter effects can be safely neglected at the DUNE baseline) that we have developed up to second order in the solar mass splitting and to all orders in the decay factor $t/\tau_3$.**Addendum to: Global constraints on absolute neutrino masses and their ordering**

2003.08511 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Francesco Capozzi, [and 5 more]Eleonora Di Valentino, Eligio Lisi, Antonio Marrone, Alessandro Melchiorri, and Antonio Palazzo [hide authors].

We revisit our previous work [Phys. Rev. D 95, 096014 (2017)] where neutrino oscillation and nonoscillation data were analyzed in the standard framework with three neutrino families, in order to constrain their absolute masses and to probe their ordering (either normal, NO, or inverted, IO). We include updated oscillation results to discuss best fits and allowed ranges for the two squared mass differences $\delta m^2$ and $\Delta m^2$, the three mixing angles $\theta_{12}$, $\theta_{23}$ and $\theta_{13}$, as well as constraints on the CP-violating phase $\delta$, plus significant indications in favor of NO vs IO at the level of $\Delta\chi^2=10.0$. We then consider nonoscillation data from beta decay, from neutrinoless double beta decay (if neutrinos are Majorana), and from various cosmological input variants (in the data or the model) leading to results dubbed as default, aggressive, and conservative. In the default option, we obtain from nonoscillation data an extra contribution $\Delta\chi^2 = 2.2$ in favor of NO, and an upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses $\Sigma < 0.15$ eV at $2\sigma$; both results - dominated by cosmology - can be strengthened or weakened by using more aggressive or conservative options, respectively. Taking into account such variations, we find that the combination of all (oscillation and nonoscillation) neutrino data favors NO at the level of $3.2-3.7\sigma$, and that $\Sigma$ is constrained at the $2\sigma$ level within $\Sigma < 0.12-0.69$ eV. The upper edge of this allowed range corresponds to an effective $\beta$-decay neutrino mass $m_\beta = \Sigma/3 = 0.23$ eV, at the sensitivity frontier of the KATRIN experiment.**Gravitational Interactions and Neutrino Masses**

2003.04908 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hooman Davoudiasl.

We describe a scenario where the smallness of neutrino masses is related to a global symmetry that is only violated by quantum gravitational effects. The coupling of neutrinos to gauge singlet right-handed fermions is attributed to symmetry preserving gravitational operators suppressed by the Planck mass, in this framework. The proposed scenario leads to axion particles that decay into neutrinos, which could be probed through cosmological measurements and may help explain the Hubble parameter tension. Depending on the details of the implementation, the scenario could provide axion dark matter candidates.**A Return To Neutrino Normalcy**

2003.04319 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton.

Understanding the structure of the fermion mixing matrices is an important question in particle physics. The quark mixing matrix is approximately diagonal while the lepton mixing matrix has large off-diagonal elements. Numerous explanations of these structures exist known as flavor symmetries while an alternative explanation known as anarchy posits that the mass matrix is randomly distributed. These approaches often lack robust predictability and falsifiability. In this letter we propose a new set of conditions to test the structure of mass matrices called normalcy based on how close to diagonal the mixing matrix is. The mass ordering and the octant of $\theta_{23}$ represent two of these conditions. We point out that the quark matrix easily satisfies all six normalcy conditions while none of them are known to be fully satisfied for leptons at high significance. All of the conditions that can be tested for leptons suggest that the matrix could satisfy the normalcy conditions and upcoming experiments such as DUNE and T2HK will most likely determine if the lepton mass matrix satisfies all of them or not.**Nuclear shadowing in DIS at electron-ion colliders**

2003.04156 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Michal Krelina and Jan Nemchik.

We present a revision of predictions for nuclear shadowing in deep-inelastic scattering at small Bjorken $x_{Bj}$ corresponding to kinematic regions accessible by the future experiments at electron-ion colliders. The nuclear shadowing is treated within the color dipole formalism based on the rigorous Green function technique. This allows incorporating naturally color transparency and coherence length effects, which are not consistently and properly included in present calculations. For the lowest $|q\bar q\rangle$ Fock component of the photon, our calculations are based on an exact numerical solution of the evolution equation for the Green function. Here the magnitude of shadowing is tested using a realistic form for the nuclear density function, as well as various phenomenological models for the dipole cross section. The corresponding variation of the transverse size of the $q\bar q$ photon fluctuations is important for $x_{Bj}\gtrsim 10^{-4}$, on the contrary with the most of other models, which use frequently only the eikonal approximation with the "frozen" transverse size. At $x_{Bj}\lesssim 0.01$ we calculate within the same formalism also a shadowing correction for the higher Fock component of the photon containing gluons. The corresponding magnitudes of gluon shadowing correction are compared adopting different phenomenological dipole models. Our results are tested by available data from the E665 and NMC collaborations. Finally, the magnitude of nuclear shadowing is predicted for various kinematic regions that should be scanned by the future experiments at electron-ion colliders.**Muon deficit in air shower simulations estimated from AGASA muon measurements**

2003.03385 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Flavia Gesualdi, Alberto Daniel Supanitsky, and Alberto Etchegoyen.

In this work, direct measurements of the muon density at $1000\,\textrm{m}$ from the shower axis obtained by the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA) are analysed. The selected events have zenith angles $\theta \leq 36^{\textrm{o}}$ and reconstructed energies in the range $18.83\,\leq\,\log_{10}(E_{R}/\textrm{eV})\,\leq\,19.46$. These are compared to the predictions corresponding to proton, iron, and mixed composition scenarios obtained by using the high-energy hadronic interaction models EPOS-LHC, QGSJetII-04, and Sibyll2.3c. The mass fractions of the mixed composition scenarios are taken from the fits to the depth of the shower maximum distributions performed by the Pierre Auger Collaboration. The cross-calibrated energy scale from the Spectrum Working Group [D. Ivanov, for the Pierre Auger Collaboration and the Telescope Array Collaboration, PoS(ICRC2017) 498 (2017)] is used to combine results from different experiments. The analysis shows that the AGASA data are compatible with a heavier composition with respect to the one predicted by the mixed composition scenarios. Interpreting this as a muon deficit in air shower simulations, the incompatibility is quantified. The muon density obtained from AGASA data is greater than that of the mixed composition scenarios by a factor of $1.49\pm0.11\,\textrm{(stat)}\pm0.18\,\textrm{(syst)}$, $1.54\pm0.12\,\textrm{(stat)}\pm0.18\,\textrm{(syst)}$, and $1.66\pm0.13\,\textrm{(stat)}\pm0.20\,\textrm{(syst)}$ for EPOS-LHC, Sibyll2.3c, and QGSJetII-04, respectively.**Non-standard neutrino interactions in $U(1)'$ model after COHERENT data**

2002.12342 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by L. J. Flores, Newton Nath, and E. Peinado.

We explore the potential to prove light extra gauge $Z^\prime$ boson inducing non-standard neutrino interactions (NSIs) in the coherent-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$ \nu $NS) experiments. We intend to examine how the latest COHERENT-CsI and CENNS-10 data can constrain this model. A detailed investigation for the upcoming Ge, LAr-1t, and NaI detectors of COHERENT collaboration has also been made. Depending on numerous other constraints coming from oscillation experiments, muon $ (g-2) $, beam-dump experiments, LHCb, and reactor experiment CONUS, we explore the parameter space in $Z^\prime$ boson mass vs coupling constant plane. Moreover, we study the predictions of two-zero textures that are allowed in the concerned model in light of the latest global-fit data.**Extraterrestrial artificial particle sources. Application to neutrino physics and cosmic rays studies**

2002.12190 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Nikolai Zaitsev.

The memo is exploring possibilities to set up extraterrestrial experimental facilities to study particles physics. The Moon is considered as the most promising location for artificial particle sources outside the Earth. This natural satellite is surrounded with deep vacuum, is at low cryogenic temperatures and is always facing the Earth with one side. These features can be exploited by setting up lunar neutrino factory, which may create a possibility for more precise measurements of oscillations and possibly mass of neutrinos. Various types of facilities are discussed with focus on lunar linear accelerators and nuclear reactors. The other types such as lunar colliders or even orbiting sources are briefly mentioned too. Lunar particle accelerators pointing to Earth can also be used to calibrate atmospheric shower models, which are the key part of cosmic rays research.**Constraining visible neutrino decay at KamLAND and JUNO**

2002.12134 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yago P. Porto-Silva, [and 4 more]Suprabh Prakash, O. L. G. Peres, Hiroshi Nunokawa, and Hisakazu Minakata [hide authors].

We study visible neutrino decay at the reactor neutrino experiments KamLAND and, JUNO. Assuming the Majoron model of neutrino decay, we obtain constraints on the couplings between Majoron and neutrino as well as on the lifetime/mass of the most massive neutrino state i.e., $\tau_{3} / m_{3}$ or $\tau_{2} / m_{2}$, respectively, for the normal or the inverted mass orderings. We obtain the constraints on the lifetime $\tau_{2} / m_{2} \geq 1.4 \times 10^{-9}~\rm{s/eV}$ in the inverted mass ordering for both KamLAND and JUNO at 90% CL. In the normal ordering in which the bound can be obtained for JUNO only, the constraint is milder than the inverted ordering case, $\tau_{3} / m_{3} \geq 1.0 \times 10^{-10}~\rm{s/eV}$ at 90% CL. We find that the dependence of lightest neutrino mass ($=m_{\rm{lightest}}$), $m_1 (m_3)$ for the normal (inverted) mass ordering, on the constraints for the different types of couplings (scalar or pseudo-scalar) is rather strong, but the $m_{\rm{lightest}}$ dependence on the lifetime/mass bound is only modest.**Oscillation of high-energy neutrinos from choked jets in stellar and merger ejecta**

2002.10575 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jose Carpio and Kohta Murase.

We present a comprehensive study on oscillation of high-energy neutrinos from two different environments: blue supergiant progenitors that may harbor low-power gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets and neutron star merger ejecta that would be associated with short gamma-ray bursts. We incorporate the radiation constraint that gives a necessary condition for nonthermal neutrino production, and account for the time evolution of the jet, which allows us to treat neutrino oscillation in matter more accurately. For massive star progenitors, neutrino injection inside the star can lead to nonadiabatic oscillation patterns in the 1 TeV - 10 TeV and is also visible in the flavor ratio. For neutron star merger ejecta, we find a similar behavior in the 100 GeV - 10 TeV region and the oscillation may result in a $\nu_e$ excess around 1 TeV. These features, which enable us to probe the progenitors of long and short GRBs, could be seen by future neutrino detectors with precise flavor ratio measurements. We also discuss potential contributions to the diffuse neutrino flux measured by IceCube, and find parameter sets allowing choked low-power GRB jets to account for the neutrino flux in the 10 TeV - 100 TeV range without violating the existing constraints.**Determining the Neutrino Lifetime from Cosmology**

2002.08401 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Zackaria Chacko, [and 4 more]Abhish Dev, Peizhi Du, Vivian Poulin, and Yuhsin Tsai [hide authors].

We explore the cosmological signals of theories in which the neutrinos decay into invisible dark radiation after becoming non-relativistic. We show that in this scenario, near-future large scale structure measurements from the Euclid satellite, when combined with cosmic microwave background data from Planck, may allow an independent determination of both the lifetime of the neutrinos and the sum of their masses. These parameters can be independently determined because the Euclid data will cover a range of redshifts, allowing the growth of structure over time to be tracked. If neutrinos are stable on cosmological timescales, these observations can improve the lower limit on the neutrino lifetime by seven orders of magnitude, from $\mathcal{O}(10)$ years to $2\times 10^8$ years ($95\%$ C.L.), without significantly affecting the measurement of neutrino mass. On the other hand, if neutrinos decay after becoming non-relativistic but on timescales less than $\mathcal{O}(100)$ million years, these observations may allow, not just the first measurement of the sum of neutrino masses, but also the determination of the neutrino lifetime from cosmology.**Far-forward neutrinos at the Large Hadron Collider**

2002.03012 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Weidong Bai, [and 4 more]Milind Diwan, Maria Vittoria Garzelli, Yu Seon Jeong, and Mary Hall Reno [hide authors].

We present a new calculation of the energy distribution of high-energy neutrinos from the decay of charm and bottom hadrons produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In the kinematical region of very forward rapidities, heavy-flavor production and decay is a source of tau neutrinos that leads to thousands of { charged-current} tau neutrino events in a 1 m long, 1 m radius lead neutrino detector at a distance of 480 m from the interaction region. In our computation, next-to-leading order QCD radiative corrections are accounted for in the production cross-sections. Non-perturbative intrinsic-$k_T$ effects are approximated by a simple phenomenological model introducing a Gaussian $k_T$-smearing of the parton distribution functions, which might also mimic perturbative effects due to multiple initial-state soft-gluon emissions. The transition from partonic to hadronic states is described by phenomenological fragmentation functions. To study the effect of various input parameters, theoretical predictions for $D_s^\pm$ production are compared with LHCb data on double-differential cross-sections in transverse momentum and rapidity. The uncertainties related to the choice of the input parameter values, ultimately affecting the predictions of the tau neutrino event distributions, are discussed. We consider a 3+1 neutrino mixing scenario to illustrate the potential for a neutrino experiment to constrain the 3+1 parameter space using tau neutrinos and antineutrinos. We find large theoretical uncertainties in the predictions of the neutrino fluxes in the far-forward region. Untangling the effects of tau neutrino oscillations into sterile neutrinos and distinguishing a 3+1 scenario from the standard scenario with three active neutrino flavours, will be challenging due to the large theoretical uncertainties from QCD.**Neutrino quantum decoherence engendered by neutrino radiative decay**

2002.02621 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Konstantin Stankevich and Alexander Studenikin.

A new theoretical framework, based on the quantum field theory of open systems applied to neutrinos, has been developed to describe the neutrino evolution in external environments accounting for the effect of the neutrino quantum decoherence. The developed new approach enables one to obtain the explicit expressions of the decoherence and relaxation parameters that account for a particular process, in which the neutrino participates, and also for the characteristics of an external environment and of the neutrino itself, including the neutrino energy. We have used this approach to consider a new mechanism of the neutrino quantum decoherence engendered by the neutrino radiative decay to photons and dark photons in an astrophysical environment. The importance of the performed studies is highlighted by the prospects of the forthcoming new large volume neutrino detectors that will provide new frontier in high-statistics measurements of neutrino fluxes from supernovae.**Neutrino Oscillations at low energy long baseline experiments in the presence of nonstandard interactions and parameter degeneracy**

2002.01616 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Osamu Yasuda.

We discuss the analytical expression of the oscillation probabilities at low energy long baseline experiments, such as T2HK and T2HKK in the presence of nonstandard interactions (NSIs). We show that these experiments are advantageous to explore the NSI parameters ($\epsilon_D$, $\epsilon_N$), which were suggested to be nonvanishing to account for the discrepancy between the solar neutrino and KamLAND data. We also show that, when the NSI parameters are small, parameter degeneracy in the CP phase $\delta$, $\epsilon_D$ and $\epsilon_N$ can be resolved by combining data of the T2HK and T2HKK experiments.**Signature of neutrino mass hierarchy in gravitational lensing**

2002.00977 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Himanshu Swami, Kinjalk Lochan, and Ketan M. Patel.

In flat spacetime, the vacuum neutrino flavour oscillations are known to be sensitive only to the difference between the squared masses, and not to the individual masses, of neutrinos. In this work, we show that the lensing of neutrinos induced by a gravitational source substantially modifies this standard picture and it gives rise to a novel contribution through which the oscillation probabilities also depend on the individual neutrino masses. A gravitating mass located between a source and a detector deflects the neutrinos in their journey, and at a detection point, neutrinos arriving through different paths can lead to the phenomenon of interference. The flavour transition probabilities computed in the presence of such interference depend on the individual masses of neutrinos whenever there is a non-zero path difference between the interfering neutrinos. We demonstrate this explicitly by considering an example of weak lensing induced by a Schwarzschild mass. Through the simplest two flavour case, we show that the oscillation probability in the presence of lensing is sensitive to the sign of $\Delta m^2 = m_2^2 -m_1^2$, for non-maximal mixing between two neutrinos, unlike in the case of standard vacuum oscillation in flat spacetime. Further, the probability itself oscillates with respect to the path difference and the frequency of such oscillations depends on the absolute mass scale $m_1$ or $m_2$. We also give results for realistic three flavour case and discuss various implications of gravitationally modified neutrino oscillations and means of observing them.**Non-relativistic neutrinos and the weak equivalence principle violation**

2001.09974 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Massimo Blasone, [and 3 more]Petr Jizba, Gaetano Lambiase, and Luciano Petruzziello [hide authors].

We study the non-relativistic limit of Dirac equation for mixed neutrinos. We demonstrate that such a procedure inevitably leads to a redefinition of the inertial mass. This happens because, in contrast to the case when mixing is absent, the antiparticle sector contribution cannot be neglected for neutrinos with definite flavor. We then show that, when a gravitational interaction is switched on, in the weak-field approximation the mass parameter which couples to gravity (gravitational mass) does not undergo the same reformulation as the inertial mass, thus leading to a breakdown of the weak equivalence principle.**Characteristics of the diffuse astrophysical electron and tau neutrino flux with six years of IceCube high energy cascade data**

2001.09520 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 361 more]M. G. Aartsen, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, P. Backes, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, E. Dvorak, B. Eberhardt, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, K. Ghorbani, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Günder, M. Gündüz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, K. Jero, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krückl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, M. Lesiak-Bzdak, A. Leszczyńska, M. Leuermann, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, J. Lünemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, K. Mallot, S. Mancina, I. C. Mari{ş}, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, G. Merino, T. Meures, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momenté, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, G. Neer, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, A. O'Murchadha, E. O'Sullivan, T. Palczewski, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, P. Peiffer, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, A. Porcelli, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, S. Robertson, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, D. Seckel, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, A. Stößl, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, W. Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, N. Wandkowsky, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, L. Wille, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, J. Wood, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, and M. Zöcklein [hide authors].

We report on the first measurement of the astrophysical neutrino flux using particle showers (cascades) in IceCube data from 2010 -- 2015. Assuming standard oscillations, the astrophysical neutrinos in this dedicated cascade sample are dominated ($\sim 90 \%$) by electron and tau flavors. The flux, observed in the sensitive energy range from $16\,\mathrm{TeV}$ to $2.6\,\mathrm{PeV}$, is consistent with a single power-law model as expected from Fermi-type acceleration of high energy particles at astrophysical sources. We find the flux spectral index to be $\gamma=2.53\pm0.07$ and a flux normalization for each neutrino flavor of $\phi_{astro} = 1.66^{+0.25}_{-0.27}$ at $E_{0} = 100\, \mathrm{TeV}$, in agreement with IceCube's complementary muon neutrino results and with all-neutrino flavor fit results. In the measured energy range we reject spectral indices $\gamma\leq2.28$ at $\ge3\sigma$ significance level. Due to high neutrino energy resolution and low atmospheric neutrino backgrounds, this analysis provides the most detailed characterization of the neutrino flux at energies below $\sim100\,{\rm{TeV}}$ compared to previous IceCube results. Results from fits assuming more complex neutrino flux models suggest a flux softening at high energies and a flux hardening at low energies (p-value $\ge 0.06$). The sizable and smooth flux measured below $\sim 100\,{\rm{TeV}}$ remains a puzzle. In order to not violate the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background as measured by the Fermi-LAT, it suggests the existence of astrophysical neutrino sources characterized by dense environments which are opaque to gamma-rays.**Quantum decoherence and relaxation in neutrinos using long-baseline data**

2001.09250 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. L. G. Gomes, R. A. Gomes, and O. L. G. Peres.

We investigate the effect of quantum decoherence and relaxation in neutrino oscillations using MINOS and T2K data. The formalism of open quantum systems is used to describe the interaction of a neutrino system with the environment, where the strength of the interaction is regulated by a decoherence parameter $\Gamma$. We assume an energy dependence parameterized by $\Gamma = \gamma_0 (E/\mbox{GeV})^n$, with $n=-2,0,+2$, and study three different scenarios. The MINOS and T2K data present a complementary behavior, with regard to our theoretical model, resulting in a better sensitivity for $n = +2$ and $n = -2$, respectively. We perform a combined analysis of both experimental data and include a reactor constraint on $\sin^2 \theta_{13}$. The results of our combined analyses improve significantly the previous bounds on $\gamma_0$ for $n = -2$, reporting an upper bound of $1.7 \times 10^{-23}$~GeV, at the 90\% confidence level.**Universal Polarimetric Signatures of the Black Hole Photon Ring**

2001.08750 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Elizabeth Himwich, [and 3 more]Michael D. Johnson, Alexandru Lupsasca, and Andrew Strominger [hide authors].

Black hole images present an annular region of enhanced brightness. In the absence of propagation effects, this "photon ring" has universal features that are completely governed by general relativity and independent of the details of the emission. Here, we show that the polarimetric image of a black hole also displays universal properties. In particular, the photon ring exhibits a self-similar pattern of polarization that encodes the black hole spin. We explore the corresponding universal polarimetric signatures of the photon ring on long interferometric baselines, and propose a method for measuring the black hole spin using a sparse interferometric array. These signatures could enable spin measurements of the supermassive black hole in M87, as well as precision tests of general relativity in the strong field regime, via a future extension of the Event Horizon Telescope to space.**Matter vs. vacuum oscillations at long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments**

2001.08676 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Suman Bharti, Ushak Rahaman, and S. Uma Sankar.

The neutrino oscillation probabilities at the long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiments are expected to be modified by matter effects. We search for evidence of such modification in the data of T2K and NO$\nu$A, by fitting the data to the hypothesis of (a) matter modified oscillations and (b) vacuum oscillations. We find that vacuum oscillations provide as good a fit to the data as matter modified oscillations. Even extended runs of T2K and NO$\nu$A, with 5 years in neutrino mode $(5 \nu)$ and five years in anti-neutrino mode $(5 \bar{\nu})$, can {\bf not} make a $3~\sigma$ distinction between vacuum and matter modified oscillations. The proposed experiment DUNE, with neutrino and anti-neutrino runs of 5 years each $(5 \nu + 5 \bar{\nu})$, can rule out vacuum oscillations by itself at $5~\sigma$ if the hierarchy is normal. If the hierarchy is inverted, a $5~\sigma$ discrimination against vacuum oscillations requires the combination of $(5 \nu + 5 \bar{\nu})$ runs of T2K, \nova and DUNE.**Testing MSW effect in Supernova Explosion with Neutrino event rates**

2001.08543 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kwang-Chang Lai, C. S. Jason Leung, and Guey-Lin Lin.

Flavor transitions in supernova neutrinos are yet to be determined. We present a method to probe whether or not the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects occur as SN neutrinos propagate outward from the SN core by investigating time evolutions of neutrino event rates for different flavors in different kinds of detectors. As the MSW effect occurs, the $\nu_e$ flux swaps with the $\nu_x$ flux, which represents any one of $\nu_{\mu}$, $\nu_{\tau}$, $\bar{\nu}_{\mu}$, and $\bar{\nu}_{\tau}$ flux, either fully or partially depending on the neutrino mass hierarchy. During the neutronization burst, the $\nu_e$ emission evolves in a much different shape from the emissions of $\bar{\nu}_e$ and $\nu_x$ while the latter two evolve in a similar pattern. Meanwhile, the luminosity of the the $\nu_e$ emission is much larger than those of the $\bar{\nu}_e$ and $\nu_x$ emissions while the latter two are roughly equal. As a consequence, the time-evolution pattern of the $\nu_e{\rm Ar}$ event rates in the absence of the MSW effect will be much different from that in the occurrence of the MSW effect, in either mass hierarchy. With the simulated SN neutrino emissions, the $\nu_e{\rm Ar}$ and inverse beta decay event rates are evaluated. The ratios of the two cumulative event rates are calculated for different progenitor masses up to $100~{\rm ms}$. We show that the time evolutions of this cumulative ratios can effectively determine whether MSW effects really occur for SN neutrinos or not.**Oscillation tomography of the Earth with solar neutrinos and future experiments**

2001.08030 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pouya Bakhti and Alexei Yu. Smirnov.

We study in details the Earth matter effects on the boron neutrinos from the Sun using recently developed 3D models of the Earth. The models have a number of new features of the density profiles, in particular, a substantial deviation from spherical symmetry. In this connection, we further elaborate on relevant aspects of oscillations ($\epsilon^2$ corrections, adiabaticity violation, entanglement, {\it etc.}) and the attenuation effect. The night excesses of the $\nu e-$ and $\nu N-$ events and the Day-Night asymmetries, $A_{ND}$, are presented in terms of the matter potential and the generalized energy resolution functions. The energy dependences of the cross-section and the flux improve the resolution, and consequently, sensitivity to remote structures of the profiles. The nadir angle ($\eta$) dependences of $A_{ND}$ are computed for future detectors DUNE, THEIA, Hyper-Kamiokande, and MICA at the South pole. Perspectives of the oscillation tomography of the Earth with the boron neutrinos are discussed. Next-generation detectors will establish the integrated day-night asymmetry with high confidence level. They can give some indications of the $\eta-$ dependence of the effect, but will discriminate among different models at most at the $(1 - 2)\sigma$ level. For high-level discrimination, the MICA-scale experiments are needed. MICA can detect the ice-soil borders and perform unique tomography of Antarctica.**Revealing neutrino nature and $CPT$ violation with decoherence effects**

2001.07580 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Luca Buoninfante, [and 3 more]Antonio Capolupo, Salvatore M. Giampaolo, and Gaetano Lambiase [hide authors].

We study decoherence effects on mixing among three generations of neutrinos. We show that in presence of a non--diagonal dissipation matrix, both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos can violate the $CPT$ symmetry and the oscillation formulae depend on the parametrization of the mixing matrix. We reveal the $CP$ violation in the transitions preserving the flavor, for a certain form of the dissipator. In particular, the $CP$ violation affects all the transitions in the case of Majorana neutrinos, unlike Dirac neutrinos which still preserve the $CP$ symmetry in one of the transitions flavor preserving. This theoretical result shows that decoherence effects, if exist for neutrinos, could allow to determine the neutrino nature and to test fundamental symmetries of physics. Next long baseline experiments could allow such an analysis. We relate our study with experiments by using the characteristic parameters and the constraints on the elements of the dissipation matrix of current experiments.**Working Group Report on the Combined Analysis of Muon Density Measurements from Eight Air Shower Experiments**

2001.07508 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lorenzo Cazon.

We present a meta-analysis of recent muon density measurements made by eight air shower experiments which cover shower energies ranging from PeV to tens of EeV regarding the muon puzzle in extensive air showers. Some experimental analyses reported deviations between recorded and simulated muon densities in extensive air showers, and others reported no discrepancies. Comparisons between experiments were made using a universal reference scale based on the relative difference to simulated proton and iron initiated air showers. We have applied a cross-calibration of energy scales between experiments based on the isotropic flux of cosmic rays as a reference. Above 10 PeV, most experimental data show a muon excess with respect to simulated air showers, including those performed with the recent post-LHC high-energy interaction models. The discrepancy increases with the shower energy with a slope 8 sigma away from the predictions by EPOS-LHC and QGSJet-II.04. The effect of measurements being made at different zenith angles and energy threshold of muons across different experiments will be addressed.**Effects of matter density profiles on neutrino oscillations for T2HK and T2HKK**

2001.05505 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stephen F. King, [and 3 more]Susana Molina Sedgwick, Stephen J. Parke, and Nick W. Prouse [hide authors].

This paper explores the effects of changes in matter density profiles on neutrino oscillation probabilities, and whether these could potentially be seen by the future Hyper-Kamiokande long-baseline oscillation experiment (T2HK). The analysis is extended to include the possibility of having an additional detector in Korea (T2HKK). In both cases, we find that these effects will be immeasurable, as the magnitudes of the changes in the oscillation probabilities induced in all density profile scenarios considered here remain smaller than the estimated experimental sensitivity to the oscillation probabilities of each experiment, for both appearance and disappearance channels. Therefore, we conclude that using a constant density profile is sufficient for both the T2HK and T2HKK experiments.**The Subhalo Mass Function and Ultralight Bosonic Dark Matter**

2001.05503 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Katelin Schutz.

Warm dark matter has recently become increasingly constrained by observational inferences about the low-mass end of the subhalo mass function, which would be suppressed by dark matter free streaming in the early Universe. In this work, we point out that a constraint can be placed on ultralight bosonic dark matter (often referred to as "fuzzy dark matter") based on similar considerations. Recent limits on warm dark matter from strong gravitational lensing of quasars and from fluctuations in stellar streams separately translate to a lower limit of $\sim 2.1 \times 10^{-21}$ eV on the mass of an ultralight boson comprising all dark matter. These limits are complementary to constraints on ultralight dark matter from the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest and are subject to a completely different set of assumptions and systematic uncertainties. Taken together, these probes strongly suggest that dark matter with a mass $\sim 10^{-22}$ eV is not a viable way to reconcile differences between cold dark matter simulations and observations of structure on small scales.**Bounds on secret neutrino interactions from high-energy astrophysical neutrinos**

2001.04994 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mauricio Bustamante, [and 3 more]Charlotte Amalie Rosenstroem, Shashank Shalgar, and Irene Tamborra [hide authors].

Neutrinos offer a window to physics beyond the Standard Model. In particular, high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, with TeV-PeV energies, may provide evidence of new, "secret" neutrino-neutrino interactions that are stronger than ordinary weak interactions. During their propagation over cosmological distances, high-energy neutrinos could interact with the cosmic neutrino background via secret interactions, developing characteristic energy-dependent features in their observed energy distribution. For the first time, we look for signatures of secret neutrino interactions in the diffuse flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, using 6 years of publicly available IceCube High Energy Starting Events (HESE). We find no significant evidence for secret neutrino interactions, but place competitive upper limits on the coupling strength of the new mediator through which they occur, in the mediator mass range of 1-100 MeV.**Precision Early Universe Thermodynamics made simple: $N_{\rm eff}$ and Neutrino Decoupling in the Standard Model and beyond**

2001.04466 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Miguel Escudero.

Precision measurements of the number of effective relativistic neutrino species and the primordial element abundances require accurate theoretical predictions for early Universe observables in the Standard Model and beyond. Given the complexity of accurately modelling the thermal history of the early Universe, in this work, we extend a previous method presented by the author to obtain simple, fast and accurate early Universe thermodynamics. The method is based upon the approximation that all relevant species can be described by thermal equilibrium distribution functions characterized by a temperature and a chemical potential. We apply the method to neutrino decoupling in the Standard Model and find $N_{\rm eff}^{\rm SM} = 3.045$ -- a result in excellent agreement with previous state-of-the-art calculations. We apply the method to study the thermal history of the Universe in the presence of a very light ($1\,\text{eV}**Nuclear effects in high-energy neutrino interactions**

2001.03677 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Spencer R. Klein, Sally A. Robertson, and Ramona Vogt.

Neutrino telescopes like IceCube, KM3NeT and Baikal-GVD offer physicists the opportunity to study neutrinos with energies far beyond the reach of terrestrial accelerators. These neutrinos are used to study high-energy neutrino interactions and to probe the Earth through absorption tomography. Current studies of TeV neutrinos use cross sections which are calculated for free nucleons with targets which are assumed to contain equal numbers of protons and neutrons. Here we consider modifications of high-energy neutrino interactions due to two nuclear effects: modifications of the parton densities in the nucleus, referred to here as shadowing, and the effect of non-isoscalar targets, with unequal numbers of neutrons and protons. Both these effects depend on the interaction medium. Because shadowing is larger for heavier nuclei, such as iron, found in the Earth's core, it introduces a zenith-angle dependent change in the absorption cross section. These modifications increase the cross sections by 1-2\% at energies below 100 TeV (antishadowing), and reduce it by 3-4\% at higher energies (shadowing). Nuclear effects also alter the inelasticity distribution of neutrino interactions in water/ice by increasing the number of low inelasticity interactions, with a larger effect for $\nu$ than $\bar\nu$. These effects are particularly large in the energy range below a few TeV. These effects could alter the cross sections inferred from events with tracks originating within the active detector volume as well as the ratio $\nu/\bar\nu$ inferred from inelasticity measurements. The uncertainties in these nuclear effects are larger than the uncertainties on the free-proton cross sections and will thus limit the systematic precision of future high-precision measurements at neutrino telescopes.**Recovery of eigenvectors from eigenvalues in systems of coupled harmonic oscillators**

2001.02073 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Henning U. Voss and Douglas J. Ballon.

The eigenvector-eigenvalue identity relates the eigenvectors of a Hermitian matrix to its eigenvalues and the eigenvalues of its principal submatrices in which the jth row and column have been removed. We show that one-dimensional arrays of coupled resonators, described by square matrices with real eigenvalues, provide simple physical systems where this formula can be applied in practice. The subsystems consist of arrays with the jth resonator removed, and thus can be realized physically. From their spectra alone, the oscillation modes of the full system can be obtained. This principle of successive single resonator deletions is demonstrated in two experiments of coupled radiofrequency resonator arrays with greater-than-nearest neighbor couplings, in which the spectra are measured with a network analyzer. Both the Hermitian as well as a non-Hermitian case are covered in the experiments. In both cases the experimental eigenvector estimates agree well with numerical simulations if certain consistency conditions imposed by system symmetries are taken into account. In the Hermitian case, these estimates are obtained from resonance spectra alone without knowledge of the system parameters. It remains an interesting problem of physical relevance to find conditions under which the full non-Hermitian eigenvector set can be obtained from the spectra alone.**A search for IceCube events in the direction of ANITA neutrino candidates**

2001.01737 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by IceCube Collaboration, [and 360 more]M. G. Aartsen, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. Ahrens, C. Alispach, K. Andeen, T. Anderson, I. Ansseau, G. Anton, C. Argüelles, J. Auffenberg, S. Axani, P. Backes, H. Bagherpour, X. Bai, A. Balagopal V., A. Barbano, S. W. Barwick, B. Bastian, V. Baum, S. Baur, R. Bay, J. J. Beatty, K. -H. Becker, J. Becker Tjus, S. BenZvi, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Z. Besson, G. Binder, D. Bindig, E. Blaufuss, S. Blot, C. Bohm, S. Böser, O. Botner, J. Böttcher, E. Bourbeau, J. Bourbeau, F. Bradascio, J. Braun, S. Bron, J. Brostean-Kaiser, A. Burgman, J. Buscher, R. S. Busse, T. Carver, C. Chen, E. Cheung, D. Chirkin, S. Choi, K. Clark, L. Classen, A. Coleman, G. H. Collin, J. M. Conrad, P. Coppin, P. Correa, D. F. Cowen, R. Cross, P. Dave, C. De Clercq, J. J. DeLaunay, H. Dembinski, K. Deoskar, S. De Ridder, P. Desiati, K. D. de Vries, G. de Wasseige, M. de With, T. DeYoung, A. Diaz, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, H. Dujmovic, M. Dunkman, E. Dvorak, B. Eberhardt, T. Ehrhardt, P. Eller, R. Engel, P. A. Evenson, S. Fahey, A. R. Fazely, J. Felde, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, E. Friedman, A. Fritz, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, E. Ganster, S. Garrappa, L. Gerhardt, K. Ghorbani, T. Glauch, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. G. Gonzalez, D. Grant, T. Grégoire, Z. Griffith, S. Griswold, M. Günder, M. Gündüz, C. Haack, A. Hallgren, R. Halliday, L. Halve, F. Halzen, K. Hanson, A. Haungs, D. Hebecker, D. Heereman, P. Heix, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, F. Henningsen, S. Hickford, J. Hignight, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, R. Hoffmann, T. Hoinka, B. Hokanson-Fasig, K. Hoshina, F. Huang, M. Huber, T. Huber, K. Hultqvist, M. Hünnefeld, R. Hussain, S. In, N. Iovine, A. Ishihara, M. Jansson, G. S. Japaridze, M. Jeong, K. Jero, B. J. P. Jones, F. Jonske, R. Joppe, D. Kang, W. Kang, A. Kappes, D. Kappesser, T. Karg, M. Karl, A. Karle, U. Katz, M. Kauer, J. L. Kelley, A. Kheirandish, J. Kim, T. Kintscher, J. Kiryluk, T. Kittler, S. R. Klein, R. Koirala, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, C. Kopper, S. Kopper, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, K. Krings, G. Krückl, N. Kulacz, N. Kurahashi, A. Kyriacou, J. L. Lanfranchi, M. J. Larson, F. Lauber, J. P. Lazar, K. Leonard, A. Leszczyńska, M. Leuermann, Q. R. Liu, E. Lohfink, C. J. Lozano Mariscal, L. Lu, F. Lucarelli, J. Lünemann, W. Luszczak, Y. Lyu, W. Y. Ma, J. Madsen, G. Maggi, K. B. M. Mahn, Y. Makino, P. Mallik, K. Mallot, S. Mancina, I. C. Mariş, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, R. Maunu, F. McNally, K. Meagher, M. Medici, A. Medina, M. Meier, S. Meighen-Berger, G. Merino, T. Meures, J. Micallef, D. Mockler, G. Momenté, T. Montaruli, R. W. Moore, R. Morse, M. Moulai, P. Muth, R. Nagai, U. Naumann, G. Neer, H. Niederhausen, M. U. Nisa, S. C. Nowicki, D. R. Nygren, A. Obertacke Pollmann, M. Oehler, A. Olivas, A. O'Murchadha, E. O'Sullivan, T. Palczewski, H. Pandya, D. V. Pankova, N. Park, P. Peiffer, C. Pérez de los Heros, S. Philippen, D. Pieloth, S. Pieper, E. Pinat, A. Pizzuto, M. Plum, A. Porcelli, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, C. Raab, A. Raissi, M. Rameez, L. Rauch, K. Rawlins, I. C. Rea, A. Rehman, R. Reimann, B. Relethford, M. Renschler, G. Renzi, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Richman, S. Robertson, M. Rongen, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Ryckbosch, D. Rysewyk, I. Safa, S. E. Sanchez Herrera, A. Sandrock, J. Sandroos, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, S. Sarkar, K. Satalecka, M. Schaufel, H. Schieler, P. Schlunder, T. Schmidt, A. Schneider, J. Schneider, F. G. Schröder, L. Schumacher, S. Sclafani, S. Seunarine, S. Shefali, M. Silva, R. Snihur, J. Soedingrekso, D. Soldin, M. Song, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, J. Stachurska, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, R. Stein, J. Stettner, A. Steuer, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, A. Stößl, N. L. Strotjohann, T. Stürwald, T. Stuttard, G. W. Sullivan, I. Taboada, F. Tenholt, S. Ter-Antonyan, A. Terliuk, S. Tilav, K. Tollefson, L. Tomankova, C. Tönnis, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, A. Trettin, M. Tselengidou, C. F. Tung, A. Turcati, R. Turcotte, C. F. Turley, B. Ty, E. Unger, M. A. Unland Elorrieta, M. Usner, J. Vandenbroucke, W. Van Driessche, D. van Eijk, N. van Eijndhoven, J. van Santen, S. Verpoest, M. Vraeghe, C. Walck, A. Wallace, M. Wallraff, N. Wandkowsky, T. B. Watson, C. Weaver, A. Weindl, M. J. Weiss, J. Weldert, C. Wendt, J. Werthebach, B. J. Whelan, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, L. Wille, D. R. Williams, L. Wills, M. Wolf, J. Wood, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, G. Wrede, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, Y. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, T. Yuan, and M. Zöcklein [hide authors].

During the first three flights of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment, the collaboration detected several neutrino candidates. Two of these candidate events were consistent with an ultra-high-energy up-going air shower and compatible with a tau neutrino interpretation. A third neutrino candidate event was detected in a search for Askaryan radiation in the Antarctic ice, although it is also consistent with the background expectation. The inferred emergence angle of the first two events is in tension with IceCube and ANITA limits on isotropic cosmogenic neutrino fluxes. Here, we test the hypothesis that these events are astrophysical in origin, possibly caused by a point source in the reconstructed direction. Given that any ultra-high-energy tau neutrino flux traversing the Earth should be accompanied by a secondary flux in the TeV-PeV range, we search for these secondary counterparts in seven years of IceCube data using three complementary approaches. In the absence of any significant detection, we set upper limits on the neutrino flux from potential point sources. We compare these limits to ANITA's sensitivity in the same direction and show that an astrophysical explanation of these anomalous events under standard model assumptions is severely constrained regardless of source spectrum.**KATRIN bound on 3+1 active-sterile neutrino mixing and the reactor antineutrino anomaly**

1912.12956 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. Giunti, Y. F. Li, and Y. Y. Zhang.

We present the bounds on 3+1 active-sterile neutrino mixing obtained from the first results of the KATRIN experiment. We show that the KATRIN data extend the Mainz and Troitsk bound to smaller values of $\Delta{m}^2_{41}$ for large mixing and improves the exclusion of the large-$\Delta{m}^2_{41}$ solution of the Huber-Muller reactor antineutrino anomaly. We also show that the combined bound of the Mainz, Troitsk, and KATRIN tritium experiments and the Bugey-3, NEOS, PROSPECT, and DANSS reactor spectral ratio measurements exclude most of the region in the ($\sin^2\!2\vartheta_{ee},\Delta{m}^2_{41}$) plane allowed by the Huber-Muller reactor antineutrino anomaly. Considering two new calculations of the reactor neutrino fluxes, we show that one, that predicts a lower $^{235}\text{U}$ neutrino flux, is in agreement with the tritium and reactor spectral ratio measurements, whereas the other leads to a larger tension than the Huber-Muller prediction. We also show that the combined reactor spectral ratio and tritium measurements disfavor the Neutrino-4 indication of large active-sterile mixing. We finally discuss the constraints on the gallium neutrino anomaly.**Dark Matter Annihilation to Neutrinos: An Updated, Consistent & Compelling Compendium of Constraints**

1912.09486 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles, [and 5 more]Alejandro Diaz, Ali Kheirandish, Andrés Olivares-Del-Campo, Ibrahim Safa, and Aaron C. Vincent [hide authors].

We place updated constraints on dark matter annihilation into neutrinos, using the most recently available data from neutrino detectors. We consider Galactic and extragalactic signals of $s$, $p$, and $d$-wave annihilation processes directly into neutrino pairs, and furthermore provide projections for next-generation neutrino experiments. Our constraints span dark matter masses from MeV to ZeV, ranging from $\langle \sigma v \rangle \sim 5\times10^{-26}~{\rm cm}^3 {\rm s}^{-1}$ to $10^{-19}~{\rm cm}^3{\rm s}^{-1}$, respectively. When directional information is available, constraints are strongest. Experiments that report directional and energy information of their events provide much stronger constraints, outlining the importance of making such data public.**A model for lepton flavor violating non-standard neutrino interactions**

1912.09408 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yasaman Farzan.

We present a model for Lepton Flavor Violating (LFV) neutral current non-standard interactions of neutrinos with matter fields parameterized by $\epsilon_{\alpha \beta}^f$ with $\alpha \ne \beta$. Here, unlike the previous models, the ratios of the off-diagonal LFV elements of the effective NSI coupling to the diagonal lepton flavor conserving ones ({\it i.e.,} $(\epsilon_{\alpha \beta}^f)^2/(\epsilon_{\alpha \alpha}^f \epsilon_{\beta \beta}^f)$ ) are arbitrary. The model enjoys rich phenomenology, predicting invisible Higgs decay and new meson decay modes observable in upcoming experiments. The model for $\epsilon_{\mu e}^f$ also predicts a $\mu^-$ to $e^-$ conversion rate on nuclei accessible in the planned experiments.**On Resolving the Dark LMA Solution at Neutrino Oscillation Experiments**

1912.08629 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Sandhya Choubey and Dipyaman Pramanik.

In presence of non standard interactions, the solar neutrino data is consistent with two solutions, one close to the standard LMA solution with $\sin^2\theta_{12} \simeq 0.3$ and another with $\sin^2\theta_{12}^D \simeq 0.7(=\cos^2\theta_{12})$. The latter has been called the Dark LMA (DLMA) solution in the literature. This issue is hard to resolve via oscillations because of the existence of the so-called "generalised mass hierarchy" degeneracy of the neutrino mass matrix in presence of NSI. However, if the mass hierarchy is independently determined in a non-oscillation experiment such as neutrino-less double beta decay, the invariance of neutrino oscillation probabilities under $\sin^2\theta_{12} \leftrightarrow \cos^2\theta_{12}$ is lost and the possibility of resolving the LMA vs DLMA opens up. We point out that the $P_{\mu\mu}$ channel can distinguish $\theta_{12}$ from $\theta_{12}^D$ and study the corresponding difference in long-baseline experiments. We show that a key ingredient required is the input from the $P_{ee}$ channel measured at a reactor experiment. We find that if the mass hierarchy is determined by neutrino-less double beta decay, then a combined measurement of the effective mass squared differences in long-baseline experiments such as T2HK and DUNE and reactor experiment such as JUNO can resolve the DLMA conundrum to better than $3\sigma$ within 1 year for T2HK and little more than 3 years for DUNE.**Searches for Decays of New Particles in the DUNE Multi-Purpose Near Detector**

1912.07622 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jeffrey M. Berryman, [and 5 more]André de Gouvêa, Patrick J. Fox, Boris J. Kayser, Kevin J. Kelly, and Jennifer L. Raaf [hide authors].

One proposed component of the upcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) near detector complex is a multi-purpose, magnetized, gaseous argon time projection chamber: the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD). We explore the new-physics potential of the MPD, focusing on scenarios in which the MPD is significantly more sensitive to new physics than a liquid argon detector, specifically searches for semi-long-lived particles that are produced in/near the beam target and decay in the MPD. The specific physics possibilities studied are searches for dark vector bosons mixing kinetically with the Standard Model hypercharge group, leptophilic vector bosons, dark scalars mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, and heavy neutral leptons that mix with the Standard Model neutrinos. We demonstrate that the MPD can extend existing bounds in most of these scenarios. We illustrate how the ability of the MPD to measure the momentum and charge of the final state particles leads to these bounds.**A testable hidden-sector model for Dark Matter and neutrino masses**

1912.06661 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Julia Gehrlein and Mathias Pierre.

We consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model with a hidden sector charged under a dark local $U(1)'$ gauge group, accounting simultaneously for light neutrino masses and the observed Dark Matter relic abundance. The model contains two copies of right-handed neutrinos which give rise to light neutrino-masses via an extended seesaw mechanism. The presence of a stable Dark-Matter candidate and a massless state naturally arise by requiring the simplest anomaly-free particle content without introducing any extra symmetries. We investigate the phenomenology of the hidden sector considering the $U(1)'$ breaking scale of the order of the electroweak scale. Confronting the thermal history of this hidden-sector model with existing and future constraints from collider, direct and indirect detection experiments provides various possibilities of probing the model in complementary ways as every particle of the dark sector plays a specific cosmological role. Across the identified viable parameter space, a large region predicts a sizable contribution to the effective relativistic degrees-of-freedom in the early Universe that allows to alleviate the recently reported tension between late and early measurements of the Hubble constant.**Measuring the Weak Mixing Angle in the DUNE Near Detector Complex**

1912.06658 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, [and 3 more]Pedro A. N. Machado, Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez, and Zahra Tabrizi [hide authors].

The planned DUNE experiment will have excellent sensitivity to the vector and axial couplings of the electron to the $Z$-boson via precision measurements of neutrino--electron scattering. We investigate the sensitivity of DUNE-PRISM, a movable near detector in the direction perpendicular to the beam line, and find that it will qualitatively impact our ability to constrain the weak couplings of the electron. We translate these neutrino--electron scattering measurements into a determination of the weak mixing angle at low scales and estimate that, with seven years of data taking, the DUNE near-detector can be used to measure $\sin^2\theta_W$ with about 2\% precision. We also discuss the impact of combining neutrino--electron scattering data with neutrino trident production at DUNE-PRISM.**Signatures of microscopic black holes and extra dimensions at future neutrino telescopes**

1912.06656 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Katherine J. Mack, Ningqiang Song, and Aaron C. Vincent.

In scenarios with large extra dimensions (LEDs), the fundamental Planck scale can be low enough that collisions between high-energy particles may produce microscopic black holes. High-energy cosmic neutrinos can carry energies much larger than a PeV, opening the door to a higher energy range than Earth-based colliders. Here, for the first time, we identify a number of unique signatures of microscopic black holes as they would appear in the next generation of large-scale neutrino observatories such as IceCube-Gen2 and the Pacific Ocean Neutrino Explorer. These signatures include new event topologies, energy distributions, and unusual ratios of hadronic-to-electronic energy deposition, visible through Cherenkov light echos due to delayed neutron recombination. We find that the next generation of neutrino telescopes can probe LEDs with a Planck scale up to 6 TeV, though the identification of unique topologies could push their reach even further.**Improved Sterile Neutrino Constraints from the STEREO Experiment with 179 Days of Reactor-On Data**

1912.06582 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by STEREO Collaboration, [and 29 more]H. Almazán, L. Bernard, A. Blanchet, A. Bonhomme, C. Buck, P. del Amo Sanchez, I. El Atmani, J. Haser, F. Kandzia, S. Kox, L. Labit, J. Lamblin, A. Letourneau, D. Lhuillier, M. Licciardi, M. Lindner, T. Materna, A. Minotti, H. Pessard, J. -S. Réal, C. Roca, R. Rogly, T. Salagnac, V. Savu, S. Schoppmann, V. Sergeyeva, T. Soldner, A. Stutz, and M. Vialat [hide authors].

The STEREO experiment is a very short baseline reactor antineutrino experiment. It is designed to test the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos being the cause of a deficit of the observed antineutrino interaction rate at short baselines with respect to the predicted rate, known as the reactor antineutrino anomaly. The STEREO experiment measures the antineutrino energy spectrum in six identical detector cells covering baselines between 9 and 11 m from the compact core of the ILL research reactor. In this article, results from 179 days of reactor turned on and 235 days of reactor turned off are reported at a high degree of detail. The current results include improvements in the modelling of detector optical properties and the gamma-cascade after neutron captures by gadolinium, the treatment of backgrounds, and the statistical method of the oscillation analysis. Using a direct comparison between antineutrino spectra of all cells, largely independent of any flux prediction, we find the data compatible with the null oscillation hypothesis. The best-fit point of the reactor antineutrino anomaly is rejected at more than 99.9% C.L.**Getting a THUMP from a WIMP**

1912.05572 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hooman Davoudiasl and Gopolang Mohlabeng.

Producing an acceptable thermal relic abundance of dark matter with masses $\gg 10^2$ TeV is a challenge. We propose a novel mechanism where GeV-scale states establish a tiny thermal relic abundance for dark matter, which is later promoted to ultra massive status by a very light scalar. We refer to this dark matter as a THermal Ultra Massive Particle (THUMP). Direct detection of THUMPs can be naturally expected due to large scattering cross sections mediated by low mass states that couple THUMPs to the Standard Model. Our model generically leads to signals for the associated GeV-scale states at accelerator experiments.**Physics potential of the ESS$ν$SB**

1912.04309 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Blennow, [and 3 more]E. Fernandez-Martinez, T. Ota, and S. Rosauro-Alcaraz [hide authors].

The ESS$\nu$SB project proposes to base a neutrino ''Super Beam'' of unprecedented luminosity at the European Spallation Source. The original proposal identified the second peak of the oscillation probability as the optimal to maximize the discovery potential to leptonic CP violation. However this choice reduces the statistics at the detector and penalizes other complementary searches such as the determination of the atmospheric oscillation parameters, particularly the octant of $\theta_{23}$ as well as the neutrino mass ordering. We explore how these shortcomings can be alleviated by the combination of the beam data with the atmospheric neutrino sample that would also be collected at the detector. We find that the combination not only improves very significantly these drawbacks, but also enhances both the CP violation discovery potential and the precision in the measurement of the CP violating phase, for which the facility was originally optimized, by lifting parametric degeneracies. We then reassess the optimization of the ESS$\nu$SB setup when the atmospheric neutrino sample is considered, with an emphasis in performing a measurement of the CP violating phase as precise as possible. We find that for the presently preferred value of $\delta \sim -\pi/2$, shorter baselines and longer running time in neutrino mode would be optimal. In these conditions, a measurement better than $14^\circ$ would be achievable for any value of the $\theta_{23}$ octant and the mass ordering. Conversely, if present and next generation facilities were not able to discover CP violation, longer baselines and more even splitting between neutrino and neutrino modes would be preferable. These choices would allow a $5 \sigma$ discovery of CP violation for around a $60\%$ of the possible values of $\delta$ and to determine its value with a precision around $6^\circ$ if it is close to $0$ or $\pi$.**Constraining properties of the next nearby core-collapse supernova with multi-messenger signals**

1912.03328 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by MacKenzie L. Warren, [and 3 more]Sean M. Couch, Evan P. O'Connor, and Viktoriya Morozova [hide authors].

With the advent of modern neutrino and gravitational wave detectors, the promise of multi-messenger detections of the next galactic core-collapse supernova has become very real. Such detections will give insight into the core-collapse supernova mechanism, the structure of the progenitor star, and may resolve longstanding questions in fundamental physics. In order to properly interpret these detections, a thorough understanding of the landscape of possible core-collapse supernova events, and their multi-messenger signals, is needed. We present detailed predictions of neutrino and gravitational wave signals from 1D simulations of stellar core collapse, spanning the landscape of core-collapse progenitors from $9-120\,\mathrm{M}_{\odot}$. In order to achieve explosions in 1D, we use the STIR model, which includes the effects of turbulence and convection in 1D supernova simulations to mimic the 3D explosion mechanism. We study the gravitational wave emission from the 1D simulations using an astroseismology analysis of the proto-neutron star. We find that the neutrino and gravitational wave signals are strongly correlated with the structure of the progenitor star and remnant compact object. Using these correlations, future detections of the first few seconds of neutrino and gravitational wave emission from a galactic core-collapse supernova may be able to provide constraints on stellar evolution independent of pre-explosion imaging and the mass of the compact object remnant prior to fallback accretion.**Interference between the Atmospheric and Solar Oscillation Amplitudes**

1912.02426 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Patrick Huber, Hisakazu Minakata, and Rebekah Pestes.

We propose to detect the interference effect between the atmospheric-scale and solar-scale waves of neutrino oscillation, one of the key consequences of the three-generation structure of leptons. In vacuum, we show that there is a natural and general way of decomposing the oscillation amplitude into these two oscillation modes. The nature of the interference is cleanest in the $\bar{\nu}_e$ disappearance channel since it is free from the CP-phase $\delta$. We find that the upcoming JUNO experiment offers an ideal setting to observe this interference with more than $4\,\sigma$ significance, even under conservative assumptions about the systematic uncertainties.**Constraints on Dark Matter from the Moon**

1912.00443 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Raghuveer Garani and Peter Tinyakov.

New and complimentary constraints are placed on the spin-independent interactions of dark matter with baryonic matter. Similar to the Earth and other planets, the Moon does not have any major internal heat source. We derive constraints by comparing the rate of energy deposit by dark matter annihilations in the Moon to 12 mW/m$^2$ as measured by the Apollo mission. For light dark matter of mass $\mathcal{O}(10)$ GeV, we also examine the possibility of dark matter annihilations in the Moon limb. In this case, we place constraints by comparing the photon flux from such annihilations to that of the Fermi-LAT measurement of $10^{-4}$ MeV/cm$^2$s. This analysis excludes spin independent cross section $\gtrsim 10^{-37}$ $\rm{cm}^2$ for dark matter mass between 30 and 50 GeV.**Lorentz violation footprints in the spectrum of high-energy cosmic neutrinos: Deformation of the spectrum of superluminal neutrinos from electron-positron pair production in vacuum**

1911.12710 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by J. M. Carmona, [and 3 more]J. L. Cortes, J. J. Relancio, and M. A. Reyes [hide authors].

The observation of cosmic neutrinos up to 2 PeV is used to put bounds on the energy scale of Lorentz invariance violation through the loss of energy due to the production of $e^+e^-$ pairs in the propagation of superluminal neutrinos. A model to study this effect, which allows to understand qualitatively the results of numerical simulations, is presented.**A New Mask for An Old Suspect: Testing the Sensitivity of the Galactic Center Excess to the Point Source Mask**

1911.12369 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yi-Ming Zhong, [and 3 more]Samuel D. McDermott, Ilias Cholis, and Patrick J. Fox [hide authors].

The Fermi-LAT collaboration has recently released a new point source catalog, referred to as 4FGL. For the first time, we perform a template fit using information from this new catalog and find that the Galactic center excess is still present. On the other hand, we find that a wavelet-based search for point sources is highly sensitive to the use of the 4FGL catalog: no excess of bright regions on small angular scales is apparent when we mask out 4FGL point sources. We postulate that the 4FGL catalog contains the large majority of bright point sources that have previously been suggested to account for the excess in gamma rays detected at the Galactic center in Fermi-LAT data. Furthermore, after identifying which bright sources have no known counterpart, we place constraints on the luminosity function necessary for point sources to explain the smooth emission seen in the template fit.**Non-negligible Oscillation Effects in the Crustal Geo-neutrino Calculations**

1911.12302 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ran Han, Yu-Feng Li, and Xin Mao.

An accurate prediction of the geo-neutrino signal from the crust serves as a necessary prerequisite in the determination of the geo-neutrino flux from the mantle. In this work we report the non-negligible effect associated to the exact three-flavor antineutrino survival probability in the calculation of the crustal geo-neutrino signal, which was usually approximated as a constant average in previous studies. A geo-neutrino signal underestimation of about 1-2 TNU is observed as a result of the oscillatory behaviour within the local crustal region extending for about 300 km from the experimental site. We also estimated that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein matter oscillation is responsible for a $0.1\%$-$0.3\%$ increase of the local crustal signal, depending on the detector location. This work reminds that the exact oscillation possibility in matter should be considered for future prediction of the local crustal geo-neutrino signal.**Detectability of SASI activity in supernova neutrino signals**

1911.10656 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Zidu Lin, [and 4 more]Cecilia Lunardini, Michele Zanolin, Kei Kotake, and Colter Richardson [hide authors].

We introduce a novel methodology for establishing the presence of Standing Accretion Shock Instabilities (SASI) in the dynamics of a core collapse supernova from the observed neutrino event rate at water- or ice-based neutrino detectors. The methodology uses a likelihood ratio in the frequency domain as a test-statistics; it is also employed to assess the potential to estimate the frequency and the amplitude of the SASI modulations of the neutrino signal. The parameter estimation errors are consistent with the minimum possible errors as evaluated from the inverse of the Fisher information matrix, and close to the theoretical minimum for the SASI amplitude. Using results from a core-collapse simulation of a 15 solar-mass star by Kuroda $\it {et\, al.}$ (2017) as a test bed for the method, we find that SASI can be identified with high confidence for a distance to the supernova of up to $\sim 6$ kpc for IceCube and and up to $\sim 3$ kpc for a 0.4 Mt mass water Cherenkov detector. This methodology will aid the investigation of a future galactic supernova.**Estimation of Baryon Asymmetry from Dark Matter Decaying into IceCube Neutrinos**

1911.10148 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tista Mukherjee, [and 3 more]Madhurima Pandey, Debasish Majumdar, and Ashadul Halder [hide authors].

The recent results of IceCube Neutrino Observatory include an excess of PeV neutrino events which appear to follow a broken power law different from the other lower energy neutrinos detected by IceCube. The possible astrophysical source of these neutrinos is still unknown. One possible source of such neutrinos could be the decay of non-thermal, long-living heavy mass Dark Matter, whose mass should be $> 10^{6} \rm {GeV}$ and could have produced at the very early Universe. They can undergo cascading decay via both hadronic and leptonic channels to finally produce such high energy neutrinos. This possibility has been explored in this work by studying the decay flux of these Dark Matter candidates. The mass and lifetime of such Dark Matter particles have been obtained by performing a $\chi^2$ fit with the PeV neutrino data of IceCube. We finally estimate the baryon asymmetry produced in the Universe due to such Dark Matter decay.**Interplay between nonstandard and nuclear constraints in coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments**

1911.09831 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by B. C. Canas, [and 4 more]E. A. Garces, O. G. Miranda, A. Parada, and G. Sanchez Garcia [hide authors].

New measurements of the coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) are expected to be achieved in the near future by using two neutrino production channels with different energy distributions: the very low energy electron antineutrinos from reactor sources and the muon and electron neutrinos from spallation neutron sources (SNS) with a relatively higher energy. Although precise measurements of this reaction would allow an improved knowledge of standard and beyond the Standard Model physics, it is important to distinguish the different new contributions to the process. We illustrate this idea by constraining the average neutron root mean square (rms) radius of the scattering material, as a standard physics parameter, together with the nonstandard interactions (NSI) contribution as the new physics formalism. We show that the combination of experiments with different neutrino energy ranges could give place to more robust constraints on these parameters as long as the systematic errors are under control.**Searching for non-unitary neutrino oscillations in the present T2K and NO$ν$A data**

1911.09398 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Luis Salvador Miranda, [and 3 more]Pedro Pasquini, Ushak Rahaman, and Soebur Razzaque [hide authors].

The mixing of three active neutrino flavors is parameterized by the unitary PMNS matrix. If there are more than three neutrino flavors and if the extra generations are heavy isosinglets, the effective $3\times 3$ mixing matrix for the three active neutrinos will be non-unitary. We have analyzed the latest T2K and NO$\nu$A data with the hypothesis of non-unitary mixing of the active neutrinos. We found that the NO$\nu$A data slightly (at $\sim 1\, \sigma$ C.L.) prefer the non-unitary mixing over unitary mixing. In fact, allowing the non-unitary mixing brings the NO$\nu$A best-fit point in the $\sin^2\theta_{23}-\delta_{\rm Cp}$ plane closer to the T2K best-fit point. The T2K data, on the other hand, cannot rule out any of the two mixing schemes. A combined analysis of the NO$\nu$A and T2K data prefers the non-unitary mixing at $1\, \sigma$ C.L.. We derive constraints on the non-unitary mixing parameters using the best-fit to the combined NO$\nu$A and T2K data. These constraints are weaker than previously found.**Improved global fit to Non-Standard neutrino Interactions using COHERENT energy and timing data**

1911.09109 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Coloma, [and 3 more]Ivan Esteban, M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, and Michele Maltoni [hide authors].

We perform a global fit to neutrino oscillation and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering data, using both timing and energy information from the COHERENT experiment. The results are used to set model-independent bounds on four-fermion effective operators inducing non-standard neutral-current neutrino interactions. We quantify the allowed ranges for their Wilson coefficients, as well as the status of the LMA-D solution, for a wide class of new physics models with arbitrary ratios between the strength of the operators involving up and down quarks. Our results are presented for the COHERENT experiment alone, as well as in combination with the global data from oscillation experiments. We also quantify the dependence of our results for COHERENT with respect to the choice of quenching factor, nuclear form factor, and the treatment of the backgrounds.**The hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment from lattice QCD**

1911.08123 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Blum, [and 6 more]Norman Christ, Masashi Hayakawa, Taku Izubuchi, Luchang Jin, Chulwoo Jung, and Christoph Lehner [hide authors].

We report the first result for the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment with all errors systematically controlled. Several ensembles using 2+1 flavors of physical mass M\"obius domain-wall fermions, generated by the RBC/UKQCD collaborations, are employed to take the continuum and infinite volume limits of finite volume lattice QED+QCD. We find $a_\mu^{\rm HLbL} = 7.87(3.06)_\text{stat}(1.77)_\text{sys}\times 10^{-10}$. Our value is consistent with previous model results and leaves little room for this notoriously difficult hadronic contribution to explain the difference between the Standard Model and the BNL experiment.**Search for Electron Antineutrino Appearance in a Long-baseline Muon Antineutrino Beam**

1911.07283 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by K. Abe, [and 343 more]R. Akutsu, A. Ali, C. Alt, C. Andreopoulos, L. Anthony, M. Antonova, S. Aoki, A. Ariga, Y. Asada, Y. Ashida, E. T. Atkin, Y. Awataguchi, S. Ban, M. Barbi, G. J. Barker, G. Barr, D. Barrow, C. Barry, M. Batkiewicz-Kwasniak, A. Beloshapkin, F. Bench, V. Berardi, S. Berkman, L. Berns, S. Bhadra, S. Bienstock, A. Blondel, S. Bolognesi, B. Bourguille, S. B. Boyd, D. Brailsford, A. Bravar, D. Bravo Berguno, C. Bronner, A. Bubak, M. Buizza Avanzini, J. Calcutt, T. Campbell, S. Cao, S. L. Cartwright, M. G. Catanesi, A. Cervera, A. Chappell, C. Checchia, D. Cherdack, N. Chikuma, G. Christodoulou, J. Coleman, G. Collazuol, L. Cook, D. Coplowe, A. Cudd, A. Dabrowska, G. DeRosa, T. Dealtry, P. F. Denner, S. R. Dennis, C. Densham, F. DiLodovico, N. Dokania, S. Dolan, T. A. Doyle, O. Drapier, J. Dumarchez, P. Dunne, L. Eklund, S. Emery-Schrenk, A. Ereditato, P. Fernandez, T. Feusels, A. J. Finch, G. A. Fiorentini, G. Fiorillo, C. Francois, M. Friend, Y. Fujii, R. Fujita, D. Fukuda, R. Fukuda, Y. Fukuda, K. Fusshoeller, K. Gameil, C. Giganti, T. Golan, M. Gonin, A. Gorin, M. Guigue, D. R. Hadley, J. T. Haigh, P. Hamacher-Baumann, M. Hartz, T. Hasegawa, N. C. Hastings, T. Hayashino, Y. Hayato, A. Hiramoto, M. Hogan, J. Holeczek, N. T. HongVan, F. Iacob, A. K. Ichikawa, M. Ikeda, T. Ishida, T. Ishii, M. Ishitsuka, K. Iwamoto, A. Izmaylov, M. Jakkapu, B. Jamieson, S. J. Jenkins, C. Jesus-Valls, M. Jiang, S. Johnson, P. Jonsson, C. K. Jung, M. Kabirnezhad, A. C. Kaboth, T. Kajita, H. Kakuno, J. Kameda, D. Karlen, S. P. Kasetti, Y. Kataoka, T. Katori, Y. Kato, E. Kearns, M. Khabibullin, A. Khotjantsev, T. Kikawa, H. Kim, J. Kim, S. King, J. Kisiel, A. Knight, A. Knox, T. Kobayashi, L. Koch, T. Koga, A. Konaka, L. L. Kormos, Y. Koshio, A. Kostin, K. Kowalik, H. Kubo, Y. Kudenko, N. Kukita, S. Kuribayashi, R. Kurjata, T. Kutter, M. Kuze, L. Labarga, J. Lagoda, M. Lamoureux, M. Laveder, M. Lawe, M. Licciardi, T. Lindner, R. P. Litchfield, S. L. Liu, X. Li, A. Longhin, L. Ludovici, X. Lu, T. Lux, L. N. Machado, L. Magaletti, K. Mahn, M. Malek, S. Manly, L. Maret, A. D. Marino, L. Marti-Magro, J. F. Martin, T. Maruyama, T. Matsubara, K. Matsushita, V. Matveev, K. Mavrokoridis, E. Mazzucato, M. McCarthy, N. McCauley, K. S. McFarland, C. McGrew, A. Mefodiev, C. Metelko, M. Mezzetto, A. Minamino, O. Mineev, S. Mine, M. Miura, L. Molina Bueno, S. Moriyama, J. Morrison, Th. A. Mueller, L. Munteanu, S. Murphy, Y. Nagai, T. Nakadaira, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakajima, A. Nakamura, K. G. Nakamura, K. Nakamura, S. Nakayama, T. Nakaya, K. Nakayoshi, C. Nantais, T. V. Ngoc, K. Niewczas, K. Nishikawa, Y. Nishimura, T. S. Nonnenmacher, F. Nova, P. Novella, J. Nowak, J. C. Nugent, H. M. O'Keeffe, L. O'Sullivan, T. Odagawa, K. Okumura, T. Okusawa, S. M. Oser, R. A. Owen, Y. Oyama, V. Palladino, J. L. Palomino, V. Paolone, W. C. Parker, J. Pasternak, P. Paudyal, M. Pavin, D. Payne, G. C. Penn, L. Pickering, C. Pidcott, G. Pintaudi, E. S. PinzonGuerra, C. Pistillo, B. Popov, K. Porwit, M. Posiadala-Zezula, A. Pritchard, B. Quilain, T. Radermacher, E. Radicioni, B. Radics, P. N. Ratoff, E. Reinherz-Aronis, C. Riccio, E. Rondio, S. Roth, A. Rubbia, A. C. Ruggeri, C. A. Ruggles, A. Rychter, K. Sakashita, F. Sanchez, C. M. Schloesser, K. Scholberg, J. Schwehr, M. Scott, Y. Seiya, T. Sekiguchi, H. Sekiya, D. Sgalaberna, R. Shah, A. Shaikhiev, F. Shaker, A. Shaykina, M. Shiozawa, W. Shorrock, A. Shvartsman, A. Smirnov, M. Smy, J. T. Sobczyk, H. Sobel, F. J. P. Soler, Y. Sonoda, J. Steinmann, S. Suvorov, A. Suzuki, S. Y. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, A. A. Sztuc, M. Tada, M. Tajima, A. Takeda, Y. Takeuchi, H. K. Tanaka, H. A. Tanaka, S. Tanaka, L. F. Thompson, W. Toki, C. Touramanis, T. Towstego, K. M. Tsui, T. Tsukamoto, M. Tzanov, Y. Uchida, W. Uno, M. Vagins, S. Valder, Z. Vallari, D. Vargas, G. Vasseur, C. Vilela, W. G. S. Vinning, T. Vladisavljevic, V. V. Volkov, T. Wachala, J. Walker, J. G. Walsh, Y. Wang, D. Wark, M. O. Wascko, A. Weber, R. Wendell, M. J. Wilking, C. Wilkinson, J. R. Wilson, R. J. Wilson, K. Wood, C. Wret, Y. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, C. Yanagisawa, G. Yang, T. Yano, K. Yasutome, S. Yen, N. Yershov, M. Yokoyama, T. Yoshida, M. Yu, A. Zalewska, J. Zalipska, K. Zaremba, G. Zarnecki, M. Ziembicki, E. D. Zimmerman, M. Zito, S. Zsoldos, and A. Zykova [hide authors].

Electron antineutrino appearance is measured by the T2K experiment in an accelerator-produced antineutrino beam, using additional neutrino beam operation to constrain parameters of the PMNS mixing matrix. T2K observes 15 candidate electron antineutrino events with a background expectation of 9.3 events. Including information from the kinematic distribution of observed events, the hypothesis of no electron antineutrino appearance is disfavored with a significance of 2.40{\sigma} and no discrepancy between data and PMNS predictions is found. A complementary analysis that introduces an additional free parameter which allows non-PMNS values of electron neutrino and antineutrino appearance also finds no discrepancy between data and PMNS predictions.**Sensitivity of the COHERENT Experiment to Accelerator-Produced Dark Matter**

1911.06422 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by COHERENT Collaboration, [and 77 more]D. Akimov, P. An, C. Awe, P. S. Barbeau, B. Becker, V. Belov, M. A. Blackston, A. Bolozdynya, B. Cabrera-Palmer, N. Chen, E. Conley, R. L. Cooper, J. Daughhetee, M. del Valle Coello, J. A. Detwiler, M. R. Durand, Y. Efremenko, S. R. Elliott, L. Fabris, M. Febbraro, W. Fox, A. Galindo-Uribarri, M. P. Green, K. S. Hansen, M. R. Heath, S. Hedges, T. Johnson, M. Kaemingk, L. J. Kaufman, A. Khromov, A. Konovalov, E. Kozlova, A. Kumpan, L. Li, J. T. Librande, J. M. Link, J. Liu, K. Mann, D. M. Markoff, H. Moreno, P. E. Mueller, J. Newby, D. S. Parno, S. Penttila, D. Pershey, D. Radford, R. Rapp, H. Ray, J. Raybern, O. Razuvaeva, D. Reyna, G. C. Rich, D. Rudik, J. Runge, D. J. Salvat, K. Scholberg, A. Shakirov, G. Simakov, G. Sinev, W. M. Snow, V. Sosnovtsev, B. Suh, R. Tayloe, K. Tellez-Giron-Flores, R. T. Thornton, I. Tolstukhin, J. Vanderwerp, R. L. Varner, C. J. Virtue, G. Visser, C. Wiseman, T. Wongjirad, J. Yang, Y. -R. Yen, J. Yoo, C. -H. Yu, and J. Zettlemoyer [hide authors].

The COHERENT experiment is well poised to test sub-GeV dark matter models using low-energy recoil detectors sensitive to coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) in the $\pi$-DAR neutrino beam produced by the Spallation Neutron Source. We show how a planned 750-kg liquid argon scintillation detector would place leading limits on scalar light dark matter models, over two orders of magnitude of dark matter mass, for dark matter particles produced through vector and leptophobic portals in the absence of other effects beyond the standard model. The characteristic timing structure of a $\pi$-DAR beam allows a unique opportunity for constraining systematic uncertainties on the standard model background in a time window where signal is not expected, enhancing expected sensitivity. Additionally, we discuss future prospects, further increasing the discovery potential of CEvNS detectors. Such methods would test the calculated thermal dark matter abundance for all couplings $\alpha'\leq1$ within the vector portal model over an order of magnitude of dark matter masses.**Prospects of Measuring Oscillated Decay-at-Rest Neutrinos at Long Baselines**

1911.05088 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Roni Harnik, Kevin J. Kelly, and Pedro A. N. Machado.

In addition to the next generation of beam-based neutrino experiments and their associated detectors, a number of intense, low-energy neutrino production sources from decays at rest will be in operation. In this work, we explore the physics opportunities with decay-at-rest neutrinos for complementary measurements of oscillation parameters at long baselines. The J-PARC Spallation Neutron Source, for example, will generate neutrinos from a variety of decay-at-rest (DAR) processes, specifically those of pions, muons, and kaons. Other proposed sources will produce large numbers of stopped pions and muons. We demonstrate the ability of the upcoming Hyper-Kamiokande experiment to detect the monochromatic kaon decay-at-rest neutrinos from J-PARC after they have travelled several hundred kilometers and undergone oscillations. This measurement will serve as a valuable cross-check in constraining our understanding of neutrino oscillations in a new regime of neutrino energy and baseline length. We also study the expected event rates from pion and muon DAR neutrinos in liquid Argon and water detectors and their sensitivities to to the CP violating phase $\delta_\mathrm{CP}$.**Theia: An advanced optical neutrino detector**

1911.03501 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Askins, [and 77 more]Z. Bagdasarian, N. Barros, E. W. Beier, E. Blucher, R. Bonventre, E. Callaghan, J. Caravaca, M. Diwan, S. T. Dye, J. Eisch, A. Elagin, T. Enqvist, V. Fischer, K. Frankiewicz, C. Grant, D. Guffanti, C. Hagner, A. Hallin, C. M. Jackson, R. Jiang, T. Kaptanoglu, J. R. Klein, Yu. G. Kolomensky, C. Kraus, F. Krennrich, T. Kutter, T. Lachenmaier, B. Land, K. Lande, J. G. Learned, V. Lozza, L. Ludhova, M. Malek, S. Manecki, J. Maneira, J. Maricic, J. Martyn, A. Mastbaum, C. Mauger, J. Napolitano, B. Naranjo, M. Nieslony, L. Oberauer, G. D. Orebi Gann, J. Ouellet, T. Pershing, S. T. Petcov, L. Picard, R. Rosero, M. Sanchez, J. Sawatzki, S. H. Seo, M. Smiley, M. Smy, A. Stahl, H. Steiger, M. R. Stock, H. Sunej, R. Svoboda, E. Tiras, W. Trzaska, M. Tzanov, M. Vagins, C. Vilela, Z. Wang, J. Wang, M. Wetstein, M. J. Wilking, L. Winslow, P. Wittich, B. Wonsak, E. Worcester, M. Wurm, G. Yang, M. Yeh, E. D. Zimmerman, and K. Zuber [hide authors].

New developments in liquid scintillators, high-efficiency, fast photon detectors, and chromatic photon sorting have opened up the possibility for building a large-scale detector that can discriminate between Cherenkov and scintillation signals. Such a detector could exploit these two distinct signals to observe particle direction and species using Cherenkov light while also having the excellent energy resolution and low threshold of a scintillator detector. Situated in a deep underground laboratory, and utilizing new techniques in computing and reconstruction techniques, such a detector could achieve unprecedented levels of background rejection, thus enabling a rich physics program that would span topics in nuclear, high-energy, and astrophysics, and across a dynamic range from hundreds of keV to many GeV. The scientific program would include observations of low- and high-energy solar neutrinos, determination of neutrino mass ordering and measurement of the neutrino CP violating phase, observations of diffuse supernova neutrinos and neutrinos from a supernova burst, sensitive searches for nucleon decay and, ultimately, a search for NeutrinoLess Double Beta Decay (NLDBD) with sensitivity reaching the normal ordering regime of neutrino mass phase space. This paper describes Theia, a detector design that incorporates these new technologies in a practical and affordable way to accomplish the science goals described above. We consider two scenarios, one in which Theia would reside in a cavern the size and shape of the caverns intended to be excavated for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) which we call Theia 25, and a larger 100 ktonne version (Theia 100) that could achieve an even broader and more sensitive scientific program.**Cosmological Dependence of Resonantly Produced Sterile Neutrinos**

1911.03398 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Graciela B. Gelmini, Philip Lu, and Volodymyr Takhistov.

The detection of a sterile neutrino could constitute the first observation of a particle that could have been produced before Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), and could provide information about the yet untested pre-BBN era. The cosmological evolution in this era could be drastically different than typically assumed in what constitutes the standard cosmology, as happens in a variety of motivated particle models. In this work we assess the sensitivity to different pre-BBN cosmologies in which entropy is conserved of 0.01 eV to 1 MeV mass sterile neutrinos produced in the early Universe via resonant active-sterile oscillations, which requires a large lepton asymmetry. We identify mass ranges where it is possible to have two populations of the same sterile neutrino, one with a colder and one with a hotter momentum spectra, which is in principle an observable effect. Furthermore, we show the regions in mass and mixing where fully resonant production (i.e. simultaneously coherent and adiabatic) can occur. We find that in several of the cosmologies we consider, including the standard one, for a lepton asymmetry larger than $\sim10^{-4}$ fully resonantly produced sterile neutrinos in the eV-mass range can evade all cosmological constraints.**Sterile neutrinos with altered dispersion relations revisited**

1911.02329 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by G. Barenboim, [and 3 more]P. Martinez-Mirave, C. A. Ternes, and M. Tortola [hide authors].

In this paper we investigate neutrino oscillations with altered dispersion relations in the presence of sterile neutrinos. Modified dispersion relations represent an agnostic way to parameterize new physics. Models of this type have been suggested to explain global neutrino oscillation data, including deviations from the standard three-neutrino paradigm as observed by a few experiments. We show that, unfortunately, in this type of models new tensions arise turning them incompatible with global data.**On The Decaying-Sterile Neutrino Solution to the Electron (Anti)Neutrino Appearance Anomalies**

1911.01447 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, [and 3 more]O. L. G. Peres, Suprabh Prakash, and G. V. Stenico [hide authors].

We explore the hypothesis that the unexplained data from LSND and MiniBooNE are evidence for a new, heavy neutrino mass-eigenstate that mixes with the muon-type neutrino and decays into an electron-type neutrino and a new, very light scalar particle. We consider two different decay scenarios, one with Majorana neutrinos, one with Dirac neutrinos; both fit the data equally well. We find a reasonable, albeit not excellent, fit to the data of MiniBooNE and LSND. The decaying-sterile-neutrino hypothesis, however, cleanly evades constraints from disappearance searches and precision measurements of leptonic meson decays, as long as $1~{\rm MeV}\gtrsim m_4\gtrsim 10$~keV. The SBN program at Fermilab should be able to definitively test the decaying-sterile-neutrino hypothesis.**Decaying Sterile Neutrinos and the Short Baseline Oscillation Anomalies**

1911.01427 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Mona Dentler, [and 3 more]Ivan Esteban, Joachim Kopp, and Pedro Machado [hide authors].

The MiniBooNE experiment has observed a significant excess of electron neutrinos in a muon neutrino beam at source-detector distances too short to be compatible with standard neutrino oscillations. The most straightforward explanation for this signal in terms of oscillations between Standard Model neutrinos and a new, sterile, neutrino, is disfavored by null results from experiments looking for muon neutrino disappearance. Here, we discuss the possibility that MiniBooNE data are instead explained by a sterile neutrino that decays quickly back into active neutrinos plus a light boson. The flavor composition of the secondary neutrinos is determined by the sterile neutrino mixing angles, and we show that the data is best explained if the sterile neutrino mixes mostly with electron neutrinos. The preferred range for the mass of the sterile neutrino is between 100 eV and 1 keV. We argue that the model can easily satisfy cosmological constraints because it has the "secret interactions" mechanism built-in. Accommodating in addition to the MiniBooNE anomaly also the LSND, reactor, and gallium anomalies is possible, but in this case the model needs to be extended to avoid cosmological limits.**Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering at the European Spallation Source**

1911.00762 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by D. Baxter, [and 14 more]J. I. Collar, P. Coloma, C. E. Dahl, I. Esteban, P. Ferrario, J. J. Gomez-Cadenas, M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, A. R. L. Kavner, C. M. Lewis, F. Monrabal, J. Muñoz Vidal, P. Privitera, K. Ramanathan, and J. Renner [hide authors].

The European Spallation Source (ESS), presently well on its way to completion, will soon provide the most intense neutron beams for multi-disciplinary science. Fortuitously, it will also generate the largest pulsed neutrino flux suitable for the detection of Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CE$\nu$NS), a process recently measured for the first time at ORNL's Spallation Neutron Source. We describe innovative detector technologies maximally able to profit from the order-of-magnitude increase in neutrino flux provided by the ESS, along with their sensitivity to a rich particle physics phenomenology accessible through high-statistics, precision CE$\nu$NS measurements.**Neutrino clustering in the Milky Way and beyond**

1910.13388 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. Mertsch, [and 5 more]G. Parimbelli, P. F. de Salas, S. Gariazzo, J. Lesgourgues, and S. Pastor [hide authors].

The standard cosmological model predicts the existence of a Cosmic Neutrino Background, which has not yet been observed directly. Some experiments aiming at its detection are currently under development, despite the tiny kinetic energy of the cosmological relic neutrinos, which makes this task incredibly challenging. Since massive neutrinos are attracted by the gravitational potential of our Galaxy, they can cluster locally. Neutrinos should be more abundant at the Earth position than at an average point in the Universe. This fact may enhance the expected event rate in any future experiment. Past calculations of the local neutrino clustering factor only considered a spherical distribution of matter in the Milky Way and neglected the influence of other nearby objects like the Virgo cluster, although recent $N$-body simulations suggest that the latter may actually be important. In this paper, we adopt a back-tracking technique, well established in the calculation of cosmic rays fluxes, to perform the first three-dimensional calculation of the number density of relic neutrinos at the Solar System, taking into account not only the matter composition of the Milky Way, but also the contribution of the Andromeda galaxy and the Virgo cluster. The effect of Virgo is indeed found to be relevant and to depend non-trivially on the value of the neutrino mass. Our results show that the local neutrino density is enhanced by 0.53% for a neutrino mass of 10 meV, 12% for 50 meV, 50% for 100 meV or 500% for 300 meV.**Neutrino emission characteristics of black hole formation in three-dimensional simulations of stellar collapse**

1910.12971 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Laurie Walk, [and 4 more]Irene Tamborra, Hans-Thomas Janka, Alexander Summa, and Daniel Kresse [hide authors].

Neutrinos are unique probes of core-collapse supernova dynamics, especially in the case of black hole (BH) forming stellar collapses, where the electromagnetic emission may be faint or absent. By investigating two 3D hydrodynamical simulations of BH-forming stellar collapses of mass 40 and 75 M_sun, we identify the physical processes preceding BH formation through neutrinos, and forecast the neutrino signal expected in the existing IceCube and Super-Kamiokande detectors, as well as in the future generation DUNE facility. Prior to the abrupt termination of the neutrino signal corresponding to BH formation, both models develop episodes of strong and long-lasting activity by the spiral standing accretion shock instability (SASI). We find that the spiral SASI peak in the Fourier power spectrum of the neutrino event rate will be distinguishable at 3 sigma above the detector noise for distances up to O(30) kpc in the most optimistic scenario, with IceCube having the highest sensitivity. Interestingly, given the long duration of the spiral SASI episodes, the spectrograms of the expected neutrino event rate carry clear signs of the evolution of the blue spiral SASI frequency as a function of time, as the shock radius and post-shock fluid velocity evolve. Due to the high accretion luminosity and its large-amplitude SASI-induced modulations, any contribution from asymmetric (dipolar or quadrupolar) neutrino emission associated with the lepton emission self-sustained asymmetry (LESA) is far subdominant in the neutrino signal.**Probing dark matter signals in neutrino telescopes through angular power spectrum**

1910.12917 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ariane Dekker, Marco Chianese, and Shin'ichiro Ando.

The hypothesis of two different components in the high-energy neutrino flux observed with IceCube has been proposed to solve the tension among different data-sets and to account for an excess of neutrino events at 100 TeV. In addition to a standard astrophysical power-law component, the second component might be explained by a different class of astrophysical sources, or more intriguingly, might originate from decaying or annihilating dark matter. These two scenarios can be distinguished thanks to the different expected angular distributions of neutrino events. Neutrino signals from dark matter are indeed expected to have some correlation with the extended galactic dark matter halo. In this paper, we perform angular power spectrum analyses of simulated neutrino sky maps to investigate the two-component hypothesis with a contribution from dark matter. We provide current constraints and expected sensitivity to dark matter parameters for future neutrino telescopes such as IceCube-Gen2 and KM3NeT. The latter is found to be more sensitive than IceCube-Gen2 to look for a dark matter signal at low energies towards the galactic center. Finally, we show that after 10 years of data-taking, they will firmly probe the current best-fit scenario for decaying dark matter by exploiting the angular information only.**Why matter effects matter for JUNO**

1910.12900 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Amir N. Khan, Hiroshi Nunokawa, and Stephen J. Parke.

In this paper we focus on the Earth matter effects for the solar parameter determination by a medium baseline reactor experiment such as JUNO. We derive perturbative expansions for the mixing angles $\theta_{12}$ and $\theta_{13}$ as well as the $\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $\Delta m^2_{31}$ in terms of the matter potential relevant for JUNO. These expansions, up to second order in the matter potential, while simple, allow one to calculate the electron antineutrino survival probability to a precision much better than needed for the JUNO experiment. We use these perturbative expansions to semi-analytically explain and confirm the shift caused by the matter effects on the solar neutrino mixing parameters $\theta_{12}$ and $\Delta m^2_{21}$ which were previously obtained by a purely numerical $\chi^2$ analysis. Since these shifts do not satisfy the naive expectations and are significant given the precision that can be achieved by the JUNO experiment, a totally independent cross check using a completely different method is of particular importance. We find that these matter effect shifts do not depend on any of the details of the detector characteristics apart from the baseline and earth mass density between reactor(s) and detector, but do depend on the normalized product of reactor neutrino spectrum times the inverse-beta decay cross-section. The results of this manuscript suggests an alternative analysis method for measuring $\sin^2 \theta_{12}$ and $\Delta m^2_{21}$ in JUNO which would be a useful cross check of the standard analysis and for the understanding of the Wolfenstein matter effect. The explanation of these shifts together with a quantitative understanding, using a semi-analytical method, is the principal purpose of this paper.**Observation of Radar Echoes From High-Energy Particle Cascades**

1910.12830 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. Prohira, [and 17 more]K. D. de Vries, P. Allison, J. Beatty, D. Besson, A. Connolly, N. van Eijndhoven, C. Hast, C. -Y Kuo, U. A. Latif, T. Meures, J. Nam, A. Nozdrina, J. P. Ralston, Z. Riesen, C. Sbrocco, J. Torres, and S. Wissel [hide authors].

We report the observation of radar echoes from the ionization trails of high-energy particle cascades. These data were taken at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, where the full electron beam ($\sim$10$^9$ e$^-$ at $\sim$10 GeV/e$^-$) was directed into a plastic target to simulate an ultra high-energy neutrino interaction. This target was interrogated with radio waves, and coherent radio reflections from the cascades were detected, with properties consistent with theoretical expectations. This is the first definitive observation of radar echoes from high-energy particle cascades, which may lead to a viable neutrino detection technology for energies $\gtrsim 10^{16}$ eV.**Grand Unified Neutrino Spectrum at Earth: Sources and Spectral Components**

1910.11878 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Edoardo Vitagliano, Irene Tamborra, and Georg Raffelt.

We briefly review the dominant neutrino fluxes at Earth from different sources and present the Grand Unified Neutrino Spectrum ranging from meV to PeV energies. For each energy band and source, we discuss both theoretical expectations and experimental data. This compact review should be useful as a brief reference to those interested in neutrino astronomy, fundamental particle physics, dark-matter detection, high-energy astrophysics, geophysics, and other related topics.**Heavy sterile neutrino emission in core-collapse supernovae: Constraints and signatures**

1910.10249 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Leonardo Mastrototaro, [and 3 more]Alessandro Mirizzi, Pasquale Dario Serpico, and Arman Esmaili [hide authors].

Heavy sterile neutrinos with masses ${\mathcal O}(100)$ MeV mixing with active neutrinos can be produced in the core of a collapsing supernova (SN). In order to avoid an excessive energy loss, shortening the observed duration of the SN 1987A neutrino burst, we show that the active-sterile neutrino mixing angle should satisfy $\sin^2 \theta \lesssim 5 \times 10^{-7}$. For a mixing with tau flavour, this bound is much stronger than the ones from laboratory searches. Moreover, we show that in the viable parameter space the decay of such "heavy" sterile neutrinos in the SN envelope would lead to a very energetic flux of daughter active neutrinos; if not too far below current limits, this would be detectable in large underground neutrino observatories, like Super-Kamiokande, as a (slightly time-delayed) high-energy bump in the spectrum of a forthcoming Galactic SN event.**CP violation and circular polarisation in neutrino radiative decay**

1910.08558 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shyam Balaji, Maura Ramirez-Quezada, and Ye-Ling Zhou.

The radiative decay of neutral fermions has been studied for decades but $CP$ violation induced within such a paradigm has evaded attention. $CP$ violation in these processes can produce an asymmetry between circularly polarised directions of the radiated photons and produces an important source of net circular polarisation in particle and astroparticle physics observables. The results presented in this work outlines the general connection between $CP$ violation and circular polarisation for both Dirac and Majorana fermions and can be used for any class of models that produce such radiative decays. The total $CP$ violation is calculated based on a widely studied Yukawa interaction considered in both active and sterile neutrino radiative decay scenarios as well as searches for dark matter via direct detection and collider signatures. Finally, the phenomenological implications of the formalism on keV sterile neutrino decay, leptogenesis-induced right-handed neutrino radiative decay and IceCube-driven heavy dark matter decay are discussed.**Dirac and Majorana neutrino signatures of primordial black holes**

1910.07864 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Cecilia Lunardini and Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez.

We study Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) as sources of massive neutrinos via Hawking radiation. Under the hypothesis that black holes emit neutrino mass eigenstates, we describe quantitatively how the PBH evolution and lifetime is affected by the mass and fermionic -- Dirac or Majorana -- nature of neutrinos. In the case of Dirac neutrinos, PBHs radiate right-handed and left-handed neutrinos in equal amounts, thus possibly increasing the effective number of neutrino species, $N_{\rm eff}$. Assuming an initially monochromatic PBH mass spectrum, with the initial mass $M_i$ related to the particle horizon mass, and considering the current constraint on $N_{\rm eff}$, we derive a bound on the initial PBH fraction $\beta^\prime$ in the interval $4.3\times 10^7\ {\rm g}\lesssim M_i \lesssim 10^9$ g. Future measurements of $N_{\rm eff}$ may be able to constraint the initial fraction for black hole masses as low as 1 g. If an excess in $N_{\rm eff}$ is found, PBHs with Dirac neutrinos could provide a minimal explanation of it. For example, for $10^7\ {\rm g} \lesssim M_i\lesssim 10^9$ g and $\beta^\prime \gtrsim 10^{-13}$, an excess radiation at the level of $0.2\lesssim \Delta N_{\rm eff}\lesssim 0.37$ is produced, which can alleviate the tension of the Hubble parameter measurements. Finally, we obtain the diffuse flux of right-helical neutrinos from PBHs at the Earth, and show that their detection in a PTOLEMY-like detector (using neutrino capture on tritium) would be difficult.**Search for Astronomical Neutrinos from Blazar TXS0506+056 in Super-Kamiokande**

1910.07680 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by K. Hagiwara, [and 172 more]K. Abe, C. Bronner, Y. Hayato, M. Ikeda, H. Ito, J. Kameda, Y. Kataoka, Y. Kato, Y. Kishimoto, Ll. Marti, M. Miura, S. Moriyama, T. Mochizuki, M. Nakahata, Y. Nakajima, S. Nakayama, T. Okada, K. Okamoto, A. Orii, G. Pronost, H. Sekiya, M. Shiozawa, Y. Sonoda, A. Takeda, A. Takenaka, H. Tanaka, T. Yano, R. Akutsu, T. Kajita, K. Okumura, R. Wang, J. Xia, D. Bravo-Berguno, L. Labarga, P. Fernandez, F. d. M. Blaszczyk, E. Kearns, J. L. Raaf, J. L. Stone, L. Wan, T. Wester, J. Bian, N. J. Griskevich, W. R. Kropp, S. Locke, S. Mine, M. B. Smy, H. W. Sobel, V. Takhistov, P. Weatherly, K. S. Ganezer, J. Hill, J. Y. Kim, I. T. Lim, R. G. Park, B. Bodur, K. Scholberg, C. W. Walter, A. Coffani, O. Drapier, M. Gonin, Th. A. Mueller, P. Paganini, T. Ishizuka, T. Nakamura, J. S. Jang, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, R. P. Litchfield, A. A. Sztuc, Y. Uchida, V. Berardi, N. F. Calabria, M. G. Catanesi, E. Radicioni, G. De Rosa, G. Collazuol, F. Iacob, L. Ludovici, Y. Nishimura, S. Cao, M. Friend, T. Hasegawa, T. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, T. Nakadaira, K. Nakamura, Y. Oyama, K. Sakashita, T. Sekiguchi, T. Tsukamoto, M. Hasegawa, Y. Isobe, H. Miyabe, Y. Nakano, T. Shiozawa, T. Sugimoto, A. T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, A. Ali, Y. Ashida, S. Hirota, M. Jiang, T. Kikawa, M. Mori, KE. Nakamura, T. Nakaya, R. A. Wendell, L. H. V. Anthony, N. McCauley, A. Pritchard, K. M. Tsui, Y. Fukuda, Y. Itow, T. Niwa, M. Taani, M. Tsukada, P. Mijakowski, K. Frankiewicz, C. K. Jung, C. Vilela, M. J. Wilking, C. Yanagisawa, D. Fukuda, M. Harada, T. Horai, H. Ishino, S. Ito, Y. Koshio, M. Sakuda, Y. Takahira, C. Xu, Y. Kuno, L. Cook, C. Simpson, D. Wark, F. Di Lodovico, S. Molina Sedgwick, B. Richards, S. Zsoldos, S. B. Kim, M. Thiesse, L. Thompson, H. Okazawa, Y. Choi, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, M. Yokoyama, A. Goldsack, K. Martens, B. Quilain, Y. Suzuki, M. R. Vagins, M. Kuze, M. Tanaka, T. Yoshida, M. Ishitsuka, R. Matsumoto, K. Ohta, J. F. Martin, C. M. Nantais, H. A. Tanaka, T. Towstego, M. Hartz, A. Konaka, P. de Perio, S. Chen, B. Jamieson, J. Walker, A. Minamino, K. Okamoto, and G. Pintaudi [hide authors].

We report a search for astronomical neutrinos in the energy region from several GeV to TeV in the direction of the blazar TXS0506+056 using the Super-Kamiokande detector following the detection of a 100 TeV neutrino from the same location by the IceCube collaboration. Using Super-Kamiokande neutrino data across several data samples observed from April 1996 to February 2018 we have searched for both a total excess above known backgrounds across the entire period as well as localized excesses on smaller time scales in that interval. No significant excess nor significant variation in the observed event rate are found in the blazar direction. Upper limits are placed on the electron and muon neutrino fluxes at 90\% confidence level as $6.03 \times 10^{-7}$ and $4.52 \times 10^{-7}$ to $9.26 \times 10^{-10}$ [${\rm erg}/{\rm cm}^2/{\rm s}$], respectively.**The viability of the 3+1 neutrino model in the supernova neutrino process**

1910.04984 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Heamin Ko, [and 3 more]Dukjae Jang, Motohiko Kusakabe, and Myung-Ki Cheoun [hide authors].

Adopting the 3+1 neutrino mixing parameters by the IceCube and shortbase line experiments, we investigate the sterile-active neutrino oscillation effects on the supernova neutrino process. For the sterile neutrino ($\nu_s$), we study two different luminosity models. First, we presume that the $\nu_s$ does not interact with other particles through the standard interactions apart from the oscillation with the active neutrinos. Second, we consider that $\nu_s$ can be directly produced by $\nu_e$ scattering with matter. In both cases, we find that the pattern of neutrino oscillations can be changed drastically by the $\nu_s$ in supernova environments. Especially multiple resonances occur, and consequently affect thermal neutrino-induced reaction rates. As a result, $^7$Li, $^7$Be, $^{11}$B, $^{11}$C, $^{92}$Nb, $^{98}$Tc and $^{138}$La yields in the $\nu$-process are changed. Among those nuclei, $^7$Li and $^{11}$B yields can be constrained by the analysis of observed SiC X grains. Based on the meteoritic data, we conclude that the second model can be allowed while first model is excluded. The viability of the second model depends on the sterile neutrino temperature and the neutrino mass hierarchy.**Search for light mediators in the low-energy data of the CONNIE reactor neutrino experiment**

1910.04951 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alexis Aguilar-Arevalo, [and 25 more]Xavier Bertou, Carla Bonifazi, Gustavo Cancelo, Brenda A. Cervantes-Vergara, Claudio Chavez, Juan C. D'Olivo, João C. dos Anjos, Juan Estrada, Aldo R. Fernandes Neto, Guillermo Fernandez-Moroni, Ana Foguel, Richard Ford, Federico Izraelevitch, Ben Kilminster, H. P. Lima Jr, Martin Makler, Jorge Molina, Philipe Mota, Irina Nasteva, Eduardo Paolini, Carlos Romero, Youssef Sarkis, Miguel Sofo-Haro, Javier Tiffenberg, and Christian Torres [hide authors].

The CONNIE experiment is located at a distance of 30 m from the core of a commercial nuclear reactor, and has collected a 3.7 kg-day exposure using a CCD detector array sensitive to an $\sim$1 keV threshold for the study of coherent neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering. Here we demonstrate the potential of this low-energy neutrino experiment as a probe for physics Beyond the Standard Model, by using the recently published results to constrain two simplified extensions of the Standard Model with light mediators. We compare the new limits with those obtained for the same models using neutrinos from the Spallation Neutron Source. Our new constraints represent the best limits for these simplified models among the experiments searching for CE$\nu$NS for a light vector mediator with mass $M_{Z^{\prime}}<$ 10 MeV, and for a light scalar mediator with mass $M_{\phi}<$ 30 MeV. These results constitute the first use of the CONNIE data as a probe for physics Beyond the Standard Model.**Dodelson-Widrow Mechanism In the Presence of Self-Interacting Neutrinos**

1910.04901 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, [and 3 more]Manibrata Sen, Walter Tangarife, and Yue Zhang [hide authors].

keV-scale gauge-singlet fermions, allowed to mix with the active neutrinos, are elegant dark matter (DM) candidates. They are produced in the early universe via the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism and can be detected as they decay very slowly, emitting X-rays. In the absence of new physics, this hypothesis is virtually ruled out by astrophysical observations. Here, we show that new interactions among the active neutrinos allow these sterile neutrinos to make up all the DM while safely evading all current experimental bounds. The existence of these new neutrino interactions may manifest itself in next-generation experiments, including DUNE.**Consistent QFT description of non-standard neutrino interactions**

1910.02971 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Adam Falkowski, Martín González-Alonso, and Zahra Tabrizi.

Neutrino oscillations are precision probes of new physics beyond the Standard Model. Apart from neutrino masses and mixings, they are also sensitive to possible deviations of low-energy interactions between quarks and leptons from the Standard Model predictions. In this paper we develop a systematic description of such non-standard interactions (NSI) in oscillation experiments within the quantum field theory framework. We calculate the event rate and oscillation probability in the presence of general NSI, starting from the effective field theory (EFT) in which new physics modifies the flavor or Lorentz structure of charged-current interactions between leptons and quarks. We also provide the matching between the EFT Wilson coefficients and the widely used simplified quantum-mechanical approach, where new physics is encoded in a set of production and detection NSI parameters. Finally, we discuss the consistency conditions for the standard NSI approach to correctly reproduce the quantum field theory result.**Astronomy in a Low-Carbon Future**

1910.01272 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Christopher D. Matzner, [and 14 more]Nicolas B. Cowan, René Doyon, Vincent Hénault-Brunet, David Lafrenère, Martine Lokken, Peter G. Martin, Sharon Morsink, Magdalen Normandeau, Nathalie Ouellette, Mubdi Rahman, Joel Roediger, James Taylor, Rob Thacker, and Marten van Kerkwijk [hide authors].

The global climate crisis poses new risks to humanity, and with them, new challenges to the practices of professional astronomy. Avoiding the more catastrophic consequences of global warming by more than 1.5 degrees requires an immediate reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. According to the 2018 United Nations Intergovernmental Panel report, this will necessitate a 45% reduction of emissions by 2030 and net-zero emissions by 2050. Efforts are required at all levels, from the individual to the governmental, and every discipline must find ways to achieve these goals. This will be especially difficult for astronomy with its significant reliance on conference and research travel, among other impacts. However, our long-range planning exercises provide the means to coordinate our response on a variety of levels. We have the opportunity to lead by example, rising to the challenge rather than reacting to external constraints. We explore how astronomy can meet the challenge of a changing climate in clear and responsible ways, such as how we set expectations (for ourselves, our institutions, and our granting agencies) around scientific travel, the organization of conferences, and the design of our infrastructure. We also emphasize our role as reliable communicators of scientific information on a problem that is both human and planetary in scale.**Observing EeV neutrinos through the Earth: GZK and the anomalous ANITA events**

1909.10487 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ibrahim Safa, [and 6 more]Alex Pizzuto, Carlos Argüelles, Francis Halzen, Raamis Hussain, Ali Kheirandish, and Justin Vandenbroucke [hide authors].

Tau neutrinos are unique cosmic messengers, especially at extreme energies. When they undergo a charged-current interaction, the short lifetime of the produced tau gives rise to secondary tau neutrinos that carry a significant fraction of the primary neutrino energy. This effect, known as tau neutrino regeneration, has not been applied to its full potential in current generation neutrino experiments. In this work, we present an updated calculation of tau neutrino regeneration, and explore its implications for two scenarios: the recent anomalous ANITA events and the cosmogenic neutrino flux. For the former, we investigate the idea of localized emission and find that the maximum secondary neutrino flux allowed by IceCube measurements implies a primary flux that is incompatible with the ANITA observation, regardless of the assumed source energy spectrum. For the latter, we study the prospect of detecting the cosmogenic neutrino flux of regenerated PeV neutrinos with current and next generation neutrino detectors.**Neutrino Oscillations in Dark Matter**

1909.10478 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ki-Young Choi, Eung Jin Chun, and Jongkuk Kim.

We study neutrino oscillations in a medium of dark matter which generalizes the standard matter effect. A general formula is derived to describe the effect of various mediums and their mediators to neutrinos. Neutrinos and anti-neutrinos receive opposite contributions from asymmetric distribution of (dark) matter and anti-matter, and thus it could appear in precision measurement of neutrino or anti-neutrino oscillations. Furthermore, the standard neutrino oscillation can occur from the symmetric dark matter effect even for massless neutrinos.**Reevaluating Reactor Antineutrino Anomalies with Updated Flux Predictions**

1909.09267 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jeffrey Berryman and Patrick Huber.

Hints for the existence of a sterile neutrino at nuclear reactors are reexamined using two updated predictions for the fluxes of antineutrinos produced in fissions. These new predictions diverge in their preference for the rate deficit anomaly, relative to previous analyses, but the anomaly in the ratios of measured antineutrino spectra persists. We comment on upcoming experiments and their ability to probe the preferred region of the sterile-neutrino parameter space in the electron neutrino disappearance channel.**Cosmic Ray Small-Scale Anisotropies in Quasi-Linear Theory**

1909.09052 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Philipp Mertsch and Markus Ahlers.

The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably isotropic, which is a consequence of their repeated scattering in magnetic fields. Yet, high-statistics observatories like IceCube and HAWC have revealed the presence of small-scale structures at levels of 1 part in 10,000 at hundreds of TeV, which are not expected in typical diffusion models of cosmic rays. We follow up on the suggestion that these small-scale anisotropies are a result of cosmic ray streaming in a particular realisation of the turbulent magnetic field within a few scattering lengths in our local Galactic neighbourhood. So far, this hypothesis has been investigated mostly numerically, by tracking test particles through turbulent magnetic fields. For the first time, we present an analytical computation that through a perturbative approach allows predicting the angular power spectrum of cosmic ray arrival directions for a given model of turbulence. We illustrate this method for a simple, isotropic turbulence model and we find remarkable agreement with the results of numerical studies.**Explaining the ANITA events by a $L_e-L_τ$ gauge model**

1909.07995 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Arman Esmaili and Yasaman Farzan.

The ANITA experiment has registered two anomalous events that can be interpreted as $\nu_\tau$ or $\bar{\nu}_\tau$ with a very high energy of $\mathcal{O}(0.6)$~EeV emerging from deep inside the Earth. At such high energies, the Earth is opaque to neutrinos so the emergence of these neutrinos at such large zenith angles is a mystery. In our paper, we present a model that explains the two anomalous events through a $L_e -L_\tau$ gauge interaction involving two new Weyl fermions charged under the new gauge symmetry. We find that, as a bonus of the model, the lighter Weyl fermion can be a dark matter component. We discuss how the ANITA observation can be reconciled with the IceCube and Auger upper bounds. We also demonstrate how this model can be tested in future by collider experiments.**Wolfenstein potentials for neutrinos induced by ultra-light mediators**

1909.07505 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alexei Yu. Smirnov and Xun-Jie Xu.

New physics can emerge at low energy scales, involving very light and very weakly interacting new particles. These particles can mediate interactions between neutrinos and usual matter and contribute to the Wolfenstein potential relevant for neutrino oscillations. We compute the Wolfenstein potential in the presence of ultra-light scalar and vector mediators and study the dependence of the potential on the mediator mass $m_A$, taking the finite size of matter distribution (Earth, Sun, supernovae) into consideration. For ultra-light mediators with $m_{A}^{-1}$ comparable to the size of the medium ($R$), the usual $m_{A}^{-2}$ dependence of the potential is modified. In particular, when $m_{A}^{-1}\gg R$, the potential does not depend on $m_{A}$. Taking into account existing bounds on light mediators, we find that for the scalar case significant effects on neutrino propagation are not possible, while for the vector case large matter effects are allowed for $m_{A} \in [2\times10^{-17}$, $4\times10^{-14}]$ eV and the gauge coupling $g\sim 10^{-25}$.**An improved upper limit on the neutrino mass from a direct kinematic method by KATRIN**

1909.06048 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Aker, [and 208 more]K. Altenmüller, M. Arenz, M. Babutzka, J. Barrett, S. Bauer, M. Beck, A. Beglarian, J. Behrens, T. Bergmann, U. Besserer, K. Blaum, F. Block, S. Bobien, K. Bokeloh, J. Bonn, B. Bornschein, L. Bornschein, H. Bouquet, T. Brunst, T. S. Caldwell, L. La Cascio, S. Chilingaryan, W. Choi, T. J. Corona, K. Debowski, M. Deffert, M. Descher, P. J. Doe, O. Dragoun, G. Drexlin, J. A. Dunmore, S. Dyba, F. Edzards, L. Eisenblätter, K. Eitel, E. Ellinger, R. Engel, S. Enomoto, M. Erhard, D. Eversheim, M. Fedkevych, A. Felden, S. Fischer, B. Flatt, J. A. Formaggio, F. M. Fränkle, G. B. Franklin, H. Frankrone, F. Friedel, D. Fuchs, A. Fulst, D. Furse, K. Gauda, H. Gemmeke, W. Gil, F. Glück, S. Görhardt, S. Groh, S. Grohmann, R. Grössle, R. Gumbsheimer, M. Ha Minh, M. Hackenjos, V. Hannen, F. Harms, J. Hartmann, N. Haußmann, F. Heizmann, K. Helbing, S. Hickford, D. Hilk, B. Hillen, D. Hillesheimer, D. Hinz, T. Höhn, B. Holzapfel, S. Holzmann, T. Houdy, M. A. Howe, A. Huber, A. Jansen, A. Kaboth, C. Karl, O. Kazachenko, J. Kellerer, N. Kernert, L. Kippenbrock, M. Kleesiek, M. Klein, C. Köhler, L. Köllenberger, A. Kopmann, M. Korzeczek, A. Kosmider, A. Kovalí, B. Krasch, M. Kraus, H. Krause, L. Kuckert, B. Kuffner, N. Kunka, T. Lasserre, T. L. Le, O. Lebeda, M. Leber, B. Lehnert, J. Letnev, F. Leven, S. Lichter, V. M. Lobashev, A. Lokhov, M. Machatschek, E. Malcherek, K. Müller, M. Mark, A. Marsteller, E. L. Martin, C. Melzer, A. Menshikov, S. Mertens, L. I. Minter, S. Mirz, B. Monreal, P. I. Morales Guzman, K. Müller, U. Naumann, W. Ndeke, H. Neumann, S. Niemes, M. Noe, N. S. Oblath, H. -W. Ortjohann, A. Osipowicz, B. Ostrick, E. Otten, D. S. Parno, D. G. Phillips II, P. Plischke, A. Pollithy, A. W. P. Poon, J. Pouryamout, M. Prall, F. Priester, M. Röllig, C. Röttele, P. C. -O. Ranitzsch, O. Rest, R. Rinderspacher, R. G. H. Robertson, C. Rodenbeck, P. Rohr, Ch. Roll, S. Rupp, M. Rysavy, R. Sack, A. Saenz, P. Schäfer, L. Schimpf, K. Schlösser, M. Schlösser, L. Schlüter, H. Schön, K. Schönung, M. Schrank, B. Schulz, J. Schwarz, H. Seitz-Moskaliuk, W. Seller, V. Sibille, D. Siegmann, A. Skasyrskaya, M. Slezak, A. Spalek, F. Spanier, M. Steidl, N. Steinbrink, M. Sturm, M. Suesser, M. Sun, D. Tcherniakhovski, H. H. Telle, T. Thümmler, L. A. Thorne, N. Titov, I. Tkachev, N. Trost, K. Urban, D. Venos, K. Valerius, B. A. VanDevender, R. Vianden, A. P. Vizcaya Hernandez, B. L. Wall, S. Wüstling, M. Weber, C. Weinheimer, C. Weiss, S. Welte, J. Wendel, K. J. Wierman, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wolf, W. Xu, Y. -R. Yen, M. Zacher, S. Zadorozhny, M. Zboril, and G. Zeller [hide authors].

We report on the neutrino mass measurement result from the first four-week science run of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment KATRIN in spring 2019. Beta-decay electrons from a high-purity gaseous molecular tritium source are energy analyzed by a high-resolution MAC-E filter. A fit of the integrated electron spectrum over a narrow interval around the kinematic endpoint at 18.57 keV gives an effective neutrino mass square value of $(-1.0^{+0.9}_{-1.1})$ eV$^2$. From this we derive an upper limit of 1.1 eV (90$\%$ confidence level) on the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. This value coincides with the KATRIN sensitivity. It improves upon previous mass limits from kinematic measurements by almost a factor of two and provides model-independent input to cosmological studies of structure formation.**First Constraint on Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering in Argon**

1909.05913 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by COHERENT Collaboration, [and 79 more]D. Akimov, J. B. Albert, P. An, C. Awe, P. S. Barbeau, B. Becker, V. Belov, M. A. Blackston, A. Bolozdynya, B. Cabrera-Palmer, M. Cervantes, J. I. Collar, R. L. Cooper, J. Daughhetee, M. del Valle Coello, J. A. Detwiler, M. D'Onofrio, Y. Efremenko, E. M. Erkela, S. R. Elliott, L. Fabris, M. Febbraro, W. Fox, A. Galindo-Uribarri, M. P. Green, K. S. Hansen, M. R. Heath, S. Hedges, T. Johnson, M. Kaemingk, L. J. Kaufman, A. Khromov, A. Konovalov, E. Kozlova, A. Kumpan, L. Li, J. T. Librande, J. M. Link, J. Liu, K. Mann, D. M. Markoff, H. Moreno, P. E. Mueller, J. Newby, D. S. Parno, S. Penttila, D. Pershey, D. Radford, R. Rapp, H. Ray, J. Raybern, O. Razuvaeva, D. Reyna, G. C. Rich, D. Rudik, J. Runge, D. J. Salvat, K. Scholberg, A. Shakirov, G. Simakov, G. Sinev, W. M. Snow, V. Sosnovtsev, B. Suh, R. Tayloe, K. Tellez-Giron-Flores, R. T. Thornton, I. Tolstukhin, J. Vanderwerp, R. L. Varner, C. J. Virtue, G. Visser, C. Wiseman, T. Wongjirad, J. Yang, Y. -R. Yen, J. Yoo, C. -H. Yu, and J. Zettlemoyer [hide authors].

Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) is the dominant neutrino scattering channel for neutrinos of energy $E_\nu < 100$ MeV. We report a limit for this process using data collected in an engineering run of the 29 kg CENNS-10 liquid argon detector located 27.5 m from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Hg target with $4.2\times 10^{22}$ protons on target. The dataset yielded $< 7.4$ observed CEvNS events implying a cross section for the process, averaged over the SNS pion decay-at-rest flux, of $<3.4 \times 10^{-39}$ cm$^{2}$, a limit within twice the Standard Model prediction. This is the first limit on CEvNS from an argon nucleus and confirms the earlier CsI non-standard neutrino interaction constraints from the collaboration. This run demonstrated the feasibility of the ongoing experimental effort to detect CEvNS with liquid argon.**Probe Of Sterile Neutrinos Using Astrophysical Neutrino Flavor**

1909.05341 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Carlos A. Argüelles, [and 5 more]Kareem Farrag, Teppei Katori, Rishabh Khandelwal, Shivesh Mandalia, and Jordi Salvado [hide authors].

In this paper, we study the effect of active-neutrino-sterile-neutrino mixing in the expected high-energy astrophysical neutrino flavor content. Non-unitarity in the measurement of the three active neutrinos can be due to the existence of sterile neutrino states. We introduce the concept of the four-flavor tetrahedron in order to visualize the lack of unitarity in the astrophysical neutrino three-flavor triangle. We demonstrate that active-sterile neutrino mixings modify the allowed region of the astrophysical flavor ratio from the standard case. However, a projection of the four-flavor tetrahedron has restrictions of phase space similar to the three-flavor triangle. On the other hand, the initial presence of astrophysical sterile neutrinos drastically changes the scenario, and it allows an apparent unitarity violation in the three-flavor triangle space. Using current global fit constraints including the non-unitarity case, we also illustrate the allowed astrophysical neutrino flavor ratios. Thus, the measurement of the high-energy astrophyscal neutrino flavor content allows us to explore sterile neutrinos independently of the sterile neutrino mass scale. These are topics of investigation for current and future neutrino telescopes.**Astrophysical Tau Neutrino Identification with IceCube Waveforms**

1909.05162 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Logan Wille and Donglian Xu.

The standard neutrino oscillation paradigm predicts almost equal fractions of astrophysical neutrino flavors at Earth regardless of their production ratio at the sources. Therefore, identification of astrophysical tau neutrinos could not only reconfirm the astrophysical neutrino flux measured by IceCube, but also is essential in precisely determining the astrophysical neutrino flavor ratio at Earth, which is an important probe for physics beyond the Standard Model over astronomical baselines. A tau neutrino undergoing a charged current (CC) interaction in IceCube could produce a double deposition of energy, with the first one from the CC hadronic shower and the second from the subsequent tau lepton decay shower. Above an energy of ~100 TeV, such consecutive energy depositions might be resolvable in the sensor waveforms and hence can be a signature of an individual tau neutrino interaction in IceCube. We will present the results of a search for astrophysical tau neutrinos in IceCube waveforms with improved double pulse waveform identification techniques and using 8 years of data.**Search for Astrophysical Tau Neutrinos with an Improved Double Pulse Method**

1909.05127 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Maximilian Meier and Jan Soedingrekso.

Tau neutrino identification with the IceCube experiment would open new windows to neutrino physics as well as enable novel searches for cosmic neutrino sources. This work aims at a identification of tau neutrinos with astrophysical origin at energies above 100TeV. For identification, we search for a double pulse structure in the signal of one of IceCubes Digital Optical Modules originating from a tau neutrino interaction and a subsequent tau decay within the detector. In this work, we present constraints on the tau neutrino flux based on an event sample with a livetime of about 7.5 years of IceCube data.**Light neutrino masses from gravitational condensation: the Schwinger-Dyson approach**

1909.04675 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Gabriela Barenboim, Jessica Turner, and Ye-Ling Zhou.

In this work we demonstrate that non-zero neutrino masses can be generated from gravitational interactions. We solve the Schwinger-Dyson equations to find a non-trivial vacuum thereby determining the scale of the neutrino condensate and the number of new particle degrees of freedom required for gravitationally induced dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. We show for minimal beyond the Standard Model particle content, the scale of the condensation occurs close to the Planck scale.**The Overarching Framework of Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions as Revealed by 3D Fornax Simulations**

1909.04152 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Adam Burrows, [and 5 more]David Radice, David Vartanyan, Hiroki Nagakura, M. Aaron Skinner, and Joshua Dolence [hide authors].

We have conducted nineteen state-of-the-art 3D core-collapse supernova simulations spanning a broad range of progenitor masses. This is the largest collection of sophisticated 3D supernova simulations ever performed. We have found that while the majority of these models explode, not all do, and that even models in the middle of the available progenitor mass range may be less explodable. This does not mean that those models for which we did not witness explosion would not explode in Nature, but that they are less prone to explosion than others. One consequence is that the "compactness" measure is not a metric for explodability. We find that lower-mass massive star progenitors likely experience lower-energy explosions, while the higher-mass massive stars likely experience higher-energy explosions. Moreover, most 3D explosions have a dominant dipole morphology, have a pinched, wasp-waist structure, and experience simultaneous accretion and explosion. We reproduce the general range of residual neutron-star masses inferred for the galactic neutron-star population. The most massive progenitor models, however, in particular vis \`a vis explosion energy, need to be continued for longer physical times to asymptote to their final states. We find that while the majority of the inner ejecta have Y$_e = 0.5$, there is a substantial proton-rich tail. This result has important implications for the nucleosynthetic yields as a function of progenitor. Finally, we find that the non-exploding models eventually evolve into compact inner configurations that experience a quasi-periodic spiral SASI mode. We otherwise see little evidence of the SASI in the exploding models.**Triangulation Pointing to Core-Collapse Supernovae with Next-Generation Neutrino Detectors**

1909.03151 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by N. B. Linzer and K. Scholberg.

A core-collapse supernova releases the vast majority of the gravitational binding energy of its compact remnant in the form of neutrinos over an interval of a few tens of seconds. In the event of a core-collapse supernova within our galaxy, multiple current and future neutrino detectors would see a large burst in activity. Neutrinos escape a supernova hours before light does, so any prompt information about the supernova's direction that can be inferred via the neutrino signal will help to enable early electromagnetic observations of the supernova. While there are methods to determine the direction via intrinsic directionality of some neutrino-matter interaction channels, a complementary method which will reach maturity with the next generation of large neutrino detectors is the use of relative neutrino arrival times at different detectors around the globe. To evaluate this triangulation method for realistic detector configurations of the next few decades, we generate random supernova neutrino signals with realistic detector assumptions, and quantify the error in expected time delay between detections. We investigate a practical and robust method of estimating the time differences between burst detections, also correcting for detection efficiency bias. With this method, we determine the pointing precision of supernova neutrino triangulation as a function of supernova distance and location, detectors used, detector background level and neutrino mass ordering assumption. Under favorable conditions, the 1$\sigma$ supernova search area from triangulation could be reduced to a few percent of the sky. It should be possible to implement this method with low latency under realistic conditions.**Search for low-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources with Borexino**

1909.02422 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Agostini, [and 103 more]K. Altenmüller, S. Appel, V. Atroshchenko, Z. Bagdasarian, D. Basilico, G. Bellini, J. Benziger, D. Bick, G. Bonfini, D. Bravo, B. Caccianiga, F. Calaprice, A. Caminata, L. Cappelli, P. Cavalcante, F. Cavanna, A. Chepurnov, K. Choi, D. D'Angelo, S. Davini, A. Derbin, A. Di Giacinto, V. Di Marcello, X. F. Ding, A. Di Ludovico, L. Di Noto, I. Drachnev, A. Formozov, D. Franco, F. Gabriele, C. Galbiati, M. Gschwender, C. Ghiano, M. Giammarchi, A. Goretti, M. Gromov, D. Guffanti, C. Hagner, E. Hungerford, Aldo Ianni, Andrea Ianni, A. Jany, D. Jeschke, S. Kumaran, V. Kobychev, G. Korga, T. Lachenmaier, M. Laubenstein, E. Litvinovich, P. Lombardi, I. Lomskaya, L. Ludhova, G. Lukyanchenko, L. Lukyanchenko, I. Machulin, G. Manuzio, S. Marcocci, J. Maricic, J. Martyn, E. Meroni, M. Meyer, L. Miramonti, M. Misiaszek, V. Muratova, B. Neumair, M. Nieslony, L. Oberauer, V. Orekhov, F. Ortica, M. Pallavicini, L. Papp, Ö. Penek, L. Pietrofaccia, N. Pilipenko, A. Pocar, G. Raikov, M. T. Ranalli, G. Ranucci, A. Razeto, A. Re, M. Redchuk, A. Romani, N. Rossi, S. Rottenanger, S. Schönert, D. Semenov, M. Skorokhvatov, O. Smirnov, A. Sotnikov, Y. Suvorov, R. Tartaglia, G. Testera, J. Thurn, E. Unzhakov, A. Vishneva, R. B. Vogelaar, F. von Feilitzsch, M. Wojcik, M. Wurm, O. Zaimidoroga, S. Zavatarelli, K. Zuber, and G. Zuzel [hide authors].

We report on searches for neutrinos and antineutrinos from astrophysical sources performed with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. Electron antineutrinos ($\bar{\nu}_e$) are detected in an organic liquid scintillator through the inverse $\beta$-decay reaction. In the present work we set model-independent upper limits in the energy range 1.8-16.8 MeV on neutrino fluxes from unknown sources that improve our previous results, on average, by a factor 2.5. Using the same data set, we first obtain experimental constraints on the diffuse supernova $\bar{\nu}_e$ fluxes in the previously unexplored region below 8 MeV. A search for $\bar{\nu}_e$ in the solar neutrino flux is also presented: the presence of $\bar{\nu}_e$ would be a manifestation of a non-zero anomalous magnetic moment of the neutrino, making possible its conversion to antineutrinos in the strong magnetic field of the Sun. We obtain a limit for a solar $\bar{\nu}_e$ flux of 384 cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ (90% C.L.), assuming an undistorted solar $^{8}$B neutrinos energy spectrum, that corresponds to a transition probability $p_{ \nu_e \rightarrow \bar\nu_{e}}<$ 7.2$\times$10$^{-5}$ (90% C.L.) for E$_{\bar {\nu}_e}$ $>$ 1.8 MeV. At lower energies, by investigating the spectral shape of elastic scattering events, we obtain a new limit on solar $^{7}$Be-$\nu_e$ conversion into $\bar{\nu}_e$ of $p_{ \nu_e \rightarrow \bar \nu_{e}}<$ 0.14 (90% C.L.) at 0.862 keV. Last, we investigate solar flares as possible neutrino sources and obtain the strongest up-to-date limits on the fluence of neutrinos of all flavor neutrino below 3-7 ,MeV. Assuming the neutrino flux to be proportional to the flare's intensity, we exclude an intense solar flare as the cause of the observed excess of events in run 117 of the Cl-Ar Homestake experiment.**Propagation of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the magnetized cosmic web**

1909.02189 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jihyun Kim, [and 4 more]Dongsu Ryu, Soonyoung Roh, Jihoon Ha, and Hyesung Kang [hide authors].

A high concentration of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) events, called a hotspot, was reported by the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, but its origin still remains unsolved. One of the obstacles is that there is no astronomical object, which could be the source, behind the TA hotpot. In an effort to understand the origin of the TA hotspot, we suggested a model based on the magnetized cosmic web structure. The UHECRs were produced from sources in the Virgo cluster and were initially confined by cluster magnetic fields for a certain period. Next, some of them preferentially escaped to and propagated along filaments. Eventually, they were scattered by filament magnetic fields, and come to us. To examine the model, we followed the propagation trajectories of UHE protons in a simulated universe with clusters, filaments, and voids, by employing a number of models for cosmic magnetic fields. In this study, we present some of the initial results, such as the ratio between the particles directly escaping from the clusters to the voids and particles escaping from the clusters to the filaments. We also discuss the feasibility of our model for the origin of the hotspot by examining the trajectories of the UHE protons.**Seasonal Variation of Atmospheric Neutrinos in IceCube**

1909.02036 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Patrick Heix, [and 3 more]Serap Tilav, Christopher Wiebusch, and Marit Zöcklein [hide authors].

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory detects atmospheric muon neutrinos above 100 GeV at a rate of about 100 000 per year. These neutrinos originate from decays of charged pions and kaons in cosmic ray air showers. Their flux depends on the probability of production and decay of the parent mesons, and is thus sensitive to the stratospheric temperature. Neutrino rates from 8 years of operation of the detector are correlated with the atmospheric temperature profile as measured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). An analysis of this correlation provides a test of models of hadronic interactions in atmospheric air showers. This analysis of neutrinos complements the analysis of the correlation of atmospheric muons with temperature that is presented in another paper at this conference.**Fibonacci Fast Convergence for Neutrino Oscillations in Matter**

1909.02009 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton, Stephen J. Parke, and Xining Zhang.

Understanding neutrino oscillations in matter requires a non-trivial diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. As the exact solution is very complicated, many approximation schemes have been pursued. Here we show that one scheme, systematically applying rotations to change to a better basis, converges exponentially fast wherein the rate of convergence follows the Fibonacci sequence. We find that the convergence rate of this procedure depends very sensitively on the initial choices of the rotations as well as the mechanism of selecting the pivots. We then apply this scheme for neutrino oscillations in matter and discover that the optimal convergence rate is found using the following simple strategy: first apply the vacuum (2-3) rotation and then use the largest off-diagonal element as the pivot for each of the following rotations. The Fibonacci convergence rate presented here may be extendable to systems beyond neutrino oscillations.**Tau lepton asymmetry by sterile neutrino emission -- Moving beyond one-zone supernova models**

1908.11382 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Anna M. Suliga, Irene Tamborra, and Meng-Ru Wu.

The mixing of active neutrinos with their sterile counterparts with keV mass is known to have a potentially major impact on the energy loss from the supernova core. By relying on a set of three static hydrodynamical backgrounds mimicking the early accretion phase and the Kelvin-Helmoltz cooling phase of a supernova, we develop the first self-consistent, radial- and time-dependent treatment of sterile and tau neutrinos mixing in the dense stellar core. We follow the flavor evolution by including ordinary matter effects, collisional production of sterile neutrinos, as well as reconversions of sterile states into active ones. The dynamical feedback of the sterile neutrino production on the matter background leads to the development of a tau lepton asymmetry that grows in time until it reaches a value larger than 0.15. Our results hint towards significant implications for the supernova physics, and call for a self-consistent modeling of the sterile neutrino transport in the supernova core to constrain the mixing parameters of sterile neutrinos.**Measurement of the Diffuse Astrophysical Muon-Neutrino Spectrum with Ten Years of IceCube Data**

1908.09551 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joeran Stettner.

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory measured a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos in several detection channels. The energy spectrum is fitted as unbroken power-law, but different best-fit parameters were obtained in the various analyses covering different energy ranges between few TeV to 10 PeV. Here, we present an update to the analysis of through-going muon-neutrinos from the Northern Hemisphere. It was extended to almost ten years of data and an improved treatment of systematic uncertainties on the atmospheric fluxes was implemented. The updated best-fit parameters for the astrophysical flux assuming a power-law energy spectrum are $\Phi_{astro}=1.44$ and $\gamma_{astro}=2.28$. We will present the results of the spectral fit and discuss how the measured flux compares to other IceCube results.**Neutrino Fluence from Gamma-Ray Bursts: Off-Axis View of Structured Jets**

1908.06953 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Markus Ahlers and Lea Halser.

We investigate the expected high-energy neutrino fluence from internal shocks produced in the relativistic outflow of gamma-ray bursts. Previous model predictions have primarily focussed on on-axis observations of uniform jets. Here we present a generalization to account for arbitrary viewing angles and jet structures. Based on this formalism, we provide an improved scaling relation that expresses off-axis neutrino fluences in terms of on-axis model predictions. We also find that the neutrino fluence from structured jets can exhibit a strong angular dependence relative to that of gamma-rays and can be far more extended. We examine this behavior in detail for the recent short gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A observed in coincidence with the gravitational wave event GW170817.**First Double Cascade Tau Neutrino Candidates in IceCube and a New Measurement of the Flavor Composition**

1908.05506 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Juliana Stachurska.

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole, which detects Cherenkov light from charged particles produced in neutrino interactions, firmly established the existence of an astrophysical high-energy neutrino component. The expected neutrino flavor composition on Earth is $\nu_e:\nu_{\mu}:\nu_{\tau}$ of about 1:1:1 for neutrinos produced in astrophysical sources through pion decay. A measurement of the flavor composition on Earth can provide important constraints on sources and production mechanisms within the standard model, and can also constrain various beyond-standard-model processes. Here the measurement of the flavor composition performed on IceCube's High-Energy Starting Events sample with a livetime of about 7.5 years is presented. IceCube is directly sensitive to each neutrino flavor via the single cascade, track and double cascade event topologies. In IceCube, $\nu_{\tau}$-CC interactions above $\sim$ 100 TeV can produce resolvable double cascades, breaking the degeneracy between $\nu_e$ and $\nu_{\tau}$ present at lower energies. IceCube's first two identified double cascades are presented and the properties of the two $\nu_{\tau}$ candidates are discussed.**A Catalog of Astrophysical Neutrino Candidates for IceCube**

1908.05290 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Chujie Chen and Charles Cardot.

Multi-messenger astrophysics will enable the discovery of new astrophysical neutrino sources and provide information about the mechanisms that drive these objects. We present a curated online catalog of astrophysical neutrino candidates. Whenever single high energy neutrino events, that are publicly available, get published multiple times from various analyses, the catalog records all these changes and highlights the best information. All studies by IceCube that produce astrophysical candidates will be included in our catalog. All information produced by these searches such as time, type, direction, neutrino energy and signalness will be contained in the catalog. The multi-messenger astrophysical community will be able to select neutrinos with certain characteristics, e.g. within a declination range, visualize data for the selected neutrinos, and finally download data in their preferred form to conduct further studies.**Eigenvectors from Eigenvalues: a survey of a basic identity in linear algebra**

1908.03795 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton, [and 3 more]Stephen J. Parke, Terence Tao, and Xining Zhang [hide authors].

If $A$ is an $n \times n$ Hermitian matrix with eigenvalues $\lambda_1(A),\dots,\lambda_n(A)$ and $i,j = 1,\dots,n$, then the $j^{\mathrm{th}}$ component $v_{i,j}$ of a unit eigenvector $v_i$ associated to the eigenvalue $\lambda_i(A)$ is related to the eigenvalues $\lambda_1(M_j),\dots,\lambda_{n-1}(M_j)$ of the minor $M_j$ of $A$ formed by removing the $j^{\mathrm{th}}$ row and column by the formula $$ |v_{i,j}|^2\prod_{k=1;k\neq i}^{n}\left(\lambda_i(A)-\lambda_k(A)\right)=\prod_{k=1}^{n-1}\left(\lambda_i(A)-\lambda_k(M_j)\right)\,.$$ We refer to this identity as the \emph{eigenvector-eigenvalue identity}. Despite the simple nature of this identity and the extremely mature state of development of linear algebra, this identity was not widely known until very recently. In this survey we describe the many times that this identity, or variants thereof, have been discovered and rediscovered in the literature (with the earliest precursor we know of appearing in 1834). We also provide a number of proofs and generalizations of the identity.**Detecting and Studying High-Energy Collider Neutrinos with FASER at the LHC**

1908.02310 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by FASER Collaboration, [and 47 more]Henso Abreu, Claire Antel, Akitaka Ariga, Tomoko Ariga, Jamie Boyd, Franck Cadoux, David W. Casper, Xin Chen, Andrea Coccaro, Candan Dozen, Peter B. Denton, Yannick Favre, Jonathan L. Feng, Didier Ferrere, Iftah Galon, Stephen Gibson, Sergio Gonzalez-Sevilla, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Zhen Hu, Giuseppe Iacobucci, Sune Jakobsen, Roland Jansky, Enrique Kajomovitz, Felix Kling, Susanne Kuehn, Lorne Levinson, Congqiao Li, 1 Josh McFayden, Sam Meehan, Friedemann Neuhaus, Hidetoshi Otono, Brian Petersen, Helena Pikhartova, Michaela Queitsch-Maitland, Osamu Sato, Kristof Schmieden, Matthias Schott, Anna Sfyrla, Savannah Shively, Jordan Smolinsky, Aaron M. Soffa, Yosuke Takubo, Eric Torrence, Sebastian Trojanowski, Callum Wilkinson, Dengfeng Zhang, and Gang Zhang [hide authors].

Neutrinos are copiously produced at particle colliders, but no collider neutrino has ever been detected. Colliders, and particularly hadron colliders, produce both neutrinos and anti-neutrinos of all flavors at very high energies, and they are therefore highly complementary to those from other sources. FASER, the recently approved Forward Search Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, is ideally located to provide the first detection and study of collider neutrinos. We investigate the prospects for neutrino studies of a proposed component of FASER, FASER$\nu$, a 25cm x 25cm x 1.35m emulsion detector to be placed directly in front of the FASER spectrometer in tunnel TI12. FASER$\nu$ consists of 1000 layers of emulsion films interleaved with 1-mm-thick tungsten plates, with a total tungsten target mass of 1.2 tons. We estimate the neutrino fluxes and interaction rates at FASER$\nu$, describe the FASER$\nu$ detector, and analyze the characteristics of the signals and primary backgrounds. For an integrated luminosity of 150 fb$^{-1}$ to be collected during Run 3 of the 14 TeV Large Hadron Collider from 2021-23, and assuming standard model cross sections, approximately 1300 electron neutrinos, 20,000 muon neutrinos, and 20 tau neutrinos will interact in FASER$\nu$, with mean energies of 600 GeV to 1 TeV, depending on the flavor. With such rates and energies, FASER will measure neutrino cross sections at energies where they are currently unconstrained, will bound models of forward particle production, and could open a new window on physics beyond the standard model.**Neutrino counting experiments and non-unitarity from LEP and future experiments**

1907.12675 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by F. J. Escrihuela, L. J. Flores, and O. G. Miranda.

Non-unitarity of the neutrino mixing matrix is expected in many scenarios with physics beyond the Standard Model. Motivated by the search for deviations from unitary, we study two neutrino counting observables: the neutrino-antineutrino gamma process and the invisible $Z$ boson decay into neutrinos. We report on new constraints for non-unitarity coming from the first of this observables. We study the potential constraints that future collider experiments will give from the invisible decay of the Z boson, that will be measured with improved precision.**Updated results on neutrino mass and mass hierarchy from cosmology with Planck 2018 likelihoods**

1907.12598 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shouvik Roy Choudhury and Steen Hannestad.

In this work we update the bounds on $\sum m_{\nu}$ from latest publicly available cosmological data and likelihoods using Bayesian analysis, while explicitly considering particular neutrino mass hierarchies. In the minimal $\Lambda\textrm{CDM}+\sum m_{\nu}$ model with most recent CMB data from Planck 2018 TT,TE,EE, lowE, and lensing; and BAO data from BOSS DR12, MGS, and 6dFGS, we find that at 95\% C.L. the bounds are: $\sum m_{\nu}<0.12$ eV (degenerate), $\sum m_{\nu}<0.15$ eV (normal), $\sum m_{\nu}<0.17$ eV (inverted). The bounds vary across the different mass orderings due to different priors on $\sum m_{\nu}$. Also, we find that the normal hierarchy is very mildly preferred relative to the inverted, using both minimum $\chi^2$ values and Bayesian Evidence ratios. In this paper we also provide bounds on $\sum m_{\nu}$ considering different hierarchies in various extended cosmological models: $\Lambda\textrm{CDM}+\sum m_{\nu}+r$, $w\textrm{CDM}+\sum m_{\nu}$, $w_0 w_a \textrm{CDM}+\sum m_{\nu}$, $w_0 w_a \textrm{CDM}+\sum m_{\nu}$ with $w(z)\geq -1$, $\Lambda \textrm{CDM} + \sum m_{\nu} + \Omega_k$, and $\Lambda \textrm{CDM} + \sum m_{\nu} + A_{\textrm{Lens}}$. We do not find any strong evidence of normal hierarchy over inverted hierarchy in the extended models either.**Non-Standard Interactions in Radiative Neutrino Mass Models**

1907.09498 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by K. S. Babu, [and 3 more]P. S. Bhupal Dev, Sudip Jana, and Anil Thapa [hide authors].

Models of radiative Majorana neutrino masses require new scalars and/or fermions to induce lepton number violating interactions. We show that these new particles also generate observable neutrino nonstandard interactions (NSI) with matter. We classify radiative models as type-I or II, with type-I models containing at least one Standard Model (SM) particle inside the loop diagram generating neutrino mass, and type-II models having no SM particle inside the loop. While type-II radiative models do not generate tree-level NSI, popular models which fall under the type-I category are shown, somewhat surprisingly, to generate observable NSI at tree-level, while being consistent with direct and indirect constraints from colliders, electroweak precision data and charged-lepton flavor violation (cLFV). We survey such models where neutrino masses arise at one, two and three loops. In the prototypical Zee model which generates neutrino masses via one-loop diagrams involving charged scalars, we find that diagonal NSI can be as large as ($8\%, 3.8\%, 9.3\%$) for ($\varepsilon_{ee},\varepsilon_{\mu \mu}, \varepsilon_{\tau \tau}$), while off-diagonal NSI can be at most ($10^{-3}\%, 0.56\%, 0.34\%$) for ($\varepsilon_{e\mu},\varepsilon_{e \tau}, \varepsilon_{\mu \tau}$). In one-loop neutrino mass models using leptoquarks (LQs), $(\varepsilon_{\mu\mu},\, \varepsilon_{\tau\tau})$ can be as large as $(21.6\%,\,51.7\%)$, while $\varepsilon_{ee}$ and $(\varepsilon_{e\mu},\, \varepsilon_{e\tau},\,\varepsilon_{\mu\tau})$ can at most be 0.6\%. The most stringent constraints on the diagonal NSI are found to come from neutrino oscillation and scattering experiments, while the off-diagonal NSI are mostly constrained by low-energy processes, such as atomic parity violation and cLFV. While our analysis is focused on radiative neutrino mass models, it essentially covers all NSI possibilities with heavy mediators.**Death and Serious Injury by Dark Matter**

1907.06674 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jagjit Singh Sidhu, Robert J Scherrer, and Glenn Starkman.

Macroscopic dark matter refers to a variety of dark matter candidates that would be expected to (elastically) scatter off of ordinary matter with a large geometric cross-section. A wide range of macro masses $M_X$ and cross-sections $\sigma_X$ remain unprobed. We show that over a wide region within the unexplored parameter space, collisions of a macro with a human body would result in serious injury or death. We use the absence of such unexplained impacts with a well-monitored subset of the human population to exclude a region bounded by $\sigma_X \geq 10^{-8} - 10^{-7}$ cm$^2$ and $M_X < 50$ kg. Our results open a new window on dark matter: the human body as a dark matter detector.**An extensive-air-shower-like event registered with the TUS orbital detector**

1907.06028 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by B. A. Khrenov, [and 19 more]G. K. Garipov, M. A. Kaznacheeva, P. A. Klimov, M. I. Panasyuk, V. L. Petrov, S. A. Sharakin, A. V. Shirokov, I. V. Yashin, M. Yu. Zotov, A. A. Grinyuk, V. M. Grebenyuk, M. V. Lavrova, L. G. Tkachev, A. V. Tkachenko, O. A. Saprykin, A. A. Botvinko, A. N. Senkovsky, A. E. Puchkov, and M. Bertaina [hide authors].

TUS (Tracking Ultraviolet Set-up) is the world's first orbital detector of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). It was launched into orbit on 28th April 2016 as a part of the scientific payload of the Lomonosov satellite. The main aim of the mission was to test the technique of measuring the ultraviolet fluorescence and Cherenkov radiation of extensive air showers generated by primary cosmic rays with energies above ~100 EeV in the Earth atmosphere from space. During its operation for 1.5 years, TUS registered almost 80,000 events with a few of them satisfying conditions anticipated for extensive air showers (EASs) initiated by UHECRs. Here we discuss an event registered on 3rd October 2016. The event was measured in perfect observation conditions as an ultraviolet track in the nocturnal atmosphere of the Earth, with the kinematics and the light curve similar to those expected from an EAS. A reconstruction of parameters of a primary particle gave the zenith angle around 44$^\circ$ but an extreme energy not compatible with the cosmic ray energy spectrum obtained with ground-based experiments. We discuss in details all conditions of registering the event, explain the reconstruction procedure and its limitations and comment on possible sources of the signal, both of anthropogenic and astrophysical origin. We believe this detection represents a significant milestone in the space-based observation of UHECRs because it proves the capability of an orbital telescope to detect light signals with the apparent motion and light shape similar to what are expected from EASs. This is important for the on-going development of the future missions KLYPVE-EUSO and POEMMA, aimed for studying UHECRs from space.**Cosmological Constraints on Invisible Neutrino Decays Revisited**

1907.05425 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Miguel Escudero and Malcolm Fairbairn.

Invisible neutrino decay modes are difficult to target at laboratory experiments, and current bounds on such decays from solar neutrino and neutrino oscillation experiments are somewhat weak. It has been known for some time that Cosmology can serve as a powerful probe of invisible neutrino decays. In this work, we show that in order for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis to be successful, the invisible neutrino decay lifetime is bounded to be $\tau_\nu > 10^{-3}\,\text{s}$ at 95\% CL. We revisit Cosmic Microwave Background constraints on invisible neutrino decays, and by using Planck2018 observations we find the following bound on the neutrino lifetime: $\tau_\nu > (1.3-0.3)\times 10^{9}\,\text{s} \, \left({m_\nu}/{ 0.05\,\text{eV} }\right)^3$ at $95\%$ CL. We show that this bound is robust to modifications of the cosmological model, in particular that it is independent of the presence of dark radiation. We find that lifetimes relevant for Supernova observations ($\tau_\nu \sim 10^{5}\,\text{s}\, \left({m_\nu}/{ 0.05\,\text{eV} }\right)^3$) are disfavoured at more than $5\,\sigma$ with respect to $\Lambda$CDM given the latest Planck CMB observations. Finally, we show that when including high-$\ell$ Planck polarization data, neutrino lifetimes $\tau_\nu = (2-16)\times 10^{9}\,\text{s} \, \left({m_\nu}/{ 0.05\,\text{eV} }\right)^3$ are mildly preferred -- with a 1-2 $\sigma$ significance -- over neutrinos being stable.**Ultra-light scalar saving the 3+1 neutrino scheme from the cosmological bounds**

1907.04271 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Yasaman Farzan.

The LSND and MiniBooNE results as well as the reactor and Gallium anomalies seem to indicate the presence of a sterile neutrino with a mass of $\sim 1$ eV mixed with active neutrinos. Such sterile neutrino can be produced in the early universe before the neutrino decoupling, leading to a contribution to the effective number of neutrinos ($N_{eff}$) as well as to a contribution to the sum of neutrino masses which are in tension with cosmological observations. We propose a scenario to relax this tension by a Yukawa coupling of the sterile neutrinos to ultra-light scalar particles which contribute to the dark matter in the background. The coupling induces an effective mass for $\nu_s$ which prevents its production in the early universe. We discuss the implications for the upcoming KATRIN experiment and future relic neutrino search experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also briefly comment on certain non-renormalizable forms of interaction between $\nu_s$ and the scalar and their consequences for the $\nu_s$ production in the early universe.**Bounds on Cosmic Ray-Boosted Dark Matter in Simplified Models and its Corresponding Neutrino-Floor**

1907.03782 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by James B. Dent, [and 3 more]Bhaskar Dutta, Jayden L. Newstead, and Ian M. Shoemaker [hide authors].

We study direct detection bounds on cosmic ray-upscattered dark matter in simplified models including light mediators. We find that the energy dependence in the scattering cross section is significant, and produces stronger bounds than previously found (which assumed constant cross sections) by many orders of magnitude at low DM mass. Finally, we compute the "neutrino-floor" that will limit future direct detection searches for cosmic ray-upscattered dark matter. While we focus on vector interactions for illustration, we emphasize that the energy dependence is critical in determining accurate bounds on any particle physics model of Dark Matter-CR interactions from experimental data on this scenario.**Theory of elastic neutrino-electron scattering**

1907.03379 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Oleksandr Tomalak and Richard J Hill.

Theoretical predictions for elastic neutrino-electron scattering have no hadronic or nuclear uncertainties at leading order making this process an important tool for normalizing neutrino flux. However, the process is subject to large radiative corrections that differ according to experimental conditions. In this paper, we collect new and existing results for total and differential cross sections accompanied by radiation of one photon, $\nu e \to \nu e (\gamma)$. We perform calculations within the Fermi effective theory and provide analytic expressions for the electron energy spectrum and for the total electromagnetic energy spectrum as well as for double- and triple-differential cross sections with respect to electron energy, electron angle, photon energy, and photon angle. We discuss illustrative applications to accelerator-based neutrino experiments and provide the most precise up-to-date values of neutrino-electron scattering cross sections. We present an analysis of theoretical error, which is dominated by the $\sim 0.2 - 0.4\%$ uncertainty of the hadronic correction. We also discuss how searches for new physics can be affected by radiative corrections.**Potentialities of a low-energy detector based on $^4$He evaporation to observe atomic effects in coherent neutrino scattering and physics perspectives**

1907.03302 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by M. Cadeddu, [and 5 more]F. Dordei, C. Giunti, K. A. Kouzakov, E. Picciau, and A. I. Studenikin [hide authors].

We propose an experimental setup to observe coherent elastic neutrino-atom scattering (CE$\nu$AS) using electron antineutrinos from tritium decay and a liquid helium target. In this scattering process with the whole atom, that has not beeen observed so far, the electrons tend to screen the weak charge of the nucleus as seen by the electron antineutrino probe. The interference between the nucleus and the electron cloud produces a sharp dip in the recoil spectrum at atomic recoil energies of about 9 meV, reducing sizeably the number of expected events with respect to the coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering case. We estimate that with a 60 g tritium source surrounded by 500 kg of liquid helium in a cylindrical tank, one could observe the existence of CE$\nu$AS processes at 3$\sigma$ in 5 years of data taking. Keeping the same amount of helium and the same data-taking period, we test the sensitivity to the Weinberg angle and a possible neutrino magnetic moment for three different scenarios: 60 g, 160 g, and 500 g of tritium. In the latter scenario, the Standard Model (SM) value of the Weinberg angle can be measured with a statistical uncertainty of $\sin^2{\vartheta_W^{\mathrm{SM}}}^{+0.015}_{-0.016}$. This would represent the lowest-energy measurement of $\sin^2{\vartheta_W}$, with the advantage of being not affected by the uncertainties on the neutron form factor of the nucleus as the current lowest-energy determination. Finally, we study the sensitivity of this apparatus to a possible electron neutrino magnetic moment and we find that using 60 g of tritium it is possible to set an upper limit of about $7\times10^{-13}\,\mu_B$ at 90% C.L., that is more than one order of magnitude smaller than the current experimental limit.**Search for transient variations of the fine structure constant and dark matter using fiber-linked optical atomic clocks**

1907.02661 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by B. M. Roberts, [and 53 more]P. Delva, A. Al-Masoudi, A. Amy-Klein, C. Bærentsen, C. F. A. Baynham, E. Benkler, S. Bilicki, S. Bize, W. Bowden, J. Calvert, V. Cambier, E. Cantin, E. A. Curtis, S. Dörscher, M. Favier, F. Frank, P. Gill, R. M. Godun, G. Grosche, C. Guo, A. Hees, I. R. Hill, R. Hobson, N. Huntemann, J. Kronjäger, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, R. Lange, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, C. Lisdat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, H. S. Margolis, H. Álvarez-Martínez, F. Meynadier, F. Ozimek, E. Peik, P. -E. Pottie, N. Quintin, C. Sanner, L. De Sarlo, M. Schioppo, R. Schwarz, A. Silva, U. Sterr, Chr. Tamm, R. Le Targat, P. Tuckey, G. Vallet, T. Waterholter, D. Xu, and P. Wolf [hide authors].

We search for transient variations of the fine structure constant using data from a European network of fiber-linked optical atomic clocks. By searching for coherent variations in the recorded clock frequency comparisons across the network, we significantly improve the constraints on transient variations of the fine structure constant. For example, we constrain the variation in alpha to <5*10^-17 for transients of duration 10^3 s. This analysis also presents a possibility to search for dark matter, the mysterious substance hypothesised to explain galaxy dynamics and other astrophysical phenomena that is thought to dominate the matter density of the universe. At the current sensitivity level, we find no evidence for dark matter in the form of topological defects (or, more generally, any macroscopic objects), and we thus place constraints on certain potential couplings between the dark matter and standard model particles, substantially improving upon the existing constraints, particularly for large (>~10^4 km) objects.**Eigenvalues: the Rosetta Stone for Neutrino Oscillations in Matter**

1907.02534 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Peter B. Denton, Stephen J. Parke, and Xining Zhang.

We present a new method of exactly calculating neutrino oscillation probabilities in matter. We leverage the "eigenvector-eigenvalue identity" to show that, given the eigenvalues, all mixing angles in matter follow surprisingly simply. The CP violating phase in matter can then be determined from the Toshev identity. Then, to avoid the cumbersome expressions for the exact eigenvalues, we have applied previously derived perturbative, approximate eigenvalues to this scheme and discovered them to be even more precise than previously realized. We also find that these eigenvalues converge at a rate of five orders of magnitude per perturbative order which is the square of the previously realized expectation. Finally, we provide an updated speed versus accuracy plot for oscillation probabilities in matter, to include the methods of this paper.**Neutrino oscillations at dual baselines**

1907.01185 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Minseok Cho, [and 4 more]YeolLin ChoeJo, Hye-Sung Lee, Young-Min Lee, and Sushant K. Raut [hide authors].

Beam neutrino oscillation experiments typically employ only one detector at a certain baseline, apart from the near detector that measures the unoscillated neutrino flux at the source. Lately, there have been discussions of having detectors at two different baselines in one of the future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We study the potential advantage of a general dual-baseline system and perform analysis with a specific example of the envisioned T2HKK experiment. We introduce a new parameter to exploit the correlation between the oscillations at both baselines, and show how it can help in determining the mass hierarchy and the CP phase in the neutrino sector. Our study and findings can be generically used for any dual-baseline system.**Probing Non-Standard Neutrino Interactions with Supernova Neutrinos at Hyper-K**

1907.01059 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Minjie Lei, Noah Steinberg, and James D. Wells.

Non-standard neutrino self interactions (NSSI) could be stronger than Fermi interactions. We investigate the ability to constrain these four-neutrino interactions by their effect on the flux of neutrinos originating from a galactic supernova. In the dense medium of a core collapse supernova, these new self interactions can have a significant impact on neutrino oscillations, leading to changes at the flavor evolution and spectra level. We use simulations of the neutrino flux from a 13 solar mass, core collapse supernova at 10 kpc away, and numerically propagate these neutrinos through the stellar medium taking into account vacuum/MSW oscillations, SM $\nu-\nu$ scattering as well as $\nu-\nu$ interactions that arise from NSSI. We pass the resulting neutrino flux to a simulation of the future Hyper-Kamiokande detector to see what constraints on NSSI parameters are possible when the next galactic supernova becomes visible. We find that these constraints depend strongly on the neutrino mass hierarchy and if the NSSI is flavor-violating or preserving. Sensitivity to NSSI in the normal hierarchy (NH) at Hyper-K is limited by the experiment's ability to efficiently detect $\nu_{e}$, but deviations from no NSSI could be seen if the NSSI is particularly strong. In the inverted hierarchy (IH) scenario, Hyper-K can significantly improve constraints on flavor-violating NSSI down to $\mathcal{O}(10^{-1})G_{F}$.**Neutrino Non-Standard Interactions: A Status Report**

1907.00991 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by P. S. Bhupal Dev, [and 25 more]K. S. Babu, Peter B. Denton, Pedro A. N. Machado, Carlos A. Argüelles, Joshua L. Barrow, Sabya Sachi Chatterjee, Mu-Chun Chen, André de Gouvêa, Bhaskar Dutta, Dorival Gonçalves, Tao Han, Matheus Hostert, Sudip Jana, Kevin J. Kelly, Shirley Weishi Li, Ivan Martinez-Soler, Poonam Mehta, Irina Mocioiu, Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez, Jordi Salvado, Ian M. Shoemaker, Michele Tammaro, Anil Thapa, Jessica Turner, and Xun-Jie Xu [hide authors].

This report summarizes the present status of neutrino non-standard interactions (NSI). After a brief overview, several aspects of NSIs are discussed, including connection to neutrino mass models, model-building and phenomenology of large NSI with both light and heavy mediators, NSI phenomenology in both short- and long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, neutrino cross-sections, complementarity of NSI with other low- and high-energy experiments, fits with neutrino oscillation and scattering data, DUNE sensitivity to NSI, effective field theory of NSI, as well as the relevance of NSI to dark matter and cosmology. We also discuss the open questions and interesting future directions that can be pursued by the community at large. This report is based on talks and discussions during the Neutrino Theory Network NSI workshop held at Washington University in St. Louis from May 29-31, 2019 (https://indico.cern.ch/event/812851/)**Quasi-Dirac neutrino oscillations at DUNE and JUNO**

1907.00980 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by G. Anamiati, [and 4 more]V. De Romeri, M. Hirsch, C. A. Ternes, and M. Tórtola [hide authors].

Quasi-Dirac neutrinos are obtained when the Lagrangian density of a neutrino mass model contains both Dirac and Majorana mass terms, and the Majorana terms are sufficiently small. This type of neutrinos introduces new mixing angles and mass splittings into the Hamiltonian, which will modify the standard neutrino oscillation probabilities. In this paper, we focus on the case where the new mass splittings are too small to be measured, but new angles and phases are present. We perform a sensitivity study for this scenario for the upcoming experiments DUNE and JUNO, finding that they will improve current bounds on the relevant parameters. Finally, we also explore the discovery potential of both experiments, assuming that neutrinos are indeed quasi-Dirac particles.**Hadronic light-by-light contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment from lattice QCD**

1907.00864 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Thomas Blum, [and 6 more]Norman Christ, Masashi Hayakawa, Taku Izubuchi, Luchang Jin, Chulwoo Jung, and Christoph Lehner [hide authors].

We report preliminary results for the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Several ensembles using 2+1 flavors of M\"obius domain-wall fermions, generated by the RBC/UKQCD collaborations, are employed to take the continuum and infinite volume limits of finite volume lattice QED+QCD. We find $a_\mu^{\rm HLbL} = (7.41\pm6.33)\times 10^{-10}$**Borexino and General Neutrino Interactions**

1906.12102 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Amir N. Khan, Werner Rodejohann, and Xun-Jie Xu.

We derive constraints on all possible general neutrino-electron interactions (scalar, vector, pseudoscalar, axialvector and tensor) using the recent real time Borexino event rate measurements of $pp$, $pep$ and $^{7}Be$ solar neutrinos. The limits improve several previous ones from TEXONO and CHARM-II for incoming electron and muon neutrinos, and are the first ones for the tau flavor. Future improvements by next-generation solar neutrino experiments are also studied. The limits extend the physics reach of solar neutrino measurements to TeV-scale physics. Finally, the different properties of the new interactions for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos are discussed.**The gallium anomaly revisited**

1906.10980 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Joel Kostensalo, [and 3 more]Jouni Suhonen, Carlo Giunti, and Praveen C. Srivastava [hide authors].

The gallium anomaly, i.e. the missing electron-neutrino flux from $^{37}$Ar and $^{51}$Cr electron-capture decays as measured by the GALLEX and SAGE solar-neutrino detectors, has been among us already for about two decades. We present here a new estimate of the significance of this anomaly based on cross-section calculations using nuclear shell-model wave functions obtained by exploiting recently developed two-nucleon interactions. The gallium anomaly of the GALLEX and SAGE experiments is found to be smaller than that obtained in previous evaluations, decreasing the significance from 3.0$\sigma$ to 2.3$\sigma$. This result is compatible with the recent indication in favor of short-baseline $\bar\nu_{e}$ disappearance due to small active-sterile neutrino mixing obtained from the combined analysis of the data of the NEOS and DANSS reactor experiments.**Dark matter signals from timing spectra at neutrino experiments**

1906.10745 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Bhaskar Dutta, [and 5 more]Doojin Kim, Shu Liao, Jong-Chul Park, Seodong Shin, and Louis E. Strigari [hide authors].

We propose a novel strategy to search for new physics in timing spectra, envisioning the situation in which a new particle comes from the decay of its heavier partner with a finite particle width. The timing distribution of events induced by the dark matter particle scattering at the detector may populate in a relatively narrow range, forming a "resonance-like" shape. Due to this structural feature, the signal may be isolated from the backgrounds, in particular when the backgrounds are uniformly distributed in energy and time. For proof of the principle, we investigate the discovery potential for dark matter from the decay of a dark photon in the COHERENT experiment, and show the exciting prospects for exploring the associated parameter space with this experiment. We analyze the existing CsI detector data with a timing cut and an energy cut, and find, for the first time, an excess in the timing distribution which can be explained by such dark matter. We compare the sensitivity to the kinetic mixing parameter ($\epsilon$) for current and future COHERENT experiments with the projected limits from LDMX and DUNE.**Icecube/DeepCore tests for novel explanations of the MiniBooNE anomaly**

1906.02106 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Pilar Coloma.

While the low-energy excess observed at MiniBooNE remains unchallenged, it has become increasingly difficult to reconcile it with the results from other sterile neutrino searches and cosmology. Recently, it has been shown that non-minimal models with new particles in a hidden sector could provide a better fit to the data. As their main ingredients they require a GeV-scale $Z'$, kinetically mixed with the photon, and an unstable heavy neutrino with a mass in the 150 MeV range that mixes with the light neutrinos. In this letter we point out that atmospheric neutrino experiments (and, in particular, IceCube/DeepCore) could probe a significant fraction of the parameter space of such models by looking for an excess of "double-bang" events at low energies, as proposed in our previous work (arXiv:1707.08573). Such a search would probe exactly the same production and decay mechanisms required to explain the anomaly.**Leptogenesis in the Neutrino Option**

1905.12642 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by I. Brivio, [and 4 more]K. Moffat, S. Pascoli, S. T. Petcov, and J. Turner [hide authors].

We examine the compatibility between the Neutrino Option, in which the electroweak scale is generated by PeV mass type I seesaw Majorana neutrinos, and leptogenesis. We find the Neutrino Option is consistent with resonant leptogenesis. Working within the minimal seesaw scenario with two heavy Majorana neutrinos $N_{1,2}$, which form a pseudo-Dirac pair, we explore the viable parameter space. We find that the Neutrino Option and successful leptogenesis are compatible in the cases of a neutrino mass spectrum with normal (inverted) ordering for $1.2 \times 10^6 < M \text{ (GeV)} < 8.8 \times 10^6$ ($2.4 \times 10^6 < M \text{ (GeV)} < 7.4 \times 10^6$), with $M = (M_1 + M_2)/2$ and $M_{1,2}$ the masses of $N_{1,2}$. Successful leptogenesis requires that $\Delta M/M \equiv (M_2 - M_1)/M \sim 10^{-8}$. We further show that leptogenesis can produce the baryon asymmetry of the Universe within the Neutrino Option scenario when the requisite CP violation in leptogenesis is provided exclusively by the Dirac or Majorana low energy CP violation phases of the PMNS matrix.**Black Hole Spin Signature in the Black Hole Shadow of M87 in the Flaring State**

1905.10717 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Tomohisa Kawashima, Motoki Kino, and Kazunori Akiyama.

Imaging the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBH) and extracting a BH-spin signature is one of the grand challenges in astrophysics. M87 is known as one of the best targets for imaging the BH shadow and it can be partially thick against synchrotron self-absorption (SSA), particularly in a flaring state with high mass accretion rate. However, little is known about influences of the SSA-thick region on BH shadow images. Here we investigate BH shadow images of M87 at 230 GHz properly taking into account the SSA-thick region. When the BH has a high spin value, the corresponding BH shadow image shows the positional offset between the center of the photon ring and that of the SSA-thick ring at the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) due to the frame-dragging effect in the Kerr spacetime. As a result, we find that a dark-crescent structure is generally produced between the photon ring and the SSA-thick ISCO ring in the BH shadow image. The scale size of the dark-crescent increase with BH spin: its width reaches up to $\sim 2$ gravitational radius when the BH spin is 99.8% of its maximum value. The dark crescent is regarded as a new signature of a highly spinning BH. This feature is expected to appear in flaring states with relatively high mass accretion rate rather than the quiescent states. We have simulated the image reconstruction of our theoretical image by assuming the current and future Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) array, and have found that the future EHT including space-very long baseline interferometry in 2020s can detect the dark crescent.**Relic neutrino detection through angular correlations in inverse $β$-decay**

1905.10207 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Evgeny Akhmedov.

Neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei is currently the only known potentially viable method of detection of cosmic background neutrinos. It is based on the idea of separation of the spectra of electrons or positrons produced in captures of relic neutrinos on unstable nuclei from those from the usual $\beta$-decay and requires very high energy resolution of the detector, comparable to the neutrino mass. In this paper we suggest an alternative method of discrimination between neutrino capture and $\beta$-decay, based on periodic variations of angular correlations in inverse beta decay transitions induced by relic neutrino capture. The time variations are expected to arise due to the peculiar motion of the Sun with respect to the C$\nu$B rest frame and the rotation of the Earth about its axis and can be observed in experiments with both polarized and unpolarized nuclear targets. The main advantage of the suggested method is that it does not depend crucially on the energy resolution of detection of the produced $\beta$-particles and can be operative even if this resolution exceeds the largest neutrino mass.**Constraint on the solar $Δm^2$ using 4,000 days of short baseline reactor neutrino data**

1905.09479 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Alvaro Hernandez Cabezudo, Stephen J. Parke, and Seon-Hee Seo.

There is a well known 2$\sigma$ tension in the measurements of the solar $\Delta m^2$ between KamLAND and SNO/Super-KamioKANDE. Precise determination of the solar $\Delta m^2$ is especially important in connection with current and future long baseline CP violation measurements. Reference \cite{Seo:2018rrb} points out that currently running short baseline reactor neutrino experiments, Daya Bay and RENO, can also constrain solar $\Delta m^2$ value as demonstrated by a GLoBES simulation with a limited systematic uncertainty consideration. In this work, the publicly available data, from Daya Bay (1,958 days) and RENO (2,200 days) are used to constrain the solar $\Delta m^2$. Verification of our method through $\Delta m^2_{ee}$ and $\sin^2 \theta_{13}$ measurements is discussed in Appendix A. Using this verified method, reasonable constraints on the solar $\Delta m^2$ are obtained using above Daya Bay and RENO data, both individually and combined. We find that the combined data of Daya Bay and RENO set an upper limit on the solar $\Delta m^2$ of 18 $\times 10^{-5}$ eV$^2$ at the 95% C.L., including both systematic and statistical uncertainties. This constraint is slightly more than twice the KamLAND value. As this combined result is still statistics limited, even though driven by Daya Bay data, the constraint will improve with the additional running of this experiment.**On the Determination of Leptonic CP Violation and Neutrino Mass Ordering in Presence of Non-Standard Interactions: Present Status**

1905.05203 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Esteban, M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia, and Michele Maltoni.

We perform a global analysis of neutrino data in the framework of three massive neutrinos with non-standard neutrino interactions which affect their evolution in the matter background. We focus on the effect of NSI in the present observables sensitive to leptonic CP violation and to the mass ordering. We consider complex neutral current neutrino interactions with quarks whose lepton-flavor structure is independent of the quark type. We quantify the status of the "hints" for CP violation, the mass-ordering and non-maximality of $\theta_{23}$ in these scenarios. We also present a parametrization-invariant formalism for leptonic CP violation in presence of a generalized matter potential induced by NSI.**Constraints on Flavor-Diagonal Non-Standard Neutrino Interactions from Borexino Phase-II**

1905.03512 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by S. K. Agarwalla, [and 105 more]M. Agostini, K. Altenmüller, S. Appel, V. Atroshchenko, Z. Bagdasarian, D. Basilico, G. Bellini, J. Benziger, D. Bick, G. Bonfini, D. Bravo, B. Caccianiga, F. Calaprice, A. Caminata, L. Cappelli, P. Cavalcante, F. Cavanna, A. Chepurnov, K. Choi, D. D'Angelo, S. Davini, A. Derbin, A. Di Giacinto, V. Di Marcello, X. F. Ding, A. Di Ludovico, L. Di Noto, I. Drachnev, K. Fomenko, A. Formozov, D. Franco, F. Gabriele, C. Galbiati, M. Gschwender, C. Ghiano, M. Giammarchi, A. Goretti, M. Gromov, D. Guffanti, C. Hagner, E. Hungerford, Aldo Ianni, Andrea Ianni, A. Jany, D. Jeschke, S. Kumaran, V. Kobychev, G. Korga, T. Lachenmaier, M. Laubenstein, E. Litvinovich, P. Lombardi, L. Ludhova, G. Lukyanchenko, L. Lukyanchenko, I. Machulin, G. Manuzio, S. Marcocci, J. Maricic, J. Martyn, E. Meroni, M. Meyer, L. Miramonti, M. Misiaszek, V. Muratova, B. Neumair, M. Nieslony, L. Oberauer, V. Orekhov, F. Ortica, M. Pallavicini, L. Papp, Ö. Penek, L. Pietrofaccia, N. Pilipenko, A. Pocar, G. Raikov, G. Ranucci, A. Razeto, A. Re, M. Redchuk, A. Romani, N. Rossi, S. Rottenanger, S. Schönert, D. Semenov, M. Skorokhvatov, O. Smirnov, A. Sotnikov, C. Sun, Y. Suvorov, T. Takeuchi, R. Tartaglia, G. Testera, J. Thurn, E. Unzhakov, A. Vishneva, R. B. Vogelaar, F. von Feilitzsch, M. Wojcik, M. Wurm, O. Zaimidoroga, S. Zavatarelli, K. Zuber, and G. Zuzel [hide authors].

The Borexino detector measures solar neutrino fluxes via neutrino-electron elastic scattering. Observed spectra are determined by the solar-$\nu_{e}$ survival probability $P_{ee}(E)$, and the chiral couplings of the neutrino and electron. Some theories of physics beyond the Standard Model postulate the existence of Non-Standard Interactions (NSI's) which modify the chiral couplings and $P_{ee}(E)$. In this paper, we search for such NSI's, in particular, flavor-diagonal neutral current interactions that modify the $\nu_e e$ and $\nu_\tau e$ couplings using Borexino Phase II data. Standard Solar Model predictions of the solar neutrino fluxes for both high- and low-metallicity assumptions are considered. No indication of new physics is found at the level of sensitivity of the detector and constraints on the parameters of the NSI's are placed. In addition, with the same dataset the value of $\sin^2\theta_W$ is obtained with a precision comparable to that achieved in reactor antineutrino experiments.**Constraining Sterile Neutrino Cosmology with Terrestrial Oscillation Experiments**

1905.03254 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Jeffrey M. Berryman.

We explore the complementarity between terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments and astrophysical/cosmological measurements in probing the existence of sterile neutrinos. We find that upcoming accelerator neutrino experiments will not improve on constraints by the time they are operational, but that reactor experiments can already probe parameter space beyond the reach of Planck. We emphasize the tension between cosmological experiments and reactor antineutrino experiments and enumerate several possibilities for resolving this tension.**Compact Perturbative Expressions for Oscillations with Sterile Neutrinos in Matter**

1905.01356 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Stephen J. Parke and Xining Zhang.

We extend a simple and compact method for calculating the three flavor neutrino oscillation probabilities in uniform matter density to schemes with sterile neutrinos, with favorable features inherited. The only constraint of the extended method is that the scale of the matter potential is not significantly larger than the atmospheric $\Delta m^2$, which is satisfied by all the running and proposed accelerator oscillation experiments. Degeneracy of the zeroth order eigensystem around solar and atmospheric resonances are resolved. Corrections to the zeroth order results are restricted to no larger than the ratio of the solar to the atmospheric $\Delta m^2$. The zeroth order expressions are exact in vacuum because all the higher order corrections vanish when the matter potential is set zero. Also because all the corrections are continuous functions of matter potential, the zeroth order precision is much better than $\Delta m^2_\odot/\Delta m^2_\text{atm}$ for weak matter effect. Numerical tests are presented to verify the theoretical predictions of the exceptional features. Moreover, possible applications of the method in experiments to check the existence of sterile neutrinos are discussed.**Distinguishing Dirac and Majorana neutrinos by their gravi-majoron decays**

1905.01264 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Lena Funcke, Georg Raffelt, and Edoardo Vitagliano.

Neutrinos may acquire small Dirac or Majorana masses by new low-energy physics in terms of the chiral gravitational anomaly, as proposed by Dvali and Funcke (2016). This model predicts fast neutrino decays, $\nu_i\to\nu_j+\phi$ and $\nu_i\to\bar{\nu}_j+\phi$, where the gravi-majorons $\phi$ are pseudoscalar Nambu-Goldstone bosons. The final-state neutrino and antineutrino distributions differ depending on the Dirac or Majorana mass of the initial state. This opens a channel for distinguishing these cases, for example in the spectrum of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. In particular, we put bounds on the neutrino lifetimes in the Majorana case, ${\tau_2}/{m_2}> 1.1\times 10^{-3}(6.7\times 10^{-4})~{\rm s/eV}$ and ${\tau_3}/{m_3}> 2.2\times 10^{-5}(1.3\times 10^{-4})~{\rm s/eV}$ at 90% CL for hierarchical (degenerate) masses, using data from experiments searching for antineutrino appearance from the Sun.**Neutrino Oscillations in a Quantum Processor**

1904.10559 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by C. A. Argüelles and B. J. P. Jones.

Quantum computing technologies promise to revolutionize calculations in many areas of physics, chemistry, and data science. Their power is expected to be especially pronounced for problems where direct analogs of a quantum system under study can be encoded coherently within a quantum computer. A first step toward harnessing this power is to express the building blocks of known physical systems within the language of quantum gates and circuits. In this paper, we present a quantum calculation of an archetypal quantum system: neutrino oscillations. We define gate arrangements that implement the neutral lepton mixing operation and neutrino time evolution in two-, three-, and four-flavor systems. We then calculate oscillation probabilities by coherently preparing quantum states within the processor, time evolving them unitarily, and performing measurements in the flavor basis, with close analogy to the physical processes realized in neutrino oscillation experiments, finding excellent agreement with classical calculations. We provide recipes for modeling oscillation in the standard three-flavor paradigm as well as beyond-standard-model scenarios, including systems with sterile neutrinos, non-standard interactions, Lorentz symmetry violation, and anomalous decoherence.**Testing unitarity of the $3\times 3$ neutrino mixing matrix in an atomic system**

1904.10366 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Guo-yuan Huang, [and 3 more]Noboru Sasao, Zhi-zhong Xing, and Motohiko Yoshimura [hide authors].

Unitarity of the $3\times 3$ lepton flavor mixing matrix $V$ is unavoidably violated in a seesaw mechanism if its new heavy degrees of freedom are slightly mixed with the active neutrino flavors. We propose to use the atomic transition process ${\left| \rm e \right> \to\left|\rm g \right> + \gamma + \nu^{}_{i} + \overline{\nu}^{}_{j}}$ (for $i, j = 1, 2, 3$), where $\left|\rm e \right>$ and $\left|\rm g \right>$ stand respectively for the excited and ground levels of an atomic system, to probe or constrain the unitarity-violating effects of $V$. We find that the photon spectrum of this transition will be distorted by the effects of $V V^\dagger \neq {\bf 1}$ and $V^\dagger V \neq {\bf 1}$ as compared with the $V V^\dagger = V^\dagger V = {\bf 1}$ case. We locate certain frequencies in the photon spectrum to minimize the degeneracy of effects of the unitarity violation and uncertainties of the flavor mixing parameters themselves. The requirements of a nominal experimental setup to test the unitarity of $V$ are briefly discussed.**Ultra Light Boson Dark Matter and Event Horizon Telescope Observations of M87***

1904.09242 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Hooman Davoudiasl and Peter B. Denton.

The initial data from the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) on M87$^*$, the supermassive black hole at the center of the M87 galaxy, provide direct observational information on its mass, spin, and accretion disk properties. A combination of the EHT data and other constraints provide evidence that M87$^*$ has a mass $\sim 6.5 \times 10^9\,M_\odot$ and dimensionless spin parameter $|a^*|\gtrsim 0.5$. These determinations disfavor ultra light bosons of mass $\mu_b\sim 10^{-21}$ eV, within the range considered for fuzzy dark matter, invoked to explain dark matter distribution on $\sim$ kpc scales. Future observations of M87$^*$ could be expected to strengthen our conclusions.**Dark Matter Strikes Back at the Galactic Center**

1904.08430 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Rebecca K. Leane and Tracy R. Slatyer.

Statistical evidence has previously suggested that the Galactic Center GeV Excess (GCE) originates largely from point sources, and not from annihilating dark matter. We examine the impact of unmodeled source populations on identifying the true origin of the GCE using non-Poissonian template fitting (NPTF) methods. In a proof-of-principle example with simulated data, we discover that unmodeled sources in the Fermi Bubbles can lead to a dark matter signal being misattributed to point sources by the NPTF. We discover striking behavior consistent with a mismodeling effect in the real Fermi data, finding that large artificial injected dark matter signals are completely misattributed to point sources. Consequently, we conclude that dark matter may provide a dominant contribution to the GCE after all.**Perturbing neutrino oscillations around the solar resonance**

1904.07853 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ivan Martinez-Soler and Hisakazu Minakata.

Atmospheric neutrinos at low energies, $E \lsim 500$ MeV, is known to be a rich source of information of lepton mixing parameters. We formulate a simple perturbative framework to elucidate the characteristic features of neutrino oscillation at around the solar-scale enhancement due to the matter effect. The clearest message we could extract from our perturbation theory is that CP violation in the appearance oscillation probability is large, a factor of $\sim 10$ times larger than CP violation at around the atmospheric-scale oscillation maximum. Underlying mechanism for it is that one of the suppression factors on the CP phase dependent terms due to smallness of $\Delta m^2_{21} / \Delta m^2_{31}$ are dynamically lifted by the solar-scale enhancement. Our framework has a unique feature as a perturbation theory in which large $\Delta m^2_{31}$ term outside the key 1-2 sector for the solar-scale resonance does not yield sizeable corrections. On the contrary, the larger the $\Delta m^2_{31}$, the smaller the higher order corrections.**Physics with Beam Tau-Neutrino Appearance at DUNE**

1904.07265 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by André de Gouvêa, [and 3 more]Kevin J. Kelly, G. V. Stenico, and Pedro Pasquini [hide authors].

We explore the capabilities of the upcoming Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to measure $\nu_\tau$ charged-current interactions and the associated oscillation probability $P(\nu_\mu \to \nu_\tau)$ at its far detector, concentrating on how such results can be used to probe neutrino properties and interactions. DUNE has the potential to identify significantly more $\nu_\tau$ events than all existing experiments and can use this data sample to nontrivially test the three-massive-neutrinos paradigm by providing complementary measurements to those from the $\nu_e$ appearance and $\nu_\mu$ disappearance channels. We further discuss the sensitivity of the $\nu_\tau$ appearance channel to several hypotheses for the physics that may lurk beyond the three-massive-neutrinos paradigm: a non-unitary lepton mixing matrix, the $3+1$ light neutrinos hypothesis, and the existence of non-standard neutral-current neutrino interactions. Throughout, we also consider the relative benefits of the proposed high-energy tune of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) beam-line.**Extragalactic neutrinos as tracers of Dark Matter?**

1904.04355 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Ana V. Penacchioni and Osvaldo Civitarese.

Neutrinos produced in extragalactic sources may experience flavor-oscillations and decoherence on their way to Earth due to their interaction with dark matter (DM). As a result, they may be detected in pointer-states other than the flavor states at the source. The oscillation pattern and the structure of the pointer-states can give us information on the characteristics of the DM and the kind of interaction that has taken place. From this perspective, neutrinos can be viewed as DM-tracers. We study the local evolution of neutrino flavor-eigenstates due to local effects produced by the presence of DM. To explore the sensitivity of the model, we consider different DM density profiles, masses and interactions. Starting from the eigenstates of the neutrino-mass Hamiltonian, we construct the flavor-states with the neutrino mixing-matrix in vacuum. We then include local interactions with DM, acting along the neutrino path towards the Earth, and analyse the resulting probabilities. In doing so, we adopt different DM density profiles, e.g. a constant, a local isotropic and a Navarro-Frenk-White density distribution. Finally, by following the time evolution of the flavor-states, we identify pointer-states and interpret the results in terms of the adopted DM model. Due to the interaction with DM, neutrinos experience the MSW effect, the extent of which depends on the DM density profile. The interaction with DM produces the enhancement or suppression of oscillations. Decoherence effects may take place. We model the time evolution of extragalactic neutrino flavor-states by letting them interact with DM. The features of the calculated response seem to support the notion that these neutrinos can be taken as DM tracers. From a theoretical point of view, the coexistence and/or competition of decoherence and MSW effects is sustained by the results.**Search for Heavy Neutrinos in $π\to μν$ Decay**

1904.03269 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by A. Aguilar-Arevalo, [and 23 more]M. Aoki, M. Blecher, D. I. Britton, D. vom Bruch, D. A. Bryman, S. Chen, J. Comfort, L. Doria, S. Cuen-Rochin, P. Gumplinger, A. Hussein, Y. Igarashi, S. Ito, S. H. Kettell, L. Kurchaninov, L. S. Littenberg, C. Malbrunot, R. E. Mischke, T. Numao, D. Protopopescu, A. Sher, T. Sullivan, and D. Vavilov [hide authors].

Heavy neutrinos were sought in pion decays $\pi^+ \rightarrow \mu^+ \nu$ by examining the observed muon energy spectrum for extra peaks in addition to the expected peak for a massless neutrino. No evidence for heavy neutrinos was observed. Upper limits were set on the neutrino mixing matrix $|U_{\mu i}|^2$ in the neutrino mass region of 15.7--33.8 MeV/c$^2$, improving on previous results by an order of magnitude.**Sub-GeV Atmospheric Neutrinos and CP-Violation in DUNE**

1904.02751 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Kevin J. Kelly, [and 4 more]Pedro A. N. Machado, Ivan Martinez-Soler, Stephen J. Parke, and Yuber F. Perez-Gonzalez [hide authors].

We propose to use the unique event topology and reconstruction capabilities of liquid argon time projection chambers to study sub-GeV atmospheric neutrinos. The detection of low energy recoiled protons in DUNE allows for a determination of the leptonic $CP$-violating phase independent from the accelerator neutrino measurement. Our findings indicate that this analysis can exclude several values of $\delta_{CP}$ beyond the $3\sigma$ level. Moreover, the determination of the sub-GeV atmospheric neutrino flux will have important consequences in the detection of diffuse supernova neutrinos and in dark matter experiments.**Apparent CPT Violation in Neutrino Oscillation from Dark Non-Standard Interactions**

1904.02518 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Shao-Feng Ge and Hitoshi Murayama.

A natural realization of CPT violation in neutrino oscillation can arise due to the coupling to a light scalar or vector dark matter (DM). The dark non-standard interaction (NSI) is associated with the $\gamma_0$ matrix in neutrino's effective propagator and hence corrects the neutrino Hamiltonian as dark matter potential, in the same way as the ordinary matter effect. The effect is, however, inversely proportional to the neutrino energy and hence appears as a correction to the neutrino mass squared. Due to a sign difference in the corrections for neutrino and anti-neutrino modes, the neutrino oscillation receives CPT violation from the dark NSI. Seeing difference in the neutrino and anti-neutrino mass squared differences not necessarily leads to the conclusion of CPT symmetry breaking in the fundamental Lagrangian but can indicate light DM and its coupling with neutrinos.**Reconstructing the EFT of Inflation from Cosmological Data**

1904.00991 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Amel Durakovic, [and 3 more]Paul Hunt, Subodh P. Patil, and Subir Sarkar [hide authors].

Reconstructions of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) of curvature perturbations from cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large-scale structure data suggest that the usually assumed power-law PPS has localised features (up to $\sim 10\%$ in amplitude), although of only marginal significance in the framework of $\Lambda$CDM cosmology. On the other hand if the underlying cosmology is assumed to be Einstein-de Sitter, larger features in the PPS (up to $\sim 20\%$) are required to accurately fit the observed acoustic peaks. Within the context of single clock inflation, we show that any given reconstruction of the PPS can be mapped on to functional parameters of the underlying effective theory of the adiabatic mode within a 2nd-order formalism, provided the best fit fractional change of the PPS, $\Delta\mathcal{P}_\mathcal{R}/\mathcal{P}_\mathcal{R}$ is such that $(\Delta\mathcal{P}_\mathcal{R}/\mathcal{P}_\mathcal{R})^3$ falls within the $1\,\sigma$ confidence interval of the reconstruction for features induced by variations of either the sound speed $c_\mathrm{s}$ or the slow-roll parameter $\epsilon$. Although there is a degeneracy amongst these functional parameters (and the models that project onto them), we can identify simple representative inflationary models that yield such features in the PPS. Thus we provide a dictionary (more accurately, a thesaurus) to go from observational data, via the reconstructed PPS, to models that reproduce them to per cent level precision.**Cosmic-Ray Propagation Around the Sun - Investigating the Influence of the Solar Magnetic Field on the Cosmic-Ray Sun Shadow**

1903.12638 [abs] [pdf] [abstract] by Julia Becker Tjus, [and 6 more]Paolo Desiati, Niklas Döpper, Horst Fichtner, Jens Kleimann, Mike Kroll, and Frederik Tenholt [hide authors].

The cosmic-ray Sun shadow, which is caused by high-energy charged cosmic rays being blocked and deflected by the Sun and its magnetic field, has been observed by various experiments such as Argo-YBJ, HAWC, Tibet, and IceCube. Most notably, the shadow's size and depth was recently shown to correlate with the 11-year solar cycle. The interpretation of such measurements, which help to bridge the gap between solar physics and high-energy particle astrophysics, requires a solid theoretical understanding of cosmic-ray propagation in the coronal magnetic field. It is the aim of this paper to establish theoretical predictions for the cosmic-ray Sun shadow in order to identify observables that can be used to study this link in more detail. To determine the cosmic-ray Sun shadow, we numerically compute trajectories of charged cosmic rays in the energy range of 5 to 316 TeV for five different mass numbers. We present and analyse the resulting shadow images for protons and iron, as well as for typically measured cosmic-ray compositions. We confirm the observationally established correlation between the magnitude of the shadowing effect and both the mean sunspot number and the polarity of the magnetic field during the solar cycle. We also show that during low solar activity, the Sun's shadow behaves similarly to that of a dipole, for which we find a non-monotonous dependence on energy. In particular, the shadow can become significantly more pronounced than the geometrical disk expected for a totally unmagnetized Sun. For times of high solar activity, we instead predict the shadow to depend monotonously on energy, and to be generally weaker than the geometrical shadow for all tested energies. These effects should become visible in energy-resolved measurements of the Sun shadow, and may in the future become an independent measure for the level of disorder in the solar magnetic field.

Updated: October 2020

Contact:© 2014-2020 Peter Denton.